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rt General Report

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Coverage of The Devolution Process in Kenya Media Monitoring Report Media Council of Kenya


Devolution Report

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acknowledgements........................................................................................................................................................4 Executive Summary........................................................................................................................................................5

Key findings...........................................................................................................................................................7

Introduction....................................................................................................................................................................8 Background.....................................................................................................................................................................9 Objectives & Methodology..........................................................................................................................................11

Objectives.............................................................................................................................................................11

Methodology........................................................................................................................................................11

Section 1.........................................................................................................................................................................12

Role of the Media in the Devolution process................................................................................................12

Is it a case of devolved Government or devolved corruption?....................................................................13

The Media is charged with the responsibility of highlighting challenges and managing expectations of citizens......................................................................................15 The media also bears the responsibility of sensitising and education the public on the virtues, opportunities, and challenges of the devolution process....................................17

The media must take a lead role in benchmarking; Reporting on successes and best practices of Counties that can be replicated elsewhere...........................................................17

Media should spearhead discussions on transition mechanism by looking at policy implementation andreforms.............................................................................................................................19

Media can enhance Public’s participation on devolution by providing a platform for the public to air their views, comments and ideas on devolution.............................................................................................................................................................20

Adherence to The County Governments Act No. 17 of 2012....................................................................21

Section 2........................................................................................................................................................................23

Chapter One: Print Media............................ ...................................................................................................23 How the media covered County & National levels of Government..........................................................23

Coverage of National and County governments on Daily Newspapers...................................................24

Distribution of Newspaper Sections that Covered/Mention Devolved Governments.......................................................................................................................................................25

Comparative coverage of County and National Governments in the print media ............................. 25

Top Ten Counties covered by the print media..............................................................................................26


Devolution Report

Print media coverage of topical issues..............................................................................................................26

Chapter Two: Electronic Media..........................................................................................................................28

PART I...............................................................................................................................................................................28

Radio Stations.......................................................................................................................................................28

Top 20 Prominently Covered Counties on radio in Kenya............................................................................30

Negatively Covered Counties in the radio........................................................................................................31

Are regional radio stations projecting issues pertaining to those counties?..............................................33

How do national radio stations cover national and county government issues?.......................................34

Insecurity and Economic issues mostly covered on the Radio......................................................................35

PART II...............................................................................................................................................................................37

Television stations.................................................................................................................................................37

Allocation of Airtime to County and National government issues by TV stations..................................37

Category of News coverage in TV stations......................................................................................................38

Topical issues covered by the T.V stations in Kenya ....................................................................................38

Coverage of Counties by TV stations in Kenya ..............................................................................................39

Chapter Three..................................................................................................................................................................41

Adherence to the Code of Conduct..................................................................................................................41

Conclusions and Recommendations...............................................................................................................................................43

Conclusion..............................................................................................................................................................42

Recommendations................................................................................................................................................43

References ........................................................................................................................................................................44

Snippets of Journalist’s comments on devolution............................................................................................44

Political and cultural centres must move together for true devolution.......................................................45

Political and cultural centres must move together for true devolution.......................................................46


Devolution Report

Acknowledgements

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he media Council of Kenya is grateful to those who participated in ensuring the success of data collection, analysis, report writing and preview/editing of this report. We acknowledge the work of the MCK Media Analysis team: • Immaculate Mwende • Abraham Kisang • Allennita Gakii • Njeri Munyiri • Ahmed Kassim The analysis and writing of this report was done by the Research and Media Monitoring Officer Amos Kibet. We also appreciate the input and support of the Council’s Chief Executive Officer Haron Mwangi, the Deputy CEO and Programs Manager Victor Bwire and the Communications and Information Officer Jerry Abuga towards the success of the publication of this report. We immensely appreciate the Kenya Media Programme and GIZ for their continued support towards the realisation of this project’s objectives and success.

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Devolution Report

Executive Summary

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his report examines media coverage of the devolution process in Kenya. Devolution in this report shall be taken to mean a form of decentralisation which involves statutory granting of powers from the central government to government at a sub-national level, such as a regional, local or state level. This definition is adopted from chapter 11 of the constitution of Kenya 2010 on devolved government. This report is structured into two sections; the first section consists of an analysis of the role of the media in reporting devolution based on the roles that have been pre-defined in this report. Under this section, the report looks at the adherence to section 93 of the County governments Act No. 17 of 2012 which requires the County government to fulfill some responsibilities through the media. The second section deals with how the media covered County and National governments in all the three media platforms (radio, print and TV). It also consists of analysis of the topical issues from different Counties. Under the first section, the media monitoring shall also consider the adherence or otherwise to the Code of Conduct for the Practice of Journalism in Kenya for sampled print, radio and TV media stations. The report focused more on news segment because according to audience research by Ipsos Synovate Kenya (2012), news is one of the most listened to and viewed programs in the electronic media. However from our analysis, the news section had minimal breaches in relation to the Code of Conduct for the Practice of Journalism in Kenya. This is because the news segment is well edited before being broadcast. The objective of this report was to examine how the media covered devolution with a special focus on the topical issues discussed in the County and National governments. The report also examined the adherence by journalists to the Code of Conduct for the Practice of Journalism in Kenya. The methodology used in analysing this report was content analysis of newspaper texts and radio and TV clips as key units of analysis. This focused on selected print, radio and TV. Several questions however emerge on devolution and the media in Kenya which include the issue of devolving the media through the reallocation of resources as in the case of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The reorganisation of the news gathering process to align with the devolution process is also a key issue for consideration just like it happened for BBC in the United Kingdom.

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Key findings • Print Media provided the highest percentage of space for the public discourse on issues of devolution which constituted 12% of the articles and clips analysed. TV stations accorded 7% while Radio gave 4%. • Vernacular /regional based radio stations covered topical issues affecting Counties well enough with majority according more than 50% coverage to issues affecting the County where their listenership is based. • The media was able to raise a red flag on regional imbalance and ethnic based appointments done in the Counties. One such case highlighted by the Media was the Nandi County appointments reported by all media platforms during this period of analysis. • The challenges of devolution highlighted by the media ranged from misunderstanding of the concept of devolution by both the leaders and the citizens, interference by some government officials and department who may not understand or support devolution, financing/economic constrains, clear separation of duties and responsibilities by both levels of devolved government especially with regards to the role of County Commissioners appointed by the executive and deployed to County stations. • The media is yet to embrace development journalism and did not do well in showcasing success stories from Counties. The frequency of articles and clips that reported on successes of other Counties was very minimal. 35% of benchmarking stories were in print, 39% in radio and 26% on TV. • The media failed to help in educating and sensitising of the public on their roles and rights under the devolved Government. From the sampled clips and articles, only 10% for print, 11% for radio and 14% for TV stories & articles in the media shed light on the roles and rights of citizens under devolution. • Economic issues at County and National government was the second most covered topic with 15% of the total coverage. Some of the issues that received high coverage on economy are County budgets 13%, revenue allocations to the Counties 12%, inherited debts by Counties 10% and business and investments 9% strategies at the County. • Print media covered transition mechanisms and policy implementation in more elaborate manner compared to other media. 50% articles and clips analysed were from print media dealt extensively on some critical issues pertaining to transition from national to County government. TV stations accounted for 33% of the media coverage on transition mechanism and policy implementation.

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Devolution Report

Introduction

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he monitoring of media coverage of devolution by print media explores the extent to which newspapers reported on devolution with preliminary look at County and National government mentions and then whether the media roles on devolution were realised. The print media in Kenya consist of regular daily newspapers, weekly newspapers, the magazines, the regional newspapers and alternative press. Print media platform comes third after radio and TV platforms in terms of audience consumption. According to quarterly audience research study conducted by Ipsos Synovate, the Daily Nation and the Standard are the two leading newspaper publications in the country and are produced by the two leading media houses in the country. This study focused majorly on the daily newspapers which include The Daily Nation, The Standard, The People and The Star newspapers. The print media platform offers an ample space and opportunity for extensive discourse and coverage of pre-elections because of its attributes as a media tool. Some of the areas that coverers political/election related articles are the local news section, opinion and letters to the editor section, editorial/commentary and also in special features magazine inserts. Some of these sections were key informants during our data collection on the topic of devolution. Our print monitoring scope covered over four dailies. We employ the use of OCR (Optical Character Recognition) through a system called “NewBase�; the system is fed with relevant key words around the project being monitored and will on a daily basis capture all related articles; these articles are then taken through the relevant processing and analysis by trained Media Analysts.

