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VOL 11.4 JUNE 2010 R38 incl. VAT

IN THIS ISSUE: New window film technology Biomimicry: nature inspired architecture

The sustainability of concrete Temperature controlled environments High performance glass

Cover stories

Volume 11 Number 4 2010


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Temperature Controlle

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Nanotechnology in tiles Cutting-edge lighting technology Aluminium security shutters

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Biomimicry: when nature inspires

Green Design

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2.4 hectare green roof

Sustainable solar energy for Diepsloot

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R10, 5 mil on green retrofit project Sustainable construction

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High performance glass Glass solutions

Indoor air quality

Hollow-core slabs Cracks in plaster The sustainability of concrete Bring your walls to life

World-class roof sheeting Walls & Roofs wins coveted award


2.4 hectare green roof


Solar control film

Tech Savvy

Green building movement


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Roof insulation


Concepts & Visions


Indoor air quality



Hollow-core slabs

“Green� masonry cleaner Celebrating 30 years New training centre


High performance glass


Bring your walls to life

Green D e si gn

WALLS & Roofs focusses on the aesthetics of walls and roofs and technicalities pertaining to the aesthetics. Readers are welcome to contact us for any information. WALLS & Roofs is published six weekly by Media in Africa (Pty) Ltd. The views expressed by contributors are not necessarily those of the editor or publisher. We accept no responsibility for the accuracy of information published. publisher: Media in Africa (Pty) Ltd


wins prestigious


We won! Walls & Roofs was awarded the coveted SAPOA Property Publication of the Year award recently at the 42nd SAPOA Convention and Property Exhibition. This is a testament to the wonderful work our team does in putting this issue together every time. As Neil Gopal, CEO of SAPOA, said: “Through these awards, we are able to recognise and pay tribute to outstanding journalists who report on the South African property market. As in previous years, the quality of the entries has been excellent, demonstrating the stature of the awards amongst media in the property sector”. I would like to say a massive thank you to our loyal advertisers who makes this publication possible and to the specialists who share their knowledge and expertise with us. This allows us the opportunity for edification of the industry and to maintain our role as a major player in the niche markets by providing superior quality products. The Walls & Roofs team deserves a huge applause for their dedication, loyalty, hard work and commitment. They are really passionate about this magazine and about serving our clients and the professionals in the built environment. Thank you to each one of you who makes this magazine a success! I am so proud of you!


On the cover!


VOL 11. 4 JUN E 2010 R38 incl . VAT


UE: New win

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in the indust


Barry Masson and his team from Airex recently installed the Samsung DVM (Digital Variable Multi) System at the Tshwane University of Technology. The installation was completed within two months and the system will optimise temperature control in four buildings on the campus. This modern system enables individual air conditioning of multiple separate rooms from one outdoor unit, allied with easy installation, a simple controlling system and maximum economy of operation. Read more on page 36


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Founder: Schalk Burger (1943 – 2006) Journalist: Adrienne Brookbanks – 082 468 4566 Business Unit Coordinator: Lorraine Coetzee Publishing Manager: Liezel van der Merwe Financial Director: Fanie Venter Financial Manager: Sietske Rossouw Accountant: Denise Bakker Design and Layout: Ilze Pohl Proofreader: Angus Reed & Elizabeth Kriger Reproduction & Printing: Business Print Centre



Key Accounts Consultant: Shayne Lessing – 082 549 8226

11.4 June 2010

Well done to all the winners and entrants – the work is truly inspiring!

the WALLS & Roofs team: Editor: Marlene van Rooyen – 083 327 3746

AFRICA – Volume

Another award winner The new building housing the Department of International Relations and Cooperation (DIRCO) in Pretoria was also a winner at the SAPOA convention. The R1.2 billion OR Tambo building, designed by TC Design Architects in JV with ACG Architects, was a joint winner in the “office development” category, along with The Boulevard Park, designed by DHK Architects. The OR Tambo was named the Overall Winner of the SAPOA Innovative Excellence in Property Development. Recognition from professional bodies such as SAPOA promotes excellence in buildings and is a testament to the outstanding body of projects being built in South Africa.

Contact information: Tel (012) 347 7530 Fax (012) 347 7523 International: Tel +27 12 347 7530 Fax +27 12 347 7523 E-mail PO Box 25260, Monument Park, 0105 Republic of South Africa First Floor, Unit G Castle Walk Corporate Park Cnr Nossob & Swakop Streets Erasmuskloof Ext. 3

The sustain

ability of con

crete Tem peratu

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Architecture of change The article: The Architecture of Change (Walls & Roofs, March 2010, p 018), which illustrates the design for the new European Central Bank (ECB) building, with its smooth and flowing anthropological forms, is evocative of transformation. In fairy tales, such as Cinderella, the pumpkin turns into a glass coach; the frog turns into a handsome prince; and the kitchen girl turns into a beautiful princess. Thus, the image of the ECB ‘architecture of change’ could be transformed into a symbolic work of sculpture, in the form of a voluptuous female figure, like my drawing. Regards

Dr Peter Hancock


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Number 2, 2010



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New nanotechnology

in the tile industry Nanotechnology is the latest innovation in the tile industry, creating tiles with increased sheen and colour as well as resistance to stains. This new technology in tiles involves a process that treats the tile’s surface to attain an increase of the sheen, an enhancement of the colour and an improved protection against staining and marking. The results that have been created with nanotechnology are achieved by applying the lightest and hardest organic nano-particles, similar to a type of wax, onto the surface of polished porcelain tiles. A unique coating technique called plating is applied in order for the nano-particles to polymerise evenly on the surface of the tiles. After repetitive plating is applied through high-pressure sanding and polishing, the nano-particles combine with the tile substance to form an organic nano-film with high density and stability, which attains the three main characteristics of nano-treated tiles. Features of nano-treated tiles Some of the innovative features of nanotechnology tiles include a crystal clear effect due to the tiles’ lustre rating being between 89 - 90 degrees (which is close to the mirror effect and creates a much brighter result), an anti-bacterial effect due to all the air holes being filled, and slip resistance thanks to the hydrophilic protective material that is used. Tile Africa import nano-tiles from overseas and the tiles are available to the public through their retail stores and to contractors through their contracts division, Tile Africa Contracts.

Nano tiles provide a crystal clear effect due to the

Tile Africa Contracts Tel: 011 970 2124 Website:


Number 4, 2010

tiles’ lustre rating being between 89 – 90 degrees, which is close to the mirror effect and creates a much brighter result.

The process of creating nano-tiles involves treating the tile’s surface to attain an increase of the sheen, an enhancement of the colour and an improved protection against staining and marking.

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Stylish design and cutting-edge lighting technology A new dimension in wiring devices has been introduced by Legrand. These specialists in the design and manufacture of products and systems for electrical installations and information networks recently launched the Arteor range – which encompasses devices from simple switches, to the most advanced home automation systems – and they now also provide a multitude of stand-alone and system functions for commercial and residential environments. “Legrand has combined stylish design and leading-edge technology to create new wiring devices with numerous functions and various finishes that meet the requirements of the most basic electrical functions, as well as complicated and demanding automation tasks,” says Legrand’s national sales manager, Timothy Mountjoy. “Designers of the Arteor range have worked with the ‘flow of energies’’ slogan to produce elegant fittings with a fine balance between function and form.” The home automation systems that the Legrand Group offers are suitable for the requirements of specifiers, designers and those who want basic or integrated and advanced systems with a variety of functions. “To reinforce the high-end character of these devices, the most sophisticated and innovative materials have been selected, giving Arteor a multicultural identity in line with its international positioning. These materials include woven metal, red mirror and marine leather. Other finishes like plastic, metal, tattoo, wood and brushed

Arteor is available with round and square rocker plates. The circular shape, which ensures functions are harmoniously integrated, is easy to handle and universal icons ensure easy recognition. The Arteor range includes fittings for all countries including South African standards. These wiring devices have a bevelled profile giving the illusion that the product is not attached to the wall.


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steel are also available. What’s also important about this new range is its compatibility with international socket and flush-mounting box standards in commercial and residential sectors,” explains Mountjoy. Create your own environment Arteor offers a flexibility that enables users to create a variety of scenarios, such as a cinema environment, subdued lighting with automatic closing of curtains, or the simple adjustment of a thermostat. Key devices in this range include dimmers, lighting controls, scenario controls and multimedia touch screens. Video security and surveillance Reliable video door-entry security systems and video surveillance have also been incorporated into the Arteor range in order to address customers’ growing need for crime prevention and detection. Other safety features include an emergency lighting device, which automatically lights up in the event of a power failure, and automatic infra-red switches that manage light and ventilation in passageways and dark areas. Extra-flat and slimline Devices in the Arteor range have an innovative profile that gives the illusion that the product is not attached to the wall. The bevelled profile is attributed to the ‘bi-material’ plates, which are extra-flat and slimline and reminiscent of the contemporary flat-screen design. The shape of conventional rocker plates has also been modified by the designers, thereby introducing a new round design for easy navigation of the controls. The circular shape, which ensures functions are harmoniously integrated, is easy to handle and universal icons ensure easy recognition. Legrand’s electronic expertise is also embodied in the Arteor range, providing an efficient solution to all requirements of architects, interior decorators, electricians and homeowners who call for a flexible, efficient, modern and aesthetically pleasing system. Legrand SA Telephone: 011 444 7971 Email: Website:

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Peace of mind

in aluminium security shutters Peace of mind is a priceless commodity and a primary focus at The Plantation Shutter Co. Well-known for their top-of-the-range timber louvred interior shutters, the company recently turned their attention to the manufacturing of great looking, secure aluminium shutters that are suitable for both indoor and outdoor use. The Plantation Shutter Co. sought to design and manufacture the strongest adjustable louvre security shutters available in South Africa. Coupled with expert knowledge and design expertise, the result is a shutter with a variety of unique security features that ensures safety at home in an extremely aesthetically pleasing manner. Manufactured from sturdy 50 mm aluminium and available in a range of on-trend colours, each Plantation Security Shutter is equipped with secure stainless steel locks with a solid metal 2-way bolting system. The louvres have a 10 mm solid aluminium rod holding each one in place and are also able to lock, making the Plantation Security Shutter a constant and highly effective security barrier. As with the company’s much loved wooden shutter offerings, Plantation Security Shutters are available in sliding, folding or hinged configurations. Plantation Security Shutters are suitable for both internal and external use and are easily adjustable to control levels of light and privacy while maintaining the best levels of security.

The Plantation Shutter Co. sought to design and manufacture the strongest adjustable louvre security shutters available in South Africa.

Plantation Security Shutters are custom-designed and manufactured in South Africa, ensuring superior quality craftsmanship and longevity. This is reflected in the 28 working day turn-around from order to installation and a standard 5 year guarantee. Plantation Shutter Co. Tel: 011 708 7222 Fax: 086 508 1272 E-mail: Website:

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Picture courtesy ARCHLAND

Co nce pts & V i si o n s

McCormick Tribune Campus Centre


when nature inspires architecture Architects and designers can get their inspiration from anything and everything – personal experience, heritage, education, travelling and of course nature. Biomimicry (from bios, meaning life, and mimesis, meaning to imitate) is defined as a design discipline that seeks sustainable solutions by emulating nature’s time-tested patterns and strategies ( Nature is imaginative, inventive and plants, animals and microbes are the first living organisms that have found what will be sustainable on earth. According to the Biomimicry Institute, the core idea of biomimicry is that nature has already solved many of the problems that designers and builders are grappling with today in terms of energy, food production, non-toxic chemistry and climate control. The Biomimicry Institute says, that when practicing biomimicry, one must look at nature as a model, mentor and measure: Nature as a model: Biomimicry can be seen as a new type of science that studies nature’s models and then emulates these forms, systems, strategies and processes to solve human sustainability problems. Nature as a mentor: Biomimicry finds out what we can learn from nature, not extract from it and it is a new way of valuing and viewing nature. Nature as a measure: Biomimicry judges the sustainability of our innovations by using nature as an ecological standard.

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“There are many different ways in which one can interpret biomimicry,” says Jeremy Gibberd, researcher at the Built Environment unit of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. “People have always had an affinity with nature. It has become a bit of a trend in the architecture industry, but we have been copying and mimicking nature for a long time.” One of the most famous architects, Frank Lloyd Wright, has used the analogy of a tree when designing houses. “Frank Lloyd Wright designed beautiful houses that, in a way, imitated trees because he would often use a central base – like a trunk – that would branch out into a roof structure,” says Gibberd. “Although there is a purely artistic level of biomimicry that isn’t necessarily eco-friendly but simply imitates certain aspects of nature, the trend in architecture has evolved to adopt rapid feedback systems in nature, such as lighting, temperature control and airflow. These systems work so efficiently in nature and we can use them to make our buildings more responsive,” says Gibberd.

Co nc ep t s & Vi s i ons

The Eastgate Centre in Harare, Zimbabwe, used a self-regulating ventilation system to mimic the strategies that a termite would use in order to ensure optimal temperature control of the building.

Panelite’s ClearShade insulating glass unit was modeled

their mounds constant by continuously opening and closing a series of heating and cooling vents throughout the day. The

Photo courtesy

Termites keep temperatures of

Eastgate Centre similarly draws air from outside of the building and it is either warmed or cooled by the building mass.

after the hexagonal shape and structure of a honeycomb.

“The idea of passive environment control in buildings is one of the oldest ideas that have been mimicked. In nature, there are natural cycles in different environments, for instance termites mounds use thermal mass, evaporative cooling and the stack effect to regulate internal temperatures . This inspired environmental control strategies used in the Eastgate Centre.” Eastgate Centre, Harare In termite mounds air is sucked into the lower part of the termite mound, down into enclosures with muddy walls, and up through a vertical channel to the peak of the mound with a system of carefully adjusted convection currents. In order to constantly regulate the temperature, the termites continuously plug up old vents and dig new ones. Architect Mick Pearce, in conjunction with engineers at Arup Associates, designed the Eastgate Centre in Harare with a combination of in situ concrete and double thickness brick in the exterior walls that moderates temperature extremes. The heat absorption of the building is also reduced by the light coloured finishes. The ventilation system of the building operates similarly to a termite mound – air from outside is drawn in and it is either warmed or cooled by the mass of the building (depending on which is hotter, the air or the building concrete). The air is then vented into the building’s offices and floors via 48 chimneys that distinguish the roof line at the top of the building. An article entitled Anthill by architect and Professor Lindsay Johnston about the Eastgate Centre says Mick Pearce has proclaimed that “eco-tech architecture should be embedded in its social and economic environment” and in contrast the Miessian glass office tower is “detached from circumstances which nurtured it and is a false and inappropriate model”. According to, the building costs equalled US$35million and approximately 10% of the up-front costs were saved by not purchasing an air-conditioning system. “Biomimicry can also be used to improve performance in buildings in very cost effective ways, for instance creepers can be used in buildings to provide additional insulation by trapping a layer of air close to a building envelope – similar to the way air is trapped in an animal’s fur.” says Gibberd.

“Renewable energy technologies can also be seen as biomimicry. For instance, photovoltaics use the sun to make energy, which can be seen as imitating a plant’s photosynthesis process.” Gibberd says he sometimes sets architecture students tasks to understand and mimic natural environments and habitats when designing a building. “Analyse the physical properties of the site as well as local ecosystems and current activities and movement of people in and around the site . Look at the patterns of light and temperature and see how you can work with nature, rather than against this. If you understand and draw from evolved patterns of nature, you will have more successful and inspirational architecture,” concludes Gibberd. More examples of biomimicry in architecture: Insulating glass inspired by honey bees Panelite’s ClearShade insulating glass unit in New York is a “tubular polycarbonate” core that was modeled after the hexagonal shape and structure of a honeycomb. Sun rays can only make it through the structure if they hit the glass at a specific angle, thereby reducing energy costs and heat gains in the building. During the heat of the day, ClearShade has a low shading coefficient, which Panelite claims has “four times better than a typical insulating glass unit.” The honeycombed glass glaze has been installed at the McCormick Tribune Campus Center at the Illinois Institute of Technology and the JFK International Airport. Butterfly house The lifecycle of the butterfly inspired architect Laurie Chetwood to refurbish his family home with an experimental zoomorphic design. The house traces each change in a butterfly’s life, from the larval stage (represented by the walkway), to the chrysalis (captured by the staircase) and eventually the winged canopies which mimic the butterfly itself. According to, the design process took two years to evolve and over three years to complete. The result of this experiment is a dramatically colorful and multi-textured architecture sculpture that Chetwood says is a very child-friendly home.

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green roof Canada’s largest Built on the original Pier B-C on Vancouver’s Waterfront, the Vancouver Convention Centre is home to Canada’s largest green roof. The centre has grown to become one of the leading convention centres (as well as one of the most sustainable convention centres) in the world and the building showcases unique building features and offers the public a place to hold truely sustainable meetings.

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The centre first served as the Canada Pavillion for the World’s Fair Expo in 1986. As part of the centre’s expansion project, a 2.4 hectare living roof was created. The roof of this building houses 400 000 indigenous plants and grasses from the Gulf Islands. It is the largest of its kind in Canada and the largest non-industrial living roof in North America. The expansion project took five years of planning, building and planting. The result was tripling the size of the facility for a combined total of 43,340 m² (466,500 ft2) of function space The building is built over sea and water and not only includes a living roof as a unique design feature, but also a fish habitat built into the foundation. The Centre’s West building (which is the expansion project) also recently earned LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Platinum certification – this makes us the world’s first convention centre to earn the highest LEED rating. While the West building was to have been designed to a LEED® Gold standard, the resulting quality of its design, construction

The roof is also designed to act as an insulator with the ability to reduce winter heat losses by up to 26% and summer heat gains by up to 95%. Recovery systems collects the building’s black water, cleans it and re-uses it for irrigation during the summer months and seawater heating and cooling keep the temperatures consistent. The slope of the roof ranges from 3% to 56% and the greenroof system includes a permaquik membrane with root inhibitor, 10 cm extruded insulation, 15 cm engineered soil and a filter cloth ( ILD® joined the green roof team to test the integrity of the waterproofing membrane prior to the installation of the overburden. Recycling The centre’s extensive recycling program recycles approximately 180 000 kilograms of materials annually, which equals nearly half of the volume of waste generated. Some of the materials that get recycled include lighting ballasts, metal, batteries, wood, glass, plastic and more. The largest event held at the centre was the XI International Conference on Aids that attracted 15 000 delegates. As part of the centre’s policy, canned goods and disposable utensils are avoided and leftover food is donated to local charities. The minimalist attitude towards waste does not mean that the centre cannot handle large volumes – 18 000 meals were served in three days during the World Buddhist convention. The centre also served as the international broadcast centre and main press centre for the XXI Olympic & Paralympic Winter Games in 2010. Conserving energy The Vancouver Convention Centre’s advanced energy management program includes the following: • State-of-the-art energy efficient lighting, HVAC and energy control systems. • Buys ‘Green Power’ electricity that is generated from low-impact renewable sources in British Columbia. • Received one of the first ‘Go Green’ certificates from the Building Owners and Managers Association (BOMA) in Canada for best environmental practices. Designers/Manufacturers of Record: Horticultural & Ecological Consultation: Paul Kephart, Rana Creek Habitat Restoration Architect: Musson Cattell Mackey Partnership; Downs/Archambault & Partners; LMN Architects Plant Propagation / Plant Supplier: for Living Roof: Holland Landscapers; NATS Nursery Electric Field Vector Mapping (EFVM®): ILD® Roofing Contractor: Flynn Canada Ltd Landscape Architect: PWL Partnership Landscape Architects Inc.

The facility’s expansion project took five years of planning, building and planting and the result was tripling the size of the facility for a combined total of 43,340 m² (466,500 ft2) of function space.

and operations warranted a Platinum designation, making us a leader in environmental sustainability in our industry,” says Ken Cretney, General Manager, Vancouver Convention Centre. The expansion project was designed by Seattle-based LMN Architects and PWL Partnership Landscape lead the green team in developing the roof’s design, detailing and plant selection. According to, it is truly a model in sustainability for a civic building of this size. A glass-walled connector ensures that the existing facility and expansion are fully integrated, while simultaneously providing delegates with exceptional views of the harbor.

The expansion project includes ceiling-to-floor glass walls that offers delegates magnificent views of the harbor.

