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#

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uDeL/tfk"js { ;f]rljrf/ u/]sf] /fi6« ;gftg wd{ o; a|fXd0fs} hLjx?sf] wd{sf] ?kdf /x]sf] cofy{tfsf] af]w x'gk'U5 . dfgj Oltxf;df c;gftg wfld{s ljZjf; x'gx] ?sf] dfq s'g} k|f/lDes ljGb' x'g;S5 t/ ;gftg wd{sf Oltxf;df s'g} k|f/lDes ljGb' 5}g lsgls ;gftg wd{ hLjx?;Fu} ;fZjt ?kdf rlncfPsf] 5 . ;gftg wd{sf] :j?ksf k|;u+ df xfdLn] ;+:s[tsf] d"n wft' cg';f/ wd{sf] cy{ wf/0f ug{] xf] eGg] ;Demg'k5{ . kbfy{ ljz]ifsf lg/Gt/ /xg] :jefj g} To;sf] wd{ pF7df -tftf]kg_ / k|sfz lg/Gt ?kdf /xG5 . To;f] gePdf cUgL zAbsf]

t'n;L bfxfn ljbfl/t lll

s'g} cy{ /xFbg} . To;}u/L xfdLx?n] hLjgsf] ToxL clgjfo{ c+unfO{ vf]Hg'k5{ hf] p;sf] cleGg ;xr/ xf] . of] cleGg ;xr/ p;sf] ;fZjt u'0f xf] / oxL zfZjt u'0f g} p;sf] ;fZjt wd{ xf] . dflg;n] ljz]if ;do / kl/l:yltsf] k|efjdf s'g} Pp6f ljz]if k|sf/sf] ljZjf;nfO{ c+lusf/ u/]/ cfkm"nfO{ lxGb' d';ndfg O;fO{ af}4 / cGo s'g} ;Dk|bfosf] cg'ofoLsf ?kdf v8f u5{g\ . o:tf pkflwx? ;gftg wd{ xf]Og . Pp6f lxGb' cfkm\gf] ljZjf;

abn]/ d'l:nd x'g ;S5 . Pp6f d'lNnd cfkm\gf] ljZjf; abn]/ lxGb' aGg;S5 . To;}u/L s'g} Pp6f O;fO{n] klg cfkm\gf] ljZjf; kl/jt{g u/L lxGb' jf d'l:nd aGg ;S5 . t/, oL ;a} kl/l:yltdf wfld{s ljZjf; kl/jt{g u/]klg Psn] csf{nfO{ ;]jf ug{] cfkm\gf] zfZj:t wd{ k|ljlw eg] 5f]8g\ ;Sb}g . lxGb' d';ndfg jf O;fO{ h] ePklg dflg; x/]s kl/l:yltdf s;} g s;}sf] ;]js ePs} x'G5g\ . cGttM s'g} ljz]if ljZjf;nfO{ c+lusf/ ub{d} f cfkm\gf] ;gftg wd{nfO{ c+lusf/ u/]sf] dfGg ;lsb}g . lsgls ;]jf k|bfg ug{' g} ;gftg wd{ xf] . Pp6f hLjn] k|ToIf ck|ToIf ?kdf csf{]

hLjsf] ;]jfdf cfkm"nfO{ ;b}j ;+nUg u/fPs} x'G5 . :jfdLsf] ;]jf u/] em} lglDg sf]6Lsf hgjf/x?n] dfgj hutnfO{ k| T oIf ck| T oIf ;] j f k'/\ofO/x]sf x'G5g\ . Ps ldqn] csf{] ldqsf] cfdfn] 5f]/f5f]/Lsf] kltn] kTgLsf] Pjd\ kTgLn] kltsf] ;]jf ul//x]sf] kfOG5 . o;/L vf]Hb} hfFbf ;+;f/df Pp6f klg o:tf] ckjfb kfOg] 5}g hf] kf/:kfl/s ;]jfdf gnfu]sf] xf];\ . To;k|sf/ s'g} klg hLj csf{] hLjsf] ;]jf gul//xg ;Sb}g . cGTotM xfdL h] lgis{ifdf k'Ug ;S5f}+ eg] ;]jf g} hLjsf] lr/ ;xr/ xf] / ;]jf ug{' g} hLjsf] ;gftg wd{ xf] .


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Challenges of journalism in Nepal: A critical overview Besides this, political affiliation of the media houses, unchecked and uninvestigated ownership of the media houses where black money are easily turned to white be the mafias and criminals are other issues that are arousing many questions in the objectivity of the media houses.

n Sourav Prasai

The history of the journalism in Nepal has already celebrated a century and a decade. It is still running along with the Gorkhapatra and number of the broadsheet dailies, magazines and tabloids, with lots of improvements and modifications. The trends of the journalism education and the state of the press in the country, at this globalization, have been another threatening aspect of the media in Nepal. Although the advent of the big private media houses and the mushrooming number of other forms of media like F.M and televisions have uplifted the altitude of professionalism and competition in the journalism of Nepal but they are still insufficient to meet the global standard and competency. There are many challenges persisting in journalism of Nepal. Present challenges of Journalism in Nepal Professionalism Although the media education in Nepal has been incessantly creating degree holders for more than a decade, but the saddest aspect of this is seen when the media houses employ the people without any journalistic background. The journalistic background is not considered obligatory in this profession. This results decrease in the faith of people in the media, lower degree in the maintenance of ABC, lack of investigative and in-depth approach in the news, increase in the violation of the laws, ethics and code of

conduct, grammatical inaccuracy and alike. A doctor becomes a doctor after he achieves his qualification in his prescribed field but being journalist in Nepal has been a hobby; the job that requires only interest and nothing more than that. Many media houses in Nepal lack the professionals. Most of the districts in Nepal have ‘Generalists’ but not the journalists that the global media market stipulates. Salary Excluding government and some big private media houses, most of the media houses in Nepal are unable to provide salaries to the working journalists. It is even found that journalists are not paid for a year. Although some percent of journalists get the salary but their income is very low in comparison to other professions. Most of the journalists do not get the salaries as recommended by the Minimum Wage Fixation Committee (MWFC). The salary is more pitiable in the districts outside the valley where a journalist can’t survive without multiple professions apart from being a journalist. Objectivity Objectivity in journalists and media houses has been another issue to concern. Although media houses claim themselves as an industry, they accept the subsidy from the government. How can impartiality be maintained if they accept the governmental allowance? Can they be critical to the plans and policies of the government? As an industry, a media house should pay the tax; how justifiable is it to take the financial assistance from the government? These are the major questions to be answered. The journalists in the media houses are not

enjoying self-sufficiency; they have move according to the wish and policy of the owner and the allied group. This has been a serious threat in the journalism of Nepal and this can been vividly seen in the presentation of the news and viewpoint to which media houses write on a particular issue. Existing press theories Nepali media follow the democratic practice of the press theory. They are enjoying boundless freedom. The media in Nepal seem to be more open and flexible than the present need of the democratic country like Nepal. Due to this uncurbed and limitless press freedom privacies are being interfered, small news is exaggerated to big scandals and confusions. The media houses in Nepal are concerned with only news but they don’t think about the impact of the news to the people. They don’t consider themselves as a part of the society and a citizen. Media in Nepal are also gradually loosing the public trust. There is greater need in the modification of the existing press theory and implementing Social Responsibility Theory (SRT). Geography The uneven geographical distribution of Nepal is another challenge of the journalism in Nepal. Most of the mountainous regions of Nepal are not approached by the transportation system. Thus, forms of media like newspaper, radio and television are inaccessible. There are many geographical complexities that many places in Nepal are out of reach of media. There are also places where people are exposed to the stale and untimely news because of this problem. Furthermore, the literacy rate in these parts is also relatively low and people