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Background

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he constitution of Kenya 2010 clearly enshrines devolution process in chapter 11 and spells out the objects and principles of devolution. It provides a twotier system of government (National and County). Article 1(4) of the Kenyan constitution recognises the fact that the sovereign power of the people is exercised at both the National and the County levels. Enshrined in First schedule of the constitution is the creation of 47 Counties with delineated functions and responsibilities. Devolution should be understood as a process and not an event. The media should therefore provide sufficient information and communication that will facilitate this process. The media as the fourth estate can play a central role during the process of devolution. Some of the roles expected of the media are: •

The media must perform its watch dog role and become the lenses through which the society looks into the devolved corrupt practices that might be perpetrated by those elected to govern Counties and manage County resources. Media has an important role to ensure accountability and transparency in governance and also in resource use, leadership and stewardship. Media will have to report aggressively on good governances and ensure transparency among leaders.

The media is charged with the responsibility of highlighting challenges and managing expectations through communicating clear and accurate messages to the public; such as unlikely uniform realisation of equity in size or pace of growth.

The media needs to focus on policy reforms by extensively discussing transition mechanisms and policy implementation during the devolution process.

The media must take a lead role in benchmarking; reporting on successes and best practice and success stories of other Counties which can be replicated in other Counties as well.

The media also bears the responsibility of sensitising and educating the public on the virtues, opportunities, and challenges of the devolution process. An informed citizenry is an empowered lot who can embrace opportunities and face the challenges of devolution.

The media should access information to the citizens empowering them to participate on the development discourse at the County and be able to play part in defining their development and leadership agenda. The media then should be a public sphere not only for reporting but also for analysing County priorities, targets and action.

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•

Above all, media should perform this role within the framework of the Code of Conduct for the practice of journalism in Kenya. They should be fair, analytical, balanced and independent in their reporting . In other words they should be truthful and therefore reliable as a source of County devolution messages.

The above defined roles formed the basis of media monitoring by the Media Council and the comprehensive findings are included in this report.

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Objectives & Methodology Objectives The monitoring aimed at: a) Conducting content (discourse analysis) of how the media covered devolution with a special focus on the topical issues that the media reported on County and national governments during devolution. b) Determining the incidence and extent to which the Code of Conduct for the Practice of Journalism in Kenya was adhered to or otherwise during the reporting and news dissemination of the devolution process. c) Undertaking an objective analysis of how the media fulfilled its roles concerning devolution process as defined by this report.

Methodology

C

ontent analysis was used for newspaper texts as well as radio and TV clips as key units of analysis. This focused on selected print, radio and TV. Coding of content based on broad themes and topics was done taking care of reliability and validity of measurement. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data analysis were applied to both present evidence and the findings discussed. The preparation of the code sheet was guided by the Code of Conduct for the Practice of Journalism in Kenya as provided for in the Second Schedule of the Media Act 2007 as well as the broad thematic topics identified for the purpose of this study. The analysis was done at two levels. The first level involved mining the data that mentioned County and National governments based on some key words. The second level involved obtaining a sub-sample on articles and clips with specific coverage of devolution. Analysis on the roles of the media was undertaken based on this sub sample which constitutes the second section of this report. This report looked at 5 TV stations, 19 radio stations and 4 daily newspapers. The 19 radio stations included 8 vernacular radio stations from different regions of the country. It also looked at 5 national radio stations. All the main media houses had their print, radio and TV outlets considered for this report. The scope of this report covered the period of one week in the month of May from 10 th May to 17th May, 2013. The period looked at in this report had intense media coverage especially in terms of appointment of County officers and formation of devolved government structures two months after the general elections.

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Section 1 Role of the Media in the Devolution process

Background

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his section looks at the role played by the media in covering devolution. The media is an important component of Kenya’s transition process into devolved government. As the Fourth Estate, the media is saddled with the responsibility of being a watchdog of the people; always keen to watch on the excess of power of the government and administrative executives. It should ensure accountability and transparency during the devolution process more especially during the establishment of devolution administrative structures. Other roles include ensuring that it reports the challenges of devolution and try and manage expectations through communicating clear and accurate messages to the public. The media can also play its part in sensitising and education the public on the virtues, opportunities, and challenges of devolution. Devolution is guided by a legal framework including the constitution which is the mainstay of devolution process. The legal structures guiding devolution should be discussed extensively by the media. The media needs to focus on policy reforms by extensively discussing transition mechanisms and policy implementation during the devolution process. These aforementioned roles of the media will be looked at in-depth in this section. The analysis of this section was done based on a sub-sample of the articles and clips mined during the period of analysis. The sub-sample allowed for in-depth and more accurate analysis that informed the findings of this section of report. The sub-sample consisted of articles and clips that were specifically on devolution. For print, the total number of articles analysed were 112 and which were proportionately distributed among the four newspaper publications that were being monitored. The same case applies for radio and TV where 86 and 57 news clips were analysed respectively during the monitoring period. The analysis in this section also sought to ascertain the compliance of the Counties to the County Governments Act no. 17 of 2012 which requires the “County government to use the media to create awareness on devolution and governance; promote citizens’ understanding for purposes of peace and national cohesion; undertake advocacy on core development issues such as agriculture, education, health, security, economics, sustainable environment among others; and promotion of the freedom of the media.”

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Devolution Report

The role of the media as a watch dog in ensuring accountability and Transparency during devolution

Is it a case of devolved Government or devolved corruption?

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he media did not bring to public domain any new/fresh corruption scandals at the County and even National government. However, 5% of the total news clips analysed on radio reported on corruption. 36% of the corruption cases as reported by the media were on governors suspending corrupt officials who worked in previous councils. 28% of cases reported were on court cases of corrupt individuals. This coverage notwithstanding, the presentation lacked in depth and failed to give the impact of such malpractices to general development of the County.

“Five officers of former Kapenguria Municipal council and former Pokot County council have been suspended over embezzlement of funds.The five were suspended by West Pokot governor Simon Kachapin on Wednesday to pave way for investigations. The five are former West Pokot County council clerk Patrick Nyongesa, former Kapenguria municipal council clerk George Kombo and information communication technology officer to the municipal Council Michael Mitingi.� 2013-05-16 .News .Radio Jambo. 18.01. In print media, 2% of the total stories were on corruption. However among the stories published none was based on new corrupt plots and schemes during the establishment of the devolution process. This indicates that the media has not fully embraced investigative journalism with regard to corruption cases. TV reported

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on corruption cases amounting to 3% of the total stories analysed. However, there was no coverage related to unearthed corrupt practices during this period. On other aspects of the watchdog role of the media ,9% of the stories analysed on TV were related to this liberal function of the media. The media undertook extensive coverage and analysis related to the cases of insecurity that dogged the country. Interviews and documentaries of concerned authorities were carried out on TV stations to interrogate the measures to mitigate the situation on insecurity. The media also undertook in-depth coverage of the purported causes of the insecurity in Bungoma and Busia which acted as a verification of the situation as reported by the authorities. The Media should help in pointing out ethnicity and regional imbalance in appointments of County government officials. One of the objects of devolution is to foster national unity through recognition of diversity. Diversity comes in many forms including gender, tribe and race among other factors. The appointment of County officials was therefore required to adhere to this same object enshrined in the constitution to guide devolution. The print media was able to raise a red flag on ethnic based appointments done in the Counties. One such case highlighted by the media was the Nakuru County appointments. The issue of regional balance was also highlighted through media reports. Reports that Nandi County Governor did not consider regional balance when making appointments was also covered by the media. Isiolo Governor, Godana Doyo has picked four women to the cabinet to meet constitutional requirments of Gender Balance……...... (2013-05-13 .News .The Star pg 9.) Governors should consider the marginalised and minority groups in the appointment of County assembly members. They should ensure adherence to section 35(2) of the County government act…………………………………………………………….. 2013-05-16 .News .The People pg 39. Radio news reporting on the appointments was comprehensive in some Counties with a full list of nominees mentioned by name. Some radio stations stated the number of female and male appointees with specificity.