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Green D e si gn

South Africa’s green building movement gathering momentum

Despite its young age, there are many indicators that the South African market for green buildings is poised for rapid growth. The sustained development of the market is likely to be ensured should government, non-governmental organisations and the private sector work in collaboration. Leading growth development company Frost & Sullivan believes that the recent appeal by the Minister of Public Works, Geoff Doidge, for a greener built environment signifies that the market forces required for the development of the South African green building market are beginning to take shape. “Our recent analysis of the South African green building market found that this market, whilst still in its infancy, has high potential for growth,” says Frost & Sullivan environmental technologies analyst Linda Harding. “The growth in membership of the Green Building Council of South Africa (GBCSA) indicates that the South African market is responding well to green building initiatives.” Globally, building valuation and certification systems have been shown to support the growth of green building markets, as they provide crucial means for benchmarking and marketing. The primary role of these non-governmental organisations is to stimulate green building awareness and to educate policy makers and the general public about the benefits and savings achievable through green building practices. However, whilst the GBCSA has been instrumental in stimulating awareness in the South African built environment, its ability to enforce change is low. “The private sector has a strong degree of influence over the growth of the South African green building market, as it comprises both the potential consumers and suppliers of green building products and services,” Harding says. “Evidence of early change within the private sector is readily apparent. The South African Council for the Architectural Professionals has expressed its commitment to ensuring that green building is included in architectural curricula at tertiary institutions.” A number of market leaders within the construction materials sector have also introduced green building materials and continue to tailor their product offerings to address a growing local demand. However, most of these early adopters are the market leaders in their respective industries and target large clients to whom social responsibility is a key corporate strategy. A strong legislative environment, supported by sufficient financial incentives, has been found to be the most important factor in driving and sustaining the development of green buildings markets. Highly developed and rapidly growing green buildings markets,

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Frost & Sullivan environmental technologies analyst Linda Harding.

such as those in Asia, are strongly supported by strict legislation and regulatory environments. “As yet, South Africa does not have any legislation enforcing green initiatives in the built environment,” notes Harding. “The announcement by the Department of Public Works calling for a commitment to green building practices is therefore a significant step towards the development of the market. The inclusion of minimum energy efficiency levels into the National Building Regulations, expected to be enacted this year, will further support this drive.” Financial incentives in the form of tax credits and exemptions to green building consumers can promote the purchase of green equipment, as well as encourage the innovation and development of product durability and quality from suppliers. However, it is likely that the South African government will be unable to grant any significant financial incentives for many years to come, given the socio-economic needs in the country. Hence, government should work on changing the perception of built environment professionals and green building market participants alike. This is likely to stimulate the perception of green building as a nation-building opportunity, wherein jobs are created and gross domestic product is increased, and not merely as a social obligation. “Frost & Sullivan views the ‘call for action’ from the Department of Public Works as a crucial and positive step towards stimulating the collaboration of government, the private sector and the GBCSA in order to realise the high growth potential of the South African green building market,” Harding concludes. Frost & Sullivan – the Growth Partnership Company – recently carried out an analysis of green building markets in South Africa, extracts of some of the details of which are shown below: The South African market for green buildings is still in its infancy, with the Green Building Council of South Africa (GBCSA) – the only official green building certification agency - established in 2007. However, the market is witnessing a rapid increase in the awareness of green building practices and there are many significant drivers for growth of the market. The responsible development of companies demonstrates a commitment to socially aware clients and investors alike, and is a primary driver of demand for green buildings.

Gre en Des i gn In addition, tenants of green buildings enjoy healthier work environments and associated improvements in staff productivity levels, with reduced operational costs. This assures building owners the certainty of lower tenancy churn and the potential to charge rental premiums as the market becomes more developed. Further drivers of the market include the involvement of public sector and increased legislative support.

Green building rating tools are developed to establish a common criterion and standard of measurement for green buildings. Frost & Sullivan’s research service analyses the South African green buildings market according to the rating criteria used by the GBCSA. The Green Star SA rating tool assesses a building according to nine categories: management, indoor air quality, energy, water, transport, materials, land use and ecology, emissions and innovation. Market trends and avenues for growth specific to the South African market are analysed and compared with international market dynamics where appropriate. The key findings are in market size, growth rates, industry challenges and trends within the greater built environment industry. Market size and growth rates The South African market for green buildings had only one certified building in 2009. The increase in the number of members joining the GBCSA can be interpreted as an indication of market awareness, which has seen membership rates growing exponentially since 2008. During 2010 the number of members is expected to surpass 1 000. The launch of the Green Star SA rating system led to a race amongst South African companies to achieve the first certified rating. In 2009, four companies had registered with the GBCSA for certification, and during 2010 an additional 26 are expected to register. ndustry challenges One of the biggest challenges is that professionals in the built environment industry have been found to overestimate the costs of green design and construction by more than 17%. Also, the initial cost of design and construction is often the only consideration when debating green design, and little attention is given to the cost and energy savings potential of that design over the lifecycle of the building.

The green building market in South Africa, as well as those internationally, is surrounded by large amounts of media hype and information about green products, systems and services. Companies who seek to capitalise on this rapid increase in consumer and market awareness begin to market their offerings as green, when the opposite is true. These actions lead to lower quality products and services that often fail to meet the claims of the suppliers. This process of greenwashing and bombardment of green information can overwhelm end users and discourage them from pursuing green practices. Market restraints The development of a green building market requires commitment from all built environment industry participants. Policy, legislation and incentives are crucial in achieving and sustaining green building initiatives and currently South Africa suffers from a lack of such supportive structures. The limited early adoption of green building practices in South Africa, amongst end users and suppliers alike, is also due in part to widespread complacency and a vested interest in the status quo. These have a significant restraint on market growth. About Frost & Sullivan Frost & Sullivan, the Growth Partnership Company, enables clients to accelerate growth and achieve best-in-class positions in growth, innovation and leadership. The company’s Growth Partnership Service provides the CEO and the CEO’s growth team with disciplined research and bestpractice models to drive the generation, evaluation and implementation of powerful growth strategies. Frost & Sullivan leverages over 45 years of experience in partnering with Global 1000 companies, emerging businesses and the investment community from 40 offices on six continents. To join this growth partnership, visit the website Frost & Sullivan Tel: 021 680 3260 Fax: 021 680 3296 E-mail: Number 4, 2010



Green D e si gn

Leading cement supplier Pretoria Portland Cement (PPC), together with the City of Johannesburg (CoJ) and the Department of Mineral Resources (DMR) launched a new photovoltaic solar energy system at the Diepsloot Skills Development Centre on 29 April. The 75 solar panels and necessary equipment, valued

Sustainable solar energy for

at R1,7 million, that were installed at the centre will provide the facility with renewable energy.


Built in 2007, the centre did not have access to any electricity source. PPC, who has allocated R60 million to local economic development (LED) projects over the next few years, identified solar energy as a sustainable solution to unlock the full value of the centre and significantly impact skills development in the community. “Real transformation begins in communities such as Diepsloot, where there is a huge need to create sustainable empowerment via socioeconomic upliftment projects,” said PPC executive aggregates manager at Mooiplaas, Riaan Redelinghuys. After extensive engagement with the municipality, the ward and the Diepsloot community, PPC partnered with Unlimited Energy to provide solar energy as a sustainable solution to unlock the full value of the centre and significantly impact skills development in the community. The 75 solar panels and necessary equipment, valued at R1,7 million, will provide the centre with cheap electricity that will remain unaffected in the event of a municipal power outage. Theo Covary, director of Unlimited Energy, said that the Skills Development Centre will have a true energy solution thanks to the solar energy system. “The only requirement for this system to work is the sun. The new system means that the electricity supply is free for the next 10 years, after which a new battery for storage will be needed. The solar panels will last for at least 20 years,” said Covary. The panels on the roof face north to maximise their exposure to the sun. A battery room, which was built by local builders in the area, is able to store electricity for two days. “The solar system is able to supply 55 kWh per day

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and the centre can power 12 computers, 6 sewing machines, a few radios, a television, a dvd and projector and lights,” explained Covary. “The solar panels will make a big difference to our lives. The reparation of food will become easier and we will be able to cook without having to rely on paraffin anymore. It is such a good feeling knowing that we will be able to manufacture our goods on time,” said Constance Nndanduleni, one of the beneficiaries of the Diepsloot centre. Unlimited Energy, which also offers project development and consulting for carbon offset, estimates that the solar system will save approximately 160 tonnes of CO2 per annum. “As part of the voluntary carbon offset market, we have already sold 44 tonnes of CO2 to Telkom in order to help them offset one of their events in Cape Town. The value of this carbon offset is over R7 000, which will be given back to the centre to help them with their project needs,” said Covary. “We thank PPC for their involvement and commitment to community upliftment. This intervention is highly appropriate for the needs of this community and is also easily sustainable. We look forward to a continuing partnership with PPC on similar life changing projects in the future,” concluded Dr Thembani Masilo, regional director of Region A at the City of Johannesburg. Pretoria Portland Cement (PPC) Telephone: 011 386 9000 Fax: 011 386 9001 E-mail:


Gre en Des i gn

MBA spends R10,5-million

on green

retrofit project Brandon Abdinor, Master Builders KZN Chief Executive, in front of the newly installed, natural-light-enhancing windows at the Association’s head office in Westville, Durban. The opening of the highly visible, glass-encased building is scheduled for June 2010.

Master Builders KwaZulu-Natal has embarked on a R10,5 million project to retrofit its head office in Westville, Durban. The professional association representing the building and construction industry in the province feels that leading by example when it comes to green building initiatives is one way of driving the message of sustainability home.

About the new building The building boasts more efficient use of natural ventilation and lighting. The Perspex dome atop the heat-trapping atrium will be fitted with whirlies which will expel hot air whilst drawing in cool air. Suitable shading will be installed on the hot west side of the building while solar photovoltaic panels (PVs) are to be sandwiched between certain of the glass panels that make up an extremely large portion of the building. Two six-metre high wind turbines will be installed on the roof to assist the PVs. The system will be generating power for computers, essential lighting and other devices linked within the building’s electrical grid and nearly 200 batteries will store the power and inverters will create usable voltage. A small generator will be used for maintaining these essential services during power outages as well as providing uninterrupted power for the new disabled people’s elevator. According to Abdinor, the payback for the investment in these sustainable electrical systems decreases with every Eskom price hike.

During periods of no rainfall, the system will also provide water for the roof garden which will be another enormous contributor to reducing the building’s interior heat which flat asphalt rooftops are guilty of creating. While Master Builders is not necessarily seeking Green Star status, Bruce Clark from Durban-based Bruce Clark Associate Architects, the official architects, explains that the objective is to showcase how an existing building can be retrofitted through the use of some simple interventions. “We are not making any changes to the existing infrastructure, but we will be making use of natural ventilation, lighting and recycled rainwater. Merely repositioning the airconditioning units will make a big difference as will installing solar heaters and other electricity-saving devices,” says Clark. The retrofit project was designed so that members of the building industry, the public, and student bodies can access the building and view the redevelopment in an holistic manner. “It will all be very visual and accessible – such as how the solar water system works, where the batteries are stored, how much electricity is being used at any time and all the other environmentally friendly products and systems that we are implementing,” he said. The opening of the highly visible, glass-encased Master Builders Association head office along Essex Terrace in Westville is scheduled for June this year. The second leg of the Master Builders’ refurbishment programme is to open a Green Exhibition Centre promoting the efficiency of a green building with a full range of products, designs, information and service providers. Approximately 300 m2 has been allocated to the centre that will include all forms of energy-saving environment-friendly devices.

Roof garden to reduce building’s interior heat Rainwater harvesting also forms part of the project, with six water tanks capable of storing 30 000 litres set to provide water for the lavatory cisterns.

Master Builders Association Tel: 031 266 7070 Website:

“Buildings account for 30 - 45% of all energy consumed,” explains the association’s Executive Director, Brandon Abdinor. “If you consider that more than 40% of the world’s carbon emissions originate from buildings and their use, then surely this is where we should be directing our attention in the fight to save the environment?” According to the Master Builders Association, “greening” a building does not necessarily have to be a complicated affair and reducing, reusing and recycling can go a long way when it comes to retrofitting existing buildings and constructing new buildings.

Number 4, 2010



Green D e si gn



crucial for success One of the key drivers of success in the construction industry is a thorough grasp of its trends, challenges and demands. This is particularly important in the current economic climate, and it is those who recognise opportunities, and act upon them, that will emerge as industry leaders. As environmental awareness has grown, people have also become more conscious of the pivotal role that environmentally sound construction can play in protection against climate change. Add to this South Africa’s pressing need to conserve energy because its future electricity demands outstrip supply, and it is clear that going “green� makes more than just ecological sense. Implementing sustainable design and construction practices makes financial sense too. Nobody wants to pay higher utility bills than they absolutely have to, and this means an energy-efficient home or office will be far more attractive to potential buyers or tenants.

018 WALL S & R OOF S

Number 4, 2010

New technologies and chemical products are helping to deal with global challenges such as the conservation of natural resources and investors are including sustainability aspects more and more in their investment decisions. Of course, these ideas are all great in theory, but exactly how does one go about actually implementing eco-building? Well, this is the question that the Green Building Conference & Exhibition, now in its fourth year, aims to tackle. New technologies and chemical products are helping to deal with global challenges, but although these ideas are all great in theory, exactly how does one go about actually implementing eco-building? This is the question that the Green Building Conference & Exhibition, now in its fourth year, aimed to tackle. The conference was held from 29-30 April at Gallagher Estate in Midrand. Once again the construction industry in South Africa was able to learn from and share ideas with various world-renowned built-environment experts and personalities. This is especially important given the fact that some of the driving forces for green building in South Africa are new initiatives from Government, a heightened residential demand for green construction, and dramatic improvements in the number and range of options of sustainable materials and products available to designers. The South African Green Building market is also tracking the growth trends in international markets and authorities have committed to this growth by adopting global ideals.

Gre en Des i gn

The Green Building Conference & Exhibition was held from 29-30 April at Gallagher Estate in Midrand. The conference enabled members from the construction industry in South Africa to learn from and share ideas with various world-renowned built-environment experts and personalities.

BASF at the Green Building Conference BASF supports the drive to conserve energy, and as part of the chemical company’s focus on ‘greening’ the South African construction landscape, BASF was once again a major sponsor of this year’s Green Building Conference. As a leader in the production and supply of energy efficient solutions to the construction industry, both locally and abroad, BASF has a great deal to offer the local construction industry in terms of both expertise and product range. It is with this in mind that BASF brought in experts to share their knowledge at the conference. Plenary speaker, Dr Dirk Funhoff, from BASF SE in Germany, who presented a case study on “The Nottingham House”, an example of a zero carbon, sustainable design solution. Margit Pfundstein from BASF SE in Germany, discussed BASF’s Insulating Materials and Insulating Solutions. Samantha Govender from BASF Polyurethanes South Africa offered her insights on Energy Efficient and Green Building construction materials, and Warren Trew from BASF Construction Chemicals SA described the Synergy EIFS System from BASF. Sustainable Construction Buildings contribute up to about 40% of the global greenhouse gas emissions. This means that it plays a decisive role for climate protection to significantly reduce their energy consumption by increasing the energy efficiency of buildings. BASF products reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the construction sector by reducing the energy demand of buildings (insulation materials) and by

extending the service-life of buildings (repair mortars, sealants, coatings). BASF’s low-VOC dispersions reduce indoor emissions in buildings, contributing to comfort and health, and its cement and concrete additives make construction faster and more efficient and allow the re-use of industrial by-products in concrete. In fact, BASF’s Corporate Carbon Footprint shows that BASF products account for the reduction of 287 million tonnes of CO2 equivalents per year, which is three times as much as needed for their production. Polyurethanes and EIFS in eco-building in South Africa According to Samantha Govender from BASF Polyurethanes South Africa, the powerful insulating properties of polyurethanes make them ideal for “green” construction applications. “Polyurethane offers a light-weight solution, with improved insulation properties to minimise heat loss and increase the comfort factor in buildings, thus offering the ideal solution for use in green buildings.” “Polyurethane also presents a wide array of application methods to adapt to the requirements and contours of the building, thus ensuring versatility of application to suit most green building needs,” says Govender. Warren Trew, from BASF Construction Chemicals South Africa, believes that BASF’s Exterior Insulation & Finish Systems (EIFS) also offer tremendous benefits. “They are well suited for retro-fit as well as new construction and offer many benefits that include energy efficiency, design flexibility, cost effectiveness and a range of varied aesthetic capability. As the price of electricity continues to rise, the opportunity for EIFS in the commercial sector is becoming more viable,” he says. Further collaboration and research With sustainability such a key focus for BASF, it is no surprise that it has entered into a collaborative agreement with the CSIR. The CSIR and BASF Holdings SA (Pty) Ltd recently signed a two year Memorandum of Understanding agreement with the aim of fostering cooperation in technical or other innovations within the broader construction, construction materials, building and infrastructure, and related industries. The focus will be on introducing green building technologies in the SA construction sector.

Walls & Roofs editor, Marlene van Rooyen, at the BASF stand with Dr. Dirk Funhof.

BASF Holdings South Africa (Pty) Ltd. Tel: 011 203 2422 Fax 011 203 2430 E-mail: Website: Number 4, 2010



Gl a ss

Designing and building

with high performance glass Glass technology has evolved to a point where glass and glazing products are selected not only for their aesthetic qualities, but also for their performance qualities in terms of safety, security, insulation and energy efficiency. “There are a variety of solutions when it comes to high performance glass because these products offer superior functionality to ordinary glass. You need to know what you want your glass products to do and what performance you require before choosing a product,” says Kevin Swart, Smartglass GSA’s national project manager. Types of high performance glass • Toughened glass: Toughened glass is five times stronger than ordinary glass, has a high resistance to impact and wind loading, and can with stand temperatures ranging from -200°C to 300°C. Toughening glass entails heating normal flat glass and then rapidly cooling the surface by using air jets. This process sets up high compressive stresses on the surface of the glass, with balancing tensile stresses in the centre. The balanced stressing process gives toughened glass its strength, safety properties and thermal stress resistance. “Toughened glass is cheaper if you buy large quantities. So, on a big contract of 200 houses with glass above the bath, you can use 4 mm toughened instead of 6 mm laminated glass as it is cheaper,” says the South African Glass and Glazing Association (SAGGA). • Coated glass: Thin layers of material are applied to the surface of coated glass. These coatings add properties such as reduced light trans mission, colour, increased energy elimination and aesthetic properties to the glass. • Double glazed glass: Double glazed glass is manufactured from two or more panes of glass held apart by a metal spacer and bonded with a primary and secondary seal. This type of glass offers a wide range of performance characteristics and appearances. • Laminated glass: In order to manufacture laminated glass, one or more polyvinyl butyral (PVB) interlayers are permanently bonded between sheets of clear, coated or body-tinted float glass under pressure and heat.

020 WALL S & R OOF S

Number 4, 2010

Choosing the correct safety glass According to SAGGA, there are certain places in a building that must have safety glass, for example in showers, in low windows, in shopfronts and so forth. SAGGA gives these tips to design professionals in order to ensure that they choose the right glass to do the job safely: Safety glass must be used up to 2,1 m in height in shopfronts. With a door higher than 2,1 m, one must consider putting in safety glass if the door bangs. Any window below 500 mm from the finished floor level must have safety glass in panes 1 and 2. Any glass next to a staircase must be safety glass up to 1,8 m from the bottom of each step, including the top step. “Security, solar properties, decorative, sound control and building aesthetics – you can basically get any type of glass to suit your project requirements. The great thing about designing with glass is that you can choose the exact properties that your construction material needs,” explains Swart. “A good example of this would be high performance safety laminated glass. The unique feature of this type of glass is that it not only offers security and safety, but also UV protection because it is able to block out 98% of UV rays,” says Swart. According to SAGGA, laminated glass is the same that is used for a taxi windscreen. It is bought in stock sheets which can be cut to size on site and it is used for windows in bathrooms and shopfronts. SAGGA recommends laminated glass for shopfronts as toughened glass can be broken with a sparkplug and toughened glass will crumble if the store is broken into. Design considerations for laminated glazing applications Enhanced levels of security and safety performance are often required when using glazing materials for modern architectural designs. Besides resistance to blast and wind pressures, design professionals may also require properties such as solar and thermal control, fade resistance and sound reduction.