do not understand the print media message and also effectiveness of the messages sent by the broadcast media. Media Centralization Although, many districts of Nepal are well addressed by the local newspapers and community FM station, media centralization in the capital has been another challenge in the journalism of Nepal. Almost all the big media houses and the television channels are centralized in the Kathmandu. This collection leads in the isolation of the rest of the places, feeble number of news from the corners of the nation and vast gap in the targeted audience. People from all corners of the country and the developmental approach in the media are not well addressed by the big media houses. Media in Nepal are not approached by the people and people are not approached by the media. The implementation of the developmental journalism is very vital in Nepal to uplift the socio-economic status of the people and inspire them with the stories of ‘success’ and encourage them to participate in developmental activities, but the media centralization curbs this possibility. Feeble media education in Nepal There are many problems regarding the media education in Nepal. There are many points to consider for this problem. Firstly, there is specialization crisis in the journalism curricula there is tremendous ambiguity in terms of what constitutes a formal degree in journalism. There are inadequate infrastructures like photography lab, printing machines, cameras, reference books, field visits, radio labs and alike in almost all the universities and colleges in

Nepal. Moreover, students are exposed to all media but not a particular stream. Furthermore, there is a gap between journalistic philosophy and industry practice. The fresh degree holders do not perform well in the practice because the courses are not prepared adopting different activities with study projects, records, seminars, field visits, exhibitions and modern and professional media trainings. Lastly, there is no any interdisciplinary approach in the curricula and most of the syllabi are conventional like that of the America in the 1940s and this also reduces the proficiency and competency of the fresh graduates. To sum up, the journalism in developing nation like Nepal should be diverted to an autonomous and transparent profession with high professional competence. It should, in true sense, be developed as an industry encompassing geographical boundaries and literacy. Strategies should be made in coping with the salaries, media centralization, and geography. The concept of Developmental Journalism and Social Responsibility Theory (SRT) should be strongly allocated. Provision of effective regulatory mechanisms, substantive for the advancement of the human resource, highly modified and modern syllabus, developed infrastructures, need and practical based curricula, and collaboration of media industry and academic plus training institution will contribute for the development of the field. Media educators, particularly from university location should not hesitate to take the initiatives in this regard. (nirvana_sourav001@yahoo.com)


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;d:ofsf] hlGh/leq cf/If0f s]Gb| ko{6g jif{ @)!! glhlsbf ;d]t Toxf“ s'g} sfo{ of]hgf to x'g ;s]sf] b]lvb}g . x'g t Toxf“ ;j} s'/fsf] ;'ljwf ePsf] pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 t/ jf:tjdf Tof] ePsf] b]lvb}g . xfQL ;jf/, SoflDkª, df5f dfg]{ ;'l' jwf ;j} lbOPsf] eGg] u/]kl5 rf“lxbf pknAw u/fpg g;Sg] s]Gb|sf] egfO{df slt;Dd cfk\mgf] st{Joaf6 6fl9P t < of] k|Zg Toxf“ k'Ug] ko{6ssf] ;fd' v8f x'G5 .

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ljefuLo k|dv ' uf]kfn sfkm\ns ] f] g]tT[ jdf uPsf] 6f]nLnfO{ kl/k"0f{ ;fy cf/If0fsf sd{rf/Ln] :jfut u/]sf lyP . g]kfn k|fs[lts b[li6sf]0fn] x]g]{ xf] eg] ljZjs} pTs[i6 wgL /fi6« dflgG5 . ToxfF ko{6sx?sf] dg nf]Eofpg] dgf]/~hg b[Zosf] cjnf]sg ug{ cyf{t sf]zL gbL xl/ofnL 8f8fsfF8fdf ko{6s cfsif{0fs x'g] ub{5g\ . t/

nufot ;Dk"0f{ cf/If0f s]Gb|sf] ;+/If0f ug{ sl7gfO{ e}/x]sf] pgn] atfP . Ps jif{ cjlwdf cGo kz'k+G5L hLj hgfj/sf] ;+Vof klg 36]sf] pgn] atfPsf 5g\ . o;} cjlwdf cgf{ # j6f / kfgL /dfpg] hLjg 8lNkmg % j6f 36]sf] cg'dfg k|dv ' s]Gb|n] u/]sf] 5 . ToxfF a;f]af; ug{ cfPsf h+unL xfQL @ j6f d[t kfPsf] cg'dfg eg] afFsL !) dWo] $

ljtf{df]8l:yt dgsfdgf ax'd'vL SofDk;n] ljBfyL{sf] cfd;~rf/ tyf kqsfl/tf ljifo tkm{sf] cWoog / nugnfO{ Wofgdf /fvL ;"rgf tyf ;Gb]z ;+sng ug{ ut xKtf Ps lbg] cfd;~rf/ tyf kqsfl/tf :ynut cWoog u/fPsf] 5 . % hgf cfd;~rf/ tyf kqsfl/tf ljifodf cWoog ul//x]sf ljBfyL{x? / 6f]nL;lxt sf]zL6Kk' jGohGt' cf/If s]Gb|sf] cWoog / cjnf]sgsf] nflu ToxfF k'us ] f] xf . sf]zL6Kk' jGohGt' cf/If0f g]kfnsf] ;a}eGbf 7"nf] /fd;f/ cf/Ifdsf] ?kdf klg k|l;4 5 . sf]zL6Kk' jGohGt' cf/De ljz]if u/L h+unL e};L cgf{ / lkm/Gt] r/f nflu k|l;4 /x]sf] 5 . ljz]iftf oxfF cf/If0f cgf{sf] ;+/If0fsf] lglDt 3f]if0ff ul/Psf] xf] . ! ;o &% ju{ lsdL If]qkmn ePsf] o; cf/If0fdf ;'g;/L ;Kt/L, pbok'/sf !* uflj;df km}lnPsf] 5 . ko{6g glhlsb} hfFbf klg ;/sf/ kIfaf6 s'g} klg sfo{of]hgf gagfPsf] cf/If0f s]Gb|sf ;+/If0f clws[t czf]s /fd atfpF5g\ .