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Devolution Report

The Media is charged with the responsibility of highlighting challenges and managing expectations of citizens.

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he media performed well in this role. It was able to highlight several challenges faced by the devolved government. 2% of the radio news clips, 5% of TV news clips and 11% of print media articles analysed dealt with the challenges of devolution.

The challenges highlighted from the analysed news clips and print articles indicated that the challenges ranged from misunderstanding of the concept and meaning of devolution by both leaders and citizens. This was found to be 4% of print, 6% of radio and 5% of TV. Interference by some government officials and departments who may not understand or support devolution was also another challenge where 11% of print articles, 9% of radio clips and 8% of TV clips reported on the same. Financing/economic constrains and the clear separation of duties and responsibilities by both levels of devolved government especially with regards to the role of County Commissioners appointed by the executive and deployed to County stations was also covered. The challenge of high salary demands by some leaders in the devolved governments was a challenge indicated under finance and economy. Other challenges of devolution as highlighted by the media include the debts inherited by the new County governments which hampered their progress and operations and indeed impacted negatively on the County budgets. Challenges of infrastructure related to offices and other logistical resources required to facilitate progress of operations at the County level were also highlighted.

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“Concern on implementation of devolution process is being faced with conflict of interest as both the County government and the public do not understand devolution.” 2013-05-19 .News .Kiss fm. 18.01.

“From boycott of sessions in almost all the 47 County Assemblies over salary complaints, protests by Governors over under-funding by the central government, complaints of imbalance in formation of County Executive Committees and rows over nominations of County Assembly representatives that was only sorted out last week, the take-off of County governments has been a rough affair……….power clashes between Governors and County commissioners and cries over poor infrastructures been put in place months to the March 4 General Election, the 47 County governments would take-off smoothly after election of governors, County Assembly representatives and appointment of members of County Executive Committees (CEC).” 2013-05-19 .Opinion .Standard. 18.01.

“All 47 County speakers said that they want a salary that is not less than 300,000 shillings a month, they have paralyzed all the operations saying that the SRC must address the salary issues. President Uhuru said that the leaders should put a said money matters and serve Kenyans first.’’ 2013-05-18 .News .KBC. 21:15.

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The media also bears the responsibility of sensitising and education the public on the virtues, opportunities, and challenges of the devolution process

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he media should educate and sensitise the public on the principles, structures, powers and functions of devolved government and generally on devolution. Citizens must not only be aware of their rights and responsibilities but also know and understand how to channel and exercise them.

The media did not adequately sensitise the public on the objects and principles of devolution with only 10% for print, 12% for radio and 7% for TV stories and articles on the same. The media however shed some light in the legislative framework touching on devolution. However, it was not comprehensive and consisted of end statements of news clips and articles. Print had 15%, Radio had 16% and TV had 24% articles on legislation.

The media must take a lead role in benchmarking; Reporting on successes and best practices of Counties that can be replicated elsewhere

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eporting on success stories of other Counties is important because other Counties can derive lessons and learning from these reports. The media has a role to play in benchmarking of County achievements by focusing on how other Counties have been able to surmount their challenges. Benchmarks related to the economy were high on print (30%) and also on TV (43%). The media was able to highlight the various strategies that governors and other County leaders had put in place to generate revenue for their Counties.

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Devolution Report

Insecurity benchmarking was also featured with print coverage at 20%, Radio 36% and TV at 29%. Some of the areas of solutions to insecurity adopted by the National government and some Counties included disarmament, involvement of locals in reporting insecurity and revamping the police force through the recruitment and purchase of new equipment. The media was also able to highlight how some Counties dealt with corruption and this was 20% for print, 18% for radio and 8% for TV stations. The coverage dominating benchmarking on corruption was the suspension of corrupt County officers as the new governors assumed power. Counties have a challenge of attracting professionals to their service. The media highlighted some of the ways through which professionals could be attracted to work in devolved units through discussions with the Salaries Renumiration Commission (SRC) to review the terms of service for County public officers. This area of benchmarking was covered in print which consisted 10% and also 9% for radio platform. The frequency of articles and clips that reported on successes stories from various Counties was very minimal. However, the media was able to cover some of the exemplary strategies that are classified as benchmarks for this study. ‘’The County of Machakos has become the first County to host an investment conference since the advent of the devolved system of government, the two day conference seeks to showcase the untapped investment of opportunities that are available in the South Eastern County.’’ 2013-05-16 .News .K24 21:42.

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“The disarmament exercise in Mandera County is now yielding results. Ten firearms and an assorted round of ammunition have been surrendered to security agencies in Mandera County in an on-going voluntary disarmament exercise, the inspector general of police David Kimaiyo has now reciprocated the goodwill by extending amnesty to surrender illicit weapons.” 2013-05-15 .News .KTN 19:06. “Kidero has now been forced to re-advertise the job. “SRC should consider reviewing the terms of service for County public officers as a way of attracting the best minds to serve in devolved units,” Dr Kidero said. The scenario is reflected across the country where several Governors say they experienced difficulties in assembling their County executive committee members and public service boards. The governors interviewed said they had failed to lure experienced individuals that they had wanted to work with as those approached are highly remunerated in their current jobs. 2013-05-14 .News. Standard by Geoffrey Mosoku.

Media should spearhead discussions on transition mechanism by looking at policy implementation and reforms

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rint media covered the transition mechanism and process and policy implementation in more elaborate manner compared to other media. Of all the articles analysed, 50% were from print media and extensively covered and analysed on some critical issues pertaining to transition from national to County government. TV stations accounted for 33% of the media coverage on transition

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mechanism and policy implementation. Print media was able to cover transition mechanism and policy implementation effectively in its feature and opinion pieces section. 78% of the print articles were on opinion and feature stories. Radio and TV platforms did not however tackle the issue of transition mechanism adequately as some of the news articles mentioned transition issues at the end of their news. This is unfortunate given that radio is the most accessible and listened to media and a more reliable and interactive source of news in rural Kenya. The County government should utilise this media to inform and educate the citizens on matters of constitution and devolution.

Media can enhance Public’s participation on devolution by providing a platform for the public to air their views, comments and ideas on devolution

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rint media provided the highest percentage of space for the public participation on the discourse of the devolution i.e. 12% of all the articles analysed. TV and Radio stations provided 7% and 4% respectively of all clips analysed to the public discussion on devolution. For both, public opinion came after news items when reporters sought their comments and short takes on issues touching on devolution. The opinion section of the print media carried most of the citizens’ view and comments on devolution. Out of 48 opinion pieces in the print media, 13% were specifically on devolution while the other 87% were views and comments on other topical issues related to County and National government. The issues addressed by the public through the media affecting or touching on devolution included insecurity which accounted for 43%, disasters 13% and the economy 8%.

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Devolution Report

The issues addressed by public through the media affecting or touching on devolution included insecurity which accounted for 43%, disasters 13% and the economy 8%. Topic

Percentage

Insecurity

43%

Disasters

13%

Other

11%

Economy

8%

Health

7%

law and Order

5%

County leaders

4%

Infrastructure

3%

Education

2%

Agriculture

1%

Devolution

1%

Elections

1%

The public’s comments, views and ideas were clustered into topical issues and The public’s(43%) comments, and ideas werewere clustered topicalconcern issues andas insecurity (43%) insecurity andviews disasters (13%) theinto major most of the members of (13%) the public theirconcern ideas as onmost howofthe should and disasters were gave the major the devolved members ofgovernment the public gave their tackle rising andgovernment deaths from disasters mostinsecurity of the Counties. ideas on howinsecurity the devolved should tackle inrising and deaths from disasters in most of the counties. Adherence to The County Governments Act No. 17 of 2012

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he Media Council of Kenya also sought to establish the compliance by different Adherence to The County Governments Act No. 17 of 2012 Counties with part IX of the County Governments Act no. 17 of 2012. The Media Council of Kenya also sought to establish the compliance by different

According to the County Governments Act No. 17 of 2012, section 93 on public counties with part IX of the County Governments Act no. 17 of 2012. communication and access to information, “the County government shall use the media to create awareness on devolution and governance; promote citizens’ understanding for purposes of peaceAct andNo. national undertake advocacy According to County Governments 17 ofcohesion; 2012, section 93 on public on core development issues such as agriculture, education, health, security, communication and access to information, the county government shall use the media economics, sustainable environment among others; and promotion of the freedom to create awareness on devolution and governance; promote citizens understanding for of the media.”

