OUR CULTURE AND HISTORY THROUGH ACTIVE PARTICIPATIVE METHODS
UNESCO OUR NATURAL AND CULTURAL HERITAGE
Choirokoitia Neolithic Settlement
The Neolithic settlement of Choirokoitia, occupied from the 7th to the 4th millennium B.C., is one of the most important prehistoric sites in the eastern Mediterranean. Its remains and the finds from the excavations there have thrown much light on the evolution of human society in this key region. Since only part of the site has been excavated, it forms an exceptional archaeological reserve for future study. Excavations have shown that the settlement consisted of circular houses built from mudbrick and stone with flat roofs and that it was protected by successive walls. A complex architectural system providing access to the village has been uncovered on the top of the hill. The houses belonged to the living, as well as to the dead who were buried in pits beneath the rammed earthen floors. Among the finds such as flint tools, bone tools, stone vessels, vegetal and animal remains, noteworthy are the anthropomorphic figurines in stone which point, together with funerary rituals, to the existence of elaborate beliefs. Since only part of the site has been excavated, it forms an exceptional archaeological reserve for future study.
Painted Churches in the Troodos Region
This region is characterized by one of the largest groups of churches and monasteries of the former Byzantine Empire. The complex of 10 monuments included on the World Heritage List, all richly decorated with murals, provides an overview of Byzantine and post-Byzantine painting in Cyprus. The architecture of these churches is unique, confined to the Troodos range. They also contain a wealth of dated inscriptions, an uncommon feature in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Middle Ages, which makes them particularly important for recording the chronology of Byzantine painting.
Paphos has been inhabited since the Neolithic period. It was a centre of the cult of Aphrodite and of pre-Hellenic fertility deities. Aphrodite's legendary birthplace was on this island, where her temple was erected by the Myceneans in the 12th century B.C. The remains of villas, palaces, theatres, fortresses and tombs mean that the site is of exceptional architectural and historic value. The mosaics of Nea Paphos are among the most beautiful in the world. The villas are richly adorned with mosaic floors that are among the most beautiful in the world. These mosaics constitute an illuminated album of ancient Greek mythology, with representations of Greek gods, goddesses and heroes, as well as activities of everyday life.
Acropolis, Athens (1987)
Archaeological Site of Aigai (modern name Vergina) (1996)
Archaeological Site of Delphi (1987)
Archaeological Site of Mystras (1989)
Archaeological Site of Olympia (1989)
Archaeological Site of Philippi (2016)
Archaeological Sites of Mycenae and Tiryns (1999)
Medieval city of Rhodes (1988)
Monasteries of Daphni, Hosios Loukas and Nea Moni of Chios (1990)
Old town of Corfu (2007)
Paleochristian and Byzantine Monuments of Thessalonika (1988)
Pythagoreion and Heraion of Samos (1992)
Sanctuary of Asklepios at Epidaurus (1988)
Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae (1986)
The Historic Centre (Chora) with the Monastery of SaintJohn the Theologian and the Cave of the Apocalypse on the Island of Pa tmos (1999)
Mount Athos (1988)
KuldÄŤga Old Town
It is in the primeval valley of the river Venta. 19th century town environment with a characteristic landscape of clay tile roofs, historical building ensemble, picturesque street views, fantastic nature and exciting emotional feel.
Grobina Archeological ensemble
An important Norsemen, Viking and Curonian proto-urban settlement up to 9th century. Grobiņa’s position close to the Baltic Sea, along Ālande river, made it an area that was easily accessible by water.
Meanders of the upper Daugava
The Upper Daugava valley with nine unique meanders is a depositary of outstanding values of nature, biodiversity and landscapes reflecting also historical and cultural significance.
Historic center of Riga
The Outstanding Universal Value lies in the spacious panorama of the Historic Centre of Riga. The medieval core of Riga is located on the right bank of the River Daugava, allows a picturesque view on the skyline.
