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The magazine for the canadian brewing industry

Brewers J o u r n a l

Winter 2018 | issue 7 ISSN 2398-6956


Nova Scotia’s finest on working hard, and playing hard, in Halifax

42 | Canning: the new normal for selling beer?

50 | goose island: putting brewing in the spotlight

58 | hops: the road ahead for canadian growers

le ad e r



s the Canadian brewing industry continues to grow, like many of its peers across the globe, we see breweries enter the scene, existing operations expand and as a result, the drinker benefits from the increased prevalence of good beer. One individual that has seen the effects of this growth over the last two decades is Brian Titus, who co-founded Nova Scotia's Garrison Brewing 20 years ago. He is fully behind the burgeoning growth in the province, but also expects increased competition to impact each and every brewery, both large and small. “We’ve enjoyed double-digit growth over the last decade but in 2017, we are seeing the effects of, I’m gonna say it, saturation," he told us last month. "It’s a levelling off of growth and it’s something I thought would happen in 2016. But instead we had our best year in terms of volume in 2016. Now though, the levelling off is becoming evident. It’s great that all of these new businesses are coming in as they drive visibility of good beer and they are helping make something that is still a little niche become more mainstream." He adds: "Craft beer still only represents 6-7% of beer sold in Nova Scotia, so there is a lot to be converted. But in reality, we’ll find the new norm at some point. Does that translate to each of the new brewers? Probably not, I’d say inevitably not.” From page 30, Titus advises new breweries on how best to be a success and his hopes for the future. One area Titus is a major advocate of is paying keen attention to the packaging element of the brewery. Another such proponent of packaging is Alec Mull, vice president of brewery operations at US-based Founders. “Packaging is not sexy, let’s be honest. But when it comes to high-quality packaging lines, when and where possible, you simply have to invest in them. I know brewers prefer to talk about IBUs, hops and other fun things rather than packaging but it is so

editor's choice How the latest developments in the canning sector can help your brewery secure a business advantage - page 42

critical to pay that attention if you intend your beer to get to the consumer the way you intended,” explains Mull. He adds: “We need to change the dialogue so that the brewing community focuses on packaging and I admit, that is not a simple issue that can be changed overnight for many, many reasons. However if you have the money, look at that side of things." Consistency in your packaging operation and canning go hand-in-hand. From page 42 we speak to leading canning line manufacturers and mobile canning service providers on changing trends in the market and the opportunities that lie ahead. Elsewhere in this issue, check out our interviews with Scott Simmons, president of the OCB, fantastic Canadian hop growers, Goose Island Toronto and much more. I hope you enjoy this issue and thanks again for all of your support. Tim Sheahan Editor

Winter 2018


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contacts Tim Sheahan Editor +44 (0)1442 780 592 Richard Piotrowski Canada Bureau Chief +1 647 975 7656 Jakub Mulik Staff photographer Jim Robertson Head of sales +44 (0)1442 780 593 Johnny Leung North American Sales +1 647 975 7656 Jon Young Publisher Reby Media 42 Crouchfield, Hemel Hempstead, Herts, HP1 1PA, UK

SUBscriptions The Brewers Journal is a quarterly magazine mailed every Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter. Subscriptions can be purchased for four or eight issues. Prices for single issue subscriptions or back issues can be obtained by emailing:

CANADA One year: $39 International One year: $49 The content of The Brewers Journal is subject to copyright. However, if you would like to obtain copies of an article for marketing purposes high-quality reprints can be supplied to your specification. Please contact the advertising team for full details of this service. The Brewers Journal is printed at Stephens & George, Merthyr Tydfil UK.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage or retrieval system, without the express prior written consent of the publisher. The Brewers Journal Canada ISSN 23986948 is published bimonthly by Reby Media, 42 Crouchfield, Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire, HP1 1PA, UK. Subscription records are maintained at Reby Media, 42 Crouchfield, Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire, HP1 1PA, UK. The Brewers Journal accepts no responsibility for the accuracy of statements or opinion given within the Journal that is not the expressly designated opinion of the Journal or its publishers. Those opinions expressed in areas other than editorial comment may not be taken as being the opinion of the Journal or its staff, and the aforementioned accept no responsibility or liability for actions that arise therefrom.


Winter 2018

Brewers Journal Canada









This innovative piece of equipment helps you get the most out of your dry hopping by functioning as a mixing and dosing vessel. The Hop Egg works by blending hops with your finished or fermenting beer allowing safe and sanitary re-introduction back into your vessel. The Newlands Hop Egg can also be utilized for other purposes around your brewery such as, yeast pitching and mixing, adjunct blending and dosing, clarification additives and other cellar additions. The Hop Egg is available in 3 sizes, 4HL, 8HL and 11HL.

Newlands - Building with Passion, Engineering & Craftsmanship.


1 . 8 7 7. 8 5 5 . 4 8 9 0

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contents 30





Cover story 30 - Brian Titus, president of Garrison Brewing Company, on the first 20 years in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

advertorial 14 - BEI on Hydrogen Sulphide 16 - Econse talk wastewater management

SECTOR | COOPERING 54 - DRM.reCoop on barrel re-coopering

insight | hop harvest COMMENTS 19 - Changes brewing in workplace legislation 23 - The basics of brewery sanitation 26 - Know where you stand on liquor liability 28 - Trademark protection for new breweries

58 - How Canadian breweries are increasingly turning to locally-grown hop varieties

crossing borders | founders 62 - Dave Engbers and Alec Mull on their continued growth and the road ahead

show preview 40 - Ontario Technical Conference 2018

SCIENCE | WORT OXYGENATION 66 - White Labs talk wort oxygenation

Insight | Canning 42 - The latest developments in canning

Brewery tour | goose island 50 - How Goose Island is bringing brewing to the fore in downtown Toronto


Winter 2018

SCIENCE | YEAST 68 - Omega Yeast Labs on experimentation and innovation in yeast 72 - Escarpment Laboratories discuss craft beer's next top yeast strains

Brewers Journal Canada



Cheers to these bullfrogpowered businesses in the brewing industry Cheers to these bullfrogpowered businesses in the brewing industry

rthh NOrt NO

Findout outhow howyou youcan can join Find join them at them at

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hillips Brewing & Malting Co has called on Specific

we needed a new brewhouse, we wanted to ensure that

Mechanical Systems to ensure its new brewhouse

we would be able to not only maintain the beer quality

helped cut the brewery's carbon footprint. Victoria, BC-based Phillips Brewing & Malting Co has installed the new 120 hectolitre brewhouse, which was manufactured by Specific Mechanical Systems. The automated system comprises brewhouse, a mash

and consistency that we were used to, but also use the opportunity to reduce the carbon footprint of our brewhouse. “We were thrilled with how Specific Mechanical Systems was able to accommodate these requests and

vessel for mixing of the water and malt and two kettles

build us a brewery that incorporated heat recovery, a

that utilize a single external calandria for heating the wort.

mash press and hot side centrifuge – and do it all on a

A single stack condenser to collect steam from both kettles and cool it to water for use within the brewery also formed part of the install. Phillips already owned a mash filter and centrifuge that

very short time line.” Reo Phillips, president of Specific Mechanical Systems, added: “We were thrilled to work with the team at Phillips to define the scope of the project, manufacture this

were integrated into the brewhouse design to optimize

state of the art system and deliver it in a very quick three

brewhouse efficiency, ensuring the most beer is produced


from the raw materials required for each batch. Matt Phillips, founder and owner of Phillips Brewing

“Being involved in the manufacture this system, with a focus toward environmental stewardship, has been a very

& Malting Co, explained: “When it became obvious that

rewarding process.”

Sawdust City in band collab

juicy explosion of hop flavour and aroma.


The beer, Bill NyE P.A, is the result of the brewers’

ravenhurst, Ontario-based Sawdust City has

experiments in new yeast and hop combinations. It

released its collaboration with rock band I, The

utilises Vermont Ale yeast from Escarpment Labs in

Mountain. The hop-forward India red ale, called I, The Mountain & The Leprechaun Flute, leads with heavy aromas of rich pine in a hop kick to the olfactory. “A heavy dose of Red X and a blast of oats help build a strong malt base with a big mouthfeel in this 7% malt monster. A wave of hop flavours follow and attack

Guelph, Ontario and Amarillo, Citra, El Dorado, Galaxy and Mosaic before being dry-hopped with Citra, El Dorado and Galaxy. “We had never offered a hazy IPA at The Exchange before, so we were eager to try something different”, explained Sam Maxbauer, head brewer. The brew gave the brewers a chance to try their hands

your tongue finishing this completely unbalanced red

at hop-du-jour, El Dorado. “We were excited to get this

renegade,” the brewery explained.

hop for the first time” said Maxbauer. “It is known for its big

Sawdust City Brewing Company operates from a 20,000 square foot location that includes a 24hL Canadian-made brewhouse, canning line and barrelaging cellar. Open 7-days a week, the on-site saloon features 12-

fruity punch and nice bittering properties, which set us up to deliver a bold IPA.” The 7% Bill NyE P.A. is moderately hazy and offers a burst of fruity and juicy aromas and flavours. “We like that we were able to experiment and obtain

tap lines, tasting boards, live entertainment, and brewery

a delicious, well-balanced IPAm” added Christine Nagy,


brewer at The Exchange. “The big exotic fruit notes

The Exchange Brewery makes foray into Vermont-style IPA


(pineapple and mango) are balanced nicely with sweet orange notes”. The brewery celebrates its 2nd Anniversary this February. “I’m so proud of what our team at has

he Exchange Brewery has unveiled its first Vermont-

accomplished and can’t wait to celebrate with our

Style IPA, which boasts solid bitterness with a fruity,

amazing patrons!” said Robin Ridesic, Founder & CEO.

Winter 2018


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Keep CLEAN and boost business A

newly-opened Toronto business, ChemStation Toronto, has said it can offer brewing industry clients

a raft of environmentally friendly industrial cleaning systems such as custom formulated detergents and sanitizers. ChemStation Toronto, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Schwartz Chemical Corporation, will provide brewery businesses with a range of cleaning products via a unique system of delivery into refillable containers bringing “safety, convenience and local service” to the industry’s doorstep. According to the company, the refillable containers offer many benefits including elimination of handling and disposing of plastic pails, drums or totes that may ultimately end up in landfill. With the ChemStation system, it explained, there are no empty containers to discard or return, no wasted product and no disposal costs. The company said: “The custom formulated products

They add: “The ChemStation system includes the

include brewery specific alkaline cleaners designed for

refillable containers in many sizes (450 litre to 1,325 litres)

every cleaning process on every surface from shipping

as well as dispensing equipment, proportioning systems,

and receiving to production and packaging areas.

containment units, foamers, pumps and other necessary

“We also offer Free-rinsing CIP and COP cleaners that are ideal for kettles, mash tuns, lauter tuns, wort coolers,

equipment for efficient chemical delivery. “In addition there is an added system to help manage

fermenters, brite tanks, keg wash machines, and all other

inventory. Telemetry units are available similar to existing

applicable brewing equipment.”

CO2 systems used in many breweries today.”

ChemStation said the products are safer than

ChemStation Toronto is a wholly-owned subsidiary

powdered caustic products and do not leave undissolved

of Schwartz Chemical Corporation located in Pickering,

residue. In addition the business offers speed line

Ontario. Schwartz Chemical has operated in the chemical

lubricants that rinse away clean and are safe for brewery

business for more than 50 years and the new tie-up is


with Chemstation International of Dayton, Ohio.

Cowbell Brewing Co launches latest IPA

Bruin is a true India Pale Ale. Five unique hops and a

“Outrageously hoppy and classically bitter, Boxing touch of Belgian Candi Syrup create a burst of vibrant


owbell Brewing Co has launched the latest addition

tropical aromas and flavours of lime, mango and lychee.

to its Founders' series of beers in the form of Doc

The body is smooth with focused bitterness and a

Perdue's Boxing Bruin. Doc Perdue's Boxing Bruin follows the theme of

refreshing finish,” the brewery explained. This beer weighs in at 6.3%, 50 IBU, 10 SRM and

other Founders' series beers in bringing to life one of the

according to the brewery, pairs well with curried dishes,

colourful characters in Blyth, Ontario’s past.

pizza, wings, carrot cake and Cowbell Kitchen's Lemon

Doc Perdue's Boxing Bruin is named for Blyth's veterinarian in the late 1880's. Perdue rescued and cared

Tart dessert, which features Boxing Bruin in the recipe. ”From day one, we knew we were committed to an

for a variety of animals, including a bear cub he named

IPA in our lineup. There are so many variations of an IPA.

Bruin. Along with impromptu boxing exhibitions with the

Doc Perdue's Boxing Bruin is an honest, straight up, no

full-grown Bruin, Doc's office became Blyth's unofficial

nonsense IPA" added Grant Sparling, Cowbell’s Vice

zoo - and a popular spot for gatherings.  

President and GM.


Winter 2018

Brewers Journal Canada

Our 80+ members follow the OCB Brewing Philosophy, which means that our over 500 beers are naturally brewed in small batches using no chemical additives, fillers or preservatives.

Want to Save Money? Lower Chemical Consumption? Improve Sanitation? Improve Safety? CONTACT FSA TODAY! Please enjoy our products responsibly.

8-1020 Hargrieve Rd, London, ON, N6E 1P5 519-601-4444 •

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Cicerone celebrates 10 years C

icerone, the certification program designed for those that sell and serve beer, is celebrating its 10th

A second level, called Certified Cicerone®, launched in April of 2008 and was designed for beverage

anniversary with more than 94,000 people having passed

managers, salespeople, and others who worked full time

through its ranks.

with beer.