Development issues touching on the economy were most covered with 26% followed by security at 20%, education at 18% and agriculture at 15%. Coverage on agriculture related-issues focused on different strategies adopted by Counties to boost agribusiness. From our analysis we also sought to know the Counties that carried out media advocacy campaigns to increase awareness on devolution and governance and also promote citizens’ understanding for purposes of peace and national cohesion. The media coverage on peace and national cohesion was very minimal. Efforts by

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County leaders to preach peace was covered. However, there were no official campaigns spearheaded by the County leadership to promote peaceful coexistence and harmonious relationship among the citizens at the County level. The media carried reports of some of the County assembly members in Uasin Gishu who snubbed peace forums covered by the National Cohesion and Integration Commission. “Uasin Gishu County assembly members yesterday boycotted a key meeting of the National Cohesion and Integration Commission which had been called to discuss peace, reconciliation and operations of Counties…. Uasin Gishu governor Jackson Mandago and deputy Governor Daniel Chepno were also not present. The County secretary Simiyu Wakofula said the two were out of the country for official duties.” 2013-05-17 .News .Star by Mathews Ndanyi.

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Section 2 How the media covered County & National levels of Government Chapter One: Print Media

Background

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he monitoring of media coverage of devolution by print media explores the extent to which newspapers reported on devolution with preliminary look at County and National government mentions and then whether the media roles on devolution were realised. The print media in Kenya consist of regular daily newspapers, weekly newspapers, the magazines, the regional newspapers, and alternative press. Print media platform comes third after radio and TV platforms in terms of audience consumption. According to a quarterly audience research study conducted by Ipsos Synovate, the Daily Nation and the Standard are the two leading newspaper publications in the country and are produced by the two leading media houses in the country. This study focused majorly on the daily newspapers which include the Daily Nation, The Standard, The People and the Star newspapers. The print media platform offers an ample space and opportunity for extensive discourse and coverage of devolution because of its attributes as a media tool. Some of the areas that cover devolution related articles are the local news section, opinion & letters to the editor section, editorial/commentary and also in special features magazine inserts. Some of these sections were key informants during our data collection on the topic of devolution.

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Devolution Report

Coverage of National and County governments on Daily Newspapers

Coverrage of National N and Cou unty goveernmentt on Dailyy Newspapers 40%

C Coverage of Nation nal & Coun nty Governments 35%

35%

29 9%

30% 25%

21%

20%

15% %

15% 10% 5% 0% Standard

Staar

The People Newspaper

Daily Nation

The Staandard accorrded the higghest coveraage (35%) to t county an nd National governmen nt issues.

T

he Standard accorded the highest coverage (35%) to County and National government issues. It has special pages that specifically cover issues arising the Cou unties’. The Daily D Nation n too has sp pecial pages called ‘County News’ which w does in-depth i from the different Counties called ‘On the Counties’. The Daily Nation too has special called which does coverage of County coveragepages of county news.‘County The Daily News’ Nation, its national leadin-depth in circulation not withstanding had news.The Daily Nation, its national lead in circulation not withstanding had the the least space allocation for devolution issues at 15%. least space allocation for devolution issues at 15%. It has sp pecial pagess that specifically coverr issues arissing from th he different counties caalled ‘On

Newspaper

Space Allocation in cm2

Daily Nation

18,606

Standard

53,182

Star

32,566

The People Newspaper

36,738

Grand Total

141092

The People allocated more space in cm2 than the Star newspaper yet the latter has higher The People allocated more space in cm2 than the Star newspaper yet the latter has percentage of mentions. This is because the People may have larger articles in cm2 higher percentage of mentions. This is because The published People may have published 2 than the Star in in relations to county National government but the government percentage in larger articles cm than the Starand in relation to County stories and National stories but the percentage in mentions is based on frequency. Important to note mentions is based on frequency. Important to note however is that the percentage in mentions however that the percentage in mentions is based on frequency. is based onis frequency.

The Standard had the highest allocation of space in cm2 for the coverage for The Standard the highest allocationissues. of spaceThe in cm2 the coverage forleast county and County and had National government DailyforNation had the space allocation for County andThe National government. National government issues. Daily Nation had the least space allocation for County and National government.

Distribution of Newspaper Sections 25that

Covered/Mention

Devolved


National government.

Devolution Report

Distribution of Newspaper Sections that

Covered/Mention

Distribution of Newspaper Sections that Covered/Mentioned Devolved Governments Governments

Devolved

Newspapers

Feature

News

Opinion

Other

Grand Total

Daily Nation

1

127

10

1

139

Standard

8

272

22

9

311

Star

5

250

9

2

266

The People

6

171

7

1

185

Grand Total

20

820

48

12

900

46% of the features stories published on all the newspapers were on political and 46% of the feature stories published on all the newspapers were on political administrative structure establishments oF the county governments. Other features Other stories and administrative structure establishments of the County governments. covered on topical covered issues like health, education and agriculture, insecurity. feature stories topicalagriculture, issues like health, education and insecurity.

31% of the opinion articles published were on insecurity and law and order while 21% on the political and administrative structure establishments both 31% were of the opinion n articles pub blished werre on insecu urity and law w and order while 21%by were on the County and National governments. Whereas the news segment carried the political and administrati a ive structurre establish hments by both b the co ounty and National the highest number of stories on County and National government in terms of governm ments. Wheereas news segment caarried the highest h num mber of storries on cou unty and mentions, other sections offered robust platform to people’s opinions and more national government in terms of mention ns, other secctions offereed robust p platform to people’s in-depth analysis on the subject of devolution. opinion ns and more in-depth an nalysis on th he subject off devolution n.

Comparative coverage of County and National Governments in the print media

F

Compar erage of the Cou unty and Na ational Gov vernments i theattention in printt mediato County romrative the cove analysis, media has given substantive

government issues. Insecurity, andattention administrative got the From th he analysiss, the media a has given n political substantiv ve n to countyy process governmeent highest attention. issues. Insecurity y, political and a adminiistrative prrocess got tthe highest attention. 120 0%

Allocation of Newspaper sspace to county & Nattional Governments

100 0% 80 0% 60 0%

7 76%

87%

83 3%

68%

Coun nty Natio onal

40 0% 20 0% 2 24% 0% 0 Daily Nation

13%

17 7%

Standard

Sttar

32%

The People

The Staandard allocated higheest space 87% 8 in thee coverage of county issues. Thee people accordeed highest space to n national issu ues during the same study period.. This extensive

e political and administrative coveragge may be explained by the factt there is countrywide c 26 structurre establishm ments goingg on at the county levelss.