Laurisilva of Madeira (Natural UNESCO heritage, 1999)
Laurisilva is an outstanding relict of a previously widespread laurel forest type, which covered southern Europe more than 15 million years ago. It is believed to be 90% primary forest and contains a unique suite of plants and animals, including many endemic species. Natural Heritage since 1999. https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/934/
The Monastery of the Hieronymites and Tower of Belem in Lisbon, Cultural UNESCO Heritage since 1983
The monastery and the tower are an exceptional testimony to the 16th century, a time when the Portuguese had the domain of international trade routes. Commissioned by King D. Manuel I, to celebrate the Portuguese discoveries, it was built in Manueline style. UNESCO cultural heritage since 1983. https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/263
Alto Douro Wine Region (Cultural UNESCO Heritage since 2001) A long tradition of viticulture for some 2000 years, has produced an outstanding cultural landscape. Its main product, port wine, is famous for its quality since the 18th century.
Central Zone of the town of Angra do Heroismo in the Azores
Cultural UNESCO Heritage since 1983 Angra do Heroismo is situated on Island Terceira, one of the islands in the Azores archipelago. This was an obligatory port of call, during the maritime exploration, from the 15th century until the advent of the steamship in the 19th century.
Prehistoric Art sites in the Coa Valley and Siega Verde
Prehistoric Rock Art Sites in the Côa Valley and Siega Verde (Cultural UNESCO Heritage since 1998, 2010) The property includes the two Prehistoric Rock Art Sites in the Côa Valley (Portugal) and Siega Verde (Spain), consisting of rocky cliffs carved by fluvial erosion and embedded in an isolated rural landscape in which hundreds of panels with thousands of animal figures (5,000 in Foz Côa, around 440 in Siega Verde) have been engraved over several millennia. https://whc.unesco.org/en/statesparties/pt
Convent of Christ in Tomar
Cultural UNESCO Heritage since 1983 The Convent of Christ, in Tomar, was built over the spam of five centuries. It is a combination of Romanesque, gothic, Manueline, Renaissance, Mannerist and Baroque elements. The Conventâ€™s centrepiece is its 12th century rotunda, influenced by Jerusalemâ€™s Holy Sepulchre Rotunda. https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/265
Garrison Border Town of Elvas
Cultural UNESCO Heritage since 2012 The site, extensively fortified from the 17th to 19th centuries, represents the largest bulwarked dry-ditch system in the world. Elvas contains remains dating back to the 10th century ad. The fortifications represent the best surviving example of the Dutch school of fortifications anywhere. The site also contains the Amoreira aqueduct. https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1367
Historic Center of Evora
Cultural UNESCO Heritage since 1986 The Historic Centre of Ă‰vora, has been shaped by more than twenty centuries of history, going as far back as Celtic times. It was influenced by the Romans, the Visigoth, the Moorish. A Cathedral was completed in the 13th century. In the 15th century, the Portuguese kings began living in Ă‰vora. At that time, convents and royal palaces sprung up everywhere. These remarkable monuments are characterised by the Manueline style. https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/361
Historic Center of Guimaraes
Cultural UNESCO Heritage since 2001 The Historic Centre of Guimarães, in the district of Braga, is often referred to as the cradle of the Portuguese nationality. Guimarães became the first capital of Portugal in the 12th century. The Historic Centre of Guimarães is distinguished for the integrity of its historically authentic building stock and it has maintained its medieval urban layout.