The program, which went live in January 2008, was

It moved beyond the basics of service to draft system

founded by former Brewers Association publisher Ray

operation and maintenance, beer and food pairing,


and the ability to detect and identify common beer off

The course covers a number of areas, namely: 1) Keeping and Serving Beer, 2) Beer Styles, 3) Beer

flavours. While the program initially consisted of three levels

Flavour and Evaluation, 4) Beer Ingredients and Brewing

(Certified Beer Server, Certified Cicerone, and Master

Processes, and 5) Pairing Beer with Food.“In the late 1990s

Cicerone®), it was expanded in 2016 to include a fourth,

and early 2000s, a lot of places were pouring beer ruined

known as Advanced Cicerone®, which was inserted

by poor handling,” explained Daniels. “Additionally, they

between the Certified and Master levels.

often knew nothing about the beers themselves.

Over the years the program has expanded its training

“I wanted to motivate servers and retailers to ‘up their

offerings to include everything from flashcards to week-

game’ by learning more about proper beer service as well

long classroom courses, but teaching has always been

as beer styles so that they could talk to their customers

secondary to the certification exams.

about their offerings.” Daniels opted to establish a set of certifications based

“We have always sought to be THE certification program and AN educator,” he said. “A part of our routine

on what beer professionals should know when working in

sales process is to let people know that they don’t have

various jobs.

to take training from us—that there are many options

To help people assess what they needed to know, he published a lengthy syllabus for each exam that detailed all of the topics that would be tested and made them freely available online. “One of the great needs in the industry at that time was

available.” Cicerone certifies individuals both in the US and across the globe. He explained: “International development is a key activity for us currently. We now offer the first two exams

to let people know that beer service involved more than

in Spanish and have a representative in Latin America. In

just pulling on a tap handle,” he said.

addition, we give exams in the UK, Canada, Australia and

The syllabi showed people what there was to know and the exams gave them a way of assessing whether they had mastered the necessary knowledge and skills. In order to ensure that people could earn a unique credential he selected the word “Cicerone” and trademarked its use when related to hospitality or beer. The first level focused on beer service and basic beer

several places in Asia as well. “The Certified Beer Server exam is available in French and Korean in addition to Spanish and English, with Portuguese coming soon.” As of mid-December 2017, the number of certifications at each level was: Certified Beer Servers :           94,880

styles. It was designed for bartenders and waitstaff as well

Certified Cicerones:                   3,305

as anyone in a role where they would talk to customers

Advanced Cicerones:                     68

about beer.

Master Cicerones:                         

2 Crows Brewing Co launches aged brett pale ale

wheat, and hopped in the boil with Belma and Simcoe. It was fermented initially in stainless steel with a blend of 6 different Brettanomyces strains, then transferred


Crows Brewing Co has launched a new specially

to foedre where it was aged on 400lbs of peaches for

aged brett pale ale, Never Again. The 5.5% pale ale is

several months.

a single batch beer from the Halifax, Nova Scotia-based brewery. They explained: “Brewed with barley, spelt, oats, and



Winter 2018

"Finally, it was dry hopped with Citra, Hallertau Blanc, and Huell Melon before packaging.... The resulting beer is delicate, peachy, funky, with light oaky tannins.”

Brewers Journal Canada


Protect your brand. Birko is now available through Jarvis. Contact us today to order sanitation & cleaning products that won’t impact the quality or taste of your beer.

your partner in craft brewery sanitation

800-661-8493 Jarvis Canada Limited

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a dv e rto r i a l


eng i neer i ng

i nc

Reducing Hydrogen Sulphide in Beer

Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) is a big problem for brewers. Here, Ontariobased Beverage Engineering Inc, discuss a solution to cleanse the beer of this undesirable aroma.

necessary amount and not leaving copper in such excess as to have a deleterious effect on the stability of the beer. The H2S Reducing Unit is comprised of a Control Panel and the Piping Module that houses the electrodes. Installation is simple as the Piping Module is supplied with either flange or tri-clamp connections for easy installation or removal for servicing. Wiring requires either 120 or 240

by Attila soti, president, BEI

VAC 50-60 Hz power and two wires between the Control Panel and the Piping Module.


natural by-product of yeast growth during fermentation is the formation of volatile sulphur

The Control Panel is equipped with a very stable power supply, as well as analog meters to display DC Voltage

based compounds. The most undesirable of these

and Current. The units can be controlled manually and/

is Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) and as such it is a major

or via Owners PLC.

problem for brewers. It has a strong nose character often compared to rotten eggs. Production of H2S varies with the yeast strains used and can range from 0μg/L to 290μ/L well above the human detection threshold of 11ng/L. The addition of small amounts of copper to sulphury

The 4” Sch 5 SS Process Equipment, for high beer flow rates, has been available for many years now with several dozen currently in service. These are offered. with either 150# flange or 4” tri-clamp versions. The needs of smaller breweries has been addressed and a number of units have been in service for many

beer will cleanse its aroma through the transformation of

years now in Canada, and abroad for multiple clients. Unit

the volatile sulphur into insoluble copper sulphide, which

# 1 has been in continuous service now for 30 years and is

may then be removed from the beer during filtration.

still fully operational. Units suitable for lower flow rates are

By utilizing precise dosage of copper through exact regulation of the current flow between the electrodes

offered in 2” OD, DIN50, 2 ½” OD and DIN65 versions. All units are tested at 10 bar for 24 hours and are fully

of the unit, it is possible to provide sufficient copper for

CIP/SIP compatible. We do recommend that the units

sulphur removal.

be powered off at all times when not running on beer to

With current control, in real time, to correspond with the beer flow rate to the filter, it is possible to add the


Winter 2018

extend service life of the electrodes. For further information please visit

Brewers Journal Canada

Want a Better Brew?

Try liquid nitrogen dosing for product preservation

For brewery solutions contact us at;

Praxair knows every craft brewer wants to preserve product flavour and increase the shelf life of your product. With the addition of dosing to your process, you also have the opportunity to offer nitro-infused beers. Working together, we are here to assist with the right gases, equipment and expertise for your brewery.

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a responsible approach to wastewater management Last year, Gravenhurst-based Sawdust City Brewing Company installed a Brü Clean system from Econse to enable the brewery to adopt a responsible approach to their wastewater management. Here, at the unveiling of the partnership during an event that formed part of Bloom’s Water and Beer initiative, the brewery and Econse explain why the move is so important and how other companies can follow suit.

the drain is clear of solids, yeasts, phosphorus, nitrogen and more. This helps municipal water treatment facilities from being over-burdened by any by-products from the factory."

Successful solution


ichael Fagan, senior VP at Bloom, adds: “It’s not just about the end of the pipe, it's about the ins outs and the in-betweens is what's key to any

successful solution. “That means taking a look at upstream within the


process, keeping stuff out of the drain that shouldn't be

sort of learnings of what actually happens with the waste

all across North America and be thriving members of

water from our Brewhouses and Breweries.”

that community. If you are a Molson or Labatt's there are

oday we had the unveiling of the new

there because it doesn't make sense to treat it at the end

Econse Bru Clean system which Sawdust

if you can keep it out.”

City is proud to be the pilot project for,”

Derek Davy, business development at Econse, says:

explains Sam Corbeil, brewmaster and co-

“On-site treatment is very important for the craft brewing

founder of Sawdust City Brewing Company.

industry because it lets the brewery take responsibility for

“Although we're very much into the second generation of Craft Breweries here in Ontario, I think we're into the first

Rick Dalmazzi, the brewery’s chief operating officer, adds: “In a small community, we represent a fairly significant percentage of the nasty stuff that goes into the water so it's our responsibility to take out as much as we possibly can. “We made the decision to make an investment in a leading edge technology to handle our wastewater. It's both the technology and the approach so you get rid of

their own water management. “When they do that, they are able to open up in towns

options for you. For the rest of the industry there is not an available opportunity to be able to manage on site. That's the gap that we're trying to fill.” Econse is a Canadian-owned company that designs and manufactures sustainable, affordable solutions to help manage wastewater for industries and communities across North America. Speaking at the event, Drew Knox from Ontario Craft

as much of the solid as you can by side streaming, which

Brewers, says the system Sawdust are leveraging is "a big

means you don't even introduce them to the system, and


the system handles the rest.” "The Brü Clean system is designed to help craft

“It's a situation where so few of our brewery members realize that treatment of wastewater or waste water

brewers treat wastewater in an affordable and responsible

management is an important factor, so this is a great

fashion. It is a chemical-free solution that cleans what’s

example of how to do it,” he adds.

left over from beer production so the water going down


Winter 2018

Brewmaster Corbeil adds: "Hundreds of breweries in

Brewers Journal Canada

“ E conse

A dv e rto r i a l

On-site treatment is very important for the craft brewing industry because it lets the brewery take responsibility for their own water management. Derek Davy, Econse

the last two years have come into Ontario which obviously

resources, so being able to provide that for that niche is

puts a strain on lots of water systems.

really important,” he says.

Each one of those towns is seeing that and breweries,

Lindsay Teller, project director at the Canadian

although they make wonderful products, they also have

Freshwater Alliance, adds: “I think the type of leading

some by-product that they have to deal with, and we

edge and innovation that we're seeing at this type of

can't just close our eyes and plug our ears and say "Oh it's

facility offers the opportunity for companies like Sawdust

down the drain I don't know where it went".

City Brewing and other breweries to say "No, we're not

“We know where it went, we should be responsible

just going to give you dirty water we're actually going to

and we should be proactive as opposed to reactive

take responsibility for it and ultimately give you a cleaner

moving forward.”


Knox believes that breweries in Ontario now recognize

Commenting on the day, VP Fagan explains: “The

that they are part of the local community and they are

number of people we had here and the different

responsible for good stewardship of the resources in that

stakeholder groups we had here; we had regulators,


we had politicians, we had community, we had solution providers, we had engineers, we had craft breweries, we

Key resource

had everybody here that's part of that ecosystem that is critical to change. Everyone needs to be pointed in the


same direction and what was amazing about this event

nd Todd Latham, publisher of Water Canada

was all those types of people were here, they all saw the

Magazine, adds that here is a lot of small and

same message they all saw the solution together, and

medium sized businesses in Ontario that are

they all saw what it can do.

looking for water technology solutions but they don't know what to do. “The big guys have the money, while the smaller companies don't often have the money or the access to

Corbeil concludes: “I’m very proud to be a part of this project. It's great to be a team with Econse, Bloom, the OCB, and the rest of the Craft Brewers in this province Let's move forward and make a better community.

Winter 2018


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L eg i slat i on

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Changes brewing in workplace legislation Craft breweries across of Ontario will need to familiarize themselves with the numerous changes being made to the Employment Standards Act, 2000 ("ESA"), many of which came into effect on January 1, 2018, explains Kyle D. Burgis LL.B. is an Employment Lawyer with Minken Employment Lawyers. by Kyle D. Burgis


he ESA is the legislation that governs all provincially regulated companies across Ontario, setting out the

minimum rights that employees have at the workplace, as well as the obligations that employers are required to follow while conducting their business. On November 22, 2017, the Ontario government passed Bill 148: Fair Workplaces, Better Jobs Act, 2017,

Other Changes Being Made

which drastically changes many of the existing section of the ESA, and creating new minimum rights for employees at the workplace. The following are a few examples of these changes and what you need to know to be in compliance:

The above is just a few of the number of changes being made to the ESA, which will impact workplaces across Ontario. Other changes of note include:

The most talked about change that is set to take place are the substantial increases to minimum wage over the next twelve months. Currently, the general minimum wage in Ontario is $11.60 per hour, having been increased on October 1, 2017 from $11.40 per hour. This twenty cent

Equal pay for part-time, temporary, seasonal and casual workers who perform the same job as full-time workers.

per hour increase that occurred in October was consistent with previous increases to minimum wage in our province over the last number of years. However, with the passing of Bill 148, on January 1, 2018, the general minimum wage

Increased monetary penalties that Employment Standards Officers can issue against employers for breaching the ESA.

will increase by $2.40 to $14.00 per hour, with a further increase to $15.00 per hour on January 1, 2019. This will represent a $3.40 per hour increase in just 12 months. This increase may not appear to some as being that much; however, when the full impact is considered, such as the corresponding increases for vacation pay, overtime

An employee’s right to request a change in schedule or work location, and the employer’s obligation to respond to these requests in a reasonable period of time.

and holiday pay, the minimum wage increase will cost employers a great deal more in annual wages. As a result, there has been much discussion of how employers may decide to reconsider their scheduling practices to limit

An employee’s right to refuse a request or demand to work if it is made with less than 96 hours before the start of the shift.

the amount of overtime an employee works.