nf]kf]Gd'v r/fr'/u+ Lsf] e08f/ s[i0f uf}td

g]kfnsf] If]qkmnsf] lx;fan] ;fgf] eP klg oxfFsf k|fs[lts ;Dkbfn] ljZje/L g} lrlgPsf] 5 . o;}u/L sf]zL6Kk' jGohGt' cf/If0f If]qnfO{ klg Pp6f k|fs[lts ;Dkbfs} ?kdf lrlgg] ul/G5 . o; If]qsf] :yfkgf lj= !(&^ df ePsf] xf] . o;sf] If]qkmn ! ;o &% ju{ lsdL 5 eg] of] cf/If0f If]q ;'g;/L, plrt ;+/If0fsf] nflu j/kl/ j6f nfO{ lrt'jg /fli6«o lgs'~h ;Kt/L / pbok'/ lhNnfdf km}lnPsf] 5 . sf]zL6Kk' xf] 6 n nh tyf ahf/sf] k7fOPsf] 5 . sf]zL6Kk' jGohGt' cf/If0f If]qsf k|d'v czf]ss'df/ /fdsf cg';f/ Joj:yf x'g g;Sbf ToxfF k'Ug] cf/If0f s]Gb|df ko{6sx? vfg o; If]qdf ljZjd} nf]kf]Gd'v /x]sf r/fr'?+uL tyf ko{6sx?sf] dg lvGg x'g] j:g nufot cGo s]xL ;'ljwf jGohGt'sf] a;f]af; /x]sf] hfgsf/L lbP . ToxfF ub{5 . ToxfF k'us ] f] xfd|f] 6f]nL gx'bF f ToxfF k'Ug] ko{6ssf] ;+Vof 36\b} d]?b08 gePsf hgfj/ @!, k'tnL @&&, df5f @)), klg kms{gd] f ;Gt'i6 b]lvPg . uPsf] 5 . xfn b}lgs cyf{t jflif{s r/fr'?+uL $ ;o (!, :tgwf/L #!, o; If]qsf] hDdf k|dv ' s]Gb|/fdsf] egfO{ cg';f/ ?kdf $ ;o $) eGbf a9L ljb]zL If]qkmndf @%=( k|ltzt l;d;f/ / kfgLhGo hLjhGt' c;'/Iffsf sf/0fn] 3]/fleq ko{6ssf] cfphfp ug{] ub{5g\ . ^&=# k|ltzt 3fF;f] d}bfg @=^ k|ltzt xfF;] d}bfg / /x]sf cgf{ cGo jGo hgfj/ ?v lj?jf $=@ k|ltzt jgh+unn] 9fs]sf] 5 . cf/If0f s]Gb|sf] ;+/If0f ug{ sl7gfO{ k'Ug] ko{6ssf] ;+Vof ;xh cg'dfg ug{ klg ug{ Eofof] . b'O{ jif{cl3 sf]zL gbL jfl;GbfnfO{ kfl/jfl/s ;+Vofsf] lx;fjn] eO/x]sf] pgn] atfP . ! jif{sf] cjlwdf ;lsG5 . k|dv ' /fhdfu{;uF oftfoft t6aGwg elTsg uO{ cfPsf] af9L ufpFdf lg/Gt/ ?kdf k|bfg ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . h+unL e};L cgf{sf] ;+Vof klg 36]sf] ;'ljwf ;xh x'g g;Sg' cf/If0f j/k/ k;]kl5 ToxfFsf :yfgLo jfl;Gbfsf] h;sf] sf/0f pgLx?sf] b}lgs hLjgdf pgn] atfPsf 5g\ . xfn;fn} ul/Psf] xf]6n, nh tyf ahf/sf] Joj:yf gx'g' cfly{s l:yt gfh's ag]sf] lyof] . s]xL /fxt kfPsf] dxz'; ug{ ;lsG5 . df5f dfb}{ cfˆgf] b}lgs hLljsf cWoogaf6 cgf{ # j6f / kfgL /dfpg] ToxfFsf] k|dv ' ;d:of xf] . xfn b}lgs af9Laf6 lj:yflkt sltn] cem} /fxft hLj 8lNkmg % j6f 36]sf] cg'dfg ?kdf @ ;oeGbf a9L cfGtl/s kfpg ;s]sf 5}gg\ eg] slt t cfˆgf] rnfOcfPsf ;'g;/L klZrd s'zfxf s]Gb|n] u/]sf] 5 . ToxfF :yfoL ?kdf ko{6sn] sf]zL6Kk'sf] cjnf]sgsf nflu au]sf] ;DklQnfO{ hf]xf] ub}{ ToxL a;L $ lgjf;L ljsf; ;/bf/ -dfemL_ a;f]af; ub}{ cfPsf] xfQL klg ! jif{sf] ToxfF k'Ug] u/]sf 5g\ eg] jflif{s ?kdf cfˆgf] hLljsf rnfO/x]sf 5g\ . # cf/If0f s]Gb|n] df5f dfg{ lbPsf] cjwLdf @ j6fnfO{ d[Q cj:yfdf km]nf $ ;oeGbf sd ljb]zL ko{6ssf] gh/ lhNnfsf !* uflj;df km}lnPsf] cf/If0f lgMz'Ns nfO;]G;n] ufpFs} b}lgs ] f] atfpF5g\ . ljz]if kfl/Psf] lyof] eg] afFsL !) dWw] $ ToxfF k'Ug] u/]sf] 5 . ljz]ifu/L a+unfb]z, leq ! nfv ;j{;fw/0fsf] a;fO{ e]l6G5 . hLjgLdf 6]jf k'us nfO{ lrtjg /fli6«o lgs'~h k7fOPsf] ef/t / cd]l/sg gful/s ToxfF /dfpg] pgLx?sf] sdhf]/ cfly{s l:yltdf ;'wf/ u/L l;ª\gL, d}u9L df5f ToxfF nf]slk|o xf];\ eGg] x]tn' ] sf]zL6Kk' jGohGt' cf/If0f /x]sf] pgn] atfP . k|lts]hL Go"gtd sf]zL6Kk' jGohGt' cf/If0f s]Gb|n] u/]sf] s]Gb|n] hfgsf/L lbof] . hgfPsf] 5 . cjnf]sgsf nflu uPsf] 6f]n L s]Gb|sf] tkm{af6 df5f dfg{sf] nflu lk|m ! ;o / a9Ldf # ;o ?k}ofFdf ljqmL sf]zL6Kk' jGohGt' cf/If0f s]Gb|df sf]zL6Kk' aGohGt' cf/If0f s]Gb|;uF ;Fu} nfO;]G;sf] Joj:yf pknJw u/fOPsf] x'g] u/]sf] pgn] hfgsf/L lbP . t/ ko{6s nf]Eofpg] sbd grflnFbf / vfgf ToxfFsf] :yfgLo jfl;Gbfsf] 3/ cfFugdf 5 . bfp/f, :ofpnf, v/ nufot 3/df h+unL hgfj/sf] qf;df hLjg a:g nufotsf ;]jf ;'ljwf gx'bF f ToxfF ;d]t k'uL ToxfFsf] ;d:of s]nfpg] k|of; cfjZos kg]{ sf7 ;d]t ToxfFsf :yfgLo latfpg'kg]{ afWotf eg] x6]sf] 5}g .


dgsfdgf 6fOD;

@)^& k'if, January 2011

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sf]zL6Kk' ljz]if &

dgsfdgf ax'dv ' L SoDk; cfd ;~rf/ tyf kqsfl/tf ljefun] u/]sf] ut dlxgf ;'g;/Ldf cjl:yt sf]zL 6Kk' jGohGt' cf/If0f s]Gb|sf] cjnf]sg u/]sf] lyof] . ;f] cj;/df lvlrPsf s]xL t:aL/x? . kmf]6f] M dgsfdgf 6fOD; .

b]lvPgg\ aGohGt'

hgfj/sf] geP/ dflg;sf] ;+/If0f /d]z clwsf/L sf]zL6Kk' jGohGt' cf/If0f s]Gb| h;nfO{ g]kfns} ;a} e Gbf /fd;f/ cf/If0fsf] ?kdf klg lrlgg] ul/G5 . ;'g;/L, ;Kt/L / pbok'/sf !* ;kmn cf/If0f s] G b| n ] ToxfF s f hgfj/sf] geP/ :yfgLo dflg;x?sf] rflxF ;+/If0f ug{'kg{] cj:yf ePsf] 5 . af9Laf6 lj:yflkt eP/

