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lrd Edition

Mastering Digital Photography


CHAPTER 7 Scanning and Archiving HOW to copy preciOus analogue photos p lus practical strategies for storing digital images.

CHAPTER 8 CHAPTER 1 Equipment Choices How to select the right camera and accessories for your requirements.

Choosing a Printer Factors you should consider v.1len buying a digital printer.

CHAPTER 9 CHAPTER 2 l enses and Focusing How to ensure the right partS of the subject will be sharp in your pictures.

Inks and Papers Choosing the best papers and inkS for long-lasting. great¡looking prints.

CHAPTER 10 CHAPTER 3: Controlling Subject Brightness Understanding and uSing exposure

controls. CHAPTER 4 Getting Colour Right How to ensure your photos have natural-looking colours.

Image Sharing, Display and Preservation A survey of the latest and most effective ways to share your dig~aI photos.

CHAPTER 5 Equipment for Photo Editing Discover what hardware and software you need to ed~ your photos.


CHAPTER 6 Ed iting Basics Basic editing tools and how to use them.




Get More Out of Your Digital Camera ,

Corrm..ricatng with pictures is al essential pM of






ThiS 9(itiOn of Mastering Digital Photography

CU ~ life so ~'s ~ to have at least

has been written 10" everybody, !rem faTjies

a basic LRJerstMdng of how to take, ad;Jst and

buyhg thai' fIrSt ama-a to ~ts who have

share digital photos. Today's cameras and pri'lta-s

traveled from ftTl 10 digKaI. It's desigled

can deliver great resutts 'Nhen thai' capabilities

aI 0V0KlEII'S Of digital stil cameras to master the

we hAy utiSed.!\rd, regardless of ...methl:w' yoa

eQI.IPnent and processes that &Jerf day become

pictl.l'eS ate holiday

easiEw' to use and ~ faiUe-prool. OJ oI::ljeCtive is to assist you to become a better

creative mages,


ccreUy (;(l(rfXlSEId

goup shots of farriy rnerrtJers

MCilO" friends 0" a gsat shot of yoa pet; all these subjectS make engagng vieYkg,

9'TlOIiOnaI CO'YleCt01 because they're of places

and people you know and ate I'lvoo'ved with. It's

nati.ffl 10 Walt to shcwe yoa besl iTIages - and ~'s never been easiEw' to do so.

guide you'l fnd a wide ra'lge of topics, startrog with d'loosirg equipfnenl that will best


meet yoo-

The Wsl ~er outliles the different types 01

e<rnera available and ~ thai' advantages

Pmtng yoo- photos is the best

way to ~

they ate preserved fO" the tutl6e - and one of the to sI'I<n! yoo-

more w(rf$ to share

the iO'! 01 phot~ with others. In ttMs pocket

'Mlen they're yoo- 0'M'l shots they have al

best ~ 10 shcwe them. But

photcgrap'ler and expb'e

to help

~'s roN

iJSI as easy

JXtues via SOCial websites, tablets

ike the iPad and the latest srna-t-phones,

and liTlilatiOns, It also ksts key featl.l'eS to look

for MIen selectng a mnera and provides ~ for assessi'lg the potential iTlage quafty from them, along with accessories that e<n make yoo- pictl$et<Nlg

more successfIJ.

From there, we move on II"rou\tlIlYee chapters coverng a series of tips on the mnera setlilg$ used 10 control


trig'1Iness and

coIou' to two chapters deaIi'lg with edilng. The frst looks at the eq..ipment you need to ed~ iTlages and movies. The second covers basic adjuStments that c1 photographers $hO.j(I be able to make.

The next chapter looks at ~ and arctMlg preci:xJs mages, We then swap to

ilvest'gatrg priltng optiOns, I'1ck.JdI'g c:hoosrIg a pri'lter for home use and SliIabIe media for pri'lll'lg

with. We end with an CNf:IView of optiOns for sh<ril;J and dispIa'yYlg yoa best photos. The latest cameras and printers make It easy t o produce photographs you're proud to share.