Winter 2018


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L eg i slat i on

Additionally, there has been the suggestion that with

have been expressed that such entitlements will result

the increases to minimum wage, employers may be

in even more difficulty in scheduling employees to

pressured to increase their existing employees’ hourly

work, taking into account the corresponding increase in

rates so that they remain at the same dollar difference

employees’ annual wages should overtime be required to

above the minimum wage. For example, an employee

cover employees while absent from the workplace.

who currently earns $3.00 an hour more than minimum

Kyle D. Burgis LL.B. is an Employment Lawyer with

wage prior to January 1, 2017 (which would be $14.60 per

Minken Employment Lawyers and represents employer and

hour), may request that their hourly rate be increased to

employee clients with respect to wrongful and constructive

$18.00 per hour as of January 1, 2019 when the minimum

dismissals, human rights complaints, employment

wage is increased to $15.00 per hour.

standards violations, employment contract disputes and

Many employers across the province provide their

other workplace related issues. He also provides legal

employees with two weeks of vacation per year, which

guidance on the drafting of policies, contracts and other

is the minimum amount required by the ESA. Bill 148 will

documentation protecting the working relationship.

increase this minimum to three weeks per year after an employee reaches five years of employment with the same employer, which also results in an increase to the amount of vacation pay that an employee is entitled to

Now What?

from at least 4% to at least 6% of their wages. Similar to the conversations surrounding the increases to minimum wage, there has been much discussion around the likelihood of a domino effect occurring at the workplace with this increase to vacation entitlements. Employees who currently have three weeks of vacation may be seeking an increase to their annual vacation entitlements so that they are still being provided with one week more than the statutory minimums. Also, with certain employees now being statutorily entitled to three weeks of vacation each year, which an employer is legally obligated to ensure their employees take, there is concern that scheduling will become more difficult and result in employees having to work more hours to cover their co-worker’s time off. Further, this additional work will likely result in overtime hours and will be at the increased minimum wage as discussed above. Personal Emergency Leave under the ESA will be drastically changed as a result of Bill 148. Prior to the passing of Bill 148, Personal Emergency Leave was ten unpaid days per year, and was only available for employees who work for an employer that has fifty or more employees. With the changes set to take place to the ESA, the ten Personal Emergency Leave days per year will be a minimum entitlement for all employees across the province, regardless of the size of the employer’s workforce, and two of those days will now be with pay. Also, an employer is not permitted to require an employee to provide a doctor’s note in support of taking a Personal Emergency Leave day, whether with or without pay. Given the average size of most craft breweries in the province having a workforce of under fifty employees, Personal Emergency Leave has likely not been an entitlement at these workplaces. Now, with the above changes, this will apply to all craft breweries. And,

With such substantial changes being made to the ESA, it will likely leave a lot of employers asking, “What do I do now?” First things first: make sure you understand all of the changes that are being made to the ESA. This may not be an easy task, given that you have a business to run. However, the alternative, being in breach of the new (and old) requirements of the ESA, can result in significant sanctions from the Ministry of Labour, which include hefty fines. Next, see how these changes impact on your workplace and determine what you need to do to make sure you are in compliance. This can take many different forms, such as the need to revise existing Hiring Letters or workplace policies, and possibly changing scheduling practices to take into account such things as overtime and vacations. And finally, should there be any confusion or misunderstanding with any of the requirements under the ESA, contact an Employment Lawyer for assistance. There is an ever growing mountain of case law and decisions that interpret, expand upon and apply the various and complex sections of the ESA, which can help an employer understand how a specific section of the ESA may apply to their workplace. An Employment Lawyer can assist in obtaining this clarity so that you can focus on your business and the products your produce.

keeping with the theme throughout this article, concerns


Winter 2018

Brewers Journal Canada

-11-29SpMchNB8.375x10.875.indd 1

2017-11-29 9:12 P

’ O CANADA! As the only Canadian tap handle manufacturer, Chrislan leads the way from standout custom shapes to tried-and-true classic handles.


S an i tat i on

Co m m e nt

The Basics of Brewery Sanitation Different scenarios require different plans of action. If you are low on certain parameters you will need to increase the others. Every brewery is slightly different and that’s why we need to find what’s best for your specific needs. Invest the time in creating a good sanitation and verification program and it will pay you with peace of mind and provide quality to be proud of, explains Adam Brock, president of the Food Safety Alliance.

disassembled the parts to be cleaned, gathered all the necessary tools (brushes, buckets, water hose, PPE), and created your cleaning and sanitizer solutions in a bucket or parts cleaning tank. Foam cleaning area preparation would be to ensure there is no packaging materials in the area to be cleaned, sensitive panels and equipment are wrapped, and there are no personnel in the area to be cleaned. Pre rinsing is the one step that often doesn’t get enough attention. If pre rinse is done inadequately it can impact the entire sanitation process. On the contrary if a good pre rinse is performed we will remove 80 – 90% of the soils we are looking to clean. A proper pre rinse can be done with high or low pressure water. Best practice

by adam brock

would be to use warm water 130 degrees F or 55 C. Pre rinse should be done from the top down. During this


step we need to take precaution especially when foam

reweries and their employees invest a huge amount

cleaning to ensure there is no over spray, direct hits to

of time, effort and funds to ensure they produce a

sensitive equipment, and that we don’t cause an unsafe

top quality beer. We’ve learned that the same effort needs

environment for our co-workers. INSPECTION IS A MUST!

to go into our sanitation program to create consistent

Do not move on to the next step until there is a thorough

flavours and protect the beer from off flavours. This article

inspection of the pre rinse. This sometimes requires

will explain the basic cleaning principals that should be

flashlights and extendable mirrors to inspect hard to see

used in a brewery. We call this the 5 x 4 cleaning theory.


The 5 x 4 cleaning theory consists of the 5 steps and 4 parameters of cleaning. The 5 steps are: Area Preparation, pre rinsing, detergent washing, post rinse and sanitizing. The 4 parameters are: Time, Temperature, Concentration and Mechanical Action.

This is the step where we suspend and emulsifies the remaining soils. It requires a proper blend of the 4 parameters. Depending on what type of cleaning you are performing this can be very different procedures in a brewery. If we are CIP cleaning this step would include filling the tank with the correct amount of water, the

Let’s get a better understanding of what this all means.

cleaning chemical of choice and heating the solution up

The area and/or tank have to be ready to be cleaned.

to the manufactures suggested temperature. Be sure to

In a brewery cleaning can take shape in many different

time the CIP once the temperature has been reached

forms. CIP (clean in place), COP (clean out of place) and

and not from the start time. If we are COP cleaning you

foam cleaning are the most common. Examples of area

will require a fresh water hose, a bucket (pail) or parts

preparation for CIP would be to ensure there is no product

cleaning tank filled with the correct amount of water

inside the tank, all the proper valves are open/closed,

and cleaning chemical of choice. It’s important if you are

the connections are made and you have the time allotted

washing anything other than SS such as gaskets or soft

that is required to complete a full CIP cycle. Examples

metals that you use compatible products for this step. If

of area prep in COP would be making sure you have

we are foam cleaning be sure the surface to be foamed

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Mechanical Action








Mechanical action














The 5x4 Theory - How It Works

has been thoroughly rinsed. Foam cleaner should be applied at the correct concentrations from the bottom to the top of the tank or equipment. When foam cleaning you should try to expose the entire area to foam. This would include the floors, walls and equipment. Detergent should never be left to dry onto a surface. If detergent


dries it often creates the need for specialized cleaning to remove it. Be sure you have adequate time and only foam surfaces that you will be able to rinse within 15-20 minutes after the application. Wet foam is best practice.

Time - Defined as only the time the detergent and the soil are in contact with each other

Post rinsing is where we will remove the dislodged soils and residual chemical residue. Post rinse can be done with cold water but warm is preferred. If using a hose to rinse foam cleaner you will want to start at the

Temperature - Defined as the temperature of the detergent/soil mixture

bottom and once you’ve reached the top follow the top down. Care needs to be taken not to over spray onto already cleaned surfaces. No matter what type of

Concentration - Defined as the detergent strength measured with proper test kits

cleaning we are doing (CIP, COP or Foam cleaning) You MUST rinse to a neutral PH. Inspection is a must here as well. Again a flashlight and/or mirror might be required. Take a systematic approach and work down the product

Mechanical Action - Defined as any force enhancing the removal of the detergent/ soil mixture

flow to avoid any overspray. It’s important to remember you cannot sanitize a dirty surface. If using ATP to verify your cleaning program your swabs should be done prior to sanitizing. If a re-clean is necessary its best to find out prior to wasting sanitizer.

The 5x4 cleaning theory is designed to clean the first

The major difference between cleaning and sanitizing is

time. If you are running into issues start by reviewing

the cleaning step removes soils using a detergent and

the 4 parameters. If problems still remain contact your

the sanitizing step kills microorganisms. Be sure you are

sanitation supplier immediately. Verification of your

using your sanitizer at approved no rinse levels. If you are

sanitation program should be done regularly.

applying not in CIP be sure to expose all surfaces and

Different scenarios require different plans of action.

start with the floors and work your way up the tanks and

If you are low on certain parameters you will need to

equipment. Again be sure the sanitizer you’ve selected

increase the others. Every brewery is slightly different and

is compatible with the materials you are sanitizing. If you

that’s why we need to find what’s best for your specific

did not rinse to a neutral PH in our post rinse step this will

needs. Invest the time in creating a good sanitation and

impact the efficiency of the sanitizer and could create a

verification program and it will pay you with peace of mind

chemical hazard.

and provide quality to be proud of.


Winter 2018

Brewers Journal Canada

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(905) 632-3033


Co m m e nt

T aproom

L i q uor

L i ab i l i ty

Know where you stand on liquor liability In the past twelve months there has been a growing trend towards ever larger taprooms. For Greg Strahl, partner at Palladium Insurance, this raises the question, “are you a brewery, or a tavern?” and from a liquor liability perspective, the answer to that question is important.

time the brewery took a huge risk allowing, dare I say encouraging, visitors to over indulge. The yellow bus which took us to and from the brewery left us in parking lot located in central Ottawa. What if a participant had then driven their own car home and hit some innocent person? The brewery would most definitely have been named in the lawsuit that would follow. This story highlights the issue of liquor liability risk and brewers would be wise to educate themselves in techniques to mitigate the exposure. In the past

by Greg Strahl

twelve months I have noticed a trend toward ever larger taprooms. This raises the question, “are you a brewery, or a tavern?” From a liquor liability perspective the answer


he business of brewing beer has changed a great

to that question is important. Most breweries do not have

deal in recent years, driven in large part by the craft

commercial kitchens capable of producing the food

sector. Young, dynamic entrepreneurs are taking the

needed to soak-up all that alcohol. The staff in a brewery

industry in new and exciting directions. These nimble

may be more focused on producing great beer than

and innovative business people are constantly pushing

monitoring the level of intoxication of brewery visitors, as

the envelope in search of the next trend. In this article, I

would a professional bartender.

will discuss the evolution of the Taproom from what was

Canadian courts have held that any business engaged

basically a tiny tasting counter to what in some cases is

in serving alcohol owes a duty of care to the both its

now a full-blown brewpub.

customers, and the public at large, for personal injury

My first experience sampling beer at a brewery was

related to over consumption. It follows that insurance

back in the early 1990s. At the time, I was working for a

companies who provide liability insurance to these

large beer distribution network, and a group of us were

businesses expect their clients to actively manage their

invited to visit a microbrewery located near Ottawa.

liquor liability exposure. The availability and pricing

The brewmaster, gave us an educational tour of his

of insurance is closely linked to the percentage of

painstakingly built brewhouse. I learned a great deal

gross revenues derived from the on premises sale and

about the art and science of making beer on that short

consumption of beer. Insurers understand that taprooms

tour. Naturally, we were invited to sample the beer, and

are a necessary and welcome addition to a brewery, but

by far my favourite was an India Pale Ale – the first real

at the same time they expect that taproom sales revenue

IPA I ever tasted! I’d like to say I remember everything

will represent only a small fraction of the annual gross. If

about that tour, but the reality is that we “sampled” a lot of

they begin to see taproom sales which represent a large,

product that day.

or even majority of revenues, the cost of coverage will rise

That tour was twenty-five years ago but even at that


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and availability of insurance may become scarce.

Brewers Journal Canada

Co m m e nt

T rademarks

Trademark Protection for New Breweries Trademark protection is an important component of building and growing a successful brewery, and it’s something that owners should be thinking of and acting on from day one of planning, explains Cynthia Mason, lawyer and registered trademark agent at Mason Professional Corporation.

store shelves. The best places to search for trademarks already in use are on the trademark register, business name registries, in directories or databases of local breweries and beers (such as the Ontario Craft Brewers website and the LCBO), and on the Internet generally. Trademark registration is the easiest and most cost-effective way to protect a trademark in Canada. A registration grants the exclusive right to use that mark throughout all of Canada, which is especially beneficial to start-ups that tend to be very localized. For example,


in the beginning, you may only be selling your beer at local festivals or in one or two bars. Without a registration, it will be difficult to prevent the same mark being used by a brewery in another province or city. Unregistered


rademarks are one of the most valuable assets that

trademarks are very difficult to enforce outside the limited

any business owns, and protecting those assets is

area where they are used. While this might not be a

essential to success and growth. A strong and protected

pressing concern in the very beginning, and you don’t

trademark will help customers find your beer amongst

want to waste resources on filing a trademark application,

the competition, and it helps them to buy time and time

it will matter when your business grows, and you start


selling in a wider geography. A trademark registration

Yet many businesses only focus on trademark protection once they’ve reached a certain level of success, or when there’s a problem of a competitor

expands your rights across Canada, even while you only have limited local sales. You can actually file an application to register a

adopting a similar mark. In fact, trademark protection is

trademark in Canada before you start using the mark

much less complicated and costly if it’s considered from

in commerce. In fact, the best time to file is right after

very early in the business planning process.

you’ve completed your trademark searches and before

There are steps that you can take to protect your

you start using or advertising the mark to the public. This

trademarks, including before your brewery launches.

is because of how trademark applications are examined

These steps include searching to ensure that your

in Canada. In a competition between two confusing

proposed mark is not already in use and filing an

trademark applications, the application that was filed

application to reserve the right to use the mark in the

first will be approved first. The owner of the later filed

future. As your business grows, your trademark protection

application will be forced to oppose if they have earlier

strategies should evolve to include properly using and

use of their mark in Canada. Oppositions are expensive to

labelling your marks and taking steps to enforce your

file and defend, and until resolved, they cause uncertainty

rights where a competitor adopts a similar and confusing

over your right to register and use a trademark in Canada. For many starting breweries, trademark registration

mark. The first step that you can take to set your mark up

falls to the bottom of the list of priorities, for when there’s

for strong legal protection is to search for potentially

more money in the bank or they land a distributor. But the

confusing trademarks. If your mark or something very

advantages to filing an application early in the business

similar is already in use in a market where you intend to

planning process far outweigh the initial costs savings,

sell your beer, you risk infringing that mark and you could

and it can actually be very inexpensive to file. Canadian

make it difficult for customers to easily find your beer on

companies can file their own trademark application for as


Winter 2018

Brewers Journal Canada

T rademarks

Co m m e nt

little as the $250 government filing fee. In addition to registration, you can build strong and protectable marks by using trademark symbols and grammar rules specific to trademarks. Symbols are a clear way to tell the public that you are claiming rights to a trademark. If your trademark is registered, you can use the ® symbol. If your mark is not registered, use “TM” or “MC” (French) in superscript. Using these symbols can look a bit cumbersome in marketing copy (for example, on your website), so there’s no need to over-do it. You can just use the symbol in the first instance, and for every other appearance distinguish your mark by style, font, caps, etc. Additionally, following a few simple grammar rules will boost the strength of your trademark. The starting concept is to treat your trademark as an adjective and, where possible, follow it with the common descriptive name of the product (e.g. beer, lager, etc.). You should never use a trademark as verb, noun, or in possessive or plural form, as it can genericize your mark over time. Take enforcement action when necessary A registration is an effective legal tool for protecting trademarks, but the onus remains on the owner of the registration to use that tool to stop infringements or to prevent potentially confusing marks from also attaining registration. This involves periodically monitoring the trademarks register and competitors for any use or intended use of a confusing trademark. Where confusion between marks is possible, there are a number of enforcement actions available, including trademark infringement and passing off claims, as well as opposition to a trademark application. Additionally, a trademark registration can be used to stop a competitor from using your trademark in Google AdWords or to support a claim in a domain name dispute. Trademark protection is an important component of building and growing a successful brewery, and it’s something that owners should be thinking of and acting on from day one of planning. Cynthia Mason is a Canadian lawyer and trademark agent with over fifteen years of experience helping businesses grow by protecting their trademarks in Canada and around the world.