G l as s According to the Glass Association of Northern America (GANA), laminated glazing materials consist of multiple plies of glass, interlayers, resins and/ or plastic glazing materials (such as polycarbonate sheet or acrylic), which are often complex in nature. These are a few considerations that architects and designers should be aware of when selecting and specifying laminated glazing constructions: Aesthetic colour Although commercial clear float glass is almost colourless, a green or bluegreen tint (which is faint in thin glass) may become noticeable in glazing applications where the glass thickness exceeds 10mm. Numerous plies of transparent glazing materials are incorporated into laminated glazing materials that are used for their impact resistance and the thickness of the glass portion of the laminate often results in a more transparent shade of green. If the green tint is regarded as aesthetically displeasing to the architect, designer or owner, low-iron clear float glass should be considered (www. “To avoid a greenish tint, you can specify a glass that has a low percentage of iron. These types of glasses are usually imported to South Africa,” says Swart. Optical distortion Heat-treatment of glass, thickness variability of the materials used, mechanical stress applied to the framing system and changes in exterior wind pressure can lead to both reflected and transmitted optical distortion. Multiple plies of heat-treated (e.g. heat-strengthened tempered) glass are often incorporated into laminated glazing materials in order to achieve a high level of resistance to thermally and mechanically applied loads. Roll wave, warp and bow distortion are inherent characteristics of heat-treated glass. Although glass manufacturers try to minimise these effects, they can’t be eliminated ( and these characteristics are accentuated when using reflective coatings and tinted glass substrates. Less reflective and transmitted optical distortion are typically seen in laminated constructions that incorporate annealed glass. Surrounding conditions and glazing orientation greatly affect the visibility of reflective distortion. If the laminate is reflecting multiple gridlines from an adjacent building, the reflection may be distorted and if the reflective image is a blue sky, the image on the laminated product may not be distorted. When the direction of the wave pattern is glazed parallel to the vertical dimension of a window or door, roll wave distortion may be more visible. In this type of application, images of lineal objects (buildings, flag poles) and moving objects (cars) become more visible when the viewing angle changes. Fabricators commonly recommend design professionals to specify that the wave direction must be glazed parallel to the sill of a window or door when possible to decrease the visibility of roll wave distortion in heat-treated laminates. Spots and shadows on glass What is known as the “strain pattern” of heat-treated glass (i.e. multi-coloured spots or darkish shadows) can be seen on laminated glazing constructions under certain conditions. This strain pattern is related to the cooling process of glass fabrication and although it is not normally visible, it may become more evident by the reflectance when looking at the glass at severe angles or under polarised light conditions ( Design professionals should note that this effect is a result of these heat-treated components and it is not discoloration or non-uniformity. Product awareness The design application can be dramatically affected by awareness of the laminated glazing product construction and inherent characteristics of glazing materials. GANA advises that design professionals consult with glass suppliers and manufacturers at the early stages of design and engineering. Full-size mockups of glazing products can be evaluated so that designers and architects can analyse the appearance of glazing systems under specific

project conditions, lighting conditions and the surrounding landscape, which is an inexpensive process to ensure that the products meet the project’s and client’s expectations. Swart agrees that architects and designers should use the services that glass manufacturers offer in terms of choosing a product. “Once the slabs of a building are set up, you can choose two or three different glass products to see what they will look like on site. Some architects are doing this, but I would advise more design professionals to look at the glass on site and not just in a glass company’s showroom,” says Swart. “One of the common mistakes that design professionals make is not considering the stock size of sheets. This causes a lot of waste which could have been avoided,” says Swart. “Glass shouldn’t be the last thing you think of during a project. There are so many different colours and solutions to choose from and it is much easier to make an informed decision when you have the correct advice as opposed to just choosing from a catalogue,” says Swart. *Note: You don’t have to be a member of the South African Glass and Glazing Association for advice about glass and glazing products. Advice is free on the phone, but there is a fee if site inspection is required (R500 plus VAT per inspection of up to 2 hours). Leonardo Glass Cube – Germany The Leonardo Glass Cube is an exhibition pavilion with conference rooms in northern Germany. According to, the Leonardo Glass Cube is the first permanent building that 3deluxe implemented after developing several virtual architectural concepts and a number of temporary architectures. The interdisciplinary design process that was used integrates architecture, interior design, landscape architecture and graphic design into an innovative, complex entity. The building now forms a central element to the brand’s philosophy and presence in the glass and glazing industry. The open floorplan layout of the clearly designed building enables seminars and meeting rooms, inspiring work areas and product presentation zones to be integrative and flowing ( Visitors entering the Glass Cube through the main entrance will encounter a space that opens up not just horizontally, but also upwards and downwards. A ground-floor bridge not only provides an initial point of orientation in the building, but also offers a view of the main exhibition area in the storey below. The Cube is the new corporate headquarters for the Glaskoch Corporation, which has been run by the founding family for five generations. The company distributes high-grade glass under its “Leonardo” brand name. The glass façade makes reference to the company’s products and portrays a modern, inspiring design that enables visitors to constantly perceive their shape and environment as new. The glass façade of the Leonardo Glass Cube allows the building to interplay with the surrounding landscape. Curved white walls and glass create a multi-layered feel, with silhouette-like genetics overlaying with the graphic design of the glass façade and elements on the inside. In order to ensure that the wall of the Leonardo Glass Cube corresponded precisely with 3D modeling of the project, full length projections of the wall segments were divided into a dense grid of measurement points. According to, the material nature of the white surface on the side facing the façade is visually dissolved by means of a layer of gauze suspended in the front. Dazzling effects in the translucent fabric’s delicate texture are amplified by natural daylight, which in turn are reflected in the glass façade. The total area of the pavilion is 1 200 m2. The pavilion was designed in May 2007 and it is used for informal meetings and corporate hospitality. The 6 m high frameless glass panels are fitted with disc springs to reduce stress on the façade from wind pressure ( The glass façade represents a passage to the hyper-naturalistic world and transparent print morphs into the outlook or insight, creating a subtly visible image plane.

Number 4, 2010



Gl a ss

Glossary of glass and glazing terms: Acid embossing A process whereby the surface

screened glass

Edge polish A term applied to flat glass, the

of flat or bent glass is obscured by treatment with

Conduction The process by which heat flows

edges of which have been polished after cutting.

hydrofluoric acids or its compounds.

through or along a material, or from one material

Edge work Grinding, smoothing or polishing the

Angle of incidence The angle between the solar

to another in contact with it.

edge of flat or shaped glass.

rays and a line perpendicular to the surface of

Float glass A transparent glass, the two surfaces

the glass.

of which are flat, parallel and fire-finished so that

Anneal To prevent or remove stresses in

they give clear, undistorted vision and reflection,

glassware by controlled cooling.

manufactured by floating hot glass in ribbon form

Antique A general term for old glass.

upon a heated liquid of greater density than that

Arised edge A small bevel not exceeding 2 mm

of the glass.

in width at an angle of about 45 degrees to the

Gaskets A pre-formed section, providing a

surface of the glass. It may be ground, smoothed

continuous surround for the glass and a

or polished.

weather-tight seal when compressed.

Attenuation The sound reduction process in

Glazing The securing of glass in prepared

which sound energy is absorbed or diminished in

openings such as windows, door panels, screens

intensity, as a result of energy conversion from

and partitions.

sound to motion or heat.

Inside glazing External glazing in which the glass is inserted from inside the building Convection

Interlayer The layer between two pieces of

The movement of air, gas or liquid, caused by dif-

glass which is used to make a laminated glass.

ference in density due to temperature variations.

SmartGlass always uses polyvinyl butyral (PVB)

Curing agent One part of a two-part compound

for this purpose. The interlayer imparts additional

that, when added to a base, will cause the com-

properties to the glass including safety, security,

pound to set by chemical action.

solar control, light control, UV control, colour and

Distortion The optical effect due to variation of

sound absorption.

thickness of the sheet of glass.

Outside glazing External glazing in which the

Double glazing Glazing which incorporates,

glass is inserted from outside the building

instead of a single pane of glass, two panes

External glazing Glazing, either side of which is

separated by substantially stationary air for the

exposed outside the building. Glazing compound A setting or non-setting material used in glazing, applied by hand, knife or

Bevelling The process of edge finishing flat glass

gun to provide a bedding for glass and a

to a bevelled angle.

weather-tight joint between glass and surround.

Blibe A gas-filled cavity in glass, larger than

Low E A coating added to the surface of a glass

a seed.

which increases the thermal insulation of the

Blister A relatively large gas-filled cavity.

glass or InsulVue unit it is a part of.

Bond breaker A release surface to which the

Multiple glazing A form of glazed unit based on

sealant will not adhere.

the same principle as double glazing, but using

Brilliant cutting A decorative process by which

three or more panes of glass.

designs are produced on flat glass by means of

Neoprene An extremely strong, resilient synthetic

abrasive and polishing wheels. Butyl A synthetic rubber formed by co-polymerisation of isobutylene with a small amount of isoprene.

purpose of sound or thermal insulation or both.

Caulk To fill a void with a sealant. Any oleore-

Installation is executed by the glazier into frames

sionous sealant.

manufactured and positioned on site by others.

Coated glass Thin layers of material are applied

Double glazed units Some form of framing

to the surface of the glass to add properties to

which incorporates two panes of glass separated

the glass including reduced light transmission,

by stationary air, for sound and/or thermal

increased solar energy elimination, colour and


aesthetic properties. Examples of coated glass

Edge cover The amount of glass edge covered

include mirrors, spectrally selective glass and

by the glazing bead. Also called “bite�

022 WALL S & R OOF S

Number 4, 2010

G l as s

rubber formed by polymerization of chloroprene.

The units are prefabricated to the required size by

with SABS 1263-2.

Normal glass Normal glass is the basic glass

the glass manufacturer.

Thickness The thickness of ordinary float and

which most buildings are glazed with. It forms the

Seed Small, gaseous inclusions in glass.

rolled glass is normally described as the nearest

basis from which all other glass is derived. It is a

Shelf life The length of time that packaged ma-

whole number within the thickness variation.

clear glass with a uniform appearance appreci-

terials can be stored under specified temperature

ated for its smooth flat surfaces.

conditions and still remain suitable for use.

Noise control ISO rating/STC A single-number

Silicone A semi-inorganic compound derived

weighted average used to define the sound insu-

from quartzite.

lation caused by glass. The number can be used

Sizes Glazing size (glass size) - The actual size

to compare two pieces of glass (or InsulVue units)

of a piece of glass.

but must not be used to design or predict sound

Sight size (daylight size) - The actual size of the

levels within a space.

opening which admits the light.

Pane A piece of glass cut to size and shaped

Tight size (full size, rebate size) - The actual size

ready for glazing (often called a square or a light).

of the rebate opening.

Peg A metal pin used in glazing to hold the glass

Substance The thickness of float glass.

in a metal frame.

Surround Any frame, sash, casement or other

Pot life The time during which a two-part sealant

building component into which glass is glazed.

remains usable after being mixed with a catalyst. Safety glass A glass treated or combined with

For example, 3 mm glass has a tolerance of

other materials to reduce the likelihood of injury to

plus/minus 0,2 mm. Laminated glass is more

persons when it is cracked or broken.

complicated due to the thickness of the interlayer.

Screened glass Glass which has a pattern

SmartGlass uses the internationally accepted

applied to it using the silkscreen process. The

method of describing laminated glass. The lami-

coating is normally fired into the glass during the

nate is made from two or more pieces of glass.

thermal toughening process.

Each glass has a nominal thickness, such as 3,

Shading coefficient The ratio of total solar en-

4, 5 or 6 millimetres. The glass is laminated using

ergy transmission of a glass compared to the total

a layer or layers of a plastic material, polyvinyl

solar energy transmission of ordinary 3 mm glass.

butyral (PVB). A standard PVB has a thickness of

This is dependent on environmental conditions.

0,38 mm. Also available are 0,76 mm, 1,14 mm, and 1,52 mm. The thickness of a laminate made of two 3 mm glasses and a 0,38 mm vinyl is thereStrength Referring to laminated glass, the

fore 6,38 mm. Two 3 mm glasses and 0,76 mm

strength is defined by the performance of the

vinyl is therefore 6,76 mm.

Polyvinyl Butyral (PVB) interlayer. NS is Normal

Toughened glass (heat-treated, tempered

Strength and relates to a 0,38 mm polyvinyl

glass) Glass of which the surface has been rap-

butyral (PVB) interlayer. HPR is High Penetra-

idly colled from near the softening point, so that a

tion Resistance and relates to a polyvinyl butyral

residual internal compressive stress remains after

(PVB) thickness of 0,76 mm. HI is High Impact

complete cooling. This increases the thermal and

and relates to a polyvinyl butyral (PVB) interlayer

mechanical shock strength of the glass ad tends

of 1,52 mm. NS and HPR comply with the require-

to make it shatter into smaller and less dangerous

ments of SABS 1263-1, whilst HI also complies

fragments than ordinary glass if it is broken. Tinted glass Glass which has a colour either incorporated into the glass itself or introduced into the interlayer of a laminated glass.

Sealant A flexible material placed between two

Transparent Permitting light to pass through with

or more parts of a structure, with adhesion to

wide clear vision.

the joining surface to prevent the passage of

Translucent Permitting light to pass through but

elements such as air, moisture, water, dust and

with different degrees of obscuration and diffu-

others. Often used as cappings on joints filled


mainly with other materials.

X-ray protective glass A glass which contains

Sealed insulated glass units Two panes of

a high percentage of lead oxide and sometimes

glass separated by a permanently sealed cavity

barium oxide, which has a high degree of opacity

containing some form of dehydrated gas.

by X-rays.

Number 4, 2010



Gl a ss

Glassforsolutions any application Imported glass bricks from Europe allow you to create strong aesthetic impacts.

Aluglass, specialists in supplying (and installing) a large range of quality products to the building industry, was established in 1973. Through years of experience and an innovative team, the company is able to offer both commercial and high-end residential customers the glass solutions they need to set their buildings, projects and homes apart from the rest.

• • •

Bathroom solutions Aluglass is continually designing and evolving frameless shower door concepts that are available in a variety of beautiful finishes to enhance your bathroom. • Best materials and quality workmanship • Associated with SASEMA (South Africa Shower Enclosure Manufacturers Association) • Conform to prescribed safety standards • Serve both domestic and the contract markets • Frameless and framed ranges are custom-made • Imported standard range of shower enclosures available

Glass partitions and fixed enclosures The Glassflex range of partitions and fixed enclosures are ideal for shopfronts, cinema foyers, restaurants and private home patios. • Manufactured according to the standards of AAAMSA and SAGGA • Unobstructed entrance when open • Secure and attractive when closed • Locking bolts concealed in each element • Five systems to choose from • Sound insulation partitions available • Height up to 9 metres possible.

Glass blocks The Seves range of glass blocks are imported from Europe, manufactured to EN and ISO standards and offer architects and design professionals new solutions in creating the strong aesthetic impact that glass blocks are known to provide. Benefits of using glass blocks • Innovative technology reduces thermal transmittance of the classic glass block up to 50%. • Reduces the expenditure of energy through glass blocks, thus improving their energy efficiency. • Keeps the heat inside during winter months and blocks the heat outside during the summer.

024 WALL S & R OOF S

Number 4, 2010

Glass blocks are entirely recyclable. Long-term sustainability. Contemporary architecture with a new advantage: a more precise control of thermal dispersion to protect the environment and ensure a better future for all.

Other glass creations Aluglass also offers other glass partitions, mobile glass partitions, fixed enclosures and glass room separations specifically designed and manufactured for entrance doors, bathroom entrances, toilet separations and Turkish bath enclosures. Aluglass Bautech Tel: 011 451 8400 Agents nationwide E-mail: Website: ·

G l as s

The GF120 acoustic partition / mobile curtain wall or door The glass doors offer an unobstructed

Aluglass’ Glassflex is available in powder coated

achieves between 36dB and 45dB when using soundstop glass

entrance when open.

aluminium or solid wooden framing.

and / or double glazing (according to DIN52210).

Aluglass, specialists in supplying (and installing) a large range of quality products to the building industry, was established in 1973.

The evolving frameless shower door concepts are available in a variety of beautiful finishes.

Aluglass offers an exclusive bathroom solution from shower to toilet

Enhance your bathroom with custom-made glass products.

enclosures and even bedroom / bathroom seperations.

Number 4, 2010



Gl a ss

The unique

Leonardo Glass Cube

Having developed a number of temporary architectures and several virtual architectural concepts, 3Deluxe has implemented the Leonardo Glass Cube in Bad Driburg, Germany, as its first permanent building. This project is a glass-fronted pavilion designed by 3Deluxe for the Glaskoch Corporation, and used for informal meetings and corporate hospitality. The result of the interdisciplinary design process is described as being an integrative concept that combines architecture, interior design, graphic design and landscape architecture into a complex aesthetic entity across a total area of 1200 m². The glass façade of the building represents not only the interface between interior and exterior, but also the passage to a hyper-naturalistic world with heightened aesthetic appeal. A transparent print slides into the insight or outlook as a subtly visible image plane. The graphically illustrated elements displayed on it were derived from the architecture and the surrounding landscape. They create a subtle puzzle, mingling with the reflections of their models in reality. The edificial structure consists of two formally contrasting elements: A geometrically stringent, cube-like shell volume and a freeform positioned centrally in the interior. The undulating, curved white wall encases an introverted exhibition space and its other side circumscribes the extroverted hallway along the glass façade. Three white sculptural structures (so-called genetics) connect the separate zones of the building to each other. On the glass façade genetics appear again in a two-dimensional version. The superimposed pilaster strips are continued in a network of white concrete pathways that surrounds the entire building and lets it grow together with its location. The façade design not only entails references to the location and the materiality of the company’s products, but also highlights a key feature in the Leonardo brand philosophy: a modern, inspiring design that fires the imagination and enables people to constantly perceive and shape their environment anew. Interior of the Glass Cube Entering the Glass Cube through the main entrance, visitors encounter a space that opens up not just horizontally, but also upwards and downwards. The ground-floor bridge affords a generous view of the main exhibition area one storey below and provides an initial point of orientation as a whole. On both floors the wall forms niches that are used for various functions such as themed product orchestrations and meeting lounges. In the breaks in the wall in particular these lines predominate as a significant graphic design element that is continued on the ceiling as a system of ventilation joints. Dynamically programmed artificial light, as well as the incidence of daylight sets colour highlights in the purely white interior and creates a permanent change of atmosphere. By melding medium-format images of 6 x 7 cm with computer visualisations of the interior, the design devised by 3Deluxe graphics brings together two media that are completely different in aesthetic and crafts terms: digitally generated pixel images and analog photography.

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The result: a pixel-perfect artwork sized 6 x 96 m with a resolution of 100 dpi (which involves an immense volume of data). The technology, at present only available in the USA, was used for the first time on such a large scale. The hallway, which is truly bathed in natural daylight, can be used for informal meetings and events as well as short breaks. One of the ‘genetics’ marks the access point to the lobby, which is set back from the façade inside the free form. The vertical pathways through the two-storey building generally proceed along the fluently formed boundary, in the centre of which a void crossed by bridges connects top floor and basement. Structure The organic shape of the objects necessitated an elaborate construction method: their surfaces are each composed of two deep-drawn semi-shells made of acrylic material, for the production of which original size models first had to be made. The substructure consists of steel tubing, encased in a timber skeleton frame. It was printed onto a foil in 48 segments that were then laminated onto the back of the glass in the interspaces between the panes. The structure of the free-form inner wall represents an innovation in dry construction: as the plasterboard panels of the outer layer can only be bent one-dimensionally, experiments were conducted that involved interlacing mutually curved panels in complex shapes. In the breaks in the wall the resulting joint design predominates as a significant graphic design element. On the side facing the façade, the material nature of the white surface is visually dissolved by means of a layer of gauze suspended in front. The natural daylight pouring in produces dazzling moiré effects in the translucent fabric’s delicate texture, which in turn are reflected in the glass façade. This process of visual concentration creates a more intense impression of reality than the direct perception of real objects would allow. In addition, through changes of perspective and the incidence of light changing with daytime and seasons, a wide variety of appearances is made possible. They lend the building a poetic quality – stories can be discovered, artificial landscapes explored. The Glaskoch Corporation – with 150 years of corporate history – is a family-owned business based in Bad Driburg, Germany that, with plenty of enthusiasm, lots of ideas and a unique brand concept have made Glaskoch one of today’s leading European suppliers of glassware and gift items. Project Team Architects: 3Deluxe Client: Glaskoch B. Koch Jr. GmbH & Co. KG Product: Contract Anthracite Lappato

G l as s

Customer specific



YS Distributors, specialist importers, manufacturers and distributors of top quality aluminium brushware, has been gaining popularity in the industry due to the company’s ability to provide customer and architect specific designs and creations. What started off as a family business, grew to become a competitive and popular aluminium supplier in South Africa. YS Distributors supplies to independent clients such as Africa Floorcare and Kinghorn Brushware, as well as major chain stores in South Africa, such as Pick n Pay, Checkers, Makro and Game.