Devolution Report

negative reasons.allocated It is however note that counties were not The Standard theimportant highest to space 87%some in the coverage of covered County issues. The peopletheaccorded highest space to National issues during the same study at all during study period.

period. This extensiveCounty coverage may be explained by the fact there is countrywide Percentage political and administrative structure establishments at the County levels. 1 Bungoma County

7%

The People covered2 National government issues more than any other newspaper Nairobi County 7% followed by the Daily Nation. Appointment of cabinet secretaries and coverage of 3 Mombasa County 7% the rampant insecurity in the country dominated National government stories in 4 Busia County 6% the media. 5 Nakuru County

5%

Top Ten Counties 6covered by the print media Kisumu County 5% important to note that some counties were not covered negative reasons. It is however

I

at all during the study period. County coverage 3% f prominence 7in Nyeri media of County Percentage 8 Mandera 3% Counties is a reflection ofCounty the happenings 1 Bungoma County 7% and occurrences 9in Siaya those Counties, then County 3% 2 Nairobi County 7% the top ten most covered Counties were 10 Kiambu County 3% 3 Mombasa County 7% covered for negative reasons. It is however 4 Busia County 6% important to note that some Counties were 5 Nakuru County 5% Bungoma and Busia counties were highly covered counties with 7% and 6% 5% not covered at all during theamong studytheperiod. 6 Kisumu County Bungoma and Counties were to among 7 Nyeriand County respectively. The Busia coverage was in relation night attacks killings of innocent 3% the highly covered Counties at 7% and 6% 8 Mandera County people by armed individuals. Nairobi similarly received 7% coverage on county issues 3% respectively. The coverage was in relation to 9 Siaya County 3% but alsoattacks related and to insecurity. Nakuru County received10high publicity Kiambu County in the media in 3% night killings of innocent people by armed individuals. Nairobi similarly relations to the wrangles over appointments of officers to serve at the county assembly Bungoma and Busia were among highly covered counties with 7% and 6% received 7% coverage on County issues butcounties also related totheinsecurity. Nakuru and county executive. The coverage was in relation to night attacks and killings of innocent County received high publicityrespectively. in the media in relation to the wrangles over people armed individuals. Nairobi similarly received executive. 7% coverage on county issues appointments of officers to serve at by the County assembly and County but also related to insecurity. Nakuru County received high publicity in the media in

Print media issues Print mediacoverage coverageofoftopical topical issues. relations to the wrangles over appointments of officers to serve at the county assembly

A

and county executive.

All thelldaily publication covered law and order/insecurity, political process political the newspapers daily newspapers publication covered law and order/insecurity,

process andissues administration issuestheextensively during the period of study. and administration extensively during period of study. Print media coverage of topical issues. Newspapers Daily Nation The Standard The Star The People 1

Law and order/insecurity

2

Political process & administration

3

Infrastructure

4

Economy

5

Education

6

Accidents/Disaster

All the daily newspapers publication covered law and order/insecurity, political process

27%

35%

16%

18%

27%

23%

and administration issues extensively during the period of study. Newspapers

26%

21%

Daily Nation

The Standard

The Star

1

6% Law8% and order/insecurity

5% 27%

4% 35%

27%

2

Political 6% process & administration 9%

16% 9%

18% 20%

26%

3

Infrastructure

6%

5%

4

Economy

5

Education

6

Accidents/Disaster

8%

6%

7%

6%

5%

5%

4%6%

9%

9%

7%

6%

5%

5%

4%

6%

4%

4%

Insecurity was largely covered in the news and opinion segments as some of the

27

The


Devolution Report

Insecurity was largely covered in the news and opinion segments as some of the

counties like Busia , Bungoma and Mandera experienced a wave of insecurity and lack of

law and order. Political process and administration coverage dwelt on the appointments

Counties like Busia , Bungoma and Mandera experienced a wave of insecurity and of governors and Executive Committees as well as other topical issues such as the lack of law and order. Political process and administration coverage dwelt on the budgetingof andgovernors resources and allocation to theCommittees Counties. appointments Executive as well as other topical issues such as the budgeting and resources allocation to the Counties.

News Sources on County & National Government in Print Media State Official

59%

Politician

12%

Woman/man on the street

11%

Business woman/man

6%

(Other)

4%

NGO

3%

Academic

2%

Trade Union

1%

Professional Association

1%

Religious Leader

1% 0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

percentage

State officials received the highest coverage by the media (59%) on issues related to the

county and National government. Political and administrative process of the different county governments were the main issues that state officials addressed, leading to their high coverage. Politicians’ 12% media coverage was driven by the appointment period

of the new county officers. The common citizens –‘man on the street’ was accorded 11%

of the media coverage. Thus official statements and pre-determined news sources which

are cheap and easy to access continue to dominate in news gathering strategies in media houses.

28


Devolution Report

Chapter Two: Electronic Media Chaptter Two:: Electron nic Mediia

Chapt nic Mediia PART I ter Two:: Electron

PAR RT Sta ations PAR RTI: I:Raadio Raadio Sta ations Radio Stations

T

TheThe dio station ns ns monitor redred andand an nalysed forrfor this repo ortort were 19 1in numb berber andand radio station monitor an nalysed r this repo were 9 heraradio stations monitored and analysed for this report were 19in innumb number include vernacu ular andand naational radi io stations. . stations. This secti ion analyse ed ed 530 new ws clips andedincluded vernacular and national This section analysed 530 include ed vernacu ular na ational radi io radio stations. . This secti ion analyse 530 new ws clips

news clips for of theoone period of one week. News stories forand 7am, 9am,7pm and 9pm forfor the period week. N News storie es for 7am, 9am,7pm 9pm w were analys sed.sed. the period of o one week. N News storie es for 7am, 9am,7pm and 9pm w were analys were analysed.

Alloca ation of of Aiirtime to to D Devolved Governm ments Alloca ation Aiirtime D Devolved Governm ments National l l National Governme ent ent Governme 18%18%

County County s s Government Government 82%82%

covcov erage waswas s accorded d to count ty ty governm ments in in tthetthe media TheThe hiighest [82%] erage s accorded d to count governm ments media hiighest [82%] compar redred tocoverage 18% to Nattional gove rnments. The highest accorded tornments. County governments in the media [82%] compar to % 18% % the towas the Nat tional gove

compared to 18% to the National governments.

‘Man o on on should beebe accorded d more vo oice byby thethmedia tto tto airair issue es es ‘Man ostreet’ street’ should e accorded d more vo oice e media issue affecti inging their N National National a and and ty ty governm ments affecti their N a Count Count governm ments State officcials State officcials

50%50%

Man M Man street Mon the on the street rnorrnor Gove Gove

19%19% 16%16%

atorator 8% 8% SenSen hers Oth hers 6% 6% Oth 0% 0%

10%10%

20%20%

29

30%30%

440%440%

50 0%50 0%

60% %60% %


Devolution Report

30


Devolution Report

J

ust like in the print media, conversations on National and County government on radio were dominated by state officials. Again, insecurity, revenue allocation for County governments, economy, corruption, national cohesion and infrastructure got more attention. However, close to 19% of news came from ordinary people and touched on felt needs such as insecurity and crime, floods and other disasters and infrastructure accounting for 46% of such conversations. Thus, though there were similarities on issues given prominence between state officials and ordinary peoples, there were additional issues of food and infrastructure.

Top 20 Prominently Covered Counties on Radio in Kenya

I

t is not enough that Counties receive coverage by the media; the quality of coverage is also very important. This is because media coverage opens up the County to the entire world and negative reporting on issues affecting the County has grave implications. As Counties strive to attract investors, quality and positive publicity is vital. County

Percentage

County

Issues Covered

Mandera

Insecurity

Percentage 62%

Law & Order

38%

Corruption

27%

Economy

24%

1

Mandera

12%

2

Nairobi

8%

3

Makueni

7%

4

Bungoma

6%

5

Kisumu

5%

County leaders

21%

6

Busia

5%

Health

9%

7

Tranzoia

5%

Infrastructure

6%

8

Kitui

4%

9

Mombasa

4%

10

Kakamega

11

Machakos

12

Nairobi

Insecurity

6%

Elections

44%

3%

County leaders

15%

3%

Disasters

15%

Meru

3%

corruption

11%

13

Kisii

3%

Insecurity

7%

14

Kwale

3%

Other

7%

15

Tana River

2%

Insecurity

58%

16

Migori

2%

Disasters

12%

17

Nakuru

2%

Other

12%

18

Nyamira

2%

County leaders

8%

19

Siaya

2%

law and Order

8%

20

Elgeyo Marakwet

2%

Youth

4%

Makueni

Bungoma

Negatively Covered Counties in the radio

Some counties received negative media coverage in relation to the number of mentions regarding some topical issues that were considered negative, according to this report.

31


Devolution Report

Negatively Covered Counties in the radio

S

ome Counties received negative media coverage in relation to the number of mentions regarding some topical issues that were considered negative, according to this report.