Winter 2018


B r e w e ry

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G arr i son

B rew i ng

Work hard, then play hard Brian Titus and Mark Obermaier founded Halifax, Nova Scotia's Garrison Brewing 20 years ago. In that time, they've seen the landscape of both the city they call home, and the wider brewing industry, change beyond recognition. Here, Titus discusses how the brewery continues to adapt and why finding your own identity is key to being a success.

while but thought it would be cool to go and see what we could take from the event. But once it was done and dusted, we thought ‘That’s it, we’re not in the position to afford another one of those anytime soon!'” explains Titus, the co-founder and president of Garrison Brewing. But fast-forward to 2008, with Garrison an established force in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Titus and Obermaier found themselves asking why they hadn’t been back. They swiftly changed that situation and have been returning each year, accompanied by different members of the team. Garrison Brewing, you see, is a big advocate of inclusivity.

by Tim Sheahan


“I’m impressed with the Craft Brewers Conference each year. They are fantastic events. Portland was great, as it’s a Mecca for beer. Washington was good fun and

he Craft Brewers Conference was a different

even Philadelphia was, too!” Titus proclaims. “We try and

animal in 1998 compared to the annual

bring as many team members as possible and sure,

giant it is now. Held in Atlanta, Georgia in

there’s a little bit of seriousness in everything we do, but

the April of that year, the Brewing Studies

we don’t want to overdo that that either.

National Craft Brewers Conference, as it was

known then, was a melting pot of brewing knowledge.

"If we’re not having fun, then what’s the point!” He adds: “Sure, it’s different when you’re starting out as

Companies like Wachsmann Brewing Systems were

you’re more focused on making payroll. It’s likely that you

promoting German brewing equipment, while Anheuser-

will have had friends and family that have helped you out,

Busch were busy using their stand to promote off-flavours

so you need to make sure they get a return. "But at Garrison, we’re now at a great milestone so it’s

in beer. Also found marching the halls that year were Brian Titus and Mark Obermaier. The duo had proudly founded their brewery Garrison Brewing literally months earlier,

time to make sure we do what’s interesting to us, to make sure we do what’s positive, and that’s the bottom line. "We are focused on building a team and that means

and they were in the mood to learn, network and enjoy

making sure they go home with a decent pay, because


we hope those people will be with us for years to come.

“The industry was a lot smaller then, and it was a much smaller conference, too. We had only been open a short


Winter 2018

It’s up to us to make sure that happens.” Titus is in a reflective, but buoyant mood. Hardly

Brewers Journal Canada

G arr i son

You can ruin a perfectly good beer in the final seconds of the process if you’ve not properly focused on packaging. Brian Titus, Garrison Brewing

Garrison has invested heavily in in-house packaging equipment from Prospero and Palmer Canning

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surprising seeing as his brewery has just celebrated its 20th year in business. Not bad for an outfit that was set-up in “protest” against the limited beer options available to him and his friends back in the late nineties. “We are a social lot here in Nova Scotia and that means we drink a lot of beer. But the problem back then was that everyone was drinking the same stuff in Alexander Keith’s,” he laments. Before brewing took over his life, Titus was a diving officer in the Canadian Navy and with that, he was greeted with the same options each time he returned home and hit his local bars. However, his profession allowed him to see the world, and also take in the diverse numbers of beer styles that were out there. An eye-opening experience he still appreciates today. Titus and Obermaier are trained home brewers, so upon leaving his role in the navy, they set about changing the landscape in the Maritimes and to give it the brewery they felt it deserved. “Halifax was ideal for us. It’s a government centre, it’s the east coast naval base, home to multiple universities and colleges so with that, you have a well-educated demographic,” he adds. “There is also a fantastic arts culture complementing the many ports and cruise ships that visit.” But things weren’t quiet so rosy back in the late nineties. The duo had found a site so they needed a brewery. They approached DME (Diversified Metal Engineering) as both Titus and Obermaier wanted to work with local business as much as possible. “We wanted to keep the money and its impact local,” says Titus. “But I’ll be honest, you get to near the finish line and find out you’ve long since run out of money! So we asked DME how we could tweak the setup to make it affordable. We ended up with a used kettle from an older system, and a hot liquor tank for a steam brewery. So we had a a system that had three vessels that were geographically close to each other in the building but very far apart in their intended use. But both us and DME made it work and we’ve never looked back! With that hurdle overcome, Garrison’s first beer, an Irish Red, hit the market in August 1997, swiftly followed by a Nut Brown several months later. The team were proud of their creations, but convincing the buying public was more of a challenge. “Those first years were tough and it was a challenge to get taken seriously. We weren’t using the term craft, instead we were micro brewers. But with that, the rules weren’t setup for us. There were no parameters and there were no guidelines to follow,” he explains. “So they’d be no shelves setup for beers like ours and there were no inviting taps there for us to fill. So you had to sit down and convince people of the beer’s merits. If a bar couldn’t

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There’s a little bit of seriousness in everything we do, but we don’t want to overdo that either. If we’re not having fun, then what’s the point! Brian Titus, Garrison Brewing

“Daniel is a super creative brewer that loves the freedom he has to brew lots of different beers. He is classically trained at VLB Berlin and he has also brewed in places such as Asia. He is super dedicated and I'll tell you, they are hard to find. I’m hoping he retires here!” he exclaims. Garrison’s beer portfolio is split into the core, in season, specialities, the cellar series, Glutenberg gluten-free, and it’s benched range of beers that have been parked for the time being. Brewmaster Girard leads a team that produces beers that end up in keg, bottle and, more recently, can. Bottling is handled by a four head Prospero line that follows the extreme perimeter of the brewery’s packaging area. This was done with the idea of potentially moving into canning at some point. That point hit and the company invested in a 12 head Palmer Canning line

accommodate a 50l keg, then could we give them two

with depalletiser, which sits snugly alongside the bottling

20l kegs and try and make it work logistically for them


behind the bar.”

Titus recalls sitting down with the Nova Scotia Liquor

“We essentially watched the rise of canning in the beer world and saw the increased emphasis breweries were

Corporation and stressing that the rules they had in place

placing on it. It was happening in North America and it

were not conducive for a brewery like Garrison to thrive.

was happening in Canada. Some breweries were opening

But fortunately, another brewery in the form of Propeller

without any bottled output and we thought, like it or not,

Brewing, was to open only weeks after and the power of

we need to look at this area,” says Titus. “It’s great to be

two gave the area a brewing voice.

able to offer canned beer but we still do a great deal in

“We were lucky because if it was just us, we couldn’t

341ml returnable bottles and also some in 650ml special

have advanced as well as we did. Who knows how things

releases, too. But you can’t ignore cans. We only started

would have gone?” he asks.

canning in May 2017 and it now accounts for 15% of our

But for the team at Garrison, things went just fine.

output and it’s on course to grow to 30%. After that, who

Beers such as McNab’s Pale, Raspberry Wheat,

knows where it’s going to go."

Martello Stout, Titanic Ale, and Jalapeno Ale resonated

He adds: “We could have gone for cheaper options

with drinkers and the wider wave of craft brewing in North

on the market but we didn’t see the value on taking that

America and Canada grew once more.

route. You can ruin a perfectly good beer in the final

By 2004, it was time to move and a vacant & derelict,

seconds of the process and if you’ve not thought about

though historic, Immigration Annex on the south-end

that issue, then that’s a problem. You need to focus on

waterfront was crying out for a brewery.


“We knew there were plans for regeneration in the area

As Garrison’s own business has grown and evolved

but when we first saw the building, it was all rats, pigeons

over its lifetime, the wider brewing industry in Nova Scotia

and broken glass,” Titus laughs. "Not quite the world-class

and Canada has, too.

seaport you have now. But that aside, we were the first to

Around eight years ago, Titus observed the first

anchor there and in that time we tripled production. And

flickering of growth in the province’s brewing scene and

once again, by 2012, we had maxed out what we could do

since then, brewery openings have continues apace.

there and it was time too look forward.”

There are now around 42 breweries. Couple that with a

Garrison found an old train repair facility that they

population of 920,000 and you've got the highest number

converted to house its new brewery and they were up

of breweries per capita in Canada. But, as Titus points out,

and brewing by summer 2014. The team returned to DME

there is also something of an ageing population in the

which supplied a 30(35)bbl PEI brewhouse that comprises

province so such impressive figures do not necessarily tie

four vessels and a cold and hot liquor tank. These work

up as you'd expect.

with FVs that range from 30bbl up to 120bbl. The original

“Halifax is the only true centre centre in Nova Scotia

market unit has long since been retained for pilot brews

and beyond that, it’s large towns but we are seeing lots of

and collaborations.

new start-ups popping up in these rural areas. They are

Garrison's brewing team is led by Daniel Girard, someone Titus is effusive with praise towards.


Winter 2018

creating beacons of hope for good beer and people are embracing that,” he explains. “They are making craft beer

Brewers Journal Canada

G arr i son

Garrison produces its beer on a brewhouse from Diversified Metal Engineering (DME)

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inroads that the Garrisons or Propellers could ever think

He adds: “I fear we’ll end up with a scene with hungry

of making in 20 years. But these new businesses, run by

breweries that have no space to move into and I worry

young people are giving it a go and people are buying

what people will do when they have to make those tough

into that as a result, regardless of the average age of the

choices. It’ll be unfortunate if they start working against

population we have here."

each other. We’re a collaborative industry but ultimately,

But with this wide industry growth, Titus is seeing the impact it is having on Garrison’s business, too. He explains: “When things took off, I wasn’t surprised,

we don’t know how this will shake out. Everyone I have seen that brings a decent product to the table, I see doing doing well. I want them to do well as it sends out the right

but the way it has continued, does. It’s cool to have two

message, and they are converting people to craft. Even

pizzerias on a corner but to have a whole row of them?

if a consumer is drinking great beer from the small local

Then that makes things difficult.

producer, when they come to Halifax, they won’t go back

“We’ve enjoyed double-digit growth over the last decade but this year (2017), we are seeing the effects of, I’m gonna say it, saturation. It’s a levelling off of growth

to Moors Lite. They will try something from a brewery like ours.” And with that, Titus wants to see more breweries like

and it’s something I thought would happen in 2016. But

Garrison offering something different, something unique.

instead we had our best year in terms of volume that year.

But always underpinned by good beer and a passion for

Now though, the levelling off is becoming evident. It’s

doing things for the right reasons.

great that all of these new businesses are coming in as

“It’s simple. If you want to be a brewer, you should

they drive the visibility of good beer and they are helping

build a brewery. It should start with barley and grains

make something that is till a little niche become more

and, for me, that’s the ticket to being in this scene. There

mainstream. Craft beer still only represents 6-7% of beer

is too much of a focus on making money quickly and I

sold in Nova Scotia, so there is a lot to be converted. But

see a shift from craft to crafty,“ he explains. “This concern

in reality, we’ll find the new norm at some point. Does

me because when you’d go to CBC many years ago, the

that translate to success for each of the new breweries?

talks were about all of us being in it together and growing

Probably not. I’d say inevitably not.”

the industry. Then gradually, in recent years, it’s been

Titus is comfortable in what that means for Garrison because, after 20 years, they have found their market and they are sustainable. But he is still concerned for the newer wave of brewers. “If we didn’t grow again, we could still make money,

warnings about quality, saturation, and the issues with finding routes to market. There has been a change.” He adds: “One reason Garrison has been successful is because we’ve found a formula. It’s our formula, not a photocopy of someone else's. We started a brewery

make beer, have fun and deliver that great product to the

identifying what wasn’t being done. We hit that niche and

community. And that’s why we started,” he explains. “But if

others need to take the same approach.

you’ve just started, and the taps on the bar are filled, and

“Do that, then work hard and play hard. I try to make

all you’re being offered is short period on a rotational tap

that rule the day because that’s what it is. We’re not

after you’ve just built a $2m brewery, then that scares me.”

saying lives, we’re making beer so let’s do some good!


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Brewers Journal Canada

i nte rv i e w


s i mmons

Six Months In It has been a frenetic first six months in the post for Scott Simmons, president of Ontario Craft Brewers. But at the start of 2018, he is fully-focused on improving the visibility of good beer, growing the organisation’s membership and affecting change in the brewing industry.


he brewing industry is an extremely

In his position, Simmons succeeded industry leader

important part of the fabric on Ontario. As

and champion, John Hay, who founded the association in

the sector grows, new breweries open and


with that, jobs are created and there is a positive knock-on impact on the economy.

He was chosen due to his extensive expertise in strategic planning, governance, financial planning, brand

And that is only a good thing,” explains Scott Simmons,

management, and business development qualities.

the president of Ontario Craft Brewers.