In order to add value to clients, YS Distributors also has a Trading Items department which sources promotional items according to their specific requirements, at the best price, through their branch in China. A hydraulics company, Hydrolin, has also joined forces with YS Distributors in order to provide clients with reliable servicing and repairing of engineering equipment. YS Distributors recently started importing shoes which are also distributed to customers around South Africa. A variety of aluminium products Besides door and window frames that can be manufactured to precise engineering requirements, the company also fabricates aluminium extrusions and a variety of other aluminium products according to customer specifications. Y.S. Distributors (Pty) Ltd Tel: 031 579 4800 Fax: 031 579 1231 Website:

YS Distributors

specialises in the fabrication of raw aluminum into client specific final aluminum products

Aluminum door frames

Aluminum window frames

Aluminum extrusions

YS Distributors 29 Aloefield Crescent, Springfield Park, Durban Tel: +27 31 579 4800 Fax +27 31 579 4808 Email: Website:

Number 4, 2010



Gl a ss

The next generation of design flexibility for innovative, world-class architecture. GE SSG4600 UltraGlaze*: Powerful performance for increasingly demanding design requirements. GE UltraGlaze silicone sealants are rooted in a history of excellent performance on complex and unique building structures around the globe. The Shanghai World Financial Center, for instance, designed by world-renowned architectural firm Kohn Pederson Fox Associates, is a striking example of innovative structural design built to guard against forces of wind and earthquakes1. Named 2008’s best skyscraper, this awe-inspiring, 101-story, mixed-use skyscraper in Pudong, Shanghai, China boasts the highest observation deck in the world. The complexity of the building design required a structural glazing silicone system delivering outstanding strength, durability and weatherability. GE UltraGlaze sealant was used to structurally glaze the building prior to its opening in 2008. Powerful performance for a multitude of demands. As the complexity of building design has evolved, the GE UltraGlaze silicone sealant product line has consistently expanded its time-tested, high-performance offerings for structural and protective glazing applications. GE SSG4600 UltraGlaze is no exception. This high-strength, two-part silicone elastomeric adhesive/sealant features mechanical properties that expand the design boundaries for architects and specifiers. With its high tensile-adhesion strength, SSG4600 is capable of withstanding extreme forces and pressures without tearing or rupturing. With a high inner-tear strength, SSG4600 is capable of resisting tear propagation and maintaining performance integrity if inadvertently damaged. What’s more, the properties inherent to silicone provide the basis for both strength and durability, which means SSG4600 is an excellent choice for many protective glazing applications. It can remain intact when exposed to extreme conditions, absorbing and enduring severe impact, and reduce the potential for damage from intense wind, precipitation and a range of seismic activity.

The soaring Shanghai World Financial Center was structurally glazed with GE UltraGlaze* silicone sealant product before opening in 2008.

Combats all climatic conditions Due to its silicone composition, SSG4600 can withstand severe atmospheric conditions and the extreme weather fluctuations a structure faces from season to

SSG4600 Typical Properties Tensile Strength

192 psi

Tear Strength

64 ppi

Movement Capability

+/- 25%

Work Life

20-60 Minutes


Black & Grey

season. SSG4600 exhibits excellent long-term resistance to ultraviolet radiation, high and low temperatures, rain, snow and natural weathering. As a result, SSG4600 provides the two most critical attributes of effective weatherproofing: long-term efficacy in sealing out air and water; and the ability to withstand weather and atmospheric conditions without degradation. 1. Shanghai tower named year’s best skyscraper. Reuters. 2008-11-20. idUSTRE4AK10N20081121 GE is a registered trademark of General Electric and is under license by Momentive Performance Materials Inc. *Trademark of Momentive Performance Materials Inc. Copyright 2010 Momentive Performance Materials, all rights reserved. The Shanghai World Financial Center and Kohn Pederson Fox Associates have not endorsed this advertisement.

Where unique and complex building ideas are capable of becoming the world’s most innovative structures. With decades of experience on some of the world’s most innovative and picturesque structures around the world, the GE sealants team provides a wealth of knowledge and comprehensive support to help ensure a project is successful. Whether applying sealant in new or remedial applications, the sealants team provides superior technical assistance, warranty support and product usage reviews, from a project’s inception to its completion. For more information, visit

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G l as s

Strength that turns innovative designs into awe-inspiring buildings. The next generation of strength, durability and flexibility in GE UltraGlaze* silicone sealants. Introducing GE SSG4600 UltraGlaze—a two-part silicone sealant for demanding structural and protective glazing applications. From withstanding extreme forces and pressures to absorbing and enduring severe impact, SSG4600’s outstanding mechanical properties allow it to deliver powerful performance for a multitude of demands. Expand your design boundaries by visiting for ordering and product information.

GE is a trademark of General Electric Company and is under license by Momentive Performance Materials Inc. *Trademark of Momentive Performance Materials Inc. Copyright 2010 Momentive Performance Materials Inc., all rights reserved.

Named 2008’s best skyscraper, Shanghai Financial Center boasts the highest observation deck in the world.

Silicone & Technical Products (Pty) Ltd. Tel: 021 534 9055 Durban Tel: 031 700 2201 JHB Tel: 011 452 5164 Number 4, 2010



Picture courtesy Aluglass

Temp e ratu re Co n t r olle d Env ir onm e nt s

Temperature controlled environments and

indoor air quality in South Africa According to the Whole Building Design Guide (, it is easy to forget that the ultimate success or failure of a project rests on its indoor environmental quality amidst the struggle of building cost-effective buildings. Uncomfortable conditions in the workplace, such as an environment being too hot, too cold, too dark or too light, can lead to workers being unproductive and it can lead to increases in illness symptoms. The Whole Building Design Guide lists the following eight recommendations in order to provide quality thermal and ventilation comfort: • Comply with American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) • Incorporate natural ventilation • Ensure all parts of a room are receiving adequate ventilation by

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• • •

configuring rooms and HVAC distribution layouts Evaluate the use of access floors with displacement ventilation for flexibility, energy savings and personal comfort control Assess the air quality of spaces to adjust ventilation by using CO2 sensors Provide temperature controls and individual air at each workstation

Temp era t u re Co nt ro lled Envi r onments

Misapplication the biggest problem According to Grant Laidlaw, chief executive officer of the Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Association (RACA), misapplication of equipment and budget allocation are some of the industry’s biggest concerns when it comes to installing air conditioning and temperature control solutions. “Being only price orientated results in under specification and incorrect application of equipment and controllers,” says Laidlaw. “Usually, air conditioning and refrigeration is worked out on a rand-to-metre basis resulting in cheaper equipment which does not meet the buildings heat load requirements. Although this enables them to meet their budget, it is not always the most cost-effective solution for the end user. One must look at the Coefficient of Performance (COP) – if you are only price orientated, the result is often equipment with a lower C.O.P. and therefore higher energy/consumption cost. Air quality and sick building syndrome Indoor air quality is a function of the air quality of outside air supplied to the inside of a building and secondly a function of natural deterioration of air in an enclosed environment. RACA recently published a case study by Concept Clean that reflects the results and findings of an indoor air quality survey that was conducted at a commercial building in Johannesburg. Indoor air quality is usually evaluated using parameters such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and gases, micro-organisms and airborne particulates ( According to the report, the following areas can influence the air quality of indoor air: • Traffic density • Activities in the area • Meteorological conditions (determined by seasons) • Location of air inlets

Laidlaw explains that sick building syndrome is the result of many factors, including a lack of maintenance of air conditioning equipment and inadequate air flows within a building. “When air conditioning and air ventilation in a building is not correct, it can easily lead to sick building syndrome. One person in a building gets sick and these germs should be caught in the system’s filters, but it goes through the air handling unit and gets circulated throughout the building, spreading viruses and diseases,” says Laidlaw. The report states that in an indoor environment, environmental stressors such as poor air quality and uncomfortable temperature regimes can work synergistically with occupational psychological stressors which, in the long run, can manifest in numerous physiological and psychological disorders ( Laidlaw explains that different regions in South Africa are more prone to sick building syndrome. “Polokwane has a high rate of buildings that would qualify for sick building syndrome, probably around 50% of all buildings. This is due to a lower rate of knowledgeable people servicing the area. In Johannesburg, one out of every ten buildings could qualify for sick building syndrome – we have seen it in hospitals, commercial buildings and a variety of other office buildings,” says Laidlaw. Natural ventilation Most historic buildings were naturally ventilated, although many of these buildings were compromised by the addition of mechanical systems and partition walls ( An increased awareness of energy saving methods and environmental concerns have forced natural ventilation to become an attractive method for providing acceptable indoor environmental quality and maintaining a comfortable and healthy indoor climate. According to, natural can be used as an alternative to air-conditioning plants, saving 10%-30% of the total energy consumption in favourable climate and building types.

Deterioration of indoor air is a result of: • Formulation of water vapour • Release of odours • Release of heat • Production of pollutants such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and airborne particulates Specific illnesses related to sick building syndrome include the indoor transmission of standard infectious diseases such as tuberculosis or legionellosis, irritation due to (volatile) chemicals, allergic reactions to dust mites, plant products or fungal products and carbon monoxide poisoning related to recirculation of exhaust fumes or cigarette smoke ( Number 4, 2010



Temp e ratu re Co n t r olle d Env ir onm e nt s

american society of heating, refrigerating and air-conditioning engineers (ASHRAE) standards state that: • Indoor Air Temperature: Between 20 and 24°C for winter and 23 to 26°C for summer. • Indoor Relative Humidity (%): Between 30 and 60% (microbial growth is enhanced at higher levels than this). • Total Airborne Particulates: The standard applied to total airborne dust concentrations is 1,0mg/ m³.

correlation between the efficiency of the building and the need for HVAC systems: highly efficient building envelopes reduce the need for heating and cooling systems. Efficiency improvements in HVAC systems can lead to substantial savings, but these savings will also depend on the efficiency of the building in general (

“You need to have a minimum of 10% natural ventilation throughout the building, but architects rarely apply this principle.” “You need to have a minimum of 10% natural ventilation throughout the building, but architects rarely apply this principle. One of the common mistakes that architects make is installing small air conditioning units, for example, of split units. When a boardroom door or window is closed, the level of oxygen drops and people get tired in the room. This is completely ignored in the industry,” says Laidlaw. Unlike fan-forced ventilation, natural ventilation uses the natural forces of wind and buoyancy to deliver fresh air into buildings. Although natural ventilation can make a huge difference in the thermal comfort of a building, natural air-conditioning is ineffective at reducing the humidity of incoming air (like true air-conditioning). According to the International Energy Association, there is an inverse SANS codes applicable to the refrigeration and air conditioning industry SANS 0142 – The wiring of premise SANS 0147 – Refrigeration systems including plants associated with air conditioning SANS 1125 – Room air conditioners SANS 0250 – Servicing and repairs using refrigerant recycling systems SANS 1538 – Refrigerant recycling equipment for the minimisation of environmental pollution during the repair and servicing of air conditioning equipment SANS 1238 – Air conditioning ducting SANS 1424 – Filters for air conditioning and ventilation SANS 193 – Fire dampers

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Becoming authorised and registered The Department of Labour gazetted the “Pressure Equipment Regulations” in July 2009 as part of the Occupational Health and Safety Act Number 86 of 1993. In October 2009, a new law was passed stating that a person must be registered with SAQCC Gas (South African Qualification and Certification Committee) when installing any type of air conditioning unit, repairing a unit or selling a unit. The regulations define an authorised person as one who is registered as competent within the scope of work. The South African Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Contractors’ Association has defined eight categories within the scope of work. In the first two categories, the unit standards have been added to the US 116223 (the OH&SS Act as it applies to employees) and US 116355 (the handling of refrigerant containers). All practitioners need to ensure that they attend the applicable course and receive the correct qualification to achieve registration. The cost of a registration cycle is R1 368 (including VAT). In order to apply for registration as a refrigeration practitioner in terms of the OH&S Act 85 of 1993 and the Pressure Equipment Regulation R734 of 15 July 2009, visit the SARACCA website at The eight categories for registration as an authorised refrigeration practitioner include: 1. Safe handling of refrigerants 2. Small air conditioning & refrigeration practitioner (small domestic, officeand commercial air conditioning and refrigeration) 3. Commercial refrigeration practitioner (air conditioning & refrigeration plants) 4. Industrial refrigeration practitioner (all refrigeration plants, with emphasis on Ammononia) 5. Automotive air conditioning practitioner (all types of motor vehicles) 6. Transport refrigeration practitioner (all types of refrigerated road transport) 7. Marine refrigeration practitioner (all ship board marine refrigeration, either Freon or Ammonia) 8. Inspector for refrigeration (all plants and equipment) Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Academy (ACRA) Tel: 011 609 1118 E-mail: Website:

Temp e ratu re Co n t r olle d Env ir onm e nt s

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Temp era t u re Co nt ro lled Envi r onments

Every roof

needs it

Cellulose thermal ceiling insulations, such as Eco-Insulation, form a seamless blanket of natural fibers that provide outstanding protection from temperature extremes. According to the founder of SAEE Association Award winner EcoInsulation, Cecil Homan: “The chances are good that the average home or office would benefit enormously from adding cellulose ceiling insulation, even where there is an existing layer of insulation present.” Homan explains that many existing insulation systems compress with time with the load of dust and humidity in the roofspace, hence becoming much less effective in trapping dormant air and thus losing R-values. “Then there is the matter of coverage. The best product is one that distributes itself naturally into every corner, recess and cavity above the ceiling and so ensures that there are no uncovered sections of the ceiling through which heat may enter or escape. Eco-Insulation is excellent in this regard, due to our unique delivery system.” Ceiling bypasses are hidden air conduits that lead from the heated space into the attic during winter, or in reverse during summer. Because warm air rises, it is continuously moving up these routes and escaping into the roofspace during winter. So even though the roofspace above the ceiling could be cold, these bypasses or leaks lead it to be semi-heated space, hence wasting energy.

Eco-Insulation lying in place above the ceiling.

The Eco-Insulation pump is set up outside the building, the product is neatly arranged. It is then pumped into place by skilled operators. According to Eco-Insulation, adding insulation alone without sealing air leaks is not going to help much. Also, water vapor carried with the escaping warm air may condense and build up in the insulation, reducing R-values and causing structural damage. Indeed, when moisture problems appear in the roof after it has been insulated, ceiling bypasses are often the cause. “To avoid these types of water problems and to receive full benefit from your insulation, you need to plug up your attic leaks or bypasses. Before sealing can be done, they have to be located. Look out for obviously wet insulation, dirty insulation, dust build-up underneath the insulation and water staining under the insulation,” says Homan. According to Cecil Homan, architects and project managers should give more consideration to using cellulose. The product is fully approved by the SABS and is fire-rated as “no spread of flame” above the ceiling. “Architects often forget about the sound-insulating benefits of the product as well,” he says. This is very important for the many industries such as hotels and retail outlets, where levels of noise need to be controlled and sonic absorption is required for effective acoustics inside the building. “This is what we mean by ultimate climate comfort,” adds Homan. Eco-Insulation has recently launched a new website and building owners, designers and architects should visit for further information and contact details of installers. “We are available nationwide,” says Homan. Eco-Insulation Tel: 021 555 3766 Fax: 021 555 3776 E-mail: Website:

Number 4, 2010



Temp e ratu re Co n t r olle d Env ir onm e nt s

Energy efficient air-conditioning at Formula 1


With an eye on the 2010 World Cup and beyond, Formula 1 Hotels all over the country have decided to upgrade their facilities. Formula 1 Hotels was not only interested in the price and economy of operation, but also product quality, advanced technology and ongoing back-up. The advanced Samsung DVM (Digital Variable Multi System) System was installed at these hotels. “The DVM system has a single variable-capacity exterior compressor that is linked to multiple indoor units – each with its own individual temperature control, which makes it ideal for these types of installations,” says Richard Perry, managing director of Samsung Air/Fourways Air-conditioning. Prior to the development of this relatively new technology, air-conditioning a number of separate rooms or offices using a single outdoor unit normally called for bulky ducting to transfer cooled air or alternatively a chilled water system that required costly labour-intensive installation and a larger plant room.

Advantages of the DVM System • Only one exterior unit to conceal • Variable capacity compressor to ensure maximum operating economy • Individual temperature control • Estimated 50% energy saving

“Samsung’s modern DVM System enables individual air-conditioning of multiple separate rooms from one outdoor unit, allied with easy installation, a simple controlling system and maximum economy of operation,” explains Perry. The OR Tambo hotel The Formula 1 OR Tambo Hotel spearheaded the project. In total, 6 Samsung DVM condensers – 4 model RVX VRT 100 units and 2 model RVX VRT 120 units – were installed in the roof space, air-conditioning 78 rooms. The larger units have a COP of 3,23 and the smaller ones a COP of 3,6. South-facing rooms have 2,2 kW evaporators, whilst the warmer North-facing ones have 2,7 kW units. The use of R410A gas ensures environmental friendliness. “Environmental friendliness was a key issue, as well as economy of operation. One of the largest consumers of electricity in hotels is the air-conditioning system, and Formula 1 Hotels wished to save as much power as possible,” said Thomas Hughes, project manager of Kegs Engineers, who worked on the project. An important factor in ensuring economy of operation is Samsung’s advanced heat-recovery system which allows excess heat from north-facing rooms to be transferred to cooler south-facing ones via MCU (Mode Change Unit) boxes, thus reducing overall energy consumption. Significant energy savings, estimated to be in the region of 50%, are expected to be the long-term result. “Installations of Samsung’s DVM Plus-3 System are really taking off in South Africa, and we are extremely pleased that such an environmentallyconscious company as Formula 1 Hotels has also chosen to go this route. We have enjoyed working with Curries on this major project, and are taking the necessary steps from our side to ensure that both Curries and Formula 1 Hotels have Samsung Air’s full backing for all DVM systems installed nationwide,” concludes Perry. Samsung Tel: 011 704 6320 E-mail: Website:

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Shopfr ont

Number 4, 2010



Temp e ratu re Co n t r olle d Env ir onm e nt s

Sustainable solution

for roof insulation and waterproofing Architects, developers and designers have a myriad of choices when it comes to wall, floor and roof insulation products. The problem with most of these products is that many of them need to be cut, shaped and glued into specified spaces. Therma-foam, a spray pollyurethane foam (SPF) by Thermamasta, makes the process quick, simple and easy to maintain. Therma-foam is a low-viscosity spray pollyurethane foam (SPF) system that rapidly expands and cures when applied. The product can be applied to flat roofs, profiled metal sheeting, corrogated sheeting and steep-pitched roofs in order to form a continuous foam coverage with no joints. Applying the product The surface is simply cleaned, primed and the foam applied in two or three layers of 15 mm each with a mobile high-pressure spraying unit. It is touch-dry within 2 - 3 minutes and covered with a UV-protected coating. The 100% adhesion of Therma-foam means a permanent, one-piece, watertight seal around roof penetrations and along edges. Therma-foam is available country-wide and it comes with a 10 to 15-year guarantee. The versatility of SPF The product is especially suited for roofing, as many applications can be made over the existing roof. Besides the ability to be applied to surfaces with irregular shapes and penetrations, other applications include tanks, cold storage rooms and pipes.

New research by Rene Dupuis, Dean Kashiwagi and Spray Polyurethane Foam Alliance (SPFA) at FM Global and Underwriters Laboratory Inc has proven that spray polyurethane foam (SPF) demonstrates many sustainable characteristics. Kashiwagi’s 1996 report showed that the oldest performing SPF roofs were over 26 years old. Of the roofs he surveyed, 93% had less than one percent deterioration and 97,6% did not leak. (These are impressive statistics when taking into acount that 55% of these roofs were never maintained.) Moisture intrusion and lack of wind resistance are the primary causes of premature roof failure. Dripping, accelerated failure of the insulation and membrane, poor thermal performance and structured deterioration can all be attributed to moisture intrusion in roofing. SPF roofing has a 90% closed-cell property, limiting moisture penetration and damage to the system. Performance studies suggest SPF roofs can last 30 years or more and they can resist leaks caused by hail and wind-driven debris, as well as resist high wind blow-off.

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Benefits of SPF • Stops leaks and it is weather-resistant • Adheres to most surfaces • Minimal/simplified maintenance • Insulation • Lighter than tar and gravel roof systems • Air barrier • Reduces and simplifies roof maintenance • Sound control device • Extremely efficient commericial insulation • Pays for itself in energy savings Thermamasta Tel: 072 137 2887 Email: Website:

Temp era t u re Co nt ro lled Envi r onments


Seamless solution for roof insulation and waterproofing

Elastopor® H: Thermafoam r Isolates insolates, waterproofs r and Waterproofs stops corrosion r Stops corrosion and rust and rust!

Most effective seamless insolation and waterproofing.

30 mm thick weighs only 600 gram per m2. Fix your roof instead of replacing it. THERMAFOAM 

Stop leaks

Minimal maintenance

Pays for itself witin 4 years in energy savings

Most effecient commercial insulation.

Proven roofing and insulation system.

In use for over 35 years.

Tel: 0860 997 700 Hansie 072 137 2887 Number 4, 2010



Temp e rat u re Co n t r olle d Env ir onm e nt s


so g n i m Co

In two years’ time, a household’s electricity bill will be almost double the figure it was by the end of March 2010. LLumar will soon be launching an innovative window film technology, called EnerLogic, which will allow you to modify your single glazed windows so that you can achieve the energy saving of double glazed Enjoy a different view: save energy in every season.

windows in order to counter these costs.

