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References 1.

We follow here the Hungarian Ministry of Justice’s choice of language, of a ‘state of danger’. A ‘state of emergency, along with four further types of special emergency power,’ is also mentioned in the Hungarian constitution, but as something other than a state of danger (article 50).

2. See: https://njt.hu/translated/doc/ TheFundamentalLawofHunga ry_20191213_FIN.pdf

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3.

See: http://njt.hu/translated/doc/ J2020R0040K_20200326_FIN.pdf

4. Such empowerment is reasonable considering the need for governing and the potential difficulties to convene the National Assembly. 5.

Since 2010, in three consecutive parliamentary elections Orbán’s political party, FIDESZ (in coalition with KDNP), has gained a two-thirds majority, allowing them to adopt laws without the need to conduct substantive discussions in the parliament.

6. Enshrined in Articles 8 and 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights, see: https://www.echr.coe.int/ Documents/Convention_ENG.pdf 7.

Article 3 (1) of Act XII of 2020, see: https://berlin.mfa.gov.hu/ assets/77/49/43/cc3672166e33b2cf 015ce4371aeedf19417c2710.pdf

8. Article 8 Act XII of 2020. 9. The act LVIII of 2020 on transitional provisions related to the termination of the state of danger was also adopted by Parliament. Although formally the state of danger ended, the abuse of powers is expected to continue. See: https://www.helsinki. hu/en/never-ending-story 10. See: https://magyarkozlony.hu/ dokumentumok/c4210b08dd738 32b3ca261193f85d508498c9718/ megtekintes 11. See: https://magyarkozlony.hu/do kumentumok/13285bbde75a626 ff044ec795e70a6ee5d700b29/ megtekintes 12. The goal of the information request was to detect, learn about, and prevent the spread of the coronavirus, as well as to organise the harmonised functioning of public bodies. See: https://magyarkozlony. hu/dokumentumok/0862cb1d20eb fb25b36e95142f4e5f28ece35e6a/ megtekintes 13. Article 3 (2) 93/2020 (6 April 2020) Government Decree. 14. See: http://njt.hu/translated/doc/ J2011T0112P_20190426_FIN.pdf 15. Enshrined in Article 14 of the Privacy Act and Articles 15-22 of the GDPR.

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