3/sf] 3f6sf ePsf] dfl;gx? Tof] hgfj/sf] qf;bLk" 0 f{ h+ u ndf a:g afWo ePsf 5g\ . cfheGbf cufl8 h+unL hgfj/sf] qf; ub{} a;f]af; ub{} cfPsf] :yfgLoaf;L z's'n /fhj+zLn] atfP . jGohGt' cf/If0f s]Gb|n] tL dflg;x?sf] l:yltnfO{ dWogh/ u/]/ h+unaf/ 3fF;, bfp/f lbP/ dfq geP/ :yfgLoaf;L ;'g;/L s';fx–$ sf ljsf; bf/bf/ -

dfkmL_ nfO{ ;d]t df5f dfg]{ nfO;]G; lbPsf] s]Gb|Lo clws[t czf]s ;/bf/ eG5g\ – xKtfsf] Ps lbg dfg{] t/ k|ltlsnf]sf] ? ! ;ob]lv dfly /x]/ ljqmL ug{] u/]sf] 5' .Ú :yfgLo dflg;x?sf] 3/hUuf ;a} sf]zLsf] af9Ln] aufPkl5 k|zf;gLs If]qaf6 gx] / ] k l5 cfkm" x ? h+ u ndf a;f]af; ug{'k/]s]f atfpF5g\ :yfgLoaf;L zflnsf d]r] .

/]g' ;fx

g] k fnsf] jGohGt' cf/If0fdWo] sf]zL6Kk' klg Ps xf] . t/ klg To; If]qdf ;+/If0fsf] cefjn] ToxfFsf] jGohGt' nf]k x'bF } uO/x]sf] 5 . g]kfnsf] ;'g;/L, ;Kt/L pbok'/ u/L !* j6f uflj; cf]u6\g ;kmn o; If]qnfO{ /fd;f/ eg]/ klg lrlgG5 .

oxfF a:g] jGohGt' ljz]if u/L ;dfj]zLaf6 cfPsf rv]jf, cgf{, xfQL, 8lNkmg, cflb a;f]af; ub{5g\ . t/ clxn] cfP/ of] If]qdf jg h+unsf] km8fgL / af9Lsf] k|efjn] ToxfFsf] If]qnfO{ 7"nf] Iflt k' / \ o fPsf] 5 . @))( sf] hg0fgf cg';f/ cgf{sf] ;Vof @ ;o !( lyof] eg] clxn] 36]/ !! k'u5 ] . @)!) sf] hgu0fgf cg';f/ 8lNkmgsf]

;Vof !) k'u]sf] 5 . o;/L cGohGt' s f] ;+ V of klg lgoldlt 36\b} u/]sf] 5 . sf]zL6Kk' cf/If0f If]qnfO{ @)^! ;fndf /fd;f/ 3f]if0ff u/] klg /fd;f/ eg]/ gfd dfq /x\of] . ToxfFsf jGohGt' s;}dfq b]Vg kfPsf] 5 . o;/L /fd;f/ cf/If0f If]q ;+/If0f gu/] ToxfFsf] jGohGt' c? g} 7fpFdf a;fO{ ;/]/ hfg] u/]sf 5g\ .


@)^& k'if, January 2011

dgsfdgf 6fOD;

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sf]zL6Kk' ljz]if (

cjnf]sg stf{sf] snddf sf]zL6Kk' === ljrlNndf sf]zL6Kk' ;'/Iff Joj:yfsf] sldsf sf/0fn] nf]k x'g] cj:Yffdf 5g\ . o; plrt ?kn] ljsf; x'g ;s]sf] cf/Ifn] ;g\ @))( df u/]sf] tLgcf]6f lhNnf ;'g;/L, 5}g . o; cf/Ifsf] jif{l} kR5] u0fgfdf nf]kf]Gd'v cgf{ b'O{ ;o ;Kt/L / pbok'/sf] Ps ;o &% ju{ lsnf]ld6/ Pl/ofdf km}lnPsf] sf]zL6Kk' jGohGt' cf/If s]Gb|sf] plrt ;+/If0f / ;Dj4{gsf] cefj v8\lsPsf] 5 . pQm cf/If0f s]Gb| ljZjdf nf]kf]Gd'v ?kdf /x]sf] cgf{sf] ;+/If0fsf lgldQ @)#@ ;fndf :yfkgf ul/Psf] xf] . o; jGohGt' cf/Iff0fdf cgf{sf cltl/Qm xfQL, 8lNkmg, l;dlrqf, h/fof] tyf lkm/Gt] r/fx? kfpg ;lsG5 . t/ o; hyfefjL ?kdf jgh+ u n !( lyP eg] xfn of] $ j6f If]qdf ;DalGwt lgsfo tyf ljgf;sf sf/0f jGohGt'x? 36]sf 5g\ eg] cGo hgfj/df k|sfz kf}8]n -;fgf]_

!) cf]6f 8lNkmg 36]/ % j6f dfq 5g\ . !) j6f xfQLdf @ cf] 6 f d] / sf 5g . o;/L jGohGt'x?sf] ;+Vof 36\gd' f ;DalGwt lgsfon] plrt Wofg glbg', plrt :yfgdf ;'Iff SofDk v8f gu{ g;Sg' tyf ;8s cf/Ifsf] lxpdf x'g' /x]sf] s'/f s]Gb|sf clws[t czf]s /fd atfpF 5 g\ . olb o; cf/Ifsf plrt ;+/If0f ug{ ;Sof] eg] g]kfn ;/sf/n] ;g\ @)!! nfO{ ko{ 6 g jif{ dgfO/x]sf] cj:yfdf o; If]qn] klg kof{Kt dfqfdf ko{6g leq\ofpg] Ifdtf /x]sf] kfpg ;lsG5 .

Psrf]6L k'Ug} kg{] ldng lnDa"

k"jL{ g]kfnsf] ltg lhNnfdf km}lnPsf] sf]zL6Kk' jGohGt' cf/If0f s]Gb| g]kfn s} ;a}eGbf 7"nf] /fd;f/sf] ?kdf lrlgg] ul/G5 . ! ;o &% ju{ lsdL If]qkmndf km}lnPsf] o; cf/If0f s]Gb|df ljz]if u/L cgf{ cyjf h+unL e};Lsf] a;f]af; 5 . ;g\ @))( ;fndf ul/Psf] u0fgf cg';f/ cgf{sf] ;+Vof @ ;o !( j6f cf/If0f s]Gb|df /x]sf] 5g\ . kfgLdf kfOg] hLj 8lNkmg !! / nf]kf]Gd'v r/f l;dflrq #& /x]sf] kfOPsf] 5 . ;' g ;/L, ;Kt/L / pbok' / sf !* uflj;df km} l nPsf] cf/If0f s] G b| d f ljZjdf nf] k f] G d' v /x] s f j:g s'g} ;'ljwf gePsf sf/0f r/fr'?+uLx?sf] cfjt hfjt Do'lhog dfq x]//] kms{g' k5{ . To;}n] ko{6ssf] ;+Vof 36]sf] xf] . xfn b}lgs ?kdf @)) ;Dd cfGtl/s ko{6s / afx\o ko{6s jflif{s ?kdf rf/;o k|]d sfsL{ $) ;Dd cfpg] u/]sf 5g\ . tLg lhNnsf !^ uflj;df lkm/Gt] r/fx?sf] nflu km}lnPsf] cf/If0fleq Psnfv k| l ;4 dflgg] sf] z L6Kk' ;j{;fwf/'0fsf] a;fO{ /x]sf] 5 . jGohGt' cf/If0f If]q g]kfns} s]Gb|sf] tkm{af6 df5f dfg{ lk|m ;a}eGbf 7'nf] geP/ cToGt nfO;]G;, bfp/f, :ofpnf, /j/ gfh' s /fd;f/sf] ?kdf nufot 3/df cfjZos kg{] :yflkt ePsf] 5 . sf7 ;d]t pgLx?sf] l:yltdf ;' g ;/L, ;Kt/L / ;'wf/ xf];\ egL k|bfg ub{} pbok'/sf !* uflj;df u/]/ ! cfPsf] 5 . h;sf] sf/0f pgLx?sf] b}lgs hLjgdf /fxt ldn] s f] 5 . t/ h+ u nL hgfj/sf] qf;df hLjg ljtfpg' kg{] afWotf eg] cem} klg sfod} /x]sf] 5 .