Counter electricity hikes with film technology High efficiency energy savings Although other window film technologies can help you save energy, EnerLogic’s patent-pending low-e coating delivers energy efficiency in every season that outperforms other film in terms of annual electricity savings. According to LLumar, EnerLogic technology offers superior savings with far better clarity that doubles the energy and carbon-emission savings of darker, more reflective films. An upgrade that pays for itself LLumar, through CP Films in the USA, can carry out an energy saving analysis on commercial buildings and provide estimated savings and payback periods. High performance – year-round EnerLogic helps to keep the summer heat out and it keeps the heat inside in winter, providing the perfect balance of energy efficiency, comfort and cost saving all year round. According to LLumar, EnerLogic provides unparalleled glass-insulating capabilities that no other window film can match. Its patent-pending low-e technology has the ability to provide superb insulating performance, which is a milestone in saving resources and costs. High efficiency performance • Patent-pending, low-e coating directs solar and radiant heat back to its source for substantial energy savings. • Provides a perfect balance of energy efficiency, comfort and cost savings – all year long. • Upgrades the annual insulating performance of single and double-pane windows. • Significant improvement of working conditions due to a high reduction in solar heat gain and glare. • Fully compatible with high efficiency lighting (low iridescence). • Achieves up to 15% savings on your year round commercial building energy costs. • Excellent anti-UV protection: Reduces fading of textiles, furniture, and works of art. • Scratch resistant coating: increased longevity & easy cleaning. • 10 year manufacturer-backed warranty.

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Technical Specifications Glazing type



Solar Energy Transmission



Solar Energy Reflection



Solar Energy Absorption



Visible Light Transmission



Visible Light Reflection (External)



Visible Light Reflection (Internal)



UV Transmission



g Value (Coefficient of Total Energy Transmission)



Total Solar Energy Rejected



Glare Reduction








U-Value (EN 673 W/m’K)

LLumar Tel: 011 321 8040 Fax: 011 324 8045 E-mail: Website:

Temp e ratu re Co n t r olle d Env ir onm e nt s

Comprehensive services out of one basket

The FIRESPEC management team, proudly showing their support for Bafana Bafana SWC 2010.

FIRESPEC, a specialist protection system supply and services company, operating nationally out of Cape Town, is one of a few companies that offer a comprehensive integrated package, backed by ongoing maintenance contract options. The company was founded in Cape Town in 1971 by developing its prowess as a supplier of quality active security and fire protection services. Traditional active security and fire-prevention systems from the company include fire detection – early warning systems linked to evacuation systems and the fire brigade, fire suppression – gas dumping, access control, CCTV and public address/evacuation systems. Passive division More recently, a wider line-up of passive protective services in addition to the active is offered by the passive division. These products and services are backed by strategic alliances with credible international partners such as:

Some of the high profile projects the company completed include: • Cape Town International Airport – New Departures Terminal (active & passive systems) • Loch Logon Waterfront, Bloemfontein (passive systems) • Chevron Refinery, Cape Town (active systems) • South African Navy, Simon’s Town (active systems) • V & A Waterfront – Victoria Wharf, Cape Town (active systems) • 11 Adderley Street, Cape Town (passive systems) • University of Cape Town (full maintenance contracts)

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• Fireseal • Nullifire • Envirograf The range includes products such as FIRESPEC FIREBOARD CSTM, intumescent paint coatings, penetration seals for fire, Vermiculite spray coatings and fire-stopping curtains. FIRESPEC also offers a full service and maintenance package for various systems on a rapid response 24/7 basis. Certified fire regulations compliance surveys The team at FIRESPEC includes highly qualified technicians who are certified to conduct Fire Regulations Compliance Surveys and provide building engineers with reliable assessments that comply with the guidelines of National Building Codes. FIRESPEC CEO, Leo Slootmans, explains that these products and services enable the company to offer a unique and comprehensive solution to the South African market. “The fact that many of our clients have been using FIRESPEC for more than ten years is a credit to the professionalism and reliability of our key service staff,” says Slootmans. “We often find that after the first service of a new maintenance client, for example, we spend a lot of time updating the existing system. We pride ourselves in ensuring that you, our valued customer, will never have to worry about the state of your safety and security equipment,” concludes Slootmans. FIRESPEC is a trusted and specialised name in the protection services industry. The company is registered as PSIRA (Private Security Industry Regulating Authority). FIRESPEC Tel 021 685 1111 E-mail: Website:

Fixed Solar Shading Systems • Fixed & Controllable Solar Shading • Acoustic Louvres Glass Solar Shading Systems • Screening Louvres, Rain Defence & Performance Louvres


Tel: +27 11 608 4640 • Fax: +27 11 608 4643 Chris Edwards: 082 855 9776 Email: Eric Whelan: 082 452 2257 Email:

Kwa Zulu Natal

Tel: +27 31 307 4640 Fax: +27 31 304 6640 Ron Burns: 082 936 0562 Email:

Solar Shading Industries is the sole Southern Africa distributers of Colt Solar Shading Systems Technology and Products

Temp e rat u re Co n t r olle d Env ir onm e nt s

Solar Control Film



of ultraviolet light

Global leaders in architectural window film, LLumar, have provided sun control film to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, America’s national institution for the documentation and interpretation of the Holocaust, located with a stately structure that is adjacent to the National Mall in downtown Washington D.C. The museum, whose mission is to broaden public understanding of the history of the Holocaust through exhibitions and programs, needed to protect its exhibition pieces from fading and its patrons from sun glare. Creating an engaging environment The Holocaust Museum researched various options and decided to install LLumar N-1050 Neutral Window Film on all of its windows to protect its irreplaceable, historic displays from fading, and also to create a much more comfortable and engaging environment for the many visitors coming to the memorial to view its artefacts and participate in its programs.

Project details Building: United State Holocaust Memorial Museum Location: Washington, D.C. Film: N-1050 SR CDF (Neutral) Type: Solar Control Film

Visible light reduced by 52% The LLumar Window Film blocked 99% of all ultraviolet rays. With this significant factor in the fading of materials all but eliminated, the Museum’s historically important exhibit pieces are today much better preserved than ever before. Moreover, within the Museum’s interior rooms, visible light has been reduced by 52%, dramatically reducing sun glare for all visiting patrons. Architectural films by LLumar are designed for commercial and residential applications where damaging ultraviolet light, heat and glare are problems, and energy efficiency is important. LLumar offers a manufacturer’s warranty on all its architectural films, agreeing to replace films that fail within 10 years from date of original installation.

Product description: 1. Removable release liner. 2. Pressure-sensitive adhesive. 3. Clear, dyed or metallised layers of polyester film. 4. Scratch-resistant coating.

LLumar Tel: 011 321 8040 Fax: 011 324 8045 E-mail: Website:

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Temp era t u re Co nt ro lled Envi r onments

Number 4, 2010



Picture courtesy Echo Prestress

Co ncrete

Hollow-core slabs were introduced as South Africa’s alternative to in-situ cast concrete floor slabs for

Prestressed hollow core slabs were used for the seating arrangements at a cathedral in Soweto

multi-storey buildings some 30 years ago. Technology innovation and a variety of individuals in the industry

The versatility and

have subsequently led to pre-stressed hollow-core slabs becoming a preferred building flooring solution.

multi-purpose of

hollow-core slabs According to the CMA (Concrete Manufacturers Association), when using precast hollow-core concrete slabs as a security wall, it can hold back up to five tons/m². This strong and durable building material is manufactured for a variety of applications and the slabs can be recycled after a building is demolished. The building and manufacturing processes Hollow-core slabs are manufactured in the quality-controlled factory conditions of a factory and the only site work that gets done is the slab installation and the grouting of joints. Hollow-core slabs usually do not require propping and other structural work and trades can commence immediately after grouting. Daniel Petrov, technical director at Echo Prestress, explains: “The hollowcore slabs are cast using various methods available today. In most cases, the slabs are cast on long line beds, normally up to 150 m long. The slabs get cast onto these beds in different depths and cut into a variety of sizes to

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suite the project requirements. Manufacturing hollow-core slabs is a specialised job that requires skills, training as well as product and equipment knowledge – you can’t just get somebody off the street to make them.” Graham Kilbey, structural engineer at Top Floor, explains that each prestressing tendons (e.g. wire/strands) are stressed to approximately 70% of its nominal strength, and the concrete is cast around these tendons on the stressing beds. You get a much stronger concrete slab within 18 hours of manufacturing the product,” says Kilbey. Measuring the strength of concrete slabs According to MC², an organisation that aims to increase the profitability of construction industry firms by providing construction, concrete strength is denominated in megapascals (MPa) in metric and in pounds per square inch (psi) in imperial, which are units of pressure. 1 MPa = 1 000 000 Pa = 1 000 000 Newtons/meter²

Pictures courtesy CMA

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Prestressed hollow-core concrete slabs installed at the Arekopaneng youth development centre in Orange Farm. Echo Prestress supplied the slabs for this project.

The National Ready Mixed Concrete Association ( explains that the compressive strength of concrete is the most common performance measure used by an engineer in designing structures and buildings and it is measured by breaking cylindrical concrete specimens in a compressiontesting machine. Concrete compressive strength requirements can vary from 17 MPa for residential concrete to 28 MPa and higher in commercial structures. “Hollow-core slabs are cast using concrete with lower water-cement-ratio and higher strength, typically in excess of 35 - 40 MPa at the release of the prestress and transfer,” says Petrov. The concrete will continue to cure strengths of 60Mpa at 28 days and 64Mpa at 90 days are typical. This concrete is inherently durable and protects the wires/strands provided that the thickness of the cover is appropriate to the degree of exposure. The economy of generalized hollow-core system is in the quantity of slabs that can be produced at a given time with a minimum of labor required.

“Traditionally, hollow-core slabs are used for flooring, applications, but the same can be employed as retaining walling, security walling to airports, defence force bases and prisons, or where a high level of security may be required,” says Petrov.

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Co ncrete

There is no requirement for shuttering or propping for on-site curing and formwork when using hollow-core slabs. The installation rate of hollow-core walling is approximately 50 linear metres per eight hour day, according to the

this type of walling, speed of erection being one of the major considerations. “The current cost of building a precast security wall of 3 m high is approximately half the cost of a wall offering the same properties if cast on-site. Furthermore, it would take two to three times as long with no advantage in strength or durability. Also there is no requirement for shuttering or propping, on-site curing and formwork, and the installation rate is approximately 50 linear metres per eight hour day,” says Laing. Kilbey says that one of the main advantages of building with hollow-core slabs is the ease and speed of installation. “With hollow-core slabs, the deck is ready to install as and when required. A builder can get their walls up to the required height and we come along with cranes and install the slabs, generally in one day. The builder can then start building above the deck the following day,” says Kilbey. “With hollow-core slabs, there is no propping involved so you do not have scaffolding in the way. You can continue working on different levels at the same time, which speeds up the building process.”

Concrete Manufacturers Association (CMA).

Benefits of precast hollow-core slabs • Rapid construction: Finishes can take place at lower levels due to the fact that no propping or back propping is required, ready to use working platforms, no plastering of ceiling, and elimination of long concrete pouring operations ensure quick construction. • Minimal disruption: No on-site storage is required due to the slabs being produced in a factory environment, delivered to site and immediately installed. • Flexibility: The number of vertical rising elements in the building is reduced due to the long slabs, providing more flexibility for internal layout. • Environmental benefits: All the materials used can be recycled and hollow-core is the only precast flooring element that can be recovered from a building and re-used.

Alternative applications – Security walling “Traditionally, hollow-core slabs are used for flooring, applications, but the same can be employed as retaining walling, security walling to airports, defence force bases and prisons, or where a high level of security may be required,” says Petrov. The CMA sites three examples, all of them in Bloemfontein, that serve to illustrate the use of hollow-core slabs in security walling applications. Two walls were constructed to safeguard military equipment, one at an SA Air Force base, the other at an SA Defence Force equipment depot and a third wall was built for the Post Office in the industrial area of Hamilton. The walls were constructed with slabs measuring 4 m x 1,2 m, securing areas between 2 500 m² and 10 000 m². Each wall topped 3 m, with the additional one metre section sunk into a foundation of compacted gravel and cement, called soilcrete. Hamish Laing, director of the CMA, says there are several advantages to

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Retaining walls and hollow-core According to the CMA, the use of hollow-core slabs when constructing retaining walls are purpose-driven applications with the goal of these walls being able to bear specific loads. In these applications, time saving is the major advantage, with installations running at 300-400 m² a day. The panels are generally two storeys high (6-7 m) and 250 mm deep when used as retaining walls. Wall panels for retaining walls must be as straight as possible, and are therefore cast with cables at both the top and bottom of the slab, and then evenly stressed (unlike floor slabs, which are cast with pre-stressed steel cables at the bottom to form a positive camber). The office/retail/residential development at Melrose Arch in Johannesburg and a new Hyundai dealership in Bryanston are two prominent projects that demonstrate the effectiveness of the system, where 35 and 45 linear metre walls were installed. The obstacles of hollow-core slabs Petrov explains that the type of slabs that get used depend on the application. “When building multi-levelled car parks with lower level supporting elements, for example, hollow-core slabs would not be ideal because of the overhanging structures that could pose an aesthetic or design problem,” says Petrov. “Using hollow-core slabs for shopping centres and car parks are not yet too common in South Africa. One must look at the architectural features and project requirements to determine if this is a viable solution. Sometimes simple logistical issues, such as using a crane, forces architects to choose a traditional form of concrete,” says Petrov. Understanding the product “In South Africa, hollow-core slabs are still relatively new when one considers that they have been used in many applications overseas for more than 100 years,” says Petrov. “Sometimes it’s a case of the market not fully understanding the product yet. This is one of the reasons why the CMA is doing seminars on the subject all over the country.” “One of the obstacles when building with hollow-core slabs involves the spanning process because you need two supports per panel, but these issues are easy to overcome. I think more people will start using hollow-core slabs in time. A lot of builders use and like the system because they have found it to shorten construction time,” said Kilbey. When referring to the CMA’s seminars on hollow-core slabs, CMA director Hamish Laing says that the interest in these building materials is indeed improving. “Hollow-core slabs are widely used in Europe and North America on buildings as high as 40 storeys. This is not so locally, where ignorance about their true potential and the fear of using something unfamiliar has led to reluctance to specify them. However, the situation is improving and the use of the technology is spreading. The substantial interest in our seminars bears testimony to this,” comments Laing.

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Co ncrete

Cracks in plaster and what causes them

A large percentage of queries received by the Cement & Concrete Institute deals with defects in plastering. Here the C&CI describes the types of cracks often encountered in plaster â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and their causes. Non-structural cracks: Crazing is a network of fine cracks, usually in a hexagonal pattern, measuring between 5 mm and 75 mm across each hexagon. The cracks are usually very shallow and do not extend through the whole depth of the plaster. These cracks usually result from over-trowelling a rich mix (one with a high cement content) or using a sand containing an excessive amount of dust. Crazing often occurs within a few hours of the plaster being |applied to the wall and cracks may hardly be visible until dust or moisture makes them noticeable. Craze cracks are of little importance, do not open and close with time, and can be covered using reasonable-quality paint. If necessary, glass fibre tissue can be applied during the painting operation. Map cracking is similar to crazing except that it is usually deeper (sometimes going through the plaster) and the hexagons of the pattern may measure up to 200 mm across. These cracks normally occur when a plaster mix with a high cement content is used or the plaster is allowed to dry too quickly. Causes of excessive early moisture loss are: evaporation if the wall is not protected from sun and wind; suction into the walls if the bricks are absorbent and have not been dampened; use of a sand that is badly graded and lacks fine material (less than 5% by mass passing the 0,075 mm sieve); and not using building lime or a masonry cement when the sand lacks fine material. When the cracks are noticed while the plaster is still plastic, they are often floated closed, only to reappear some time later. These cracks can be filled

with a proprietary filler and painted over. Glass fibre tissue can also be applied during painting. Cracking that results when an excessive amount of water is lost from the plaster in the first hours after application is known as plastic shrinkage cracking. Map cracking can be due to plastic shrinkage, as can the horizontal cracks that form at corners and between windows. Drying shrinkage cracks are the result of moisture loss after the plaster has hardened. Plaster will always shrink and crack, so it is desirable that it should develop a large number of fine, unnoticeable cracks at close spacings. Plasters with very high cement content and those that are made with poorquality sands, having a high water requirement, will tend to develop a few, widely spaced cracks. Plaster applied in layers that are too thick will also crack in this way. These cracks are normally stable and can be filled with a filler and painted over.

Structural cracking in progress â&#x20AC;&#x201C; more than just plaster repair is called for in such in such a case.

Structural cracks: Some cracks visible in the plaster may result from cracking of the wall. This can be caused by differential movement of the foundations, moisture expansion or drying shrinkage of masonry units, or thermal movement of the roof. This type of crack often forms in straight vertical or horizontal lines, or in stepped diagonal lines, and may be quite unsightly. The crack width will often vary with the seasons. Because these cracks originate in the wall and not the plaster, repairing the plaster is ineffective. A specialist should be called in to establish the cause of the cracking and to recommend remedial measures. Such measures may include structural alterations that change cracks into movement joints. Visible joints can be hidden by cover strips fixed on one side of the joint or sealed with elastomeric sealants.

The headquarters of the Cement & Concrete Institute in Midrand.

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Cement and Concrete Institute Tel: 011 315 0500 E-mail: Website:

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New trophy award

for concrete retaining blocks The CMA (Concrete Manufacturers Association) has created a new trophy award for the Concrete Retaining Block category in its Awards for Excellence competition. In the past, the Concrete Retaining Block category shared a trophy with the Infrastructural and Innovative Concrete Products categories. According to Hamish Laing, CMA director, the number of CRB entrants has increased tremendously over the past 10 years. Therefore this division warrants a trophy of its own. “This means that this year’s competition will now run with five rather than four trophy awards, the other categories being Masonry, Paving, Roofing and the Infrastructural and Innovative Products Categories,” says Laing. Terraforce, one of the country’s major designers of CRBs, will be sponsoring the trophy. The judging of this year’s competition will take place in July at CMA’s premises in Midrand. The judging panel will comprise construction professionals such as architects, structural engineers and quantity surveyors, who will evaluate the entries over two days.

This retaining wall situated in Wolseley, Western Cape, won a national award in the CMA’s 2008 Awards for Excellence competition.

Concrete Manufacturers Association Tel: 011 805 6742 E-mail: Website:

Number 4, 2010



Co ncrete

Roofing tiles & systems

for the local market Marley Roofing supplies the South African building industry with a tile selection that includes the well-known Designer Range, the M22 Coating System, a variety of clay tiles and the specially developed Ekonoroof solutions.

Marley won the CMA award in the residential category in 2008.

Since the companyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s inception in 1971, the company has undergone many changes in producing quality roof tiles. There are currently four manufacturing facilities and five Marley Roofing distribution centres strategically situated across South Africa. The company has also continuously ploughed back their years of experience into the tile manufacturing processes to ensure that their products are as fit-for-purpose as possible. Certified quality Marley believes that quality roofing does not have to equal a premium price. The Ekonoroof package, which has set a benchmark for quality roofing of low-cost housing, has been supplied to various government housing projects. The custom-design solution incorporates the CMA Roofing System certified by Agrement South Africa and accepted by the National Home Buildersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Registration Council. According to Marley, the estimated cost saving of the roofing system is approximately 20% when compared to standard timber trusses and it is the most cost-effective roofing system for a domestic double-pitch roof using concrete floor tiles. All the roofing products that are manufactured exceed the relevant SABS specifications and the company was also instrumental in

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assisting the SABS to increase their standard with certain tile profiles. Profiles, colours and tile ranges Marley recognises that each builder, designer or architect has their own set of site specifications as well as personal preferences when it comes to choosing roofing products. The widest range of tile profiles (shapes), ranging from bold curves to fatter, more streamlined profiles, are available in a vast range of colours. Marley has also designed the colour of their tiles to work in unison so that builders have the flexibility of designing a contemporary roof that consists of more than one colour. Their Designer Range collection lends aesthetic appeal to the traditional Marley strength and quality. Marley is actively involved in helping customers solve on-site problems and their goal is to partner with their customers and not only be seen as a supplier. Marley Roofing South Africa Tel: 011 316 2121 Fax: 011 316 4138 E-mail:

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Number 4, 2010



Co ncrete

The sustainability

of concrete

Besides water, concrete is the most widely used material on earth. Whether it is used for international airport runways, a small house in rural Limpopo or multi-level shopping centres, this material contributes to a variety of buildings and constructions every year.

According to the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), nearly three tons of concrete is used annually for each man, woman and child in the world and the most rapid market growth for cement is in developing countries. Although few people will dispute concrete’s contribution to infrastructure, development and economies, there are also a variety of sustainability issues that get addressed when referring to cement and concrete. Reducing concrete’s carbon footprint The International Energy Association (IEA) states that global production of cement co-produced 2,44 billion tonnes of CO2 emissions in 2006 and that CO2 emissions from cement production increased by 54% from 2000 to 2006. “This growth of the market demand for concrete and cement outpaces the technical potential to reduce CO2 emissions per tonne of the product, absolute CO2 emissions will continue to increase,” says the IEA. “There is a lot of bad press about concrete,” says Daniel van der Merwe, architect at the Cement & Concrete Institute (C&CI). “It is important to note the contribution that concrete has made to many economies and the contributions that cement manufacturers have been making to reduce that impact. Some of the Roman buildings that were built out of concrete are still standing today.” A joint initiative by the WBCSD Cement Sustainability Initiative (CSI) and IEA produced the Cement Technology Roadmap 2009: Carbon emissions reductions up to 2050 to develop a technology roadmap for cement. According to the report, CSI member companies have made significant progress on measuring, reporting and mitigating their CO2 emissions and the roadmap outlines a possible transition path for the industry to make continued contributions towards a halving of CO2 emissions by 2050 (which equates to the cement industry reducing its direct emission by 18% from current levels by 2050).