Mastering Digital Photography is writter'l

n non-

tecmballanguage and preser1ts the 1lformat01

It's now easier than ever to improve your photography and e~plore new ways to share the joy of photography.

you need i1 a wert thaI is etaSf 10 LJXIefsI(W"lCL H's a handy general.p!..fJXl66 guide to assist all ph)togapher$, from flrS\-tine C<YIl&'3. tx.rye-s to experienced C<YIl&'3. 0'Mlâ&#x201A;ŹIfS who pIcn to L.P;T<Ide to a reN model with


resokJIiOn ardfor

erhanced featues Md f1.nctiorlaity.

fJ.s with other pocket guides i1 the Photo Review series, the thrd editiOn of the Mastering Digital PtJotography pocket guide is backed by Photo Review Pustraia rnagame Md webSite,

The rnagame is po.bIi:shed qua1:etty Md ccmes i1Sprationai p::rttoIios, t:luyrg guides and

i1formatOlai /eatues on stootilg end edi\i)g dignal photos.

The Photo Review 'N9bsiIe (www,pholoreview. po..bIistles reviews of the latest caneras, lenses and othEr i'nagI""g ~t. H also provides reguIcY reN up:jales, i1formatiOn sheets on specific product types Md tips on buyi"lg Md

USi1g digital cameras, along witI1li'kS to soflw<re you e<n clowr*:lad. You e<n also Ioc;ale Australian retai&'s that OffEr" good deals on ~t p!..fChases Md have knowledgeable staff to help

you make the rig'1I t:luyrg decisions. 3


Equipment Choices ,

Today's camera buyefs have plenty of options





that can make photography more enjOyable.

to choose from and H should be possible to find

We'll also look briefly at some special

the right type and model for just about anyone,

capabmties, suc/l as video and panorama

as long as you clearly identify your requ irements.

recording and conSider the value of n -camera

The following factors are usually listed as having

speci31 effects.

the greatest W1fluence on buying decisiOns:

percetved image quality, zoom range, desirable


camera functions and price and value for money.

Essentially the camera market can be dMded

Different tx.yers win have different priorities,

most wil want a camera that delivers

1. Digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras

the best

mage quality for ~s priCe and comes

offer the highest feature levels and picture quality.

at a size and wHh as many as possible of the

Because they come with interchangeable lenses,

functions they would like. This chapter will cover

they are also the most versatile, Most recent

the different types 01 camera you can choose

modelS can record both still pictures and HO

from and outline some of the useful accessories

video rTlO\Iies.

What Kind of Photographer AreYou?

may also be anracted by the creative shooting

The best w<JI to find out wtic/1 cameras will be

f'1'lOdes and special effects offered by many

the best buys for you is to match the abil~ies and

cameras. AI typeS of caneras wil suH this QIOl.P

I1terests Of the camera user to the CM"l€!ra type.

of PlOtographer$ but advanced digicams and

Poinl-and-press photographers are mainly

entry·1eveI DSLRs wil provide the besl startng



in the end



don', want to

f(ldle around w~h lots of complex controlS.


nto Six main sectors:


for leami'lg more aboul photography.

Photo enthusiasts and professional

DigiCams are usually the best choice for thiS

photographers usually have a goOO

group, a~hough they could also considef an

undarstanding of how cameras work and prefer

entry-level OSLR or mirrorless camera if they

to take full oontrol over all camera functiOns.

want the best image quality plus an optiOn to

In·c:&'Tlera effects are usually Wrelevant to thiS

lake their photography to the nexllevel.

group, whiCh is more likely to be attracted to

Intermediate level photographers require

sopI"i$tiCated OSLRs thaI provide excelent

the reassurance of poi1t-ancHx8SS ~ity but would like to be ~ to use some more

:mage QUality. MirrOr1ess interchangeable-lens carreras Mel ac:tvMCed digiC<wns are the

complex controls, partiCularly if they want to

prefened choices when they want a ~

learn as they shoot. Photographers n thiS goup

·wat{-arOl.....Cf camera for ~ photography.