Historic Center of Oporto
Historic Centre of Oporto, Luiz I Bridge and Monastery of Serra do Pilar (Cultural UNESCO Heritage since 1996) The Historic Centre of Oporto, Luiz I Bridge and Monastery of Serra do Pilar, is an outstading urban landscape with a 2,000-year history. It has many and varied monuments, from the cathedral with its Romanesque choir to the neoclassical Stock Exchange and the typically Portuguese Manueline-style Church of Santa Clara. The historic centre also has a number of outstanding public buildings, including the São João theatre (1796-1798; 1911-1918) and the former prison “Cadeia da Relação” (1765-1796), Palácio da Bolsa (1842-1910) and São Bento railway station (1900-1916). This property also includes Luíz I Bridge and Monastery of Serra do Pilar. https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/755/
Landscape of the Pico Valley Vineyard Culture
Landscape of the Pico Island Vineyard Culture (Cultural UNESCO Heritage since 2004) The Landscape of the Pico Island Vineyard Culture is an example of the adaptation of farming practices to a remote and challenging environment. Pico Island is one of nine volcanic islands in the Azores Archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean. https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1117
Monastery of Alcobaca
Monastery of Alcobaça (Cultural UNESCO Heritage since 1989) The founding of the Monastery of Alcobaça, located in central Portugal, is closely associated with the beginning of the Portuguese monarchy, in the 13th century. It countains the famous tombs of Inês de Castro and Dom Pedro (Peter I). King Peter I. https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/505
Monastery of Batalha
The Monastery of Batalha was constructed to commemorate the victory over the Castilians at Aljubarrota (1385). It is one of the masterpieces of Gothic art. https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/264
University of Coimbra
University of Coimbra â€“ Alta and Sofia (Cultural UNESCO Heritage since 2013) The University of Coimbra has evolved over more than seven centuries. Coimbra University is an exceptional example of a university city, which illustrates the interdependence between city and university. https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1387
Churches of Moldavia Nowhere in Romania can more churches, monasteries, and hermitages be found in such a compact area than in Moldavia. Most of them are hundreds of years old. Built mainly by the Moldavian voievodes of the Mușatin family (Petru Mușat I, Alexandru the Good, Bogdan II, Stephen the Great, Petru Rareș), these splendid monasteries simultaneously served as princely tombs. According to the chronicler Ion Neculce, Stephen the Great (1457- 1504), “the bastion of Christianity”, during his forty-seven year reign, built a church or a monastery after each of his battles against the Turks, Hungarians or Poles. From the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries date the churches at Arbore, Voroneț, Humor, Moldovița, Probota, Pătrăuți, Sucevița, and Suceava, which are listen as UNESCO World Heritage sites.
The Church of the Resurrection at Sucevița Monastery (1581 – 1601), with Ladder of the Virtues
The Church of the Resurrection at SuceviČ›a Monastery
The Church of the Annunciation, MoldoviČ›a Monastery (1532), with its famous Siege of Constantinople
The Church of the Annunciation, MoldoviČ›a Monastery
The Church of the Dormition of the Theotokos and the Church of St George, Humor Monastery (1530)
The Church of the Holy Cross (1487), Pătrăuți
The Church of St Nicholas, Probota Monastery (1530)
VoroneĹŁ Monastery, called "Sistine Chapel of the East", is a medieval monastic complex built in the village of VoroneĹŁ, today a part of Gura Humorului. It is one of the most valuable foundations of Stephen the Great (1457-1504). The church was built in 1488 in only 3 months and 3 weeks, which is a record for that time.
Church of the Voroneţ Monastery
Exterior painting - the western wall of Voronet Monastery Church
Monastery of Hurezi In the village of Romanii de Jos, three kilometers from Horezu (a traditional centre for pottery), can be found the most representative complex of Romanian mediaeval architecture in Wallachia, definitive of the Brîncoveanu style: the Hurezi Monastery (16901703). During the reign of Constantin Brîncoveanu (1688-1714), Hurezi Monastery was a major and thriving centre of culture and the arts: there was an extensive library (with four thousand volumes), unique in Southeastern Europe at the beginning of the eighteenth century, a school for copysts, scribes and grammarians, and a school for painters, whose pupils went to work in Wallachia, Transylvania and the south of Danube. The museum collection at Hurezi Monastery, housed in the Princely Palace, includes old ecclesiastical items (books, icons, and precious fabrics), some of which date from the founding of the monastery.
Villages with Fortified Churches in Transylvania At the centre of each rural settlement founded by Saxon colonists in the Romanian province of Transylvania in the twelfth century stood a fortified church, which also served as a place of refuge in times of danger. The fortified churches of Transylvania, which have the appearance of small citadels, were built mainly after the Tartar invasion of 1241. There are approximately one hundred and fifty villages which preserve such monuments. Seven of these churches have been names UNESCO world heritage sites.
The fortified church in Viscri (fifteenth â€“ seventeenth century)
The fortified church in CĂ˘lnic, one of the oldest citadels in Transylvania, erected around 1200
The fortified church in Valea Viilor (thirteenth – fifteenth centuries)
Dacian Fortresses of the Orastiei Mountains
The nucleus of the Dacian kingdom lay within the Orastiei Mountains in the south west of Transylvania. Numerous forts, strategic structures and observation towers were spread over two hundred square kilometres within the mountains. The Dacian fortresses, built in the first century BC and the first century AD, conquered by the Roamans in the early second century AD, are among the most celebrated vestiges of these legendary ancestors of the Romanians, who considered themselves “immortals”. The fortresses, enclosed by walls of perfectly joined limestone blocks (murus dacicus), reoresent a “defensive system unique in European architecture”. The numerous sanctuaries discovered in their vicinity are a testament to the profoundly religious spirit of this mysterious people, about whom few things are known with
certainty. The unique combination of religious and military architectural elements characterizes these citadels from the classical phase of Dacian civilization.