Prevalence of corruption, insecurity, lawlessness and disorderliness and disaster were some of the topical issues used to analyse negative coverage according to this study. Mandera was the most negatively covered County in relation to insecurity, lawlessness and disorderliness. Bungoma, Trans Nzoia and Busia were negatively covered in relation to insecurity and attacks during that period. Nairobi was negatively covered in relation to corruption and insecurity. Wrangles have characterised the appointments and nominations of County executives for various posts. Nakuru and Kisumu Counties were highly mentioned negatively in the media with regards to wrangles on appointments of County leaders. Kwale, Kisumu and Busia were Counties with most prevalent mentions with regards to disasters mostly related to floods and road accidents. These issues were covered predominantly in the main news segments at 95% for all the clips analysed and only 5% in the business news segment. Machakos County was the most covered County in the business segment more especially over its investments conference that it held to showcase investment opportunities available in the County. Nairobi County was the second well covered County in the business news segment. This follows the many conferences and seminars held in the city and attended by the Governor. An example of such a conference was the Financial Services Strategic Conference organised by Ernst & Young at a Nairobi hotel

32


Devolution Report

Category Business Radio Station

Frequency

Percentage

News 9.4%

news

Egesa FM

50

50

Radio Jambo

36

6.8%

36

Muuga FM

34

6.4%

34

Kiss FM

33

6.2%

Easy FM

32

6.0%

7

32

Radio Maisha

32

6.0%

32

Ramogi FM

32

6.0%

32

Classic FM

31

5.8%

Q FM

31

5.8%

31

Musyi FM

29

5.5%

29

Citizen Radio

26

4.9%

26

Nam Lolwe

26

4.9%

26

Mulembe FM

25

4.7%

25

Swahili Service

24

4.5%

24

Kass FM

23

4.3%

West FM

20

3.8%

Capital FM

17

3.2%

Milele FM

15

2.8%

15

Inooro FM

14

2.6%

14

Grand Total

530

100%

8

6

26

23

17 20

6

27

11

503

where Governor Evans Kidero said that with one million people getting in the job These issues were covered predominantly in the main news segments at 95% for all the market every year in the country, 80 percent of them come to Nairobi, leaving clipsCounties analysed with and only 5% in the business news segment. Machakos County was the other no human capital. most covered county in the business segment more especially over its investments

Nakuru County was the third County covered in the business news segment over that it held to showcase investment available in the county. its conference plans to increase electricity generation toopportunities boost business operation through Nairobi County was the second well covered County in the business news segment. This cost reduction in the County. follows the many conferences and seminars held in the city and attended by the

Governor. An example of such a conference was the Financial Services Strategic

Conference organised by Ernst & Young in a Nairobi hotel where Governor Evans Kidero said that with one million people getting in the job market every year in the

33


Devolution Report plans to increase electricity general to boost business operation through cost reduction

in the county.

Are regional Radio stations projecting issues pertaining to those counties?

Are regional radio stations projecting issues pertaining to those Counties?

Regional radio stations, most of which are vernacular- should cover more of county

R

egional radio stations, most ofissues. whichThey are can vernacularshould cover more of specific issues as opposed to National also set the agenda that will help

County specific issues as opposed to national issues. They can also set the highlight the key issues that affect the specific counties. The radio stations that have agenda that will help highlight the key issues that affect the specific Counties. The listenership in those regions should be able to provide a platform their radio stations that have listenership in those regions should through be able which to provide aissues platform through which their issues and challenges are discussed and solutions and challenges are discusses and solutions generated. generated.

Egesa fm

Kass fm

38%

Mulembe

Musyi

31%

National

County

National

County

National

County

National

County

National

County

Coro fm

69%

62%

21%

16%

Bahari fm

44%

County

56%

National

84% 79% 50% 50% 54% 46%

National

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

County

Percentage

Coverage of counties by regional Radio stations

Namlolwe

Counties

From this study, it was evident that Egesa FM accorded 84% to coverage of issues outside the

From this study, it was evident thatKass Egesa to coverage of issues counties where its listenership is based. FMFM hadaccorded the highest84% coverage 79% of issues that outside the Counties where its listenership is based. Kass FM had the highest affected the counties where its listenership is based. Others were Radio Namlolwe at 69% coverage 79% of issues that affected the Counties where its listenership is based. regional issues and Musyi FM at 62% for regional issues as well. Others were Radio Namlolwe at 69% regional issues and Musyi FM at 62% for regional issues as well.

34


Devolution Report

How do national radio stations cover national and County government issues? Citizen Radio

Percentage

1

Insecurity

42%

2

County leaders

15%

3

Disasters

12%

4

corruption

4%

5

Economy

4%

6

Education

4%

7

Health

4%

Milele FM

N

ational radio stations have a high reach and also share in terms of audience listenership. They are able to achieve high coverage in terms of National and County government issues. They are able to push for national agenda as reflected by the different levels of devolved government. The issues they air in their news segments on National and County governments have a high impact and influence considering their reach and share.

Percentage

1

County leaders

27%

2

Economy

27%

3

Devolution

20%

4

Agriculture

7%

5

Insecurity

7%

6

law and Order

7%

7

Youth

7%

Radio Maisha

Percentage

1

Insecurity

34%

2

law and Order

16%

3

County leaders

9%

4

Disasters

9%

5

Health

6%

6

Infrastructure

6%

7

Devolution

3%

Swahili Service

Percentage

1

Insecurity

29%

2

Economy

21%

3

County leaders

13%

4

corruption

8%

Selected national radio stations coverage consisted of 18% of the total coverage on National and County government issues. 9 % of the news clips aired on national radio stations were about the National government while 91% of the issues were based on County governments. This is remarkably different from regional/vernacular radio stations that covered more of national as opposed to regional/ local news. Milele FM accorded the highest percentage of its news reporting 21% on specific issues to do with devolution. These were news stories that were specifically on devolution. An example of stories picked under the Devolution is shown below:

“President Uhuru Kenyatta has said that it is crucial for the County 6 Disasters 4% and National governments to work 7 Education 4% together so as to achieve the goals of bettering the people’s lives as well as the economy of this country as a whole. He was speaking during the swearing in of the 5

Infrastructure

8%

35


Devolution Report

cabinet secretaries.” 2013-05-16 .News .Milele FM. 09:12 The national radio stations focused on insecurity, law and order, County leaders and disasters as some of the issues affecting devolution.

Insecurity and Economic issues mostly covered on the Radio

R

adio stations covered different issues as a reflection of what was happening at the County level .The stories were thematically captured and analysed. Some topical issues like insecurity, economy, County leaders and law and order were among those analysed.

T Topical issues co overed in Radio o station Legislattion Agriculture uth You Educattion Naational Cohesion Infrastructure ons Electio Devoluttion Heaalth Other corrupttion Disastters law and Ord der ders County lead omy Econo Insecurity

1% 1% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 3% 4% % 55% 55% 5% 10% % 14% 15% % 27% 0%

5%

10%

15%

20%

2 25%

30 0%

Insecurity was was the issu ueissue covered b by the radio stations 27 7%.The coun nties that drrove this Insecurity thebiggest biggest covered by the radio stations (27%).The Counties coverag ge were ia, Bungoma a, mandera aandBungoma, Tranzoiia. Mandera a had 22% 10 0%,Busia that drove thisBusi coverage were Busia, mandera and,BBungoma Transzoia. Mandera had ,Bungoma 10%,Busia andageTranszoia had of stori theestotal coverage attacks, on and22% Traanzoia had 9% 9 of the ttotal covera on inseccurity. The9% m media were on insecurity. The ent, media stories on crim attacks, arrests, disarmament, wildlife arrests, disarmame wildlife attacks were and normal me stories. attacks and normal stories. “Tension is still crime high in Ramu Mand dera county following f thee killings in the region. So S far 10 people have lost their livees and 14 oth hers seriouslyy injured as a result of inte ter community ty clashes.

“Tension is still high in Ramu Mandera County following the killings in the region. So In the recentt attack a pollice officer an nd a civilian were w killed. KDF K officers have h been dep eployed in far 10 people have lost their lives and 14 others seriously injured as a result of inter the region to o reinforce seecurity.” 2013-05-13. News. Q FM. 07:02. community clashes. In the recent attack a police officer and a civilian were killed. KDF officers have been deployed in the region to reinforce security.” Econom my was the ssecond mostt covered to opic with 15% of the tottal coveragee. Some of th he issues

2013-05-13. News. Q oFM. 07:02. n economy are county that recceived high coverage y budgets 13 3%, Revenu ue allocation ns to the countiess 12%, Inheerited debts by counties 10% and Business and d investmentts 9% .