Simmons’ desire is to help develop and execute the

Simmons is now six months into the role he took in the summer of last year, and is more fired up than ever before. He joined the OCB following a career that involved

OCB’s long term strategic vision and annual operating plans. Part of this vision is to continue to improve market and

roles in the packaged goods, retail, agency, and sport

retail access conditions for craft breweries. Something

administration industries. With a deep knowledge of the

Simmons feels is going in the right direction.

brewing industry, he previously worked as vice president

“We’re seeing increased presence at the LCBO while

of marketing and business development for The Beer

there is considerable space at The Beer Store, too,”

Store from 2001-2007, where he led the development of a

he says. “I’m also excited to see grocery stores that

long range strategic plan to guide the organizational retail

previously mandated Ontario craft 20% space often

renewal program.

increasing that by an additional 10-15% due to demand.”

And it’s The Beer Store, among other outlets, that remain very much in his thoughts as we start 2018. “It has been a busy but productive few months as president of this great organisation. We’re finalising our

Simmons goes on to explain that increasing the organisation’s membership remains a key part of the OCB’s future. “We’re at nearly 100 members now and we implore

strategic plan that we’re soon ready to take to market,

other breweries that they should continue to be part of

and I believe it’s a good time to be talking about beer

this tremendous fraternity. They are helping the broader

and brewing in Ontario,” he explains. “We are looking

picture and also helping themselves by being part of the

to continue to advocate with all levels of government

OCB,” he says. "The tremendous government funding we

because, quite simply, its a very important part of the

received is now over, so membership is more key than

wider economy in Ontario. Local people are starting

ever and it's critical for the future of the association.”

businesses, hiring local people and the money is staying

He adds: “I feel that the Canadian brewing industry in 2018 is even more fascinating than ever. We have a great

here." Simmons pinpoints that craft beer has a 7.6% market share of a $1bn dollar industry in Ontario, with aggressive plans to grow that further. “If you double that, or perhaps triple it, we are looking

foundation but there is a tonne of room to grow and we are in a good position to achieve that potential. “So let’s keep producing great beer and educate consumers as to why craft beer is so special, and show

at a very significant figure indeed. So I think it’s a very

them the stories behind each beer. I see no reason why

good time to be speaking to the government and work

we can’t double or triple the market share craft beer has

out how we can achieve this growth,” he says.

in Ontario. We just need to work to make it happen.”


Winter 2018

Brewers Journal Canada




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e d u c ati o n


Ontario Technical Conference 2018 The Master Brewers Association of the Americas Ontario Technical Conference returns in 2018. Here is the full lowdown on what to expect from the three day event taking place this month.


ollowing on from a hugely successful event last year, the Ontario Technical Conference returns in 2018. The event is organised by The Master

Brewers Association of the Americas. The

organisation has the purpose of promoting, advancing, and improving the professional interest of brew and malt house production and technical personnel. Today, Master Brewers is a dynamic, global community working to advance the brewing, fermentation, and allied industries by: advocating the exchange of knowledge; creating, assembling, interpreting, and disseminating credible and beneficial information; developing worldclass education offerings; and providing valuable personal and professional development opportunities. Master Brewers has more than 4,000 members in 25 different districts from more than 50 countries throughout the world. This year, the Ontario Technical Conference 2018 takes place at the Hilton Niagara Falls from the 24-26 January. The event features brewery tours and tastings on the first day, followed by a full conference program over the 25th and 26th.


e d u c ati o n

Schedule January 24 Brewery Tours and Tastings 10:00 a.m: Meet and depart from Hilton Niagara Falls 10:30 a.m: Niagara College Teaching Brewery 12:30 p.m: Silversmith Brewing Company 2:00 p.m: Oast House Brewers 3:30 p.m: The Exchange Brewery 4:30 p.m: Return to Hilton Niagara Falls January 25 Conference Program 8:00 a.m. Continental breakfast 9:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. — Technical sessions: • Keynote, Karl Subban – Developing Excellence in Your Team • Beer Canada, The Brewing Industry in Canada • Beer is Complicated • Hop Contracting in Ontario • Niagara College Student Brewed Beers highlighting Ontario Grown Hops •New Canadian Malting Barley Varieties for an Evolving Brewing Sector •Mash Profiles and Their Effect on Yeast Flocculation • Malt Selection for Specific Beer Styles • Niagara College Student Brewed Beers Highlighting Different Malts or Mashing 7:30 p.m. Beer Stube January 26 8:00 a.m. Continental breakfast 9:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. — Technical sessions: • Opening Remarks • Efficient Cleaning of Fermenters with Acidic Products • Understanding (Over)attenuation, Carbonation and Bursting • Nitrogen Purging and Managing Dissolved Oxygen • Update on Membrane Filtration of Beer New Brewhouse Technology

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Canning beer and the business advantage

When it comes to canning beer, the benefits are now well known. Sceptical market perceptions towards the vessel have, on the whole, long since changed and we're at a point where it's more unusual than not if a brewery isn't looking at the canning proposition. With that in mind, we speak to some of the leading manufacturers of canning lines, as well as those bringing the mobile canning offering to breweries across Canada, to discover the latest trends and developments in this exciting, buoyant space.

by tim Sheahan


he march of canned beer continues, and it shows no sign of slowing down. The ability to roll out new releases in efficient fashion, the ease of distribution and also the sales channels that aluminium opens up are just

some established benefits to rolling out your beers in can. Existing breweries find themselves turning to the

process to ensure they hit the markets they want to reach, while newer outfits frequently explore mobile canning before they even look at manual bottling or outsourcing their packaging requirements. So, if you're planning to broaden your packaging proposition, or are starting out on your own business journey, here are some of the latest developments taking


Winter 2018

Brewers Journal Canada

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place in the sector, the driving factors behind the growth

beer is their choice. Canadian brewing schools such as

in quality beer, and advice from those that know it best.

Old’s College and Niagara College are turning out skilled

“As it has in the US and other countries, craft beer

people who are enabling Canadian brewers to increase

continues to grow and flourish and become a bigger

their production and produce higher quality beer. That’s

part of Canadian culture. The many benefits of craft

helping to grow our country’s beer trade.”

beer -- fuller flavour, new and exciting beer styles, “buy

According to Jon Bunger, operations manager at

local” appeal and rich community involvement -- are

Alpha Brewing Operations, growth in beer is truly a multi-

undeniable to beer lovers," explains Peter Love, president

faceted animal.

of Calgary-based Cask Brewing Systems. He explains: “Once people experience these benefits,

“What’s happening now is that beer is getting sexy. I don’t want to say trendy, because I don’t believe it is

they rarely turn back to mass-market beer. There’s

a trend. I believe it is cultural movement. I do see style

something especially wonderful about knowing the

trends within the craft, such as sour beers, hazy pale ales

people who make your favourite beers and being able

and IPA’s and so forth, but the demand for craft beer I

to talk to them and support their business. Plus we now

see as far less elastic. When you have a product demand

have a new generation of Canadian beer lovers who

such as this in a country that supports small business and

have been surrounded by craft beer culture their entire

the entrepreneur like Canada, naturally there you’ll find a

lives. Now that they are old enough to drink beer, craft

booming industry,” he says. “When you have a gold rush

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The hurdles we faced in the early years, most of them don’t exist any longer. When we first started our micro-canning efforts, bottles were the only choice and just the suggestion of cans for craft beer was seen as a blasphemous. Peter Love, Cask Brewing Systems

“It’s not that people are drinking more beer, they’re switching their preference to local and fresh. People want to be part of the experience and you get that in a taproom,” he explains. “Drinkers want fresh and interesting flavour in place of the uniform lager taste that has dominated North America for many years.” Such changing tastes have opened up doors for breweries to experiment and release an increasingly broad portfolio of beers. This growth, in kind, is impacting businesses like Twin Monkeys. "The emphasis on quality first is a bigger push now as customers become more savvy about the differences between high quality and reasonable quality. Only a few years ago people seemed satisfied just to be able to can beverages, now they need to have high quality canned beverages,” says Van Riper. He adds: “Cans are the future. Anyone who doesn’t believe it is likely to believe climate change isn’t real.

effect like we are seeing in craft beer, well the folks selling

Cans protect beer better, are easier and cheaper to

the picks, shovels and buckets do very well as long as

transport, are better for outdoor adventures, and are more

the gold supply doesn’t run out. The nice thing with beer,

compact for the liquor store shelves. Cans will continue

unlike gold, is you can keep making more, so the hope is

to grow at an aggressive pace at the expense of bottles.

the gold rush can sustain longer.

Bottles won’t go away; they just will become more of a

“The unfortunate thing with beer, unlike gold, it is a

commodity. It will become incredibly competitive and will eventually reach and likely surpass its equilibrium of

specialty package as cans become more of a mainstream package.” And from a mobile canning perspective, Jeff

supply and demand. When that happens you’ll see some

Rogowsky, partner at Sessions Craft Canning in Ontario,

breweries closing their doors.”

believes the driving factors behind the upward trajectory

Bunger, however, goes on to add that nobody knows where that stasis point is as we are beyond any historical

of the beer industry fall into three categories. He explains: “The first is that people are now wanting

record in the industry and rewriting the record books.

to support more locally-owned community focused

“We sell shovels in the form of high quality, cutting

businesses. The second is that consumers are more

edge, complete brewing and canning solutions so we

educated in that they know all beer doesn’t just have to

certainly hope this trajectory continues worldwide. We are

taste like a domestic light lager anymore. The third is that

excited to be entering less mature markets like Canada,

once people discover the flavours of craft beer they want

Australia, Asia, Russia, South America.” he adds.

to share those tastes and experiences with everyone

At Wild Goose-Meheen, Andrew Ferguson is more direct in his observations. “Passion. Beer is being driven by passion,” he explains.

around them. People who support craft beer are true enthusiasts and ambassadors for the entire category. This in turn, helps drive growth.”

“We love working with our Canadian customers because

Industry trends

they demonstrate and demand the same level of commitment to quality we value in the US. I have tasted this passion and quality in nearly every beer I have had in Canada. With my job, I spend three-four months each year traveling around the world drinking beer, and I can confidently say North America is producing the best beers on earth” Josh Van Riper is co-founder of Colorado’s Twin Monkeys. The manufacturer’s full-size canning systems,


ocusing on the growing canning sector, Pete Chasapis from Northern Canning tells us that the marketing strategies that many craft breweries

have applied have been “very impressive” and that, in turn, can make a huge difference. The business has worked with Collective Arts Brewing

the Animas and the San Juan, handle throughputs

and also has been a part of multiple launches for new

of 35 and 70 cans per minute. Elsewhere, its Yampa

breweries and cideries including Saulter Street Brewery,

tabletop system can output 18 cans per minute.Van Riper

Flora Hall Brewing and Overlander Cider.

pinpoints the demand for local and fresh as key drivers for burgeoning Canadian brewing industry.


Winter 2018

“Good beer sells, of course, but good beer properly marketed sells even better. This has lead to trends in

Brewers Journal Canada

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Cask Brewing Systems installation at Canmore Brewing

unique label designs, special effects on the labels as

micro-canning efforts, bottles were the only choice and

well as experimentation with different can sizes,” he says.

just the suggestion of cans for craft beer was seen as a

“For example, the 12oz can is coming back strong and

blasphemous. People thought we were nuts. They said

the sales are there to back it up. With how competitive

this idea would never fly. But today educated brewers

the market has become, the importance of standing out

and beer lovers know that cans are the ultimate package

next to your counterpart is bigger than ever, and that has

for delicious beer,” he explains. “We’ve also seen brewers

pushed the envelope of creativity and design innovation

shift to a more local focus. As growth in the industry has

to a new level which we are proud to be a part of.”

slowed, many brewers are scaling back their distribution

For Ferguson at Wild Goose-Meheen, the growth of

footprints to sell closer to home.”

can's market share versus bottles continues every year.

Demands and requirements

He adds: “A few years ago I would give talks at international trade shows about cans and almost get laughed out of the room. Now people are seeking out cans and the Wild Goose booth is one of the most popular at every trade show.   “The biggest advancement to ease the concerns of people who want to get into canning is the option of


s the market matures, the demands placed by breweries on they canning partners also evolve and grow. After all, brewing is a collaborative

industry and just as breweries leverage high-end

small-run can supply companies. They allow a brewery

technology and expertise, manufacturers also use

to purchase one pallet per SKU of pre-shrink sleeved

feedback as a catalyst for change.

cans. This eliminates the need to purchase large volumes

“Our customers are becoming more educated

from can manufacturers and reduces the warehouse

and therefore more demanding when it comes to

space traditionally needed to store large quantities of

customization. As the craft beer industry becomes

pallets. The brewery can also rapidly change out designs

more competitive, the paradigm is that the differentiator

to match demands from their consumers and always be

becomes beer quality and consistency. Brewing and

prepared to answer a beer buyer’s favourite question:

canning/packaging equipment has a great deal to do

“What new beers do you have for me?"

with these outcomes so brewers are paying greater

According to Love at Cask Brewing Systems, the

attention to detail when it comes to equipment design,

spread of craft beer and craft beer in cans grew rapidly

performance and efficiency,” says Bunger from Alpha

this year and the concepts of craft beer and craft beer

Brewing Operations.

squeezed into an aluminium can have never been more accepted than they are today. “The hurdles we faced in the early years, most of them don’t exist any longer. When we first started our

He adds: “Our canning lines can be expanded from 18 to 35 to 70 cans per minute all on the same platform. Our patent pending load cell weighs every can after it is filled, before it is seamed. This is a tremendous quality control

Winter 2018


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feature that prevents low fill product from reaching consumers and reduces waste as the operator has the option of having a low fill bypass the seamer therefore saving the can and lid. “Some operators prefer to seam their low fills and give them for employee, or volunteer labor. We call it consumption compensation. This is also a significant labor saver as manually weighing cans constantly is basically a full time job. Our dissolved oxygen (DO2) pickup is consistently ranging from 10 to 20 parts per billion (ppb)! This is an incredible feat for an atmospheric, linear filler and ensure shelf stability and flavour life. In 2017, Sessions merged with Canada’s first mobile canning company, West Coast Canning. In this time, Rogowsky says the biggest demands placed upon the business were keeping up with the growth of its customer base.