ko{6sLo If]q sf]zL 6Kk' e'ldsf sfsL{

;g\ @)!! glhlsb} hfFbf klg g]kfnL ko{6g If]qdf s'g} sfo{of]hgf to x'g ;s]sf] b]lvb}g . h} l js ;+ / If0f If] q sf]zL6Kk' Ok" !(#@ ;fndf ;+/lIft s]Gb| eg]/ 3f]if0ff u/] klg o;sf] :yfkgf eg] !(&^ df dfq ;'? ul/Psf] xf] . Ps;o &! ju{ ls=ld= If]qkmn;Dd km}lnPsf] o; cf/If0fdf s]Gb|df ljz]if u/L cgf{ / lkm/Gt] rf/fx?sf] af;f]af; 5 . @))( ;fnsf] u0fgf cg';f/ b'O; { o !( cgf{ cf/If0f s] G b| d f /x] s f] / To;}u/L kfgLdf /dfpg] hLj 8lNkmg !! / nf]kf]Gd'v r/f

l;dlrqf #& j6f /x] s f] kfOPsf] 5 . ;'g;/L, ;Kt/L / pbok'/sf !^ j6f uflj;df km} l nPsf] cf/If0f s] G b| nf]kf]Gd'v k+IfLsf] cfjfudg x'g] u/]sf] s]Gb|sf k|d'v czf]s /fd atfpF5g\ . g] k fn k| f s[ l ts b[li6sf]0faf6 ljZjs} wgL /fi6« dflgG5 . oxfF lxdr' n L lzv/b]lv t/fO{sf ;dy/ kmfF6 / xl/ofnL 8f8fFsf8f, dgf]/d b[iox?sf] cjnf]sgdf /dfpg] u5{ g t/ plrt ;+/If0f x'g g;Sbf ko{6ssf] ;+ V of lbg k| l tlbg 36\ b } uO/x] s f] 5 . xfQL ;jf/ SoflDkª df5f dfg]{ ;a} ;'ljwf lbg] u/]sf] eg] klg Tof] ePsf] b]lvb}g .

s] G b| s f k| d ' v /fdn] ko{6ssf] cfjfudg c;'/Iffsf sf/0f 36]sf] cg'dfg u/]sf5g\ . ;/sf/n] jGohGt' cf/If0fsf] 3f]if0ff u/\of] t/ Tof] cg'?k sfo{of]hgf to ug{ g;Sbf ToxfFsf h+unL hgfj/ nufot ;Dk"0f{ s]Gb|sf] ;+/If0f ug{ ;d:of eO /x]sf] pgn] atfPsf5g\ . xfn;fn} ul/Psf] cWofkgaf6 cgf{ rf/ / 8lNkmg kfFr j6f 36]sf] kfOof] . ToxfF :yfgLo ?kdf a;f]af; ub{} cfPsf wtL a9]sf] d[To' / afFsL !) dWo] rf/ lrtjg /fli6«o lgs'~hdf k7fOPsf] 5 . jGohGt' cf/If0f s]Gb|df cfPsf ko{6sx? k+IfLhGo hgfj/x? x]gs { f] nflu b'O{ ltg lbg;Dd a:g' kg{] t/ vfg

ug{ ] u/] s f] s] G b| s f k| d ' v czf]s /fd atfpF5g\ . ko{6g jif{ @)!! glhlsbf ;d]t s]Gb|n] s'g} sfo{ of]hgf to ug{ ;s]s]f b]lvb}g . h;sf s/f0f ToxfF k'Ug] ko{6ssf] ;+ V of lbgk| l tlbg 36\ b } uO/x]sf] 5 . o; cf/If0f s]Gb|df ko{6s nf]Eofpg] sbd grflnbf / ToxfF vfg a:g ;d]t ;]jf ;'ljwf gx'bF f ToxfF k'Ug] 36\b} uPsf] xf] . xfn b}lgs @ ;o a9L cfGtl/s ko{6s sf]zL6Kk'df cfpg] u/]sf 5g\ . eg] jflif{s ?kdf $ ;o $) eGbf a9L ljb]zL ko{6s lelqg] u/]sf] ljz]ifu/L ef/t, a+unfb]z e"6fg / cd]l/sg gful/s oxfF cfP/ /dfpg] u/]sf] /fdn] atfP .

;+/If0fsf] cefj cf/If0fdf dflg;sf] l;sf/ aGg k'us ] f jGohGt'sf] ;+Vof 36\bf] cj:yfdf k'Ug'df s]Gb|sf] dfq geP/ k|zf;gLs If]qsf] klg sdhf]/Lsf] dx;'n ul/Psf] lyof] . hgfj/x? x]g{ tLg lbg;Dd a:g u/]tf klg ko{ 6 ssf nflu xf] 6 nsf] Do'lhod dfq x]//] kms{g' kg{] cj:yf ePsf] ko{ 6 sn]

jGohGt'sf] gfh's l:ylt ko{6sx?sf] /fd|f] :yfg ag]sf] uf]s'n :ofªaf] 5 . !&# ju{ lsnf] l d6/ k| f s[ l ts ?kdf ;' G b/ If]qkmndf cjl:yt jGohGt' dWo]sf] Ps b]zsf ?kdf /x]sf] cf/If @(–( k|ltzt kfgLn], g]kfndf w]/} o:tf 7fpFx? 5g\ . h;n] ko{ 6 s Joj;flosx?sf nflu /fd|f] Joj;fo aGg] ub{5 . To:t} lj; @)#@ ;fndf cgf{ s f] ;+ / If0ffy{ :yflkt ^&=#, 3fF;d] b} fgn] / afFsL efu k"jf{~rns} /fd|f] 7flgPsf] sf]zL kf+unn] 9f]sf] 5 . oxfF @)!) 6Kk' jGohGt' cf/If sf] u0fgf cg';f/ cgf{sf] ;+Vof

kfOG5 . !* j6f uflj; cf]u6\g] jGohGt' cf/Ifn] ToxfF s f :yfgLo afl;GbfnfO{ a]nf avt 3fF;bfp/f, sf7 / df5f dfg{] ;d]t ;'ljwf lbOPsf] 5 . sf]zL6Kk' jGohGt' cf/Ifn] w]/} lhjhGt' tyf k'zk+IfLsf] ;+ / If0f u/] t fklg ko{ 6 s Joj;fonfO{ k|fT] ;fxg ug{sf nflu lkm/Gt] ? kdf /x] s f lbuf] sbd kf6g afFsL /x]sf] 5 . ;fOj]/Lofaf6 cfpg] ljleGg o;sf] nflu :yfgLo k|zf;gn] k| f hfltsf r/fx? ;d] t Wofg lbg h?/L ePsf] 5 . @!%, 8lNkmgsf] ;+Vof !!, l;ulrq hf8f]df @# j6f / udL{ofddf #^ cf]6f /x]sf] 5 . o; jGohGt' cf/If0fdf