The military, political, economic and religious centre of the Dacians was Sarmizegetusa Regia-Grădiștea de Munte (commune of Orăștioara, Hunedoara County). All the access routes to this capital were protected by numerous other strategically sites citadels. These include: Costești-Cetățuie (commune of Orăștioara, Hunedoara County), Costești-Blidaru (commune of Orăștioara, Hunedoara County), Luncani-Piatra Roșie (commune of Boșorod, Hunedoara County), Bănița (commune of Bănița, Huneodara County), Căpîlna (commune of Săsciori, Alba County).
Historic Centre of Sighisoara The citadel of Sighișoara was built on the left bank of the Târnava Mare River by Saxon colonists in 1191, and has preserved its mediaeval character unaltered. After entering this miraculous space, passing beneath the arcade of the old Clock Tower (fourteenth century), which for centuries has measured the tireless flow of time, we arrive in the central square of the citadel. It was here that, in days gone by, trials were held and executions carried out. It was also here that the “pole of infamy” was to be found, to which evildoers were bound, with a six-kilogram stone hanging from their neck. Then we enter the church of the former Dominican monastery, founded in the thirteenth century, with its baroque altar, sculpted in 1680 by Johann West and painted by wandering artist Jeremias Stranovious. We pass by the Venetian House, the House of Vlad Dracul and the Stag House. We set off up School Street, past old houses with pastel-coloured facades and wooden shutters. We climb the one hundred and seventy-five steps of the Scholars’ Stair before reaching the highest point of the citadel, where we find the fourteenth-century Church on the Hill, an impressive monument of Gothic architecture.
Then we descend along the old fourteenth century walls, which, at a length of 920m, enclose the Citadel Hill. The walls were formerly bolstered by redoubtable bastions and fourteen defence turrets, of which nine have been preserved (the Clock Tower, and the Towers of the Tanners, Tinsmiths, Ropers, Butchers, Furriers, Tailors, Cobblers and Blacksmiths).
The Clock Tower
Wooden Churches of Maramures No place is more appropriate than Maramureș in order to follow the metamorphoses of wood: this region in northern Romania is renowned for its marvelous culture of woodworking, which has flourished in the villages along the Mara, Iza, Cosău, Vișeu and Tisa valleys. The portals of the locals, which are meticulously carved with decorative motifs representing stylized solar disks, the tree of life, crosses, geometric figures, are remarkable examples of rustic art. Compared with massive churches of stone, the small wooden places of worship offer an alternative order of spatiality. Expressions of local spirituality, the wooden churches in the Maramureș villages of Bîrsana, Budești, Desești, Ieud-Deal, Plopiș, Poienile Izei, Rogoz and Șurdești, with their tapering spires soaring in the heavens ,seem to have overcome the perishable nature of the material from which they have been crafted.
The Church of the Holy Archangels in Plopiș was built at the end of the eighteenth century by Ioan Macarie and the murals were painted in 1811 by Ștefan of Șisești
The Church of the Blessed Paraschiva in Desești was built in 1717. Its architecture is in the traditional style: the joinery, the equilibrium of forms and volumes, the harmony of the whole confer an impression of simplicity and elegance.
The Church of the Blessed Paraschiva in Desești
The wooden church in Poienile Izei (seventeenth century)
The wooden church in BĂ˘rsana (eighteenth century)
The wooden church in BudeČ™ti (1643)
Danube Delta Before emptying into the Black Sea, the Danube splits into three large arms (Chilia, Sulina, SfĂ˘ntu Gheorghe), between which a wild delta has formed. This is the youngest land in the country, at no ore than 10,000 years old. A paradise for all kinds of plants and creatures, the Danube Delta has been named a world Biosphere Reservation by UNESCO.