The consumer perception that cheap beer comes in cans is quickly fading or almost non-existent in mature craft beer markets. Andrew Ferguson, Wild Goose-Meheen

consumer perception that cheap beer comes in cans

He explains: “We have seen from all of the breweries we work with and can for they are wanting more canning dates and larger volumes on each of those canning dates. Because of this, we had to expedite our plans for a third canning line and get that into the market only four months after we had our second canning line. We also have plans to add two more canning lines in early 2018 to help with the growth in the Ottawa East and Quebec markets. “We have also made several tweaks to our canning

is quickly fading or almost non-existent in mature craft beer markets. Also, as the numbers of breweries expand, the shelf space at retail is becoming more valuable. We are seeing two packs of 330ml cans replace one pack of 330ml bottles in the same retail shelf. This allows the liquor store to present more options to the consumer without investing in additional cooler doors.”

Technological developments

lines this past year to help reduce the level of dissolved oxygen (DO) that gets picked up during the canning process and I can now confidently say we are achieving world class (big brewery) packaging levels of picked up DO. We have invested significantly in the quality instruments needed to check these levels and also have invested in the tools needed to confidently check the seams of our cans and the seamer itself. “The biggest issue I see with breweries who run their


o as the market continues its shift towards aluminium, here are some key developments and product launches from leading companies in the

field designed to help improve your business. “I believe the Beer Cannon to be absolutely the most expandable canning line in the industry. One can double capacity twice on the same platform from 18

own canning lines is that they have problems with DO

all the way to 70 cans/min. We are conservative in our

pickup and also with the Seamer getting out of spec.

capacity nomenclature as we consistently see higher than

Lastly, we have now added a service whereas breweries

advertised throughput. Despite our advances in features

who have their own canning lines can send us seamed

and technology, the Beer Cannon price points are less

cans and we will check the seams and send them back

than our competition! For now at least,” says Alpha

computer generated images with the reporting they need

Brewing Corporation's Bunger.

to address any issues.” Ferguson continues with the canning versus bottles

He goes on to add: “Another benefit is a very compact footprint at 11.5’ x 2.5’. We have developed a split conveyor

dialogue, noting that Wild Goose and Meheen are

option so that we can turn a section of the conveyor

capable of providing solutions for either package choice.

90 degrees and fit an even smaller footprint. The Beer

“There will always be a place for beer in bottles.

Cannon stands still beautifully, but also highly mobile and

Bottles can hold higher pressure and are therefore

built to withstand the abuse of mobile canning. I would

better suited for secondary fermentation, especially

be willing to bet that our changeover time from one can

with cork and cage. They also continue to hold higher

size to another is the fastest in the industry in as little as

perceived value as a high-end package in emerging craft

10 minutes.

beer markets. However, the advantages of cans as a

“A big benefit is the energy efficiency and low cost

package – like reducing environmental impact and

of operation of the Beer Cannon. Alpha utilizes servo

increasing shelf stability (by eliminating light as a

motors in several key areas. Servos deliver precise and

concern) – are continuing to grow,” he explains. “The

programmable movement to within one thousandth of an


Winter 2018

Brewers Journal Canada

Wild Goose-Meheen continues to enjoy success with its WGC-600 system

Sessions Craft Canning: Set for another year of growth in 2018

Winter 2018


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Sessions Craft Canning will be adding more lines this year

inch. Because of the servo technology you can change

blending the best aspects of both companies to provide

the filler from 12 to 16oz can with the push of a button.

solutions that help breweries answer the demands from

“They are virtually maintenance free and require very little energy to run and last a long, long time. We use far

their market in any package format.” And for Love at Cask Brewing Systems, it continues to

less pneumatics on the Beer Cannon as cylinders are high

experience momentum with its new mACS system. The

maintenance, costly to operate in comparison and offer

mACS can be converted to fill and seam cans of varying

far less precision and programmability. Air compressors

heights and widths -- from 163 mL / 5.5ounces to 568 mL

are expensive, inefficient, maintenance hogs.

/ 19.2 ounces in volume -- in less than 30 minutes.

“Our compressed air required to run the Beer Cannon

He explains: “This is a micro-canning industry first,

35 is 6.5 cubic feet per minute and 5 of that is used at the

a single machine that can accommodate multiple can

dryer after the post rinse of the cans. We use a method of

body diameters. The mACS also has electric cam-driven

burst rinsing and drying each can so we are only rinsing

seamers, this new and improved seamer decreases

and drying the can and not wasting air and water on

maintenance needs and increases seam quality and

the space between cans. I’ve seen specs on competing

reliability. That feature will soon be found on more of our

system in the high teens and over 20 cfm.”


Bunger added that the business is also developing

“A new mACS feature we’re getting very positive

a new semi-auto depalletizer that it believes will “exist

feedback about is the system’s ability to dial in fill levels

nicely” in the price and automation void between manual

on each of the three individual fill heads, via the touch-

can feed tables and fully automated depalletizers.

screen interface. It makes it much easier for an operator

At Wild Goose-Meheen, the business has recently

to control fill consistency. The mACS is highly mobile,

launched its WGC-600, a dual-lane filler with eight

measures just 7’ by 2.5’, and has a very small footprint of

fill heads and two seamers capable of up to 90 CPM.

17.5 square feet – those features are very important to

According to the manufacturer, It provides reliable

brewers with limited space.

seam integrity, low DO pickup and a small footprint.

“This mACS system allows our customers to get highly

Adding this higher speed system to its product line has

efficient filling and the ability to create new revenue

positioned Wild Goose to provide an inline filler capable

streams and beverages. They can quickly shift to new can

of knocking out larger tanks with the same reliability its

sizes for current products or jump from beer and cider to

customers have come to know and love, says Ferguson.

uncarbonated beverages such as nitro-dosed cold brew

He adds: “Wild Goose is now also affiliated with Meheen, manufacturer of bottling systems. giving our

coffee, wine and energy drinks. “Since it features a conveyor belt can feeder similar to

customers options for both can and bottle fillers from two

our larger ACS machine, the mACS can be equipped with

of the most trusted companies in the industry. Meheen

pre- and post-packaging automated components such

designs 2, 4 and 6 head counter pressure fillers capable

as an inline date coder, nitrogen doser, labeller and other

of 10-40 BPM, along with integrated labelling. We are



Winter 2018

Brewers Journal Canada


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i sland


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to u r

Showcase brewing and bring more people into beer Goose Island opened its doors in Toronto last summer, and it has already made its mark downtown with a mix of core and limited brews, alongside offering a handson approach to the brewhouse concept.

the city in the late 19th century. This building was officially designated for its cultural heritage value by the City of Toronto in 2007, and Goose Island has incorporated a part of this history with the Brewhouse design. In and around that brewhouse, head brewer Bernard Priest is ably assisted by assistant brewer Marc Mammoliti. “Meeting demand for local tastes and demands has

by tim sheahan

been great. We’ve had a great deal of awesome feedback and it’s always positive to hear people’s thoughts,” says


Priest. “For many consumers, to be drinking two metres

young in January, but it has already become a key part

to ensure the Toronto facility could achieive the same

of the downtown landscape. The brewhouse, located at

brewing standards as the Fulton Street Brewery

58 The Esplanade, flung open its doors last July and with

in Chicago.

t has been a phenomenal experience. Being able to

away from working fermentation vessels is something

bring Goose Island beers to Toronto and having the

new and something special. It helps spark conversation

ability to experiment and adapt to drinkers’ tastes is

between drinkers and the team here. It brings people

something special. It’s great to be part of,” explains

together through beer.”

Bernard Priest, head brewer at Goose Island’s

Toronto Brewhouse. The Goose Island Brewhouse in Toronto is six months

that, it gave Goose Island another place to call home in Canada. The Chicago brewery’s new brewhouse outlet

Those fermentation vessels form part of a brewhouse setup developed by BrauKon, equipment that was designed and built with Goose Island's brewing team,

The 15hl BrauKon brewhouse comprises four vessels and is complemented by seven 15hl fermentation vessels and two 15hl brite tanks. While the imminent addition of a

in Canada is located on around 18,000 square foot

centrifuge from GEA is greeted with feverish anticipation

of space that has a history dating back to 1882.

by Priest and Mammoliti.

Originally owned by the company Wm. & J.G. Greey

This high-end brewing setup produces beer to be

of Toronto, the Mill Furnishing Works factory was used

served through the 12 draught lines, most of which rotate

to manufacture a wide range of steel milling products,

on a regular basis.

employing blacksmiths, tinsmiths and various other tradespeople.  The design ties back to the development of Toronto's rail lines and the industrialization of this part of

“We’ll always have beers from the Goose Island core range at any one time, which include the IPA and Honker’s Ale,” says Mammoliti. “But alongside these, we are lucky to have nine taps that pour in-house creations. The core

Winter 2018


also determined to do their bit to help change people’s

Goose Island Toronto offers 12 draught lines with beer

perceptions of craft beer and to open a dialogue with

brewed on its 15hl BrauKon brewhouse

those new to that side of the beer world. “Before I was a brewer, you’d go to breweries, take in

range has been long established in Canada so having the

the process and see how everything is done. And I feel

ability to brew our own recipes in-house is special.”

that we’re doing that here. The brewhouse setup helps

These beers are produced in conjunction with the

brings you into the experience, all the way to filling the

team at the brewery’s headquarters in Chicago. Priest and

kegs at the end of it all,” Priest explains. “It’s an enjoyable

Mammoliti produce recipes that are then vetted by the

situation for both parties and by showing people the craft,

US team.

work, time and ingredients that go into their beer, it helps

“We have immense respect for the team there. It

you further educate drinkers on why good beer costs

makes the whole process from idea formulation to seeing

more. When people question it, we can literally show

it come to fruition absolutely fantastic,” says Priest. “Our

them why.”

objective for every beer we make is to make something that is not to over the top, approachable, and enjoyable. And I think we are doing that.” Through their beer creations, Priest and Mammoliti are


Winter 2018

Christine Hamilton, senior brand manager of craft brands at Labatt Breweries of Canada, agrees. “We want to gain awareness more awareness of what is happening here in Toronto because, at the end of the

Brewers Journal Canada


i sland


b r e w e ry

to u r

day, Marc and Bernard continue to do an amazing job.

Provinces. Bier Markt boasts a selection of over 150 Biers

The craft sector is increasingly crowded so it’s a case of

from over 30 different countries and local craft brews. Not

standing out to the consumer, offering them quality, and

only infamous for their Bier selection, Bier Markt offers a

it’s our job to do that,” she explains.

"made from scratch" approach to cooking while perfectly

And the consumer that frequents Goose Island Toronto are diverse in their nature. The Brewhouse features a front patio space overlooking The Esplanade and an

pairing Bier with some of Europe's classic dishes and North American favourites. “There really is no one-size-fits-all description to the

60-person Biergarten on the north side of the building,

average drinker here at the brewhouse. And that’s what

perfect for enjoying Toronto summers.

makes it fun. All we try and do is make the best beer we

It also offers seasonal menus featuring fresh and local ingredients, designed to pair with locally made brews and Goose Island's established line of quality beers. The location, operated in partnership with Bier Markt Esplanade, attracts commuters, beer enthusiasts, sports fans attending nearby games and locals, too. The Bier Markt first opened its doors on The Esplanade in 1999 and has since grown to eight locations in three

can, and ensure people enjoy themselves as a result,” says Mammoliti. Priest adds: “And that is what we will continue to do. We’ll keep making the classics, and experimenting with the new, too. "Alongside more collaborations, from the local hop growers to other breweries, 2018 is going to be a whole lot of fun.”

Winter 2018


Offering Craft Brewers More Than


From Around the Globe Brewing Aids, Cleaning Chemicals, Glycol, and Equipment For more information please contact or call



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cooper i ng


the craft of Coopering Barrel coopering in Canada has a long and varied history over the last century but it is currently a lost, forgotten and largely ignored art in Canada. And for Damien Matthews from DRM.reCoop, 2018 should be the time to think more sustainably and start using re-coopered barrels.

Thomson in Carp, Ontario called “The County Cooperage”. Joe is a trained cooper and makes gorgeous new barrels from air seasoned Canadian Quercus alba. One of the main issues surrounding the low adoption rate of re-coopered barrels are winemakers ignorance & bias towards re-coopered barrels. They are always in search of consistency with their wines and are usually not willing to take a risk even though they stand to save 80% on the cost of a new barrel. A re-coopered barrel is 85% new after being planed out, toasted and sealed. They act like a 1-fill. Innovative wineries that do use

by Damien matthews

re-coopered barrels get excellent results, save money on their oak programs and typically are in the black year over year. We are seeing more wineries tout their “sustainability


programs” but re-coopered oak barrels are not even

e-coopering is essentially a process used

considered, which is a major omission when it comes to

to remove all the neutral oak on the interior

wineries and their environmental sustainability programs.

surface of a barrel, re-toasting, re-assembly

Switching gears over to the craft beer, cider &

and leak sealing to complete the process.

distilleries markets, we are seeing some exciting uses

Re-coopering a barrels costs one fifth

of used spirit barrels. It seems like the flavour profiles of

the price of a new barrel, which typically costs $1000 -

craft beers and ciders has no limit when aged in used

$1300CDN per 225L/228L barrel. It is a practice that has

rum, tequila, bourbon & brandy barrels. Older spirit barrels

been used in Napa & Sonoma California for more than

are usually not re-coopered based on the previous spirit

30 years now and is largely accepted by most wineries in

flavours that are embedded deep within the staves.


These spirit residues mixed with craft beers & ciders

There are approximately three cooperage shops

lead to some very exciting flavour profiles and multiple

across Canada that have practiced the coopering

permutations, something we see endless possibilities

trade in one form or another. There is Pete Bradford

here. At DRM.reCoop we aim to establish long term

an apprenticed cooper, who is still practicing the trade

relationships with brewmasters, distillers and cideries

and has turned to making artisanal vinegars after

because questions arise all the time. Questions such as,

encountering resistance from local winemakers to use his

“how do I decontaminate my barrel?”, “how do I leak seal

new barrels for their wine in Wellington County, Ontario.

a barrel?", “how do I tighten barrels hoops?”, “what should I

Okanagan Barrel Works out in Oliver B.C. closed in 2014.

look for when buying a used barrel?” pop up all the time.