;o &% ju{ lsld If]qkmn df km}lnPsf] jGohGt'sf] u0fgf cg';f/ 8lNkmg !) dWo] 36]/ % j6f, nf]kf]Gd'v r/fx? #^, xfQL Ps jif{sf] cjlwdf !) dWo] b'O{ d[t cj:yf e]l6P eg] rf/ rflxF ;' /Iffsf] sdLn] lgs'~hdf ;+/lIft /flvPsf] / utjif{sf] u0fgf cg';f/ @ ;o !( sf] ;+Vofdf /x]sf] cgf{ @)!) sf] u0fgf cg';f/ 36]/ @ ;o !% ePsf] s]Gb|Lo clws[t jf8{g] _ czf]s /fdn] atfP .

atfP . s]Gb|Lo / k|zf;lgs If]q b'js } f] a]jf:yfsf sf/0f cfh sf]zL6Kk' v]N;L6Kk'df kl/0ft x'g] ;Defjgfdf 5 . h;df ljtf{ d f] 8 l:yt dgsfdgf ax'dv ' L SofDk;, cfd;~rf/ tyf kqsfl/tf ljefuLo k|dv ' uf]kfn sfkm\n]sf] g]t[Tjddf cjnf]sgsf nflu To;tkm{ uPsf lyP . 6f]nLn] ;d]t To; If]qsf] af/]df ulx/f] lrGtf JoQm u/]sf] lyof] .


@)^& k'if, January 2011

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not make the prints permanent. In 1816, a photographic camera which could give a negative image was made by Joseph Niepce. In 1853 a major improvement was made by William Tolbot when he was able to obtain permanents images. He was the first to make positives from negatives, the first to make enlargements by

photography and the first to publish a book illustrated with photographs in 1844. In course of time, more and more developments were contributed by individuals all over the world. The popular Kodak box camera was placed in the market in 1888 and photography, as we know today, was on this way.

PhotographyRemarkable Invention

n Neha Adhikari

Today we snap a picture and have it developed so easily. It is hard to believe that hundreds of years of experimenting were needed before this became possible. It was not invented by any single person. Between the 11th and 16th centuries people used “the camera

obscure on paper on image which could”. It enabled them to show on paper an image which could be traced by hand to give accurate drawings of natural scenes. it did not really “take” a picture. In 1568 a few improvements have been made to it. Daniello Barbaro fitted the camera obscure with a lens and a changeable opening to sharpen the image. In 1802 Thomas Wedge wood and Sir Humphrey Dary recorded silhouettes and images of paintings on coated paper by contact printing, but they could

!)

Mobile Phones Kumar Thapaliya

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This creates a king of discrimination among the friends. 21st Century is the age of mass media and telecommunication. The use of mobile phones or cell phones have brought a lot of change, development, facility for the users. In an underdeveloped country like Nepal mobile phone users are increasing by leaps and bounds. the facilities provided by Nepal Telecommunication Corporation are expensive so it is still beyond the reach of lower middle class families and student community but the companies like N-cell has made mobile SIM cards easily available. The communication network of N-cell is very wide spread making the signal accessible to the nook and corners of the country. Mobile phones are developing in such a rapid way that models are named as 2G, 3G, 4G that is second, third, fourth generation phones, these generation phones are for video conferencing and many more functions are being added with the further modifications. These mobile sets are beyond the reach of middle and lower middle class people. They are very useful to convey information instantly, particularly useful to locate any person. Even conversing thought the mobile phone a strong can identify and meet another stranger. In spite of their good user, they are misused. Constant miscalls, bluff calls, disturb the life of any individual. Sometimes bluff calls are made to thereafter an individual, this affects the person psychologically too. In many countries and the Terai region of Nepal mobile phones are used constantly before demanding ransom, blackmailing and kidnapping. Indian SIM cards are used for this purpose, so that, to locate the criminal becomes difficult for the intelligence departments. Mobile phones with multiple SIM cards are used to terrorist activities, drug pedaling, women trafficking etc. Mobile phones have become so common that people feel pride in carrying the, I don't understand why when a many receives a call, he forgets the other friends and walks away from them to an isolated place. Some people become everyone around them. Students in the colleges particularly have made mobile sets a thing of pride, they bring expensive sets, show them compare them with their friends. This creates a king of discrimination among the friends. Sending SMS messages greetings during festivals are the good aspects of a mobile phone but in some cases these messages even corrupt individuals. Youngsters send their feelings, they argue, quarrel send vulgar messages. Mobile phones are used generally for even telling lies, for instance of a man is in a place, instead of telling the name of the place, he tells a white lie that he is in some other place. Therefore as far as I have understood mobile phones must be properly used, for exact purposes, without disturbing the teaching learning activity and without creating a hassle in the company of friends etc. They must not be taken as a thing of pride, is should be thought as a very common item.


@)^& k'if, January 2011

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:gfts txb]lv dfly dfq ljZj ljBfno lzIff /flvg] ePsf] 5 . k|df0f kq tx SofDk;af6 x6fOPsf] 5 . t/ lj1fg / cy{ k|fljlws lzIff h:tf ljifox?sf] af/]df ;/sf/ df}g 5 . ofgsL bf]>f] hgfGbf]ngkl5 klg lzIff If]qsf] ljsf;sf nflu oy]i6 Wofg lbPsf] kfOb}g . ljZj ljBfnon] k|df0fkq tx x6fPkl5 u/La cleefjsx?n] cfkm\gf 5f]/f5f]/L k9fpg g;Sg] cj:yf 5 . ljZj ljBfnodf k|df0f kq tx k9\bf Go"gtd z'Nsdf k9\g ;Sg] cj:yf lyof] . cfh /fd|f] >] 0 fLdf P;Pn;L pQL{ 0 f u/] s f] Ifdtfx? u/La, cleefj cfkm\gf] 5f] / f5f] / LnfO{ lj1fg tyf cGo k| f ljlws ljifo cfkm\ g } sf/0fn] k9fpg ;Sg] cj:yf 5}g . lsgeg] lghL If]q lj1fg tyf cGo k|fljlws lzIff lbg] lzIffnosf k9fpg ;Sg] cj:yf 5}g . o;/L s'g} cEof; tof/L gu/]/ xr'jfdf ;/sf/ s;sf] lgb{]zgdf o; k|sf/ cln clk|o gLlt lgdf{0f ub{5 of] crDd nfUbf] ljifo ePsf] 5 . bf];|f] hgfGbf]ngkl5 hgftfn] sd;]sd lzIff, :jf:Yo, ufF;, af; / skf;sf ;Gbe{ d f ;/sf/ lhDd]jf/Lk"j{s gLlt agfpg] cfzf u/]sf lyP . t/ Tof] cfzfdf g} ;Lldt 5 . To;}n] lzIff If]qnfO{ Wofg lbP/ ufpF ufpFdf d'n'snfO{ cfjZos kg{] hgzlQm pTkfbg ug{] lzIff cyjf /f] h uf/ d" n s Joj;flos, :jfnDaL x'g ;Sg] lzIff cfhsf] cfjZostf xf] . To; s'/fdf Wofg lbFb} jif{}kR5] lzIff gLlt tyf kf7\ o qmd kl/jt{ g gul/g] u/L bL3{sfnLg ?kdf sd;]sd @% jif{] lzIff gLlt lgdf{0f u/L ;a}nfO{ plrt cfkm\gf] >dtf cg';f/sf] lzIff lng] cj;/ k|bfg ug{' cfhsf] cfjZostf xf] . To;}n] z}lIfs b'n{en] gLltaf6 o'jfx? vf8L d'n'ssf] >lds dfq aGg]5g\ . clg /]ld6\ofG;df ;/sf/ /dfpg] ;f]rnfO{ kl/jt{g ug]{ tkm{ ;DalGwt kIf nfUg' clgjfo{ x'G5 . To;f] ePg eg] >lds kfOg] of el/of kfOg] d"n's dfq agfpg] xf]Og g]kfn bIf hgzlQm k|fKt ug{] d"n's xf] eg]/ lrgfpg] lzIff gLlt nfu" ug{] k|oTg ug{' h?/L 5 . -n]vs dgsfdgf SofDk; k|dv' x'g_\