In this exotic delta â€“ regarded as one of the largest wetlands (2,681 square kilometres), and the most extensive area of compact reed deds in the world-more than 1,200 species of plants and trees, 300 species of birds, and 100 species of fish have benn identified. The Danube Delta may thus be considered a true Noahâ€™s Ark. Everything here is bursting with life: the air vibrates to wing beast of pelicans, sheldrakes, egrets, spoonbills, bald coots, and white-tailed eagles; beneath the waters glint the scales of beluga, sturgeon, sterlet, perch, pike, and carp; among the reeds rustle all kinds of creeping things. The Delta is also a habitat for tortoises, snakes, vipers, musk rat, coypou, foxes, otters, wild boars, and raccoon dogs. Almost 50% of the surface area of Danube Delta is temporarily below water (especially in the spring), 45% is permanently covered in water, and just 5% (the sand banks) is genuine dry land. A luxuriant, wild, primordial vegetation covers these expanses of water and land. The Delta is, in fact, a labyrinth of channels, swamps, lakes, sandbanks and endless corridors of reeds. We lose ourselves amid groves of willows or mixed forests, made up of black poplars, trembling poplars, oak, ash,elm, and wild apple and pear trees. This is a realm of creeping plants, such as lianas and wild vines, which intertwine everywhere. The immense stretches of reeds, rushes, and bulrushes form an unforgettable sight. As far as the eye can see, the waters are covered in resplendent carpets of white and yellow lilies, broken here and there by floating reed beds. The area is also littered with the ancient ruins left by Greek colonists and Roman-Byzantine settlements (Histria, Arganum, Enisala, Heraclee).
The traditional fishing villages of the Danube seem like remnants of an ancestral world. The people of these parts make their living by fishing. The traditional fish dishes of the Delta are held in great esteem.
The Danube Delta, with a surface area of approximately 434,000 hectares on Romanian territory, stretches between the Chilia, Sulina and SfĂ˘ntu Gheorghe arms of the river and the Razelm-Sinoe lagoon complex. More than 325 bird species, in flocks that can blot out the sky when airborne, find here perfect feeding and nesting conditions.
The most common in Danube Delta are aquatic, including herons, ducks, black-throated diver and cormorants.
The common tern (Sterna hirundo), together with the black tern and little tern, are the species most frequently met among the fauna of the Delta. Expanses of water, corridors of reeds, and tangled woods interwoven with lianas from the marvellous world of the Delta. In the Delta, the air throbs to myriad wing beats.
Floating vegetation is especially common in the Delta. The extensive carpets of white and yellow provide enchanting vistas. Four to five metres high, reeds form impenetrable thickets, while the ryzomes that weave toghether in the mud form a thick, tangled bed, in which plant residues are fixed.
Today, reeds are sought after as material for thatched roofs, lending authenticity to ecological homes.
The Delta includes natural and artificial pools, swamps, marshes and salt lakes (with high content of salt and mineral-rich mud in the waters).
The fishing villages of the Danube Delta are highly picturesque, the result of an etnic blend of Romanians, Lipovans, Ukrainins (Hahols), and Bulgarians. The regionâ€™s population of around 15,000 inhabitants live in twenty villages and two twons, Tulcea and Sulina.
Fish constitute the principal wealth of the Danube Delta. Apart from the famous sturgeon, which are today ever more rare, we also find here herring, eels, sheatfish, zander and carp.
The port of Tulcea, which developed on the site of the ancient Greek colony of Aegyssus, is known as the gateway to the Danube Delta. An obelisc was erected here in honour of those who fell in the 1877 â€“ 8 War of Independence.
Located where the Sulina channel flows into the Black Sea, Sulina is Romanianâ€™s easternmost town.
The Lower Danube River Administration Building
The Old Sulina Lighthouse built by the European Lower Danube Commission in 1870
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Sites are places of importance to cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972. Spain accepted the convention on May 4, 1982, making its historical sites eligible for inclusion on the list. Sites in Spain were first inscribed on the list at the 8th Session of the World Heritage Committee, held in Buenos Aires, Argentina in 1984. At that session, five sites were added: the "Mosque of Córdoba"; "The Alhambra and the Generalife, Granada"; "Burgos Cathedral"; "Monastery and Site of the Escorial, Madrid"; and "Park Güell, Palau Güell and Casa Milà, in Barcelona"
The Great Mosque of Cordoba
The original listing was the Great Mosque of Córdoba, a 7th-century Christian Church converted to a mosque in the 8th century; restored to a Roman Catholic cathedral in the 13th century by Ferdinand III. During the high period of the Moorish rule of the region, Córdoba had over 300 mosques and architecture that compared to that of Constantinople, Damascus, and Baghdad
The Alhambra and the Generalife, Granada
The two sites are remnants of the Moorish influence in southern Spain. The fortress Alhambra and the palace Generalife were built by the rulers of the Emirate of Granada. 14Th Century.