A view of Solhbergplassen, on the edge of Rondane National Park in Norway. Half of the volume of concrete used for this project will carbonate over 70 years ( Kjellssen et al, 2005).

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Carbon emission reduction levers According to the report, there are four main carbon emission reduction levers: • Thermal and electric efficiency: New cement plants should receive state of the art technologies and, where economically viable, existing plants should be retrofitted with energy efficiency equipment. • Alternative fuels: Alternative fuels that include wastes and less carbon-intensive fossil fuels and biomass fuels can be used in cement production. • Clinker substitution: Carbon-intensive clinker, which is an intermediate in cement manufacturing, can be substituted with lower carbon materials that have cementitious properties. • Carbon capture and storage: CO2 can be captured and stored before it is released in the atmosphere. Re-using concrete Van der Merwe explains that although there are a variety of manufacturing methods to reduce the carbon footprint of concrete, one must also look at the flexibility of the material in order to ensure sustainability. “Think of concrete as a liquid stone. It’s a flexible architectural medium that can be re-used and modified. The days of just demolishing buildings are over – we have to start retrofitting,” says Van der Merwe. “Concrete is sustainable in so many ways. It is non-combustible, it has excellent fire resistant qualities and it does not give off any poisonous gasses,” says Van der Merwe. “Incorporating waste products into concrete is a great way of maximising the sustainability benefits of concrete.” Bryan Perrie, Managing Director of the C&CI, says that using waste materials to produce cement and concrete has made a significant contribution to the reduction of CO2 emissions from South Africa’s cement and concrete industries. “Most cement products in South Africa have an extender in them in order to reduce the product’s carbon footprint,” says Perrie. “Fly ash, a waste product from the electricity generation industry and blast furnace slag, a by-product from the iron manufacturing process, are both used in thye manufacture of cement and concretet. Instead of letting these waste materials end up on a dump, they are incorporated into cement to increase the product’s sustainability.” According to Perrie, there are many variables when it comes to calculating the carbon footprint of concrete. “In South Africa alone, there are a number of different types of cement and all energy sources, including those form the cement, aggregates, transport andproduction need to be taken into account when quantifying the embodied energy of a cubic metre of concrete,” explains Perrie. “When doing a full life cycle analysis, all manufacturing, transport and production has to be taken into account. Also, concrete can be seen as a cradle-to-cradle product because it can be recycled after a building is demolished,” says Perrie.

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The difference between cement and concrete The words “cement” and “concrete” are often used interchangeably, but cement is one of the ingredients of concrete. Cement is a fine grey powder which reacts with water and sets and hardens. When cement and water are added to aggregates (sand, crushed stone, gravel and other materials), it binds the aggregates together to form concrete. “Making cement poses several sustainability issues. Dust and noise from cement plants and quarries are specific local issues. Fuels and raw materials used in the manufacturing process generate greenhouse gasses and sometimes controversy. Land used for quarries must be restored to help preserve landscape and local biodiversity,” says the Cement Sustainability Initiative of March 2010 by the WBCSD. According to, cement manufacturing accounts for approximately 5% of CO2 emissions even though it is so widely used. Approximately 60% of the CO2 emitted during cement production is due to calcination of the limestone and the other 40% can be attributed to combustion of fuel to fire the kilns. There are three components of sustainability, namely environmental, economic and societal. In everyday speech, sustain means to keep a process going and according to, the goal of sustainability is that life on the planet can be sustained for the foreseeable future.

Cement manufacturing accounts for approximately 5% of the world’s CO2 emissions.

Case study: Meridian Energy’s new building in Wellington Meridian Energy’s new headquarters in Wellington, New Zealand was New Zealand’s first completed 5 Green Star building rated under the New Zealand Green Building Council’s (NZGBC) Green Star Office Design certification. According to, the building was the first to be constructed on Wellington’s waterfront in a decade. The design of the building articulates two separate forms – a glass pavilion that floats on the harbour edge and a smaller, curved annex building that links the building to adjacent heritage warehouses. The builders used structural concrete in the core of the building, of which 65% of the concrete consists of waste products. The designers intended to optimise energy use and comfort inside the 18m high, four storey building. According to, innovative features such as active shading systems, motorised louvers, natural ventilation and solar control are integrated into an overall passive design through the thermal mass properties of the building’s concrete shear wall core and other exposed concrete surfaces. “Concrete has thermal mass and can hold heat and cool air for long periods.” says Perrie. “Using concrete efficiently lets you spend less on heating and cooling your building.” Patrick McGuire, CEO of the Cement & Concrete Association of New Zealand, said in a company newsletter that in order to fully realise the objectives of the sustainable design philosophy, the Meridian Building’s planners looked towards concrete’s thermal mass to reduce reliance on artificial energy systems. “Due to poor design, a recent trend in office buildings has been the substantial growth in cooling requirements brought about by the increasing use

of electronic equipment, together with uncontrolled solar gain. This has led to a significant increase in power usage for the refrigeration plant, pumps and fans necessary to maintain a “comfortable” environment,” said McGuire. The Cement & Concrete Association of New Zealand states that the designers of the Meridian Building used concrete walls, columns and floors to store and release heat. “This function has the effect of regulating the internal environment by reducing and delaying the onset of peak temperatures, to create healthy working environments for the occupants, and reduced energy consumption costs for building tenants and owners,” said McGuire. “The use of exposed concrete as part of an integrated passive design to achieve low energy thermal comfort has been widely used in commercial offices throughout the UK and Europe. With the Meridian building’s focus on environmentally sustainable design principles, and its profile at the forefront of sustainable building design, the understanding and appreciation of concrete’s thermal mass properties should increase within New Zealand. In addition to the target of using 60% less energy, the Meridian building planners also seek to reduce the large percentage of landfill waste generated by the construction industry,” concludes McGuire. Rating: 5 Green Star Developer: DNZ Property Group Design: Studio of Pacific Architecture in joint venture with Peddle Thorp Aitken Engineering: Dunning Thornton (Structural); Beca (Building Services, Fire Engineering) Total NLA: 5,246 m2 (Office 4,040 m2, Retail 832 m2, balconies, storage etc, 374 m2) Number 4, 2010



Co ncrete

to life walls to life According to Terraforce, detailed planning and competent workmanship are such critical aspects of any segmental retaining wall (SRW) that it is easy to forget one of the most important tasks of such a project: the final landscaping that will transform a bland mass of concrete into a display of Create an ecosystem out of any segmental retaining wall (SRW) with these easy steps.

colour, scent and texture. Although some contractors may argue that an SRW does not need to look good (if it is fulfilling the function for which it was built), Terraforce argues that one needs to pay attention to concrete’s aesthetic and environmental impact. Basic steps to planting your wall According to Terraforce, with a good landscaping company you can transform your wall into an ecosystem that not only looks good but also provides a habitat for insect and plant life displaced by extensive building. Liesl Wasmuth, designer at national landscaping company Real Landscapes, explains how the Terraforce Retaining Wall System is used for landscaping purposes. “The first step to an attractively landscaped wall is the type of product used to create it. Terraforce blocks are an inexpensive way to create retaining walls, planters, steps or even a raised edging. They’re versatile and have the potential of transforming an area into something very

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Concr ete “Also, the height and size of the wall should be considered when choosing a plant, as the size of the pockets is often determined by this – steep walls often have exceedingly small planting pockets as blocks are stacked closely together. If your wall is very steep, blocks are sometimes stacked very tightly and get filled with concrete or gravel, which makes it impossible to plant. In this case, if the wall is not that high, you can create a planter at the top in which trailing plants may be planted to trail down and cover the wall. If the wall is very high and the area is fairly big, it should be designed to include planting areas, like terraces or large pockets in which to plant.” Wasmuth recommends either an analysis of the soil on site to see if it will be suitable for your chosen plant species, or importing good quality topsoil and some compost.

special. The other nice thing about building a Terraforce block wall is that it’s easy to fill with a good quality soil.” After this is completed, one must decide what type of plant/plants to use. “This will be determined by the effect that you would like to create, the climatic conditions, the position, the colour scheme, etc. Exposure to sunlight will determine whether you plant a shade-loving plant or one suitable for full sunlight,” continues Wasmuth.

Choosing your cover Planting retaining walls offers as many variations as planting a normal garden. Some people prefer their retaining wall to be entirely covered with plants and others aim for a more structured look. While there are unlimited options for landscaping your wall, Wasmuth lists Ivy (Hedera algeriensis), Convolvulus sabatius and Lamium for quick and complete cover over the entire wall area and Aptenia cordifolia (indigenous), Disphyma, Othonna capensis and Carpobrotus edulis (sour fig) for a waterwise wall that needs very little watering. Wasmuth emphasises that no watering is simply not an option, unless the wall is specifically planted for that purpose. “An irrigation system is ideal in any situation. Even if the chosen plants don’t require a lot of water they will benefit from regular watering and will look better than those without irrigation,” concludes Wasmuth. Terraforce Tel: 021 465 1907 Website:

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Co ncrete

Rolf gets CSSA Lifetime Achievement Award With a concrete career that has spanned over 33 years in the construction industry, the name Rolf Schutte has certainly become well-known and well-respected.

He thanked everyone in the industry who had a significant impact on his life, and especially his wife and daughters for their love and enthusiastic support of his career. In sharing his love for concrete, Rolf’s daughters were taught at a very young age how to mix concrete. Now employed at NPC-CIMPOR as product technical manager, Rolf worked his way through a variety of jobs, including being a life saver at Margate Beach while he was studying, a site engineer in Ermelo, the deputy regional manager for C&CI and a senior lecturer at the DUT campus, then known as ML Sultan Technikon. “A man for all seasons” and one he had no doubt would “go very far in life” is how the then Dean of the Faculty of Civil Engineering, Mr Dasoo, described Rolf back in 1991.

In sharing his love for concrete, Rolf’s daughters were taught at a very young age how to mix concrete.

“The challenge to consistently produce the high specification concrete for the aircraft apron slabs was probably my most exciting challenge yet.” On 18 March 2010, Rolf’s commitment to the industry was recognised and honoured when the KwaZulu Natal Branch of the Concrete Society of Southern Africa (CSSA) awarded him the Lifetime Achievement Award, the second only to be awarded to someone from this province. The function was attended by industry influencers and Rolf was accompanied by his wife, daughters and an entourage from NPC-CIMPOR. In accepting his award, Rolf was modest, saying: “I have cheated here. Wherever I have worked, I always had good people working with me to help and motivate me to achieve what needed to be done.”

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However, Rolf’s lecturing days did not stop and he currently assists staff at DUT, MUT and UKZN in lectures for cement and concrete as well as arranging tours to the NPC cement, concrete and aggregate plants. He serves on the Advisory Board at DUT and is part of the audit/review committee which ensures the institutions’ accreditation with ECSA – the Engineering Council of South Africa. He has long been an active committee member of the CSSA, a voluntary association whose members aim to share their knowledge of and passion for concrete. Rolf’s CSSA interests include his enthusiastic participation in the Annual Concrete Boat Race, Student Egg Protection Device and Strongest Cube Competition. His commitment to the industry and his sharing of knowledge has certainly earned him the award for Lifetime Achievement. Rolf has played a vital role in many large projects. His most recent achievement was being responsible for designing and ensuring the quality of all concrete at King Shaka International Airport in La Mercy, of which he said: “The challenge to consistently produce the high specification concrete for the aircraft apron slabs was probably my most exciting challenge yet.” Paul Greyling, the project engineer responsible for the apron, declared that this concrete was the best he had ever worked with. So next time you are at KSIA waiting to catch your flight, take a moment to look around and know for sure that you are standing on “Lifetime” foundations. NPC-CIMPOR (Pty) Ltd Tel: 031 450-4411 E-mail: Website:

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Co ncrete

Aggregate plants score over

90% in environmental audits NPC Aggregate’s Margate, Marburg and Sterkspruit plants scored over 90% in the ASPASA (Aggregate and Sand Producers Association of Southern Africa) biennial environmental audit, conducted in March 2010. An environmental committee, comprising senior and knowledgeable specialists, deals with environmental matters when undertaking the About Face RSA Environmental Programme. About Face RSA - the only programme of its kind in the South African mining industry - strives to ensure that operations comply with legal requirements, and covers the whole country and across the borders.

As an accredited ASPASA member, NPC Aggregate is declaring its dedication to sustainable development. This is important during tender processes as customers ordering the company’s stone know that it is coming from environmentally-responsible operations. This impressive score by all three plants confirms that the company sells products that are of the finest quality and it takes pride not only in its products, but also in having staff who constantly strive to maintain the high standards to which the public is accustomed.

NPC Aggregate’s Margate, Marburg and Sterkspruit plants scored over 90% in the ASPASA (Aggregate and Sand Producers Association of Southern Africa) biennial environmental audit.

NPC-CIMPOR (Pty) Ltd Tel: 031 450-4411 E-mail: Website:

Plenty afoot in Tongaat April was a very busy month for the concrete division of NPC-CIMPOR, having moved its La Mercy plant to Tongaat. Now situated at Edmund Morewood Road, relocation of the plant was undertaken to be able to meet the needs of clients in Tongaat and Verulam, and as far as Ballito and areas further north. Fully operational by the end of April, this plant boasts offices, a laboratory, a wet concrete batching plant and a water recycling facility. The impressive water facility uses run-off and rainwater that drains into a tank from where it is purified, pumped up through the discharge chute, weighed and then used in the concrete, providing a positive step in eliminating wastage and run-off, and adding to the “greenness” of NPC’s concrete. The Tongaat Concrete Plant’s capacity of 100 cubic metres per hour will, together with its large fleet, enable it to service its intended market areas more than adequately, while at the same time being able to offer a unique and outstanding service to new clients in the area. This new venture is a really exciting chapter for the NPC Concrete Division, adding to its high success rate of new concrete plants around the province. NPC-CIMPOR (Pty) Ltd Tel: 031 450-4411 E-mail: Website:

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Concr ete

Concrete for a sustainable environment: 2010 symposium Pictures courtesy Cement & Concrete Institute (C&CI)

The Concrete Society of Southern Africa has organised a symposium, entitled Concrete For a Sustainable Environment 2010. This symposium, which is supported by the Cement & Concrete Institute (C&CI), will communicate and address the fundamental material issues of concrete as well as promote and facilitate additional action that is needed for concrete’s sustainable future in South Africa. A two-day technical programme is planned from Tuesday 3rd August to Wednesday 4th August. A reception function will also be held on Monday evening 2nd August and a symposium dinner and entertainment on the evening of Tuesday 3rd August. The venue for the symposium is Emperor’s Palace in Kempton Park and the themes of the event include durability, recycling, carbon footprint of concrete, life cycle costing, efficient use of materials and new technologies in the concrete industry. An exhibition of leading product and service providers will complement the technical programme – enabling speakers, delegates and exhibitors to network, engage and do business. There are several sponsorship opportunities available for the symposium. For details of these and to register as a delegate contact: Concrete Society Tel: 012 348 5305 Fax: 012 348 6944 E-mail: Website:

Attend this year’s concrete symposium to address the fundamental material issues of concrete and promote additional action to ensure concrete’s sustainable future in South Africa.

C&CI intensifies

‘Concrete for housing’ promotion Adele de Lange has been appointed as Technical Marketing Consultant: Human Settlements to spearhead the C&CI/CMA drive to promote concrete for the housing market.

With the Cement & Concrete Institute having formalised a new marketing focus area termed Human Settlements Hanlie Turner, marketing manager of C&CI says this development follows earlier efforts by the institute to promote the role of concrete in South Africa’s all-important housing issue. “It has always been important for C&CI to reach small builders involved in housing projects. After all, a large percentage of cement sales are for residential development,” Turner states. “We have over the years made every effort to create an awareness of what C&CI could offer and how the use of concrete would benefit the housing market, by implementing more training courses and targeting housingrelated issues in the media and conferences. But, with increasing competition from alternative building systems and materials, it became evident that a more focused marketing strategy was needed,” she adds. “We have named our new focus area – in line with government terminology – ‘human settlements’. There will in future be a closer working

relationship between C&CI and the Concrete Manufacturers Association (CMA) in widening the concrete marketing focus to include the entire infrastructure associated with housing such as roads, drainage, lighting, fences, hospitals and retail facilities,” she adds. To spearhead this critical marketing initiative, Adele de Lange, a professional architect specialising in housing, has been appointed as Technical Marketing Consultant: Human Settlements. De Lange will promote concrete as a building material for housing on behalf of both C&CI and CMA, offering the best solutions - whether in-situ or precast construction - for human settlements. Cement and Concrete Institute Tel: 011 315 0500 E-mail: Website:

Number 4, 2010



Co ncrete

Carbon footprint of new

cement Eco Building Cement is available in in a 50kg bag for the

equals half of the world average

traditional market and a 20kg bag for the environmentally conscious homeowners/DIY market.

Eco Building Cement, AfriSam’s new environmentally-responsible cement, is part of the company’s drive to reduce its overall carbon footprint. The product is a unique combination of Portland cement and reactive mineral components and its carbon footprint is 453 g/kg, almost half that of the world average of 890 g/kg - according to Cembureau and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development. The new cement is a blend of high performance cement and mineral components, making it extremely durable. It is designed to provide a smooth, defect-free finish for concrete, masonry and plaster work. The cement outperforms many competitive 32,5 MPa products in terms of workability, durability and long term strength. Mike McDonald, AfriSam’s product technical manager, says that the overall carbon footprint for the new cement was achieved while keeping performance requirements for general purpose building, bricklaying and plastering in mind. “We have achieved this without compromising on the quality required by the SABS for cement in this strength class,” says McDonald. Mapping and measuring emission sources Due to the cement industry’s association with CO2, the company’s environmental efforts have been focused mainly on the management and reduction of GreenHouse Gas from the company’s processes. The company already assesses the ongoing carbon footprint of each of its 40 readymix operations, 16 aggregate plants and each cement product from every plant. Tests on Eco Building Cement indicate 2-day, 7-day and 28-day strengths of ≥10 MPa, ≥20 MPa and ≥40 MPa respectively, with excellent long term strengths. These results compare favourably with most products in the 32,5 MPa strength class. The product is available in a 50kg bag for the traditional market and a 20kg bag for the environmentally conscious homeowners/DIY market.

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Emission sources measured in AfriSam’s aggregate and readymix operations incorporate onsite direct emissions, electricity indirect emissions and other offsite indirect emissions. The CO2 calculation methodology is regularly reviewed and complies with the World Business Council for Sustainable Development’s (WBCSD) Cement Sector Initiative (CSI) CO2 methodology. Technical benefits The CEM III A 32,5 N Blastfurnace Cement complies with SANS 50197 At the launch of Eco Building Cement. Despecifications and among its techni- legates and industry leaders were treated to a hot-air balloon ride at Heia Safari in cal benefits are a high resistance to chloride ingress, reducing the risk of Muldersdrift, Johannesburg. reinforcement corrosion and a high resistance to attack by sulphates and other harmful chemicals, thus preventing the early failure of concrete. “It performs excellently for general purpose building, bricklaying and plastering. Its improved cohesion in concrete makes for improved placing and compacting. The product is available in the greater Gauteng area and is easily distinguishable in its bright green packaging,” concludes McDonald. AfriSam (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 670 5500 Fax:011 670 5793 E-mail: Website: ·

Concr ete

The bus lanes for the BRT system in Cape Town have been painted with a striking deep red colour in order to add colour contrast to the busy streets of South Africa’s Mother City.

Adding aesthetics and workability to the BRT System in Cape Town Chryso South Africa has provided large volumes of striking pigmented colour to the bus lanes for the multi-billion-Rand Bus Rapid Transport (BRT) system in Cape Town. According to Chryso regional manager Anthony Venier, the Lanxess red oxide (a deep red finish) was sought by the City of Cape Town to add aesthetics and colour contrast to the bus lanes in busy streets. “Chryso imported large volumes of our Lanxess pigmentation from Germany for the first phase of this project which will require 28 000 cubic metres of concrete,” said Venier. According to Venier, the choice of pigmentation was vital for the BRT lanes, which will be subjected to the Cape’s harsh climatic conditions, particularly in exposed, windy areas such as Table View and Milnerton. “Lanxess’ Bayferrox pigmentation is weather-stable and light-fast, and can withstand strong alkaline cement paste. The pigments are also not toxic or irritating to the skin or mucous membrances,” explained Venier. Besides the pigmented colour, Chryso also supplied a key admixture (Chrysoplast Omega 101 plasticiser) to enhance the performance of the concrete AfriSam is providing for the initial phase of the project. “The plasticiser helped reduce the water demand in the concrete and promoted stable air and workability retention. It proved particularly important to retain workability while the manual broom finishes specified for the bus lanes were in progress,” Venier commented. Works Manager of AfriSam’s Peninsula Quarry, Jaco Cokart, designed the concrete mix for the project. According to Cokart, a characteristic of cement in the Western Cape is that it tends to produce unusually fast setting concrete. “Omega 101 plasticiser was vital for maximum workability in a windy and hot summer in which day temperatures often hovered around 40 degrees Celsius. Chryso’s advisory and logistical input to this project has also been noteworthy and exceptional,” concluded Cokart. Chryso SA is the South African distributor to the construction industry of Bayferrox inorganic pigments produced by Lanxess Germany. The pigments offer superb colourfastness compared to their organic counterparts.