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@)^& k'if, January 2011

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;'g;fg aGb} k"js { f] xªsª ahf/ $ jif{ cl3 w'nfaf/Lsf k|Voft ;'kf/L Aofkf/L cfTdf/fd cu|jfnsf] 8fsf ;d"xn] rnfPsf] uf]nL nflu xTof ePsf] lyof] . To:t} em08} !) jif{ cl3 ;f]xL :yfgsf df/jf8L ;d'bfosf Ps afnssf] ckx/0fsf/Ln] lkm/f}tL dfUb} xTof u/]sf lyP . /fhg k/fh'nL s'g} ;do k"j{ If]qs} xªsª dfs]{6sf] ?kdf rrf{ kfPsf] g]kfnsf] k"jL{ lhNnf emfkfsf] w'nfaf/L ahf/ klxn] s f] t' n gfdf lxhf] c fh lbg k|ltlbg ;'g;fg aGb} uO/x]sf] 5 . cToflws rxnkxn / Jo:t b]lvg] emfkfsf] Jo:t ljb]zL ahf/sf] ?kdf :yflkt of] ahf/df l5d]sL d'n's ef/tsf] l;lSsd, bfhL{lnª, ldl/s, v;f{ª, l;lnu'8L nufotsf ljleGg :yfgaf6 pkef]Qmfx? lsgd]n ug{ cfpg] u/]sf] oxf+sf Jofkf/Lx?sf] egfO{ 5 . o;/L w'nfaf/L ahf/ ;du|df x]bf{ k"js { } gd"gf ahf/ b]lvPtf klg Jofkf/L xTof, ckx/0f, wDsL, k;ndf lbg bxf8} x'g] rf]/L 8s}tL , n'6kf6, u}x\ sfg'gL 9+un] s/ c;'nL, k"jL{ kxf8L tyf t/fO{ s f lhNnfdf Rofp;/L pld|Psf ljleGg hftLo ,If]lqo ;+3 ,;+ u 7gx?sf] rGbf cft+ s ,Aofkf/L wDSofpg] nufotsf ljljw c/fhs ultljlwn] ubf{ oxf+ F s f] Aofkf/Ls sf/f]af/ w/f;foL aGb} uO{/x]sf] xf] . gful/ssf] ;'/Iffsf] lhDd]jf/L lnP/ a;]sf] k|x/L k|zf;gn] Aoj;foLx?nfO{ ;'/Iffsf] k|Tofe'tL lbg c;kmn ag]kl5 ] ahf/ lbgfg'lbg ;'g;fg aGb} uO/x]sf] xf] . o;/L ;f] ahf/df ef/tsf] /fh:yfg,xl/ofgf h:tf cGo :yfgaf6 df/jf8Lx? g]kfn cfO{ @)@( ;fnb]lv lg/Gt/ Aoj;fodf ;lqmo 5g\ . ljutsf] t'ngfdf xfn eg] @% k|ltzt dfq} dfs]{6df cfly{s sf/f]af/ x'g] u/]sf] k'/fgf Aofkf/L ;Hhg uf]onsf] egfO{ 5 . of] ahf/df clwsf+ z df/jf8L ;d'bfosf / s]xL g]kfnLx?sf /]l8d]8 sk8f,On]S6«f]lgS;, s:d]l6S; h'Qf rKkn,sf]N8 l8«+U;sf ul/ u/L em08} b'O{ ;o a9L xf]n;]n tyf v'b|f ljqm] t f k;nx? sl/a tLg bzscl3b]lv ;~rfngdf 5g\ .clxn] c;' ' / lIft aGb} uPkl5 s] l x Aofkf/Lx? cfkm\gf] Aoj;fonfO { ef/tsf] l;lnu'8Ldf s]Gb|Lt u/]sf 5g\ . g]kfn / rLg;+usf] Aofkf/ v:sb} uPsf] cj:yf / ef/t;+u l;w} rLg hf]8\g] ;8s dfu{ lgdf{0f ePkl5 pgLx? cfkm\gf] \Aofkf/nfO{ l;lnu'8Ld} s]Gb|Lt u/] s f x' g \ . wnfaf/L ahf/n] ef/t,e'6fg / a+unfb]z ul/ k|ToIf tLg b]z;+usf] Aoj;fo ug]{ u/]sf] eP klg tL Aofkf/Lx? zflGt ;'/Iffsf] l:ylt gfh's ag]kl5 ef/t knfog ePsf 5g\ . tTsfnLg ;/sf/sf] ef/tLo ?k}ofF g]kfn leq\ofpg] gLlt cg'?k hfkfg,sf]l/of, a+unfb]z nufotsf d'n'sx?af6 ;fdfg g]kfn cfoft u/L ToxL ;fdfg ef/t lgof{t ug{] / ef/tLo d'b|f g]kfn leq\ofpg] ul/Psf] d]rL pBf]u jfl0fHo ;+3sf ;+:yfks cWoIf

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o;tkm{ nfu]sf 5g\ . @)^! k';df u7g ePsf] ;f] ;d"x xfn cfP/ lhNnfsf] gd'gfsf] ?kdf kl/lrt ePsf] 5 . ;d" x u7g !) hgf dlxnfnfO{ !) dfp afv|f ;f6f;f6 sfo{qmd ;~rfng ePkl5 % hgfsf] ;f] ;d"x afv|f kfng tkm{ cfslif{t ePsf] xf] . o;sf/0f of] Joj;fo kmi6fPsf] 5 .