The Gothic-style cathedral was constructed between the 13th and 16th centuries. It is the burial place of Spanish national hero, El Cid
Monastery and Site of the Escorial, Madrid
El Escorial is one of several Spanish royal sites due to its history as a residence of the royal family. The palace was designed by King Philip II and architect Juan Bautista de Toledo to serve as a monument to Spain's central role in the Christian world
Park Guell, Palau Guell and Casa Mila, Barcelona
The architecture of Antoni Gaudí is part of the Modernist style, but his designs are described as highly unique. The original listing featured Park Güell, Palau Güell, and Casa Milà
Cave of Altamira
The Cave of Altamira contains examples of cave painting from the Upper Paleolithic period, ranging from 35,000 to 11,000 BC. The original listing contained seventeen decorated caves. The caves are well-preserved because of their deep isolation from the external climate
Old Town of Segovia and its Aqueduct
The Roman aqueduct was constructed in the 1st century, the medieval Alcรกzar palace in the 11th century, and the cathedral in the 16th
Santiago de Compostela (Old Town)
The Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela is the reputed burial-place of the apostle James, and is the terminus of the Way of St. James, a pilgrimage across northern Spain
Garajonay National Park
The park is 70% covered by laurisilva or laurel forest, vegetation from the Paleogene period that disappeared from mainland Europe due to climate change, but had covered much of the southern continent
Archaeological Ensemble of Merida
MĂŠrida was founded in 25 BC by the Romans as Emerita Augusta and was the capital of the Lusitania province. Remains from the Roman era include a bridge, aqueduct, amphitheatre, theatre, circus, and forum
The Romans established a gold mine and worked the site for two centuries. They used an early form of hydraulic mining and cut aqueducts in the rock cliffs to provide water for the
operations. The Romans left in the early 3rd century, leaving sheer cliff faces and mining infrastructure that is intact today
Palmeral of Elche
The grove of date palm trees was formally laid out with irrigation systems under the Moors in the 10th century. The palmeral is a rare example of Arab agricultural practices in Europe
Catalan Romanesque Churches of the Vall de BoÄŤ
The small valley at the edge of the Pyrenees contains churches in Romanesque style decorated with Romanesque murals, statues, and altars. The churches are unique for their tall, square bell towers
The bridge was designed by Alberto Palacio to cross the Nervion without disrupting maritime traffic to the Port of Bilbao. It was built in 1893 and is the world's first transporter bridge
Antequera Dolmens Site
Located at the heart of Andalusia in southern Spain, the site comprises three megalithic monuments: the Menga and Viera dolmens and the Tholos of El Romeral, and two natural monuments: La PeĂąa de los Enamorados and El Torcal mountainous formations. These three tombs are one of the most remarkable architectural works of European prehistory and one of the most important examples of European Megalithism
Caliphate city of Medina Azahara
The Caliphate city of Medina Azahara is an archaeological site of a city built in the mid-10th century CE by the Umayyad dynasty as the seat of the Caliphate of Cordoba. After prospering for several years, it was laid to waste during the civil war that put an end to the Caliphate in 1009-10
Palau de la Musica Catalana
It was constructed in the early 20th century and designed by LluĂs DomĂ¨nech i Montaner in the modernist Art Nouveau movement that was very popular in Barcelona in that period
Historic city of Toledo
Toledo was founded by the Romans, served as the capital of the Visigothic Kingdom, was important in Muslim Spain and during the Reconquista, and briefly served as the capital of Spain. The city combines Christian, Muslim, and Jewish influences
OUR CULTURE AND HISTORY THROUGH ACTIVE PARTICIPATIVE METHODS 2017-2019- OCHAP 2017-1-RO01-KA219-037129_1
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