For more information please contact your CHRYSO representative at 0861 CHRYSO

Environmentally Friendly Tile Adhesive with Dust Less Technology CHRYSO Southern Africa (PTY) Ltd. 0861 CHRYSO GAUTENG: 26 Malcolm Moodie Crescent, Jet Park Tel: +27 (0)11 395 9700 Fax: +27 (0)11 397 6644 DURBAN: Unit 3, 14 Travertine Crescent, Briardene Tel: +27 (0)31 564 0325 Fax: +27 (0)31 564 0583 CAPE TOWN: 57 Assegaai Road, Parow, Industria Tel: +27 (0)21 933 5953 Fax: +27 (0)21 933 5991 PORT ELIZABETH: cr Lower Valley Road, Alabaster Str Tel: +27 (0)41 582 4260 Fax: +27 (0)41 582 4261

Chryso SA Tel: 011 395 9700 E-mail: Website:

Number 4, 2010



Co ncrete

Ash Resources

‘Green’ Hydro-electric Power Scheme South Africa’s leading fly ash producer, Ash Resources, is supplying the fly ash for the construction of the Eskom Ingula Pumped Storage Scheme’s Braamhoek and Bedford dams.

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Concr ete

The R19-billion Ingula scheme is a hydro-electric project located about 23 km to the northeast of Van Reenen’s Pass, straddling the border between KwaZulu-Natal and the Free State. Ash Resources’ classified fly ash, DuraPozz, is being supplied from the company’s Matla plant for use as cementitious extender for the construction of the two large dams and associated tunnels at Ingula. John Sheath, Ash Resources’ strategy and marketing manager, says large dams have a high risk potential. Therefore their design and construction have to be tightly controlled. “The quality and consistency of the construction materials are key considerations. DuraPozz contributes to the production of dense, impermeable concrete – a factor which has made it virtually a standard part of the concrete mix for major water retaining structures in southern Africa. DuraPozz was, for example, used for the Katse Dam concrete mix,” Sheath states. Scheduled to come on stream in 2013, the new Ingula hydro-electric scheme is comprised of water flowing from a high level reservoir (Bedford Dam) through a power generating turbine to a lower level reservoir (Braamhoek Dam). When power demand is low, the system draws power from the grid to pump water back into the

upper storage reservoir, which helps the power stations to operate at optimum output. DuraPozz is ranked among the world’s best fly ash for its consistent particle size, Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) value, and highly reactive chemical properties. It is the top selling classified fly ash in South Africa among cement and concrete producers. Sheath adds: “It is appropriate that DuraPozz was selected to be part of the concrete mix of Eskom’s new ‘green’ power station. Our fly ash is produced by turning a waste product from Eskom’s coal-fired power stations - in this case Matla - into an environmentally-friendly and sustainable building material.” “Each tonne of fly ash used in cementitious products saves about one tonne of carbon dioxide emissions. It has been estimated that the use of Ash Resources’ fly ash products has reduced greenhouse gas emissions in South Africa by over 6 million tonnes during the past decade,” he concludes. Ash Resources Tel: 011 886 6200 E-mail: Website:

Number 4, 2010



Tech S avvy

Steel roofing

for the Khumani Iron Ore mine DoubleJack Construction, approved contractors for a range of steel roofing and cladding profiles, supplied a range of roof options and steel sheeting to the new KEP project, the Khumani Iron Ore, in the Northern Cape. The large construction required partners to adhere to stringent health and safety regulations and favoured quality engineering and products. About the project The 10 million tonne per annum (mtpa) Khumani Iron Ore mine was completed in August 2009 and mining company Assmang Limited, which is jointly controlled by African Rainbow Minerals and Assore Limited, approved additional capital expenditure of R5,5 billion for the completion of the Khumani Expansion Project in order to increase the facility’s capacity from 10 mtpa to 16 mtpa. Of the 6 mtpa expansion, 4 mtpa is intended for the export market and 2 mtpa for the domestic market. In a statement by Assmang, the company said that it had “received a commitment from Transnet to extend the current Iron Ore Export allocation on the Sishen/Saldanha export channel from 10 mtpa to 14 mtpa, increasing Assmang’s export capacity accordingly. This dovetails with the Iron Ore channel expansion from 47 mtpa to 60 mtpa.” Products used “24 900 m² is the total area to be supplied, delivered and installed on the mine. Most materials are already on site and part of the erection complete, totalling to a completed area of 7 760 m²,” says Mark Knight, project manager at DoubleJack Construction. Some of the roofing products supplied to the mine include 0,8 mm and 0,58 mm thick IBR 686 profiled colour one side “Kalahari red” roof and side/ gable sheeting, 1,25 mm thick IBR 686 clear polycarbonate sheeting and sisalation 420 roof insulation. “Flashing solutions were the suppliers of all flashings necessary to seal off all buildings as well as the ridge ventilators which provide maximum ventilation in each of the buildings,” said Knight. The Khumani Iron Ore site is located approximately 20 km outside of

Kathu. According to Knight, the buildings on site resemble large masses of steel that, when sheeted, were able to cover large open grounds. “One of these buildings, for example, has a roof area of 7 859 m² and an area of 5 491 m² on the side cladding,” explains Knight. Installation of this building is expected within 55 working days, therefore requiring a tight schedule coupled with a stringent safety procedure. All installation is worked at heights which may pose a threat of risk of injuries, but due to compliance to strict safety regulations of the principal contractor, DoubleJack Construction, has complied with all the above requirements. DoubleJack Construction has been trading since 1970 and the company’s comprehensive knowledge, combined with its highly trained team, has lead to the company being known as one of the highest ranked professionals within the roofing industry. DoubleJack Construction fulfils all sheeting requirements together with professional drawings, accurate schedules and committed staff. Other established clients that DoubleJack Construction has worked with include Burgess & Burger, Roymec, Imbabala Contractors, BHP Billiton, Concor Engineering, SMEI projects, Murray & Roberts and Delras Engineering. “DoubleJack Construction will always be up for tackling challenging tasks and adhering to strict regulations. Each project is different and we will continue to meet the client’s needs, quality standards and completion dates,” concludes Knight. Doublejack Construction (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 828 3453 / 3445 / 9126 Fax: 011 828 5578 E-mail: Website:

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Tech Savvy

Number 4, 2010



Tech S avvy

Stadiums score with Plascon coatings Plascon is proud to be a supplier of coatings to the remarkable world class stadiums built for the 2010 FIFA Soccer World Cup, and for being a facilitator to bring these iconic landmarks to life. The Plascon 360º Partnership Pledge came into its own, providing not only detailed paint specifications and products, but also quality assurance, technical back-up and large scale painting project management. The Rand Stadium, one of the oldest stadiums in Johannesburg, has been completely rejuvenated in a striking bright red painted grandstand with blue-tinted glass, making this contemporary-looking structure very different from its predecessor. The stadium boasts 10 000m² covered by coatings supplied through Plascon. At Coca-Cola Park, the sponsor’s colour, Coca-Cola red, is vibrantly showcased in Plascon Professional. In this project, as with all the stadiums, cost was a primary consideration where Plascon offered cost-effective products, including Plascon Terraco Ez Skim preparation coatings. Plascon Professional was also supplied to coat the Orlando Stadium. The Mbombela Stadium in Nelspruit is one of the five 2010 sporting precincts that has been built from scratch and the sculptural form of this sparkly rectangular stadium, with its cantilever roof, looks like a faceted cut stone. Adding to its lustre are Plascon products such as Wall & All, Velvaglo and

Plascon Professional. Roof supportive structures that resemble giraffes and zebra-style seating both serve to integrate this structure with the natural surroundings. The giraffes were coated in orange Plascon Wall & All. In addition, Plascon supplied a local community of artists with paint products to create beautiful mural art in the passageways and walkways. Other stadiums include the Nelson Mandela Bay Stadium in Port Elizabeth (85 000 m² wall area in Plascon Professional and Plascon Velvaglo on doors and frames) and the Royal Bafokeng Stadium in Rustenburg (Plascon Professional used throughout). The stadium projects speak loudly of Plascon’s capacity to provide innovative solutions that are not only cost-effective, but also add to the ambitious architectural vision behind these multi-faceted developments, which will have a lasting influence on the architectural landscape of South Africa long after the visiting crowds have gone home. Plascon Trade Tel: 086 020 4060 E-mail: Website:

Massterliner is the NEW improved FBI

The NEW “Bubble” Insulation

It has achieved the highest possible Fire classification in its class namely B/B1/2/H (USP) in accordance with the SANS 10400 building regulations. The Superior Facing of Massterliner is a Thermal and Air Vapour Barrier that eliminates rust and Fungi growth. Unlike some other well known products no condensation marks will ever appear and the facing will not delaminate.

New age Flame Retardents utilised in formulation to achive best in class Fire Rating: B/B1/2/H (USP). UV stabilisers added for a prolonged lifespan. BFR is a Radiant, Thermal and Vapour barrier. BFR will not only reduce energy consumption, it will also add value to any building or home.

r Reflective foil insulation

r Flexible bulk insulation (polyester/fibreglass) r Rigid board insulation

rAcoustic insulation rAll accessory products

With combined experience 068a WALL S & R OOF S Numberof4,over 2010 50 years in the Construction industry we are confident that we will be able to take care of your every need.

Tech Savvy

Lighting range provides total

security solution

Lighting importer and distributor, Eurolux, has announced its joint ownership of the locally designed Ni9htwatcher technology. According to the company, this decision and announcement follows an increasing international and local interest in security lighting range, as well as an opportunity to exhibit the Ni9htwatcher at both the Frankfurt Lighting and Las Vegas DIY Fairs. The microprocessor controlled light features a motorised 150 Watt halogen floodlight that detects any motion in the 210 degrees Passive Infrared (PIR) covering zones and automatically turns towards the movement. The Ni9htwatcher has an active covering range of 10 metres plus. Eurolux director, Shaun Bouchier, describes the Ni9htwatcher range as a total security solution. “It is a PIR linked security light that comes with optional add on features such as a built-in wireless camera that can be linked to a wireless handheld LCD monitor, wireless television receiver or a handheld wireless alarm receiver as an early warning signal. This means that the moment motion is detected you not only know about

it, but you have a visual and are able to determine whether there is a direct threat to you or not,” says Bouchier. With any motion being detected, the light of the unit will automatically go on and turn towards the breached zone to illuminate the area while simultaneously sending an alarm signal to the wireless remote unit to audibly indicate the breach. The built-in wireless camera transmits images within the light path directly to the selected computer or handheld device and the light head will keep following the motion until no further motion is detected. There are a number of models available in this product range. “You are able to tailor make a solution that meets your security needs, therein lies the beauty of this durable device,” concludes Bouchier.

Eurolux Tel: 011 608 2970 Fax: 011 608 2975 E-mail: Website:

Number 4, 2010



Tech S avvy

The buildings on site resemble large masses of steel that, when sheeted, were able to cover large open grounds.

World-class roof

sheeting for

Gauteng’s new brewery

The new Heineken brewery in Randvaal in the south of Johannesburg, called the Sedibeng Brewery, brews and bottles a range of premium beers including Amstel, Heineken and Windhoek Lager - for the local market. The R3,5-billion project was built on an 83-hectare site and the project includes a brewery, production plant and warehouse. The initial capacity of the brewery is 3-million hectolitres and the facility is seen as one of the most advanced in the world. Owned 75% by Heineken and 25% by Diageo, the state-of-the-art building required premium design, innovation and products. Safintra Roofing & Steel supplied Saflok 700 and IBR sheeting to cover and clad the new Sedibeng brewery. “The design called for a skinned inside covering. Safintra supplied high quality painted material for the outside cladding and a separate skin layer as a finish to the inside of the building,” says Eben Nel, the research, development and marketing manager at Safintra. “From the inception of the project, Lyle Jeffery our sales manager, and his team worked closely with Vernon Schroeder from Osmand Lange architects to ensure a smooth execution of the processes. Our high quality painted products gave the client peace of mind because we only supply high quality roofing products,” comments Nel.

The new brewery was covered from top to bottom with 0,58 mm thick input material in Dove Grey, Fish Eagle White and a uniquely formulated colour called Casablanca. Approximately 80 tons of Casablanca rolled into IBR or inverted-box-rib profile was used and all material was supplied by Arcelor Mittal from their Chromadek range. According to Nel, the Heineken brewery project was the largest project of its type in South Africa at the time of delivery, with over 200 000 m² of sheeting and cladding supplied by one manufacturer. Cladding the walls and roofs Two roofing erectors, Hancor sheeters and Southy projects, were responsible for cladding the walls and roofs of the brewery. Hans Ellis, a Safintraapproved roofing contractor, commented on the specific challenges relating to the roof cladding. “Installing cladding on a 24 m high tower in strong wind was a challenge,” said Ellis. He explained that the roofing erectors also had to work on a strict deadline. “After completing the second phase of construction, we had to start erecting sheeting from one end of the building while the other end was not yet 100% complete. Due to our state of the art manufacturing process, Safintra was a key role player in the project being completed 3 months ahead of schedule.” Taking pride in your work Nel says that Safintra is proud to be involved in projects such as the Heineken brewery. “The building is widely regarded as one of the most advanced breweries in the world and our products are geared for these types of projects. Our system, where approved erectors install Saflok 700 concealed fix roofing, ensures the client receives the best products, expertise and service in erecting. A roofing product can only achieve its best performance if the erector knows the product and takes pride in his work,” concludes Nel.

The new Heineken brewery is a R3,5-billion project and it was built on an 83-hectare site. Over 200 000 m² of sheeting and cladding supplied by one manufacturer.

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Safintra Roofing & Steel Tel: 011 823 4027 Fax: 011 823 4288 Email: Website: ·

Tech Savvy

Number 4, 2010



Tech S avvy

Overall winner of

2010 SAPOA Excellence Awards The Department of International Relations & Cooperation (DIRCO)’s new offices and conference centre development in Tshwane was announced as the overall winner in the prestigious South African Property Owners Association (SAPOA) Innovative Excellence in Property Development awards, sponsored by Nedbank Corporate Property Finance. The R1,2 billion OR Tambo Building in Tshwane is a Public Private Partnership between Government and Imbumba Aganang Consortium. Designed by TC Design Architects in JV with ACG Architects, the structure embodies the functional and efficient use of space for staff and the public which is further enhanced by high standards of green design principles. Although the OR Tambo Building falls into the category “offices”, it is more complex in its method of delivery and usage. Accommodating some 2 500 employees, with 1 500 parking bays, the 138 570 m2 building includes a state of the art conference facility designed to house the African Union and South African Development Community (SADC) conferences.

Besides being announced as the overall winner, the OR Tambo Building was also joint winner in the “office” development category together with The Boulevard Park, owned and developed by Faircape Property Developers, designed by DHK Architects, Peerutin Architects and Rennie Schurr Adendorff. Soccer City in Soweto, Johannesburg, was voted as the best designed and developed 2010 soccer stadium. Morningside Shopping Centre in Sandton, designed by MDS Architecture, received top honours in the retail development category and Waterstone, a R400 million residential development in Century City, Cape Town, which was designed by Maas & Coetzee, was the winner in the residential development group.

Judging criteria The awards were made on the basis of the overall excellence of the development having regard to the criteria or property solutions under various criteria such as environmental sustainable design, owner and user satisfaction, adaptability, empowerment, community enhancement, integration into landscape, accessibility and transport, user comfort and theatrical event experience/atmosphere, iconography, innovation and more. “Whilst SAPOA is sensitive to the need for developments to be attractive, it wishes to emphasise that this recognition is not based solely on architectural appeal, but rather on a holistic approach that developments need to be economically viable, satisfy the needs of both the investor and user, be aesthetically appealing and enhance the locality in which they are situated,” said John Truter, director of WSP Structures Africa. “The awards are an affirmation by SAPOA of the ideal of providing society with the optimal solution to its property needs, recognising the solutions or projects that best embody overall excellence,” said Truter. Soccer City in Soweto, Johannesburg, was voted as the Consolidated Facility for ABB South Africa in Longmeadow, owned and best designed and developed 2010 soccer stadium. developed by Improvon Properties, won the award for the industrial development category as well as a special Green Building Award. The winning vote for the refurbishment category went to 9 Fredman Drive, which was owned and developed by Eris Property Group and designed by Boogertman & Partners. Neil Gopal, SAPOA CEO, says: “The awards highlight quality, excellence in design and innovation – all paramount to the property development industry. The awards also demThe overall winner in the prestigious South African onstrate the determination of developers to keep abreast of Morningside Shopping Centre, Sandton, winner of Property Owners Association (SAPOA) Excellence the latest trends and to cater for clients’ building requirements.” the SAPOA Retail Innovative Excellence in Property awards for 2010 is DIRCO’s new offices and The awards were held in May at Sun City and a record Development Awards. conference centre development in Tshwane. number of submissions were received. “In acknowledging excellence in property development, we must deepen our appreciation and understanding of the urban challenge and the opportuniThe building includes offices for the Minister, deputy ministers and other ties that exist for solving problems, thereby enriching the quality of life in our ministers, general office space complete with executive functions, cities and urban areas,” concludes Truter. meeting rooms, pause areas, boardrooms, foreign service training facilities, support breakaway conference facilities, a canteen, gym and For more information, visit, to whom full thanks and wellness centre and two exclusive guest houses, each capable of sleeping acknowledgement is given. up to 15 visiting dignitaries.

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Tech Savvy

Top honours were given to Elma Kloppers, specialist property writer for a number of publications, including Sake24 in Beeld, Die Burger, Volksblad and Rapport, at the annual SAPOA Property Journalist Awards 2010, sponsored by Hermans & Roman Property Solutions. Walls & Roofs magazine was awarded the Best Property Publication of the Year Award for its attractive layout, informative material and good content. “It is wonderful to have this coveted award bestowed on us. To be named the SAPOA Property Publication 2010 is an honor and testament to our dedication to the property and construction industry. We have an amazing team that puts this publication together and they must also be praised for their hard work and tremendous commitment” said Marlene E van Rooyen, Editor of Walls &Roofs Kloppers was announced as the Property News Journalist of the Year and she was highly commended for her insightful and investigative reporting

on property related issues, including controversial ones, as well as her distinctive, clear writing style. The coveted Property Feature Journalist of the Year Award was presented to Karen Eicker, features writer for Urban Green File, with judges’ comments citing Karen’s excellent attention to detail, innovative research and well-written articles. “Through these awards, we are able to recognise and pay tribute to outstanding journalists who report on the South African property market,” said Neil Gopal, CEO of SAPOA. “As in previous years, the quality of the entries has been excellent, demonstrating the stature of the Awards amongst media in the property sector.” A number of journalists across the various award categories also received special mention. Those include Thabang Mokopanele (Business Day), Ian Fife (Financial Mail), Joan Muller (Finweek), Monique Terrazas (Real Estate Investor magazine) and Bernadette Cook for her Carte Blanche story on Green Building in SA. Two publications – Shopping SA and Urban Green File – also received special commendation. Gopal commented that the awards provide a good indication of the talent and skills of media specialising in the property sector. “This year we had eight new entries, and it’s the new entrants every year that show the growing interest in the recognition that SAPOA provides. Ultimately this serves to boost property journalism,” concludes Gopal. For more information, visit, to whom full thanks and acknowledgement is given.