ehg ufP/ hLjgofkg tyf k'/fgf Aofkf/L kGgfnfn h}g atfpg'x'G5 . o; If]qsf rlr{t Pj+ al9 Aofkf/Ls sf/f]af/ x'g] k;nx?df d~h' >L sG;g{, cd/ dfs]{6, b'uf{ sDKn]S;, ltjf/L dfs]{6, /Ll4 ;Ll4 ODkf] l /od, k| s fz ODkf]l/od,lgnsdn,e6/fO{ sn]S;g,df]bL aGw'\ x'g\ . sl/a $ jif{ cl3 w'nfaf/Lsf k|Voft ;'kf/L Aofkf/L cfTdf/fd cu|jfnsf] 8fsf ;d"xn] rnfPsf] uf]nL nflu xTof ePsf] lyof] . To:t} em08} !) jif{ cl3 ;f]xL :yfgsf df/jf8L ;d' b fosf Ps afnssf] ckx/0fsf/Ln] lkm/f}tL dfUb} xTof u/]sf lyP . o;/L Aoj;foLx? c;'/lIft eO{ lj:yflkt aGb} uPsf x'g\ . ljxfg & b]lv a]n'sL !)ah];Dd Aofkf/ x'g] ;f] dfs]6{ ;+s6sflng ;dootf ljxfg !) ah] v'Ng] / ;f+em % ah] g} aGb x'g] u/] s f] 5 . lhNnf ;b/d' s fd rGb|u9Lblv w'nfaf/L x'+b} k"jL{ kxf8L lhNnf Onfd;+ u ;Ldf hf] l 8Psf] zflGtgu/ uflj;;Ddsf] ;8s v08 ;/sf/n] sfnf] k q] u/] d f w' n faf/L dfs]6{ sf] Aoj;fo k'g=km:6fpg] kLl8t Aofkf/Lx?sf] cfu|x 5 . cfly{s sf/f]af/ 8fdf8f]n 5 ,:6fkm vr{ / sf]7f ef8f ltg{ ; Dd xDd] xDd] k/] s f] 5 Ps Aoj;flon] u'gf;f] ub}{ eg]] Aofkf/ t rf}k6} eO{xfNof] gL. /fhgLlts bn tyf ljleGg hftLo If]qLo ;+u7gx?n] uf]i7L ,;Dd]ng,;]ldgf/sf gfddf rGbf c;'Ng, kmf]gaf6 wDSofpg]] x'b+ f Aoj;fodf k|ToIf c;/ k/]sf] :yflgo Aofkf/L Pj+ /fli6o pBf]u Aofkf/ dxf;+3sf lhNnf ;lrj uf]s'n x'dfufO{ atfpg'x'G5 /fHon] of] ahf/nfO{ j]jf:tf u/]df k"jL{ kxf8L Onfsfdf pTkflbt j:t'x?sf] uf]bfd gaGnf eGg ;lsGg . cfk/flws 36gfdf j[l4 eO{ hgwgsf] ;'/Iff gx'gfn] ljb]zL d'n'saf6 /fhwfgL sf7df8f}+ x'bF } w'nfaf/L cfpg] dfn;fdfg l;w} ef/t k7fOg] , d] r Lgu/ gu/kflnsfn] lnb} cfPsf] s/df j[l4, Jo.kf/L k;n aGb u/L cGoq uO{ Joj;fo ugf{n] oxfFsf] cfly{s sf/f]af/

36\g uO{ /fhZj ;+sngdf ;d]t 7"nf] dfqfdf lu/fj6 cfPsf] 5 .ahf/df zflGt ;'/Iff sfod ug{sf nflu d]rL pBf] u jfl0fHo ;+ 3 sf] cu' j fO{ d f Aofkf/Lx?n] O=k| = sf= w' n faf/Ldf OG:fk]S6/sf] b/aGbL x'gk' g],{ k|x/Lsf] ;+Vof j[l4 ug'{kg]{,;'/Iffsf] Uof/]G6L x'g'kg]{ nufotsf Aoj;flo xslxtsf af/]df lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{no,k"j{ If]qLo k|x/L sfof{no,g]kfn kqsf/ dxf;+3df 1fkg kq a'emfPsf] ;+3sf cWoIf s]zj/fh kf08]n] hfgsf/L lbg'eof] . cWoIf kf08]n] d'n'ssf] k|zf;g ;+oGq sdhf]/ ePsf] / :ki6 ;/sf/L gLltsf] cefjsf sf/0f Aoj;flox?n] ;d:of em] N g' k /] s f] atfpg'xG' 5 ] . otf O{=k|=sf= w'nfaf/Lsf O~rfh{ bLks a/fn eg] hgtfnfO{ ;/'Iffsf] Uof/]G6L ug{ :yflgo /fhgLts bn Pj+ ;+3 ;+Zyfsf k|ltlglwx?;+u ;dGjo ul/ ev{/} dfs]{6sf] ;'/Iffsf] nflu 5'6} k|x/L lj6 :yfkgf ul/Psf] atfpg'x'G5 . @)@) ;fnaf6 kmf]/]g u'8; \ sf] ?kdf :yfkgf eO{ Joj;fo ;'? u/]sf] emfkfsf k|dv ' zx/ahf/x? dWo]sf] of] ahf/ w'nfaf/Lsf] klxrfg, ljsf; tyf bL3{sfnLg ;+/If0f Pjd\ ;Dj4{gsf lglDt zflGt ;'/Iffsf] l:yltnfO{ dha't agfO{ lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{no ;fy} :yflgo k|zf;gn] klg w'nfaf/Lsf Aofkf/Lx?;+u ;dGjo ;xsfo{ ul/ k|efjsf/L sbd rfNg cfjZos 5 .

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5 . b]zsf ljleGg dlGb/sf eQmhg] lbPsf] hfgsf/L cg' ; f/ alnsf] s' g } cflwsfl/s bz} + aGb} 5 . alnk|yfsf] ;'?jft slxn] e]l6Psf] 5}g . kj{sf] gfddf x'g] lx+;fn] ljs[lt agfO/x]sf] 5. To;n] o'jfx?df lx+;fTds k|j[lQ lkjleGg ;d:ofx? km}ln/x]sf] 5 .

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@)^& k'if, January 2011

dgsfdgf 6fOD;

The Promises of Change It is common to hear people say, “if this happens in developed countries, then problems here come as no surprise”. Our society has changed, and has brought forth a culture of impurity, irreverence and insolence. These are exciting times, as quiet revolution of the mind is taking place in the way we think and act. for what has been considered right throughout the ages seems to have turned out completely wrong. Being polite, learning and practicing proper etiquette, being considerate towards others are all simply too old fashioned. Now, it is all about the self a making no quotations about having influence to bash and burn money to squander and muscle to flex. There are many changes happening now something we are all led to believe is necessary and something that has transformed us all into mores and shakers, ready to aid the change. Some among us who are well endowed or blessed by the power that be may have the capacity to bring about the change for ourselves, but the rest

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Sugdev Rajbanshi lll must suffer as a blind witness to these inevitable forces of change. Take a book, around us as we go about our daily lives. Barely morning walks are greeted by dead dogs their heads and bodies squashed; a pup that was sprightly and cute yesterday lies dead and stiff, damped in front of a neighbors gate; goats tied to electrical posts ready to be slaughtered. Pot holes turned into something little short of death traps. Rubbing shoulders on the road and walking precariously for fear of being run over by mighty four wheelers or buses was common but now we are challenged by the former humble bicycles that race to beat the speed of cars, not to mention daredevil motor cycles. Other changes can be seems in our disbelief and mistrust of others. Our perception of things is also changing. Fuelled by increasing exposure to information both national

and international. In this context look at domestic cases of corruption and graft/informal hard work. Reading the newspapers and listening to television reports about the economic crash in the west, the greed of banks abroad and domestically, and multi billionaire executives craving for more corruption in Nepal look like child’s play. It is common to hear people say, “if this happens in developed countries, then problems here come as no surprise”. These happenings are common and stretch throughout our society. Take the case of a neighbor who splits the television cable of his next door neighbor and steals cable services unnoticed for months until he is eventually discovered. The culprit, instead of apologizing, swears to take revenge. In this culture of insecurity, the rhetoric of inevitable positive changes seems farfetched. Are we beyond all positive changes?

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Manakamana Times  

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