2. Mirrorless cameras are relativety

new. In

these cameras the rellex mirror systems used in OSLRs are replaced with electrOlliC viewfinders (or sometimes the LCD monitor m.JSt be used for

composing shots). These cameras provicle many of the advartages of DSLRs but in smaller and lighter came-a OOdles. Most models come with A typical DSLR camera fined with a mediumrange zoom lens. This type of camera will best suit photo enthusiasts. (Source: Pentax.)

interchangeable lenses, although there are a few in whiCh the lens is fixed.

The main advantage of the cameras in this ThiS category ranges from sophistiCated profeSSional cameras to models designed for photo


and snapshooters who want

to develop their picture·taking SkillS. DSLRs offer

category is their larger sensors, whiCh ensure high image qual~y in most types of lighting. The main downside is that some models are supplied without viewfinders and, where

the fastest autofocusJng because they use phase

viewfinders are provided, most tend to be

d ifference detectiOn.

electroniC ra:her than optiCal (see comparison

The main downside of these cameras is their

later th is chepter). Autofocusing is also usually

larger, heavier OOdles and lenses. In acld itiOn, the

slower than 'N~h DSLRs because these

viewfinders in entry·level DSLRs are often small

cameras use the same contrast· based systems

and not partiCutarty bright. Both are sign ificant

as digiCams

d isadvantages in dim lighting. Camera OOd ies

3. Sm all-sensor d igicams are the most

tend to be more expenSive than other camera

commonly·found cameras today and prOVide

types and this is one category in whiCh you need

the widest variety of features. Most ilClucle

to invest in more than one lens to take advantage

automated contrds to make it easy to take

of the camera's capabilities.

correctly·exposed shots. This category is easiest to understard

A typical mirrorless camera with a standard 3x zoom kit lens, Thi s model, like others In Olympus's PEN·E series, lacks a viewfinder, and requires users to frame shots with the LCD monitor or attach an optional EVF. (Source: Olympus,)


broken into sub·categories.

The Ricoh CX5 is typical of many polnt-andpress digicams, boasting a slim, pocketabte body plus automated functions to make It easy lor users to obtain cOfTeCtly·exposed photos. (Source: Rlcon.)

A viewfinder allows photographers to see

the image the camera will


record, isolatilg

it from distracting eIemeIlts outside the


scene. OpHcal viewfinders are like reversed


telescopes mounted in the camera bocty.


screen) showing shootmg informatiOn such

Most include small suppiemeotary displays



along the lower or right edge of the

as aperture and shutter speed seUings. Focusng targets are commonly overIaki on the field of view, partiCularly in more


sophistiCated cameras.

Fujifilm 's Innovative Xl00 has a new Hybrid Viewfinder that combines the besllealures of optical and electronic viewing systems. Photographers can choose which system louse with the flip of a leve,. (Source: Fujifilm.)

ElectroniC v~rxlefs consist of small LCD screens that reptay the same image

typeS afthough it is less of an issue with optiCal

can also be used to browse the camera's

view1ir.clers. Low resolutiOn makes manual


or replay shots from the camera's

memory. The table below compares the


main advantageS and disadvantages of both typeS.

focusng diffiCuH and thiS is one area where optiCal viewfinders are preferable to electroniC




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ResolutiOn is a critiCal iSsue lor both ~nder

as the camera's mannor displays. They




V.n.tJle - bo.I~_

~1O_JiI,1IIjngllJ <31 _jef1<y

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a) Slim, pocketa.tlle models weighng less than 200 grams. Popular


snapshooters, these

cameras are highly automated and usually lack

4. Camera-phones and camcorders are often

used for spcntaneous picture-taking but, even though many recent models prOVide quHe high


resolution, they can't matcl1 dedicated cameras

b) Advanced digiCams w~h a range of manual

in three key respects:

controls, inCluding Jetls aperture and shutter

1. Image Quality,

speed adjustments.