“As the devo olved govern nment start it its work in all a the countiies, the Wataa communityy in Isiolo county is call lling for the ge gender commi mittee to involv lve them in ecconomic deveelopment and d political issues sayingg that it’s a ssmall commu unity that hass been side-li lined for a lon ng time as itt has been dependent on o wildlife pooaching and ccharcoal36 burn ning for theirr daily bread. d.”

201 13-05-13


Devolution Report

Economy was the second most covered topic with 15% of the total coverage. Some of the issues that received high coverage on economy were County budgets 13%, revenue allocations to the Counties 12%, inherited debts by Counties 10% and business and investments 9% . “As the devolved government start its work in all the Counties, the Wata community in Isiolo County is calling for the gender committee to involve them in economic development and political issues saying that it’s a small community that has been side-lined for a long time as it has been dependent on wildlife poaching and charcoal burning for their daily bread.” 2013-05-13 .News .Radio Citizen. 09:03. Wrangles over County leadership has was one of the major topical issues covered extensively by the radio stations monitored. 49% of all County mentions focused on appointment and nominations of County executives and laying down on political and administrative structures at the County level. 46% of coverage of County issues focused on clamour for more salary by the leadership at the County level. “All 47 County speakers said that they want a salary that is not less than 300,000 shillings a month, they have paralyzed all the operations saying that the SRC must address the salary issues.” 2013-05-19 .News .Radio Namlolwe. 09:12. Devolution as a process received 3% of coverage during this period. The special coverage on devolution was on transition process, funds and revenue allocation and also on relationship between County and national government. “Financing and division of labour between central and County governments will be the biggest challenges in devolution. The Slovakian Ambassador to Kenya Michal Mlynar says his government will offer assistance in the transitional process to devolved systems” 2013-05-19 .News .Classic 105. 09:12.

37


challenges in devolution. The Slovakian Ambassador to Kenya Michal Mlynar says his

Devolution Report government will offer assistance in the transitional process to devolved systems. “ 2013-05-19

.News .Classic 105. 09:12.

PART II

Television PART II: stations Television stations.

T

he study analysed TV stations for a period of one week. The TVarestations The study analysed 5 TV5stations for a period of one week. The TV stations KTN, are

KTN, NTV,CTV,KBC and K24. NTV,CTV,KBC and K24.

Coverage by level of Government 13%

County National

87%

The county government was accorded very high coverage in TV platform with 87%

The County government was accorded very high coverage in TV platform with

while the National government issues got 13%got coverage as per theasTV clips 87% while the National government issues 13% coverage per theanalysed TV clips during studythe period. likeJust in like other media,media, countyCounty issues issues attained high analysedtheduring study Just period. in other attained

high prominence and airtime allocation. prominence and airtime allocation. Allocation of Airtime to County and National government issues by

Allocation of Airtime to County and National government issues by TV stations TV stations. Allocation of Devolution issues by TV brands 0% KTN 24%

K24 16% NTV 17%

CTV 22%

KBC 21%

KTN allocated the highest percentage of airtime 24% to county and National

KTN allocated the highest percentage of airtime to County and National government issues. CTV allocated 22% and KBC 2%.CTV24% and KTN accorded 90% of its government issues. CTV allocated 22% and KBC 2%.CTV and KTN accorded 90% of its coverage to County government issues and 10% to National government.

coverage to county government issues and 10% to National government. KBC also aired 81% of its airtime on county issues and 19% on National issues.

The giant allocation of airtime to county issues is reflective of the media focus on the political and administrative process during the establishment of county government. 38

The media has been able to accord ample media coverage to several issues that county


Devolution Report

KBC also used 81% of its airtime on County issues and 19% on national issues. The giant allocation of airtime to County issues is reflective of the media focus on political andable administrative process theto oft County Thethe meedia has beeen to accord am mple mediaduring coverage t establishment several issues i that county government. The media has been able to accord ample media coverage to several governments are faced with including insecurity i a disasteers. and issues that County governments are faced with including insecurity and disasters. Catego ory of New ws coveraage in TV sstations.

Category of News coverage in TV stations

The meedia has beeen able to accord am mple media coverage to t several issues i thatt county governments are faced with including insecurity i a disasteers. and

TV V station Business Featuress Interview Catego ory of New ws coveraage in TV sstations. CTTV 1 1 K2 24

2

KB BC

TV V station 3

KIISS TV

CTTV

1

K2 24

2

KTTN

Business

KIISS TV

Grand

KTTN

1

To otal

NTV

3

Grand Tottal

37

1

40

10

26 News 33

Sports

Grand Tottal

37

1

37 1

1

40

1

1

26

29

33

37

1 25

1

40

41

40

1

2

1

10

29

Intervie 1 w

3

otal To

T

Featuress

3

NTV

Grand

Sports

1

1

KB BC

News

1

2

4

25

4

162

162

30

1

41 30

178

178

1

The he isssues covere ed in the in Bu usiness secction were on County y developm ment opport tunities, issues covered the business section were on County development

The iss sues ed inuctural the Bu usiness secction were ton .One Countyydevelopment developm ment opport tunities,interview opportunities, investments and infrastructural Investm ments and d covere infrastru deevelopment in nterview c .One captured w was on Investm ments and d infrastru deevelopment t .One c captured wthe on captured was on insecurity inuctural Bungoma County andinnterview expounded onwas challenges insecurrity in the Bungoma County an nd expound ded on the challengess and soluttions to insecurto rity County in the Bungoma County an nd expound ded on the challenges s and during soluttions the to period and solutions insecurity. Feature stories were rare insecurity county y. Features stories we re rare dur ring the pe eriod of stu udy. There wstudy. only county insecurity y. Features were rare dur ring theduring peeriod ofthe stu udy. There was wunder only was of study. There was only one stories feature story aired period feattures c dur dur ring peri the peri under st sttudy. one featturesone story c story covered covered ring the iodiod under tudy.

Topical issues covered by theby in inKenya Topicaal issues C Covered bTV thestations TV sstations n Kenya.

Topicaal issues C Covered by b the TV sstations in n Kenya.

Ch hart Title

Topical Issue

Topical Issue

Ch hart Title

Others 13% % legislation 3% Others 13% % Education 3% legislation 3% 4% Land issues A Agriculture Education 3% 4% Acciden nt/Disaster issues Land 4% 5% Infraastructure 6% A Agriculture 4% Heaalth issues 7% Acciden nt/DisasterEconomy5% 14 4% law and Order 6% 16% Infraastructure Insecurity

Heaalth issues Economy law and Order Insecurity

25%

7%

0% %

5% 14 4%

10%

15%

16%

200%

25%

30%

perrcentage

25% 0% %

5%

10%

15% perrcentage

39

200%

25%

30%


Devolution Report

J

ust like in print and radio, insecurity, law and order and the economy were some of the prominently covered issues in Kenyan TV during the study period. The main focus of insecurity in the TV concerned attacks, cattle rustling and disarmament. Major coverage on economic issues were on budgetary allocations to the Counties and also on salary increment demands by the various County officials. State officials were most covered by the TV media platform accounting to 38%

Main su ubjects covered d by thee Mediaa P e r c e n t a g e

40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15%

38%

21% 16% 12%

10% 5% 0%

5% %

4%

3%

olitician Busin ness Governo or State State Man on Po Persson officials official the street

Others

Main subject

t 38% of the t total State offficials weree most coveered by thee TV media platform aaccounting to of the total coverage. ’Man on the street’ was also covered adequately at 21% coveragge. ’Man on the street’ was also co overed adeq quately with h 21% with h politicianss coming with politicians coming third with 12% of the total coverage. The coverage of third wiith 12% of the t was total verage.toThe c that required coverage of state officia al was in comments relations tolike isssues that state official in cov relation issues authoritative insecurity, political and administrative process, economy and devolution as well. required authoritattive comments like inseecurity, poliitical and ad dministrativ ve process, economy e “Man on the street” was covered in relations to their opinions as well as their and dev volution as well. w in County “Man o on theNational streett” was coverred issues. in relations to theirr opinions ass well as involvement and government their inv volvement in county an nd National ggovernmentt issues.