Skill, dedication and customer service is the key “Our mission is to build sound customer relationships in order to establish our client’s needs and to maintain and uphold service standards. We recognise and value the contribution our employees make towards achieving our vision, and aim to motivate and empower our staff to work as a team in a meaningful and rewarding environment.” Every company has a mission, but with Longspan Gutters this is almost a mantra rather than the banal statement that many companies pay lip service to. They strive on a daily basis to meet these objectives – with considerable success. As a family business now in its 30th year of operation, Longspan Gutters has steadily grown into a well-established group, with a “hands-on” management team of highly motivated people that has enabled the company to set the benchmark for product quality at the right price, whilst providing the epitome of customer service. The company was started in 1980 by Gus Behn Snr in Pietermaritzburg who, after many years as a building contractor, recognised that there was a requirement for a specialist gutter manufacturing and installation service. Longspan Gutters is still operating as a family business under the control of his son, Gus, who says that the “family” now includes all his management, staff and employees. “Our people are the main component of our continuing success,” he says. “From management through to the site operations all our people are highly skilled, and the fact is that

if you have dedicated and passionate people with this level of competence throughout the organisation, the quality of product, workmanship and customer service will follow.” “We are also very proud to have close associations with international companies, being authorised distributors for three world-renowned brands of machines and specialised tooling,” he says. “These are KWM Gutterman of Chicago, USA, for gutter roll-forming machinery; Knudson Manufacturing Inc of Broomfield, Colorado, USA, for gutter and roofing roll-forming machinery; and Malco Products Inc of Annandale, USA, for specialised construction tooling. We see their trust in us as an accolade for the service we provide.” Gus concludes. Longspan Gutters CapeTown & Durban Tel: 021 556 8522; 031 569 6500 Fax: 021 556 8520; 031 569 6505 E-mail: Website:

Number 4, 2010



New president of the Concrete Society John Sheath has been announced as the new National President of Concrete Society of Southern Africa at the Annual General Meeting held recently. Sheath has been involved with the Concrete Society for the past 14 years: as ordinary member, branch committee member, branch secretary, branch treasurer, Inland Branch Chairman and elected councillor. He has also acted as the Society’s webmaster for the past 12 years. “I am honoured to be asked to serve as President for the next two years. I am also very grateful to the Exco and Council for putting their faith in me. I have been very close to the Society, and see the presidency as recognition of my various inputs over the past years,” Sheath said at the Annual General Meeting. Sheath has been in the construction supply industry for many years and he has held several marketing management/directorship positions. More recently, he was Marketing Manager at the Cement and Concrete Institute, and he now servers in the same capacity at Ash Resources. Francois Bain, the outgoing CSSA President, describes Sheath as a dynamic and energetic person who will take the Society forward in its quest to grow membership and enhance member value. For more information visit, to which full thanks and acknowledgement are given.

SA Housing Foundation Conference in October The Southern African Housing Foundation will be holding their International Conference, Exhibition and Housing Awards from 10 - 13 October 2010 in Cape Town. With 50 speakers and 50 exhibitors. This year’s theme, Green Technology for Sustainable Human Settlements, has attracted a variety of local and international experts. Guest speakers: • Bonginkosi Madikizela: Minister - Department of Human Settlements, Western Cape. • Silas Zimu: Managing Director - City Power Johannesburg. • Akinola Popoola: President - NAHRO: United States of America. • Councillor Shehaam Sims: Mayoral Committee Member Housing, City of Cape Town. • Professor Paddy Grey: President - Chartered Institute of Housing, United Kingdom. • Professor Jiann-Mou Chen: Associate Professor and Chairman HWA HSIA - Institute of Technology Taipei, Taiwan. The Conference will be of interest to Academics, Researchers, Housing Managers, Consultants, Local Government Officials, Innovators, Community-Based Organisations, Councillors, Non-Government Organisations, Financial Institutions and Manufacturers. The event will include interactive sessions which will give an ideal opportunity for delegates to debate and propose solutions to supporting the development of communities. For more information, visit, to whom full thanks and acknowledgement is given.

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Clearwater Mall

expansion incorporates sustainable features Clearwater Mall, an award-winning shopping centre in the northwestern suburbs of Johannesburg, will be expanded to accommodate the growing demand for further retail space in this area. Built in 2004 on a 17,3 hectare site, the mall currently has 64 000 m2 of shops, cinemas and restaurants. Bentel Associates International (BAI), the architects responsible for the original architecture of the building, configured the mall’s design in a three-legged triangular format with anchor tenants Pick n Pay, Woolworths and Edgars at each point of the triangle. A unique feature of Clearwater Mall is the retractable sliding roof, which can be closed to cover the entire central piazza area in unfavourable weather conditions. Innovative design response to electricity restrictions The earthworks for the 23 000 m2 extension started in October 2009 and the project is scheduled for completion in November 2010. According to the architects, it was not possible to obtain extra electricity permissions for the added space at Clearwater Mall. This necessitated innovative design solutions which incorporate several sustainable options, especially in terms of increasing the amount of natural light in the extension.” The front of the centre currently has on-grade parking and the addition of anew deck above that w will provide on-grade parking to the first-floor level. The design also includes space for a link to the future rapid transit system and a taxi rank with 45 bays. Bentel Associates International Tel: 011 884 7111 E-mail: Website:

Archi tecti ves

Green, non-toxic masonry cleaner hits local market A new environmentally-friendly masonry cleaner, called Envirosafe, has been launched by Chryso SA. According to the company, Envirosafe is a low-viscosity, synthetic masonry cleaner which dissolves more calcium carbonate and efflorescence than hydrochloric or phosphoric acid. “Envirosafe cleaner is colour-safe – even on the lightest of colours,” says Hannes Engelbrecht, marketing manager for Chryso. “Acid washing of indoor tiles produces noxious gas – a problem eliminated by the new ‘green’ masonry cleaner. Envirosafe is also suitable for acid etching of floors – a process in which acid is applied to concrete floors to prepare it for subsequent coatings or screeds. Envirosafe will clean and remove dirt and other impurities from the concrete floor, as well as provide a surface texture to improve the adhesion of the coating,” Engelbrecht explained. The cleaner can be used for: • Removing mortar smears, grout residue, cement and efflorescence from bricks, walls and finished concrete • Cleaning of pavers, blocks, bricks, concrete, river rocks and architec tural concrete and retainer walls, while dissolving all signs of efflorescence • Removing algae and calcium deposits from mortar and concrete

Industrial design student creates Cersaie 2010 poster The graphic design of the poster for Cersaie 2010, the international exhibition of ceramic tiles and bathroom furnishings that will be held in Bologna from 28 September to 2 October, consisting of an apple made up of nine green ceramic tiles topped by a stylised stalk, was designed by a Genoan student. The poster for the 28th edition of the show the first in this second decade of the millennium, was designed by Alessandra Parodi, a student in Product & Event Design at the Architecture Faculty of the University of Genoa, coordinated by Prof Carlo Vannicola. The design was the winning entry from a total of 123 projects submitted in the first Beautiful Ideas competition, open to students at ten Italian architecture faculties and design institutes and launched during Cersaie 2009 at the end of a conference given by Michele de Lucchi entitled Beautiful Minds. The winning university will receive 5 000 €, the student selected for first prize 2 000 € and students with honourable mentions 500 €. For information on the Beautiful Ideas project, contact Cristina Faedi, Promotional Activities: Cersaie E-mail: Website:

New window production facility

The introduction of Envirosafe to South Africa by Chryso follows the company’s recent launch of several new environment-friendly products. Besides the non-toxic cleaner, Chryso now also supplies a safe synthetic acid for the readymix, building and construction industries. Syntech is a synthetic hydrochloric acid replacement which delivers the cleaning power of hydrochloric acid while remaining non-corrosive, non-regulated, and safe for humans, animals and plants. Syntech is used to clean readymix concrete vehicles, drums, and extension chutes in an environmentally-responsible manner and, according to Engelbrecht, the synthetic acid forms the basis for three other new “green” products now distributed by Chryso: Barracuda is a non-acid, non-corrosive concrete stripper which can dissolve almost 15% more concrete than hydrochloric acid. It can also be used to clean concrete moulds or any construction equipment, as well as stains and efflorescence on bricks; Readymix Truck Wash and Wax, a non-acid, non-corrosive truck wash that removes concrete as effectively as traditional acids without irritating the skin of the user; and Fusion, a revolutionary internal non-stick treatment for readymix concrete vehicle drums and equipment. “Hydrochloric acid is widely used in South Africa to remove concrete from trucks, drums and extension chutes, but it is dangerous to the user, corrodes the vehicle and damages the environment. With these new ‘green’ products, no protective gear needs to be worn, so it’s safe for drivers and truck-wash personnel, as well as the environment. The new products have been enthusiastically welcomed by the construction industry,” concludes Engelbrecht.

South Africa’s largest manufacturer and distributor of steel and aluminium windows, doors and allied building products, Duro Pressings, has established a R3-million new aluminium window production facility at Kuils River in the Western Cape. The production facility is operated under the umbrella of Duro’s aluminium product division, Richards and Barlow (R&B). Stephan Marckx, R&B commercial manager, says the Kuils Rivier window manufacturing facility, which dovetails on the same site with R&B’s Western Cape distribution nerve centre, will be managed by a team led by Theo Butler and David Garrett, both of whom are residents of Cape Town. According to Marckx, the investment by Duro is seen as a clear vote of confidence in the Western Cape’s building, construction and home improvement sector at a time when it is still shaking off the effects of the worst recession in almost two decades. “This project enables us not only to boost service to our community of customers in the Western Cape, but also to move even closer to them as the source of a wide, and fully complementary, range of R&B aluminium products that is being increasingly used in the housing market in the region – from economic and affordable to top-end homes,” explains Marckx. “Our distribution infrastructure at Kuils Rivier covers not only the Peninsula and the Western Cape but also reaches into the Northern Cape as far as Kakamas in Namaqualand as well as into Namibia, giving the two brands a strong footprint in the region,” Marckx concludes.

Chryso SA Tel: 011 395 9700 E-mail: Website:

Duro Pressings Tel: 0 11 494 4400 E-mail: Website:

in Western Cape

Number 4, 2010



A rchi te c t i ve s

Celebrating Any family business that is harmoniously conducted with dedication and high professionalism has a recipe for success, but none more so than Longspan Gutters that has been providing the construction industry with worldclass products for the past three decades.

From its inception, the vision of the company was to be seen as the industry market leader, renowned for its commitment to uncompromising quality and world-class service, and thus the company motto of We lead, others follow has been earned by the high skills levels exhibited throughout the company, the service provided to its customers, and the esteem with which Longspan Gutters is held throughout the industry. On-site precision roll-forming Longspan Gutters provides a comprehensive service for most configurations in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors by providing standard roll-formed gutters on site. Purpose made gutters, fascia and barge board replacements, purpose made cladding and flashings are an additional service which Longspan Gutters engages in, and are fitted on site to the correct dimensions and specifications. This provides considerable savings in time, labour and materials because the purpose made gutters, fascia and barge board replacements, purpose made cladding and flashings are all formed and fitted on site to the correct dimensions and specifications. The precision installation process is fast, efficient and hassle-free, and the seamless gutters are guaranteed not to fade, leak or rust. The aluminium coating formulation has been selected to provide optimum qualities of film hardness, flexibility for forming operations, light fastness and resistance to weathering and chalking.

30 years of success

Prestigious projects Longspan Gutters has installed over 2 000 kilometers of guttering over the 30 years of its existence, which includes some of the landmark buildings in South Africa and its environs. Amongst the recent installations of note are Khayalitsha Hospital, where the main contractor was Group 5, Glengary Shopping Centre (WBHO), Telkom Exchange Pinelands, Groote Schuur Hospital (GVK), Parklands Private School (Granbuild), and Caledon Prison (NMC). Unique product offering “We also do copper gutters and have recently completed an installation at a customer’s home in the upmarket suburb of Constantia in Cape Town with a contract valued at over R200 000,” says Longspan Gutters director and general manager Paul Marais. Both CEO Gus Behn and Paul Marais are in unison when asked what they consider to be the main ingredient of the company’s success, citing world-class service, uncompromising quality and expertise, and attention to detail in everything the company does. “We’re passionate people who love to do what we do!” Longspan Gutters has gained an enviable reputation for its highly skilled staff in all aspects of its business. Company administration, sales, manufacturing and on-site forming and installation are all carried out by staff with a high level of skill and experience, and this in turn generates a feeling of pride in the company, endorsed by the extremely high rate of staff retention the company enjoys. Most employees have been with the company for over a decade and bring a high level of expertise and dedication to any project they undertake. Also, Longspan Gutters has a strong sense of social responsibility, having been awarded the Best SMME of the Year as a Proudly South African Company, and its factories (in Cape Town and Durban) have attained verified BBBEE status under the terms of the Broad-Based Black Empowerment Act 53/2003.

Longspan Gutters Cape Town: Tel: 021 556 8522; Fax: 021 556 8520 Durban: Tel: 031 569 6500; Fax: 031 569 6505 E-mail: Website:

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A rchi te c t i ve s

How an intelligent product guide

can make

your job easy

Up until a couple of decades ago architectural offices had specialist specification writers who would compile detailed documentation and product specifications for every project. These specialists had in-depth knowledge of building practices and products and their documentation left no doubt as to what was required with regard to the construction of a building.

errors will be made while interpreting the literature,” says Treadaway. With the introduction of AutoSpec into the South African building industry, specifiers avoid unnecessary risk and save time while still producing professional and accurate specification documents for their projects. “The thing that makes AutoSpec unique is that it is programmed with all the expert product knowledge of our manufacturer clients which empowers AutoSpec’s users to make informed product choices and produce comprehensive specifications with very little effort and in no time at all. Clearly manufacturers who make it as easy as possible to have their products accessed, understood and specified will be rewarded by specifiers with their loyalty,” explains Treadaway. Using the software Searching for products is quick and easy and can be done through key words, product categories or a manufacturer listing. The system then asks a series of relevant questions and writes a bespoke specification based on the answers, which can then be copied into any other program or into AutoSpec’s project module. AutoSpec’s project module creates detailed door, window, finishes and sanitaryware schedules as well as a full specification document which lists all the products selected, all relevant standards and instructions for correct installation or application. It does this with ease and speed and each document is bespoke and can also be sorted by room number or location.

These specialists have all but disappeared and with them the essential art of specification writing. Glenn Treadaway, managing director of AutoSpec, says that producing a proper specification is one of the most important aspects of the construction process. “Specification writing prescribes something specific and therefore ensures that the designer and client get what they want from an aesthetic and functional point of few and reduces problems during the construction phase,” says Treadaway. Information overload It would be nearly impossible for the modern specifier to retain all the facts about different products in today’s continuously evolving market. One would either be forced to seek help from the manufacturer or refer to product literature and study its contents carefully in order to make an informed decision. “This requires a lot of time and effort and the risk is still high that

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Updated products and prices AutoSpec updates itself daily and the user is therefore constantly up-to-date with the latest information, which also includes pricing, CAD drawings, data sheets and product brochures. Producing a comprehensive set of specification documents no longer needs to be a complex and time consuming process. Local partnership provides information portal AutoSpec will now offer its users an additional benefit by attaching all relevant Walls & Roofs features and product-related articles to its manufacturers’ libraries. This will give AutoSpec’s users additional background and insight into the products they wish to specify and facilitate the selection of new products that they might otherwise not have been exposed to. Features inside Walls & Roofs will conversely indicate whether products are available for selection and specification inside AutoSpec. AutoSpec Tel: 011 804 6442 Email: Website:

Archi tecti ves

Number 4, 2010



A rchi te c t i ve s

Local aircon supplier launches

training centre in Gauteng

The new air-conditioning training centre in Johannesburg provides sales training as well as technical training for new air-conditioning products in the industry.

Samsung Air, leading suppliers of air-conditioning solutions in South Africa, have recently launched a new training centre at their Northriding branch in Gauteng. The centre aims to not only train sales staff, but also to aircon dealers on how to install and maintain new air-conditioning technologies. “Knowing a product enables you to sell it better, and being confident in your knowledge of technical installations gives your company a competitive advantage,” says Richard Perry, managing director of Samsung Air. “The training centre will help to further the knowledge of technical air conditioning systems and boost product knowledge. Some of the products are still relatively new in the country and we want new technologies to reach more people,” says Perry. There is a fully installed Samsung DVM System in the training centre. According to Perry, the system is revolutionising larger aircon installations in South Africa. “The installation of this DVM system is, from a technical point of view, fairly easy. It is taking the industry by storm and more people want to know how to be able to supply and install the system. Our fully installed DMV system at the centre ensures that trainees can see how faults are diagnosed, equipment is set up and how the technical side of it fits together.” The training courses are carried out over a few days and the groups are small in order to ensure enough

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time is spent on individuals. “The sales training takes one day and the technical training takes about two to three days,” says Perry before explaining that companies usually send a group of employees. “We don’t do mass training. Companies send their teams over, which works well because the people are familiar with one another and they are used to their own group dynamics. It is a very direct type of training,” says Perry. The training centre was launched in May and 80 people were trained within the first two weeks. The training centre is aimed at a broad market and the services provided are not limited to South African companies. “In June, we are expecting 20 people from six countries to come for technical training,” says Perry. Samsung will be expanding their training centre in the near future. “We are also going to use a second floor so that additional practical rooms and training rooms are available. The courses are popular and I think the industry will continue to show keen interest in the facilities,” concludes Perry. Samsung Air Tel: 011 704 6320 E-mail: Website:

Archi tecti ves

Number 4, 2010



Shop fro n t

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Shopfr ont

Number 4, 2010



A rchi te c t i ve s

Safety on site hampered by heaps of paperwork Colin de Kock, executive director of the Gauteng Master Builders Association (GMBA), says that the effective operation of the construction industry’s already limited Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) workforce is being hindered by “mountains of paperwork” required by government legislation. Speaking at a GMBA HSE information workshop in Midrand, De Kock said contractors’ main focus of compliance with the Construction Regulations of 2003 was compiling a “Safety File”. According to him, the file required so much paperwork that HSE officers had little time to be on site to prevent accidents. Preventing accidents or filling in forms? According to De Kock, the content of some of the forms is extremely

Making the world a better place The OpenThinkBox Awards Ceremony was held on Wednesday, 21st April 2010 and the competition’s theme, FirstFix, asked practising architects, aspiring designers and students to make the world a better place through design. “We wanted the participants to spot an issue in society and create a project that would fix the problem,” said Craig Yeatman, Director of Worlds View Technologies, a leading distributor of Autodesk software to the building market and sponsors of the competition. “The judging panel consisted of a mix of industry professionals, thought leaders and architectural specialists such as Jacques Laubscher, Professor of Architecture at the University of Pretoria, Matthew Krause, Arts Editor of the Mail & Guardian, Senan Abdelqader, lecturer and unit master at Bezalel Academy of Art and Design, previous competition winners, and other professionals and academics,” said Yeatman. Winning projects The competition, which was first introduced in 2006, sets out to promote a vibrancy in South African design as well as raise the profile of local architects. Christopher Bisset from the University of Cape Town won first place in the student category. His ‘Showerhouse Road’ project addressed the critical lack of basic municipal infrastructure in the Langa informal settlement outside Cape Town by providing its residents with a clean, comfortable, safe place to wash, while also providing a sound barrier between the highway and the settlement. “The lives of the people in this settlement are severely impacted by the airport, the city’s traffic and pollution. I wanted to give them a hygienic

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complex and each sub-contractor of a project are also required to compile their own individual Safety File. “I am asking: does this slavish submission to the paperwork demon help prevent accidents on site? There have already been close to 60 fatalities on site in the first quarter of this year,” said De Kock. The Department of Labour’s inspection on construction sites in August 2009 led to site closures and notices served due to contractors failing to keep adequate Safety Files. De Kock said that these closures were not related to site conditions, hazards or risks on site. “Does this mean that the Department of Labour found nothing potentially unsafe on site? Are the inspectors looking at the correct issues?” asked De Kock. “It must be clearly understood that the GMBA is not calling for the requirements of the Construction Regulations to be downgraded. But there should be a way of maintaining compliance while reducing the Safety File’s formidable paperwork so that smaller contractors, in particular, could have an HSE presence on site. HSE officers are now trying to prevent accidents while being confined to their offices for 75% of their working hours,” De Kock concluded. GMBA Tel: 011 805 6611 Fax: 011 805 6723 E-mail: Website:

solution to address two of many problems and uplift the people of Langa,” said Bisset upon receiving his prize, which included a Dell Precision Notebook and a Revit Architecture software (commercial version). Elonah ‘ONeil and Gerhard Janse van Rensburg, both from the University of Pretoria were announced as the second and third runners up in the student category. The 26’10 Degrees South Architects Team came first in the professional category. Their project addressed the mono-functional nature of the failing sanitation system at the Diepsloot informal settlement outside Johannesburg. The team proposed a matrix of multi-functional service points providing cleaner, safer and more dignified places for bathing, washing and collecting water. This year’s competition saw an increase in entries over previous years, rising from six professional entries in 2006 to 34 in 2009. Other winners in the professional category included Liani van der Westhuizen from London and the Tanja Orsmond and Dylan Watkins Team from Tanja Orsmond Architects. Juliet Kavishe and Jonathan Bennett from Team SAOTA were also announced as the winners of the BIM awards during the celebration. “The judges had a tough time deciding on winners from both the student and professional categories. The entries exceeded our expectations and I believe the competition will continue to nurture a culture of excellence in the architecture and design community. Although the competition won’t be taking place this year, we hope to continue with another excellent competition in 2011.” concluded Yeatman. Worlds View Technologies Tel: 011 805 1555 Fax: 011 805 5837 Email: Website:

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