2. Lens performance. 3. Adjustabilty. Photographers looking for high Quality and functiOnality for shooting movies wUt be better off wrth a camcorder than a digital still camera. Although camcorder sensors may be small. they

are adequate for recording high¡definitiOn video. Camcorders are also designed for superior functiOnality and ease of use when shooting


FEATURES TO LOOK FOR Nikon's Coolpix PSOO combines a wide range of manual controlS with a 36x optical :loom lens. (Source: Nikon.)

Although th&,t may differ in size, weight, shape and functiQrelity, all cameras share some corMlOrl features. In this section we'll lQok al the

most important of these. c) Super-zoom cameras with very long (grealer

1. The lens is the camera's 'eye' and its role

lhan lOx) zoom lenses.

is as important as the set1sor's in determining

d) Walerproof cameras that can be used

mage Quality. The price of a camera often

underwater to depths of 5 metres or more. Most

reflects the Quality of

models have limHed room ranges and high levels

Quality optiCs don't come cheap. More

Of automation.

information on lens characteristiCs can be found

e) Dedicated 3D cameras.

in Chapter 2.


because high-

2. The image processo r converts the information collected by the sensor into the pixels (piCture elements) that make up the mage. Each camera manufacturer develops ilS own

processor system and different processors account for different camera capabil~ies and differences in appearance between photographs Fujifilm is the only manufacturer currently producing dedicated 3D cameras with the W3 model (shoWfl above) the most recently released. (Source: Fujifilm,)

from differerr. camera brandS.

The processor also determines whether lhe camera can record video and the maximl.rn


The size of the Iight-capturhg elements (known as 'photosites1 on the canera's

sensor is the best guide to arry camera's mage qualfty. Larger photOSites coI~ more IigI1t, givng the camera's mage processor more 'nformatiOn to wor'K with, Larger photos~es can capture a wider potential



range Of tones (from dark to light) and


produce more accurate colours and less granularity with high ISO settings. Photos~e


Size has very I~tle to do with a camera's rnegapixel count and, in fact, most


snapshootefS would ooten better piCtures


they used cameras

but larger


fewer megapixels


The largest sensors are found


professiOnal DSLR cameras and account for the superior image quality these ~s

typical Image sensors: I. 1I4.flch type (3.6 1 2.7 mn) sensor used in carnc:o-ders and camera-


2. 1I2J-i1ch type (6.16 x 4.62 rrm) used in many dlgicams 3. Thirds System sensor (18 x 13.5 mm) used in many ffillTorteSS


4. 'APS-e sized' (23.5 x 15.8 mm) sensor used In some DSLRs and mirrorless cameras. 5. 35mm film frame (36 x 24 mm). Sensors Ittis sire are used in professional


produce, partiCularly in low light situatiOns.

table beiow compares the 1110$1 popular sensor

Cor'lsum€f-JeveI DSLRs and mirrorless

Sizes i1 today"s digital cameras and gives the a-ea

cameras have slightly smaller sensors but

of the pholOSiles for ead1 for a 12·megapixel

thefe's a signifiCant drop in sensor Size



yw look at digital compact cameras.

Video camcorders and camera-phones often

You can estimate the Size 01 the

have 1I4-inch or 1I6-nch sensors in whiCh the

photosites in any sensor by COI'I'IJ)a'ing

photootes are smaller than one SQuare miCron

the Size 01 the sensor with the I'II.rnbEw" 01 pixels in the mage ~ produces at

in siZe. While thiS won't produce problems with


resolutiOn. 5nlp/y dMcie the k:ngth of the

resojutiOn for video ClipS. still shots often suffer

from bIov;n-out highlighls and blacked·out

longest Side of the sensor in rTU!inelres by

shadows and shots taken in normal room lighting

the longest dimenSion of the pixel array. The

may appear 'grainy" due 10 image noise.