Coverage of Counties by TV stations in Kenya

Coverrage ofofCounties Cthe Countiesby TVconspicuously sttations covered in n Kenya ome were by TV stations compared to

S

others. Some Counties equally received noy coverage at all. However at leastc Some of the countiies were con nspicuouslyy covered by TV station ns compared d to other counties. 92% of the Counties received mention and coverage on TV. Some co ounties equ ually receiveed no coverrage at all, however h at least 92% of the coun nties did The media should remain objective and accord fair share of coverage to at least receive mention an nd coverage on TV. some issues when aired receive the attention of all Counties. This is because relevant authorities andective agencies reside those The meedia remain obj and that should a might accord fairnot overage to at aCounties. least allItcounties. c share of within co is also important that Counties receive positive coverage of the media which is This is because so ome issues when aired receive the t attentio on of relevaant authoritties and

agencies that might not residee within tho ose counties. It is also im mportant th hat countiess receive positivee coverage of the med dia which iss importantt for econom mic develop pment within those countiess.

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Devolution Report

important for economic development within those Counties. County

Percentage

1 Mombasa

9%

2 Mandera

8%

3 Nairobi

8%

4 machakos

7%

5 Kiambu

6%

6 Nyeri

6%

7 Bungoma

4%

8 Baringo

4%

9 Nakuru

4%

10 Kakamega

3%

11 makueni

3%

12 Meru

3%

13 Muranga

3%

14 Narok

3%

15 Trans-Nzoia

3%

Manderaand and Bungoma counties received received high TV coverage of the issuesbecause of insecurity Mandera Bungoma Counties high because TV coverage of the thatof occurred within those Mombasa alsothose had theCounties. challenges of Mombasa the MRC insecurity issues insecurity that counties. occurred within also and had the also on health. Nairobi coverage was dueand to the insecurity and corruption cases as reported to due challenges of the MRC insecurity also on health. Nairobi coverage was to the insecurity and corruption cases as reported to the relevant authorities. the relevant authorities.

Chapter 3

Adherence to the Code of Conduct

The media council scope of monitoring includes checking whether journalist adhered to the code of conduct for the practice of journalism.

4% of the print articles analysed had breaches of the code of conduct for the practice of journalism. Most of the breaches concerned mentioned people adversely and failing to

give them a fair chance of reply. The code of conduct states that all sides of the story shall be reported, wherever possible. Comments should be obtained from anyone who is mentioned in an unfavourable context.

The Code of Conduct for the Practice of Journalism also states that provocative and alarming headlines should be avoided. Headings should reflect and justify the matter

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Devolution Report

Chapter 3 Adherence to the Code of Conduct

M

edia Council of Kenya scope of monitoring includes checking whether journalists adhered to the Code of Conduct for the Practice of Journalism.

4% of the print articles analysed had breaches of the Code. Most of the breaches concerned mentioned people adversely and failing to give them a fair chance of reply. The Code of Conduct states that “all sides of the story shall be reported, wherever possible. Comments should be obtained from anyone who is mentioned in an unfavourable context”. The code also states that provocative and alarming headlines should be avoided. Headings should reflect and justify the matter printed under them. Headings containing allegations made in statements should either identify the body or the source making them or at least carry quotation marks. 2 stories were found to have provocative and alarming headlines. Four articles had negative stereotypes and insults that dehumanised a group of people related to the issues of insecurity in the country. The Code of Conduct for the Practice of Journalism states that “Quoting persons making derogatory remarks based on ethnicity, race, creed, colour and sex shall be avoided. Racist or negative ethnic terms should also be avoided”.

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Devolution Report

Conclusions and Recommendations Conclusion

T

he media remains central in the constitutional implementation and devolution process through access to information. There is need for more focus on the key issues of success and challenges and to pay more attention to governance and leadership in the devolution process. It is important to understand that devolution has been interpreted and understood differently by some people in both National and County government. In such a situation, the media should actively educate the people on all aspects of devolution, create understanding particularly on contentious issues and hold those responsible for devolution to account. The media also bears the responsibility of sensitising and education the public on the virtues, opportunities and challenges of the devolution process. An informed citizenry is an empowered lot that can embrace opportunities and face the challenges of devolution. The media and County governments should partner if devolution is to be a success. The County Governments Act no. 17 of 2012 should be carefully implemented. County governments should therefore provide space for journalists to operate, file stories and conduct interviews with County government officials. Even as devolution takes shape, there arises questions on whether devolving the media will be beneficial. Devolving media along with government is essential if citizens are to hold County authorities to account for the services they are owed. It will ensure that County governments will be focused, not on posturing for a national audience, but on local issues, which will ultimately have the most impact on the day to day operation of the Counties and also on the livelihood of the people in those Counties.

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Devolution Report

Recommendations •

The media should educate and sensitise the public on their rights, privileges, roles and responsibilities under devolution. The public should be made aware of the principles, objects and legislative framework guiding devolution. It is important to do this under news programs because news has a wide listenership and viewership compared to other programs.

The media should be the public’s watchdog and raise a red flag on favoritism, nepotism, corruption, regional imbalance, ethnic based appointments and abuse of power at the Counties. It should undertake investigative approach to journalism to unearth the cases of corruption that can be perpetrated even as structures of devolution are being laid.

The media should not only highlight the challenges that face devolution, they should also report on success stories and compare progress between Counties

Vernacular /regional stations should allocate even more time to topical issues affecting and relating to Counties .They are vital media platforms that can effectively reach the people in the Counties.

Media enterprises and editors should strengthen County editions and special programmes on the devolution process with emphasis on issues rather than personalitites.

There is need for the media and both levels of goverment agencies involved in the devolution process to work together as provided for by the County Governments act No. 17 of 2012 section 93. This calls for professional engagements between the media and those in governments at both levels..

Journalist should now reorient themselves to cover County government. The aspect of proximity in news gathering and reporting should guide them in reporting County issues.

There is need for the government to actively devolve information.

There is need for training of the media on devolution matters and covering County assemblies.

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Devolution Report

References _ Fraser,D.Nation_ Speaking _Unto_ Nation:_Does_the_media _create_ cultural_distance between_England_and_Scotland?. Institute_for_Public_ Policy_Research (2008)__ Stephen Cushion , Justin Lewis & Chris Groves (2009): Reflecting the four nations?, Journalism Studies, 10:5, 655-671_

Snippets of Journalist’s comments on Devolution Hiccups Threaten Kenya’s devolution

“The take-off of devolved units is proving a hard nut to crack. With experiences of highlevel turbulence fuelled by multiple grievances by both the County Assembly Members and Governors, it remains to be seen when devolution will kick off smoothly…….. But with only a handful of functions transferred by TA to the counties amid overgrowing challenges, the road ahead is not any rosy.’’ The Standard Newspaper-15/05/2013 By Stephen Makabila

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Devolution Report

Political and cultural centres must move together for true devolution “Cynics and optimists are agreed on one thing: the government is in mashinani. Finally the wish by the majority of Kenyans to have the government on their doorsteps has been fulfilled… So, a question to ask on this matter, about culture, is: how will the locals communicate? What language or symbols or acts of communication will the people accommodate in the various counties?..... So, how will County Representatives who are not competent in English and Kiswahili effectively debate local problems? These are the men and women who will either make devolution work or fail” The Daily Nation-13/05/2013

By Tom odhiambo

Political and cultural centres must move together for true devolution “The right of intervention by the Central Government where a County Government is unable to perform its functions or does not operate a financial management system that complies with the requirement prescribed by national legislation (190 [3a-b])….. And the County Governments Act (S. 131) says that county financial management “shall be as provided under the law relating to public finance”. In a nutshell, County Treasuries are subject to the authority of the National Treasury on matters of financial policy and management”. The Star -11/05/2013 By Walter Oyugi

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Devolution Report

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Media coverage of the devolution process in kenya report 1  

This is a report on media coverage of devolution in the country as per the implementation of section 93 of the County governments Act No. 17...

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