But despite making gorgeous new barrels at a great

We spend quite a bit of time educating and

price, they were sadly not given the support by local B.C.

empowering these craft beverage start-ups hoping to

wineries and they had to close their doors.

make them more competitive and savvy buyers of used

And finally, we have a new cooper by the name of Joe

barrels. Most recently we have been providing free barrels

Winter 2018


and the odd demo/lecture to the Niagara College winery

They rise and fall based on crude oil futures, weather,

& brewery students. They are both excellent programs

holidays and other factors. Planning ahead on importation

providing hands on skills with the right amount of class-

is a lesson we continually learn!

based theory. The Niagara College beer and winemaking

Some of our goals for this year will be to offer a larger

programs are among the best in the country and we are

selection of spirit barrels imported from Louisville, Indiana

very proud to have the opportunity to work with them.

& Kentucky. Rum & tequila barrels will soon be in our shop

In 2014, we were approached by Andrew Peller in

,too. The idea behind this is to have a place where craft

Grimsby to start working on charred oak barrel profiles for

brewers, distillers and cider producers can show up, pick

the new Wayne Gretzky Red Cap 99 whiskey program. It

out some different barrels and be on their way without

was an exciting project and we received some excellent

having to worry about searching, shipping, importing and

feedback from the master distiller Josh Beech. 14 alligator

do quality control on barrels imported from the USA or

chars later, we finally had the right barrel profiles for Josh’s

the Caribbean. We aim to do this at a competitive price

program. It isn’t enough to offer a good product however.


DRM.reCoop had to diversify our offerings and work with

As far as re-coopering in Canada goes, we continue to

everyone who wants used barrels. Understandably, to

battle the bias & ignorance associated with rejuvenated

survive in Ontario as a small business, we realized the

barrels. We continue to grow our customer base every

future of coopering has a long way to go. But establishing

year as oak budgets get cut at wineries. Most people

good relationships with our customers is key. In a word we

don’t realize that the trees used to make spirit and wine

“diversified” to all beverage sectors requiring oak barrels.

barrels are anywhere from 90 to 150 years old. You can

NAFTA is a current concern for us, especially when

usually get 10 – 15 barrels out of each tree that has been

it comes to importing used spirit and wine barrels. The

cut down. Those barrels are good for five years and then

concern centers on tariffs being imposed on wood

tossed aside. Prices are forecast to climb in 2018 for new

products but this is still some ways off. Some of our

oak barrels in all formats.

biggest headaches with importing used barrels are always around currency conversion and shipping rates.


Winter 2018

So, think sustainably and use a re-coopered barrel in 2018!

Brewers Journal Canada

trusted by trusted by

BC Hop Co: "We know our quality meets or exceeds world standards."

H ops

i n s i g ht

Buying fresh and local The Canadian brewing industry remains on an exciting, upwards trajectory and with a growing number of breweries, comes a growing level of demand. Although there remains an insatiable appetite for certain hop varieties that continue to resonate with drinkers’ tastebuds, an increasing number of breweries are looking closer to home to help fulfil their hop requirements. And with it, they are buying local and benefiting from buying fresh, too. We speak to two hop growers helping cater for the burgeoning appetite for Canadiangrown produce.

related by hosting our signature event on the farm every year,” they explain. “The Pacific North West region has long been recognized for its unique hop growing terroir, which when combined with an amazing climate, creates the perfect environment for hops. In collaboration with our partner farmers, BC Hop Co harvests and processes Cascade, Centennial, Chinook, and Cashmere varieties and will soon release our own trademarked hop variety.”

How did your crops perform during 2017? BC Hop Co’s Donna Dixson: We had our very best fields produce an amazing crop of over 2400 lbs per acre of this orange citrus infused Cascade that we are calling “Cascadian” in honor of the amazing terroir that created this juicy 2017 harvest. We only grow Aroma or dual purpose hops, including our trademarked LumberjackTM hop that has really started take off with great local brewers including Phillips and Driftwood.

by Tim Sheahan Laurie Thatcher-Craig from Clear Valley Hops: The


Did you experience any yield deficiencies or possible bumper crops of note?

form of Lemon vanilla in its Kent Golding, orange and fruit

Thatcher-Craig: The only yield deficiency we dealt with

in the Willamette, and great alpha acids in its Wild Turkey.

was Santiam. It is the first hop plant to break dormancy

harvest this year was nothing less than spectacular!

lear Valley Hops operates from a 74-

Although many farmers were hard hit by the amount of

acre farm located at the base of the

rain, we were thrilled and our plants were enormous. Our

Blue Mountains in Nottawa, Ontario, just

yields were way over our projections.

two minutes outside Collingwood. The company has nearly 20 varieties, fed by

the waters of the Pretty River. The terroir of Georgian Bay comes through in the unique flavours of its hops in the

“Clear Valley Hops are a family-owned business that

on our farm, and that poor plant kept trying to race to the

prides itself on as little processing of the hops as possible,

wire with pounding spring rains and high winds. The binds

in order to maintain high oil and flavour content. We dry

kept blowing off and we kept spinning up the same bines

at low heat and we use a unique cold press pelletizing

over and over. finally in the end we gave up, and only one

process that preserves the oil and lupulin, as compared to

bine made it through the harsh weather to hit the wire.

the pellets from the Pacific Northwest,” they add.

(normally 4-5) That causes low yields, and that was the

At BC Hop Co, the business works with partner

only plant that was affected. It also does not have a lot

farmers to harvest locally grown hops and uses modern

of hair on the bines, so, that added to the sliding off the

innovation to process and distribute wholesale hops in

strings Our Wild Turkey was the  big star of the farm with


the rain. We really thought since it was a high alpha hop,

“We share our passion for beer and all things hop

the rain would cause a lower yield. Usually higher alphas

Winter 2018


i n s i g ht


Canadian breweries are increasingly turning to locally-grown produce

prefer a dry hot summer. But what we have learned from our Wild Turkey, is it is

this year, is even though we have a 170 Wolf Harvester, the yields were so high and the plants so vigorous that

a star performer here on Georgian Bay, regardless of the

the machine could not keep up. These are German

weather or any other condition. Wild Turkey is a dual hop

harvesters, and with the USA hop varieties that we grow,

so the aromas were just as spectacular as the high alpha

the plants were enormous and the breakdowns were

reading from the lab. The other surprise was Willamette.

more frequent. At one point, I had to jump in to hold up

The profile on Willamette is it does not like cool wet

the Chinook plants underneath as the bine hooks were

weather. Not only were our yields way up, but the alpha

taking them into the harvester. The weight was so high

was way up as well. Normally Willamette is top end a 6%

the hooks were straining to bring them into the machine.

alpha. Our Willamette came in at 8.56%! The tangerine

That showed us that it is not about how many acres you

aroma was also very strong this year.

have, but what kind of plants you have when using this type of equipment. We started to expand out Centennial

Dixson: Cashmere is a tough hop to grow. The fields that

last year and will continue with adding Comet this year

did well, were amazing. The rest were a failure. It was

and increasing Santiam and Sunset Gold due to demands.

basically binary – awesome, or zero.

We believe, that with the soil on our farm our Comet will give Citra a run for its money.

During 2017, did you witness any varietal specific increases or decreases in acreage? And what was the total acreage of each variety grown last year?

What were the key consumer-driven trends you experienced at the business?

Dixson: We will be reducing our Cashmere acreage next

Dixson: Our brewers are looking for the next big hop. They

year, and increasing LumberjackTM, as well as planting a

can get low cost Cascade and Centennial from the US,

great new hop called Sasquatch. Going forward, we will

and the price points we need obtain as a new Canadian

have over 110 acres under production in 2018 with a max

based grower make it tough to simply grow and sell the

capacity target of 205 for 2019.

Big “C’s” at a profitable margin.

Thatcher-Craig: Our acreage is not changing (13 acres)

Thatcher-Craig: Because our farm is highly visible, we

only the varieties will be adjusted. What we learned

get a lot of people stopping in to talk to us. There was a


Winter 2018

Brewers Journal Canada

Clear Valley Hops: "Support the local farmer"

theme this year, and that was many visitors expressed

not putting ourselves into the position of producing into

their frustration with the beers they felt were not

storage and growing on spec.

drinkable. For example many told us the west coast style beers were not to their liking and there were too many

Thatcher-Craig: Our hopes for 2018-2019 is for continued

weird ingredients in the beer. (ie. cranberry's, pumpkins

good growing conditions, and for Ontario brewers to

etc.). We believe the consumers are looking for more

start buying local hops instead of sending money to the

balanced European style beers.

American farmers. In 2016 Ontario imported 22 million dollars in hops. Imagine how much benefit our province

Which hops were proving popular and did any of these demands counter your expectations?

would get, if even a small amount of that money stayed.

What can Canadian brewers do to help themselves? Thatcher-Craig: Our surprise this year was Sunset Gold and Crystal. Both of these hops were in high spot

Dixson: We would love it if Canadian Brewers would try


out the amazing quality that we at the BC Hop Company have created in conjunction with our Partner Family

Dixson: Cashmere is incredibly popular – I think scarcity

Farms. We know that our quality meets or exceeds

makes it that way. The quality of our product is the best

world standards, and Canada can make great beer using

in Canada, but penetrating existing contracted supply

Canadian grown hops!

chains is proving more difficult than we expected. The major distributors in Canada won’t carry Canadian grown

Thatcher-Craig: Stop buying patented hops! This is

hops due to restricted contracts with their US providers,

morally wrong, and extremely risky when you hand your

which makes it additionally hard to penetrate into the

businesses success to another party. They have control

existing brewers marketplace.

over you. These hops are not allowed to be grown by independent farmers. It is a Monsanto hop world now

What are your hopes for 2018 and beyond?

which is dangerous.,Given the action just recently taken by the Craft Brewers of America, to start funding the USDA

Dixson: We hope to have every plant that we put into

hop research program again, they are telling us all what

the ground pre-contracted to brewers so that we are

we need to do. Support local independent farmers!

Winter 2018


C ro s s i n g

b o r d e r s


Brew for the right reasons Founders has quietly and confidently become the 10th largest craft brewery in the US. On course to output 445,000 US brewers barrels in 2017, it exports to 25 countries. We caught up them recently to hear about the road ahead.

celebration. Mull was debating the issue with Dave Engbers, who co-founded the Michigan brewery with Mike Stevens some 20 years ago. A brewery that is now the 10th largest craft brewery in the US, on course to output around 445,000 US brewers barrels in 2017. However as Founders continues to enjoy great success in the US, the duo have made a brief visit to Europe to catch up with some key accounts, meet some new faces and to simply enjoy some new beer while at

by tim sheahan

the same time, introduce more people to their own brews. Founders exports to 25 countries across the globe such as Canada, although the UK its biggest export

"Did you get that email this morning?”

market. Its charge on these shores is led by All Day IPA, its session IPA that is popping up on an increasing number of

“The one about the Harvest Ale on tap? Yeah, I did. I didn’t know it was due on just yet!”

keg fonts and in cans, too. But it’s not just Canada and the UK that has taken to the beer, which joined the brewery’s year-round lineup in

“Yeah, me neither. But I suppose we’d normally tap it for the

2012. Only last summer, the beer was the most ‘checked-

Harvest party but we’re not having that this year.”

in’ beer of the summer on popular beer info sharing app Untappd, notching an impressive 64,795 check ins.

“True, but I want to try it. I’m p*ssed!”

Mull attributes the beer’s popularity, especially its


growing presence in export markets, to drinkers relating

at Founders points out, the special beer would normally

hemisphere have often been able to relate what we’ve

be poured for the first time at the annual harvest party.

done in the US and vice versa. That’s one reason while All

But that particular occasion in 2017 is making way for

Day IPA has proved popular and we’re thankful for that.”

t that moment Dave Engbers and Alec

to styles that have resonated with foreign tastebuds for

Mull are in London, England, but the only

many years.

place they want to be is back home at their

breweries. All we’ve done is Chuck Norris the s**t out of

release of Harvest Ale, their American IPA.

them and made them our own,” he says wryly.

See, as Alec Mull, vice president of brewery operations

the brewery’s 20th anniversary. Arguably a much bigger


“The UK has been responsible for inspiring a lot of US

brewery sampling the anticipated annual

Winter 2018

“But I think drinkers, especially in the Northern

Other overarching reasons Mull and Engbers agree

Brewers Journal Canada

Founders: Mike Stevens & Dave Engbers Photo: Founders brewing Co

Winter 2018


c ro s s i n g

b o r d e r s



on us that quality, consistency and reliable packaging that has ensured the beer Founders sells, especially its

c ro s s i n g

b o r d e r s

underneath it all, they want to do the best,” he adds. Founders made the decision to move into cans in 2014

session IPA, reach drinkers in the way they intended, even

before it all got up and running the following year. Since

if consumption is taking place two or three months after it

then, it has introduced the 15-pack to the craft market,

was packaged.

formats that have included its PC Pils, Mosaic Promise

“Packaging is not sexy, let’s be honest. But when it comes to high-quality packaging lines, when and where

and Azacca beers. Engbers says exports, moving into cans has aided

possible, you simply have to invest in them. I know

Founders’ growth further, as has its tie-up with Mahou

brewers prefer to talk about IBUs, hops and other fun

San Miguel, which acquired a 30% stake in the business in

things rather than packaging but it is so critical to pay that

December 2014.

attention if you intend your beer to get to the consumer the way you intended,” explains Mull. He adds: “We need to change the dialogue so that the

He says: “We’ve grown from a Michigan Brewery to a national brewery. We’re still young and we’ve been growing at a pretty aggressive clip. But a few years ago

brewing community focuses on packaging and I admit,

we looked at things and knew maintaining growth in

that is not a simple issue that can be changed overnight

excess of 60% would become a challenge as the growth

for many, many reasons. However if you have the money,

rate in the US was slowing down. That’s why we started

look at that side of things.

looking more at the export side of things and now we

“I argued many years ago that we needed to invest

export to around 25 countries. The partnership with San

in a good packaging line rather than expand on the

Miguel made sense for all parties because they knew how

brewhouse side. And we’ve never looked back.”

much expertise we had in the US craft beer market while

Mull argues that quality packaging processes are imperative and Engbers adds that the type of beer you package is all-important, too.

their knowledge in many other fields has been incredibly beneficial.” And although Founders itself is celebrating its 20th

“I was in the UK a few months before this visit and I

anniversary, Engbers says it’s significantly easier to open

simply love the pubs here. The culture is very different

a brewery in 2017 than it was for him and Stevens back in

to what we have in the US. But I also visited a number of

the late nineties.

smaller breweries too and each one was talking about their latest New England-style hazy IPA,” he says. Engbers adds: “Hey, this is great if you’re serving

“Access to market makes it a hell of a lot easier to open a brewery nowadays but unfortunately with that, we’re seeing people open breweries for the wrong reasons.

that beer over the bar from the brewery, or if it’s being

They are just trying to make money as quickly as possible

consumed shortly after. But for a brewery like us,

in case this whole thing could disappear,” he says.

packaging a beer like that makes me really nervous and

However, Mull has more faith in his brewing brethren.

we wouldn’t do it because if you’re packaging beers that

“I’d hope that it’s only a very small percentage that

are going to be good for up to 120 days, that isn’t a style

have that mindset when it comes to opening a brewery.

you should be looking at.