Sensor "Type"

Imaging Area Dimensions Width (mm) Height (mm)






57 6.6



112.s-inch 112.3-inch

1/1.7·inch 213·irlch 4!3-inch 'APS-C' (Canon) APS--C (others) 35mm ("F\AI Frame')


The re:ationships between the sizes of

5.76 6.17





23 .6

15.6 24.0


Photosit e area at 12MP In microns squared

'2 1.44

'" "

2.2 '5 5.2 5.56 8.24

resolutiOn and recordlng times for video clips. Most recently-released cameras can record HD video ClipS: some with Full HD (1920 x 1080

pixels or 1080p), the remaincler at a reduced '72Op' (1280

x 720 pixels) resolutiOn the Quality

of whiCh is more than acceptable on most widescreeo TV setS. Another functiOn controlled by the processor

Professional cameras usually provide only four shooting modes. (Source: Sigma.)

is the maximum speed at whiCh the camera can record a continuous burst of shots. The camera's

digicams - and all DSLR and mirrOrless cameras

buffer memory limits the number of shots that can be recorded in a burst. 3. Shooting m odes are a good way to gauge a

- provide a fJU

camera's capability - and the extent to whiCh you

parameters. Serious enthuSiasts and anyone

range of contrOls for adjusting


aperture and shutter speed settings as well as


white balance and many other

can control camera settings for creative effects.

who wants to learn more alXlut photography

POint-and-shoot cameras restriCt the range of

should faVOl.J" these camera typeS.

user-adjustable controls to a selectiOn of Scene

modes that match stanclard reQuirements for


the selected type Of scene.More sophisticated

Some accessories are mandatory, while others are optiOnal- and some are supplied


the camera, while others must be purchased separately. All digital cameras are supplied with battene, and most interchangeable¡lens cameras

come with at least one lens (although

you can often buy the body on its own). Memory cards are seldom, if ever, provided,

although many 6giCarns come with nternal


I-bwever. these are usuaty too smaI to more than a brief shooti1g session.

CCNer anything

Memory is relatively cheap so purchase at The mode dials on consumer OSLRs usually inClude several pre-set scene modes. (Source: Nikon.)

least one hi!;;h-capacity (4G8. 8G8 or 18GB)

memory card with your dig~aI camera. Get at least 8G8 if '/00 plan to shoot movies as video consumes rremory very QuiCkly, partiCularly at high resolutiOn . Buy extra cards if you're travelling - or consider a portable storage device - so you can store photos as they're taken.

The follov>ing camera accessories can enhance yOU" shooti1g experiences: 9

1. Le nses range from the uHra-wide ·fish-eyes· with their characteristiC distortion to the ultra-

long telephoto lenses favoured by sports and






wildlife photographers. In between are.zoom and prime (sngle focal length) lenses w ith local lengths to suit most subject types.

ZOom lenses ccrrt>ne versatility with affordability ald are Cfi excellent choice 'Nhen you need to keep yQlI" kit compact and lXJrtabie. Pmle lenses

Joby's Gorilla-series 01 tripods are the lightest and most adjustable camera supports available and come In sizes to suit all cameras from diglcams to DSLRs. (Source: Maxwell International Australia.)

provide the best mage QUaity and the widest

maxrn.m aper\ll"eS >Mlen you want total control ~


rkne of sharpness n yQlI" shots.

2. Fla sh gun s enable you to light up dark

4. Rem ot e co ntrollers let you trigger the cameras shutter from a distance, a useful facility


for very long exposures and when shooting

If your camera has a buiH-in flash you may only

easily·spooked wild life. (The camera MUST

need an accessory flash when you require much

be tripod-mounted!) Two types

more light, for example when pIlotograp/1ing large groups Of people or large n terior spaces.

wired and wirelesS. Wired remotes usually have

'Nhen using flash, n'S important to understand

are available:

cables between two and IIvee metres long: wirela>s remotes use radio freQuency or nfrared

can trigger the camera from

that light output decreases with the square of the

communiCatiOn and

distance. A subject four metres from the camera

more than 10 metres. IR remotes require direct


limn for many digiCams) receives one quarter

line-a-sight to the camera.

of the light that falls on a subjeCt two metres from the camera. Consequently, Ws pointless to use flash when photograp/1ing the Sydney Opera House (or a Sim ilar structure) at night from a passing ferry.

3.. Tripods and m onopods ~ 10 stEOOy the

ccrnera 'Nhen shooIi"lg with OON shJtter speeds. Even th::u;;tl modem image stabisatbn $ySI€JTlS

ae good, they rafJ.I provide rrore IhcI1 ttree or !oJ EV (exporuevakJes orf·stops) d



Remote controllers are uselullor wildlife photographers and anyone who enjoys taking long exposures atter dark. (Source: Nikon.)

whEn 'PJ need to use SOw sh..Jtter speeds some

Kind d stabisaticJ1 is 1"9(JkeCf.

5. GPS dat a logg ers allow you to embed

one leg, are compact

locatiOn data in the image file . (Some C8o'T1eras

carry but only stabilise the camera in one directbn and aren't much use for eXjXlSUres longer than one second. Even compacttrip:xfs

have 1hem buiH-n .) They must be able to pick

can provide enough stability for eXjXlSUres many

areas dominated by tall buildingS.

seconds long.

6. A cam era bag is a wrse investment that

Monopods, whiCh have and light to

up signals from



won't work under dense tree

and, therefore,

cover or in urban

can protect yo.x equipment against impact

damage, adverse weather Mel theft, QIoose one that is comfortable 10 'werar',


activities you partq,ate In Mel Ia'ge accorrvnodate the


for the

8I"IOI.J!1l to

you wi use on a

t')1licaI shoot. 7. Waterproof houslngs are available lor

many d9tal caToEII'as Mel offer varying levels of t.rdefwater protection, ranging from one metre to 40 metres or more. Some camera manufacturers offer hovsngs for pwtiCul¥ models. while specialist manufacturers like Fantasea and I~ite cater for several brands. 8. Bluetooth connections are also available for wi"eIess printing from some cameras. Some cameras come with buiH -1n facilit~ for uploading mages and video clips to social ne\WOI1( sites. AI C&'nWas Sl.pporI direct printing via Sl.ppIied

USB """". USEFUL URLS The foIbW'9 websites ~ adcifunaI ir*lrmatioo 00 the ~

a-ed i11tis~.

~ 01 ti1gs )OJ strud kdI at v.ften w,;ng a



'ihn-w,;ng·a·dW-<:amefa.aspc • FiICbn to cmsi:Ier befmI tv,;ng orb 'INNI.~.CQ'I1~·~·a·


• AI.Mce 00 eq.ipment l.WlIIIiog 'INNI,byth:)m,COII\ItIame.htm

• lists 01 recorMlel1ded camefa accessaies httpJlcameras,about,coovbI2OtOltW3itles!·camera·



Mastering Digital Photography The It*d ecttIcn of PhaIo Rrttaw'I A', rOr 'tIg DIg/IJIl

PhotofIJ.,my pocIeI: QL*ie ' - been COITIIllellt)' I,f)dat8d to teIect r8C*1I ctwQI!I8ln dgIIaIlmIIgIng .m .....,. IechIOIogIea. It'l been wrIhen 10 help 8'o'If)'dIy phcIagiaphM 10 more "'!ektlO. fn:m ~


IIIIctv b¥ chooeIng the ~ eQIJpment, UlldlietallCillg toN to uae • .., rnakqJ the belli: a:Ap.C dIc:iIIoI .. Regaide88 d)'OLl" ..... €A expertIIe. lhIa Iwxti gUde wi por!IiCtt the reeoucee you naad to like bItI8r dIgIbII


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