The people I know started brewing because it’s what

“I think the New England phase will be a short-lived

they wanted to do for the rest of their lives. But equally, it

trend, just don’t ask me where the next one is. Pale Ales,

amuses me when people tell me that they are opening

maybe? Either way, we won’t jeopardise quality and

a brewery but only plan to do it part-time. You’re soon

consumer experience either way by putting out beers we

going to realise that that will simply not be the case,” says



Mull believes Founders are not alone in this approach, either. “Working for Founders has made me feel really good

He adds: “It’s a lot of hard work and it’s a labour of love. Some people don’t realise how difficult it will be. But it you really want to do it, go ahead, give it your all and give

that we don’t compromise on what we do. But nobody

it your best. That’s why we spent a massive amount on

wants to take the opposite approach to things. The vast

packaging because we made the decision to compete

majority of brewers are passionate people that want to

with the Sierra Nevadas and New Belgiums. That would

make the best beer they can. They may not always have

help acheive our goal. We knew what we had to do and

right tools to do so, or even the knowledge at times but

we did it. So have your own goals and go for them.”

Winter 2018


s c i e n c e

W ort

O xygenat i on

maintaining a healthy fermentation process Many factors come into play when discussing wort oxygenation, so it’s best to start with the basics. From there, it will be easier to maintain a consistent method and ask “how” when things abruptly change, says Neva Parker, White Labs VP of operations.

environment. This concept is not particularly new to brewers. The main challenge over the years has not been the “what” of oxygenation but the “how.” As crucial a piece as this is, it is a much more difficult task to oxygenate wort properly and adequately. Most texts will recommend a standard dissolved oxygen rate of 8-10ppm (mg/L) in a moderate gravity wort (up to 12° Plato). The key here is understanding that we’re talking about dissolved oxygen and the oxygen

by neva parker

dissolution rate in wort can be dependent on a number of factors including temperature of the wort, gravity of the


xygen is something brewers inevitably

wort, and size of the bubbles. To help with this sometimes daunting task, here are a few things to consider.

want to minimize in their process, with

Air vs oxygen

one exception: wort oxygenation. In other aspects of beer production, oxygen causes detrimental effects on flavor and

stability, but the opposite is true prior to fermentation. Yeast depends on oxygen to provide them with

the building blocks needed to synthesize fatty acids and sterols, essential components in the yeast cell


hile it’s fine to use air (or shaking, splashing or other manner of physical air delivery), from an efficiency standpoint, it is not

my preferred method. When you consider that air is

membrane. Oxygen also contributes to the formation

21% oxygen, you have lost a bit of your dissolution

of hemoproteins, which help the cells protect themselves

rate. In this case, the maximum solubility is only

from oxidative stress, critical in a fermentation

around 9.5ppm, and backpressure is usually needed to


Winter 2018

Brewers Journal Canada

W ort

O xygenat i on

s c i e n c e

keep oxygen in solution. When working with pure oxygen, your maximum potential dissolved oxygen (DO) jumps to 40ppm (saturation). Other factors keep DO levels from landing at saturation, such as the temperature and gravity as mentioned before, as well as the flow rate and time of oxygenation.

Dissolved oxygen meters


he only way to ensure you’re reaching optimal oxygen levels is to use a reliable dissolved oxygen meter. While there are many options available in

the market, here are a few the things to look for when

an inline or portable meter. Both are reliable; however,

selecting a good DO meter:

the portable meters are less expensive and require

Measuring range of ppm versus ppb - Used with

more calibration. Additionally, with any meter, take your measurement close to the fermenter and a good distance

packaged beer. Easy to maintain probe - Newer optical probes require less maintenance and have longer durability. Simple calibrations and reliable measurements Oxygen measurements are sensitive and instruments need to be calibrated regularly for accurate readings. Fast response time - Don’t get stuck waiting for a

downstream from the oxygen tank. Since the oxygen generally comes into the system at a relatively high pressure, it takes time for the solubility to stabilize and give you a reliable reading. Many factors come into play when discussing wort oxygenation, so it’s best to start with the basics. From there, it will be easier to maintain a consistent method

meter to stabilize its reading. You will also need to decide if you want to work with

and ask “how” when things abruptly change.

Brewfitt have a variety of products ranging from branded fonts and taps, to drip trays and coolers for the bar and pub industry. Visit our website


Lindr Unit Distrubutor

Call us

01484 340800 Winter 2018


fo cu s


Experiment and Innovate with Yeast The role yeast plays in beer flavour is being reexamined, and brewers are showing more curiosity about what experimentation with yeast can bring to their brews and leveraging what immense biodiversity there is out there, explains Dr. Lance Shaner, founder of Omega Yeast Labs.

growth. Even a certain strain’s signature range of flavour can change in the intensity or character it imparts in relation to growth factors like pitch rate and metabolic health or stress. This means simply that there are many elements that are key to orchestrating the permutations of flavour yeast adds, and some elements depend on the artistry--the knowledge, technique and vision--of the brewer, and some are related to the health and quantity of yeast cells the brewer is working with. As a brewers’ work is to create not only an artful

by DR. Lance shaner

flavour profile through ingredients and process but also to create it consistently over time, having healthy yeast


cells and the right amount of yeast cells is important to

ops, malt and yeast, as well as

manipulating flavour consciously and in a way that can be

fermentation temperature and pitch


rate are among the primary contributors

We consider it our job to ask ourselves what brewers

to flavour in beer. Hops and malt as

need in order to brew best. That’s what guides us. We

ingredients have been experimented

want to improve anything we touch to make it easier for

with pretty comprehensively. In comparison, yeast hadn’t begun to be explored to the same extent until recently. There are traditional beer styles recognized for their

brewers to brew better beer. I’d say we are as fascinated by propping the standardbearing strains expertly as we are excited by making

yeast-driven signatures, like hefeweizen and saison,

interesting or unusually useful strains commercially

but, recently, there are newer beer-stylings that are

available. And more than just finding new strains, new

using yeast-contributed flavour to add an additional or

strains are also being created through hybridization.

nontraditional complexity like never before. Yeast’s role in beer flavour is definitely being

We have one hybrid right now that we’re really proud of, our “Saisonstein’s Monster.” We successfully mated a

reexamined. Brewers are showing more curiosity about

notoriously finicky saison strain to the docile kinetics of

what additional flavour yeast experimentation can bring

another and got hundreds of viable offspring. We brewed

to their brews and leveraging what immense biodiversity

through those until we found the one that displayed

there is out there in yeast.

the best of both parents. It is something brand new for

Yeast-contributed flavour comes not only from the yeast characteristics by strain, but also the yeast’s cell


Winter 2018

brewers, something that works well and has desirable flavour complexity.

Brewers Journal Canada


It’s exhilarating to have an idea of how you can improve

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And we think there are a few more promising

something and see it come to fruition. We definitely look

Norwegian strains with some interesting characteristics

forward to having the time to develop more in our hybrid

that we’re still exploring: one in particular imparts a


desirable fruity, juicy profile that adds a modern taste

HotHead ale, a Norwegian farmhouse strain, is a great

profile to a beer brewed with less expensive or easier to

example of a newly discovered strain. Kveik, which means

get hop varietals. In testing, we immediately thought, ‘this

“yeast” in a particular Norwegian dialect, these strains

is adding to the conversation at the boundary between

were discovered recently (to the world outside Norway)

yeast and hops. This needs to be out there.

through the work of Lars of the famous Larsblog. HotHead is pretty unique as an ale strain in that

It could be important also in countries like Canada that experience hop shortages. We’ll likely add it to our

temperature affects fermentation speed predictably

catalog after we expand into our larger production space

relative to cell growth, but the fruity ester profile does not

in January.

increase dramatically with heightened temperature. This means you can ferment it at the high end of its

Yeast and its contribution to flavour

extraordinarily broad range and it fruity ester profiles do not heighten significantly. That’s a remarkable variance in expected behaviour, and in its singularity, becomes an incredibly useful tool for a homebrewer, for example, who wants to brew a pale ale in hot climates without temperature control.


his strain is especially exciting in relation to what we see as this year’s runaway favourite beerstyling, too -- the hot-topic New England IPA


Winter 2018


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The NEIPA itself is a great vehicle to talk about the

The Norwegian farmhouse strains have a remarkable

rising interest in yeast-contributed flavour. The dramatic

temperature tolerance (fermenting from roughly 65°-

increase in sales of strains well-suited for NEIPAs in the

95° F [18°- 35°C]) compared to typical ale yeast that

latter half of this year confirms for us in no uncertain terms

ferment in the upper 60°s to lower 70°s F [19°- 23°C]. And

that NEIPA is the biggest brewing trend in the US in 2017.

most importantly for the style, many of these strains do

NEIPA is characterized by huge, fruity hop aroma,

produce ample fruity esters. This could allow brewers

comparatively low bitterness, and a hazy appearance.

to amp up the fruitiness or even forego the use of

Yeast strain choice for NEIPA is driven by attenuation

expensive, harder to get hop varietals.

level (frequently lower attenuation strains that result

Another variation on the NEIPA style could be the use

in residual malty sweetness), ester production (fruity

of alternative yeasts such as Lachancea thermotolerans

aromatic compounds that complement modern hops),

to add unique flavours. Some L. thermotolerans strains

and perhaps controversially, the inducement of haze.

produce significant amounts of lactic acid, lending a tart

Many of the strains used are quite flocculent -- they clump together and drop out of the beer. In most brewing scenarios, this would result in a brilliantly clear

flavour to beer. This could be a way to add a perception of "juiciness" to a NEIPA. Either way, aficionados of crystal clear beer may be

beer. However, the inclusion of flaked oats and/or flaked

disappointed to see the phenomenon grow, but brewers

wheat in the grist, along with dry hopping during active

will likely expand on the style by incorporating adjuncts

formation, leads instead to a beer with a stable haze that

or exploring different yeast strains in an effort to stand out

acts more like a colloidal suspension (think milk). Even

from the competition. Embrace the haze!

extended cold ageing does not clarify most of these beers.

About the Author: Omega Yeast Labs Founder, Dr. Lance Shaner earned his Ph.D. in microbiology and molecular

Importantly, the haze is not a result of significant amounts of yeast in suspension. It’s the grist, yeast choice, and modern fruity hops

genetics from the University of Texas Health Science Center in Houston. His research focused on the genetics and biochemistry

that lead to the signature "juicy" result that is craved by

of molecular chaperones in the model eukaryote

craft beer drinkers these days. Judging by the popularity

Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Today he has 18 years of home

of breweries specializing in this style, many craft beer

brewing under his belt, a decade of laboratory experience,

consumers are not put off by an appearance that would

including five years of original research on the stress

have been indicative of a severely flawed beer not that

response of brewer’s yeast.

long ago. WIth legs to carry the trend far into 2018, we think

Lance founded Omega Yeast Labs in 2013. Omega Yeast propagation techniques produce metabolically strong yeast

potential further advancements could include additional

cells by design, with focus on healthy fermentation and

yeast strain options, like those promising kveik strains.

optimized cell counts.


Winter 2018

Brewers Journal Canada

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Craft Beer’s Next Top Yeast Strains There has never been a more exciting period of time for craft beer innovation, and a major component of this is the development and discovery of yeast strains by scientists and yeast suppliers. It’s hard to say what craft beer’s next top yeast strain will be but, according to Richard Preiss, co-founder of Escarpment Laboratories, it’s certain to be already sitting in a test tube or a farmer’s kitchen.

cherry pie flavours to complement an oak aged dark ale. Yeast labs employ different strategies to address the demand for new flavours in beer. Some have turned to yeast cross breeding in order to dial in flavour and fermentation profiles of their yeast strains. Yeast suppliers have used yeast’s natural ability to mate to generate hybrid yeasts, for example to combine a reliable Saison strain with a less reliable but more flavourful one, or to eliminate hydrogen sulfide (eggy) flavour from lager yeasts. Lager yeast, specifically, is ripe for innovation: more than 90% of the world’s beer production is light lager, and the potential to create new lager flavours through breeding is immense now that the non-ale yeast parent

by Richard Preiss

of the hybrid lager yeast was discovered on a beech fungus in Patagonia (it’s also been found on trees in North


America and China). Scientists are now armed with the

Indeed, craft beer is increasingly becoming defined by

outside of the Saccharomyces (“normal yeast”) family,

the necessity of novelty. It is now extremely common to

and employing these alternative yeasts to target flavour

find a brand new beer (or three) at many craft breweries

combinations previously unknown to brewing, like the

in Canada every single weekend, and consumers now

heavy pineapple of a pure Brettanomyces ferment, or

expect to be delighted by an unending wave of new

the enhanced banana flavour of Torulaspora in a German


wheat beer. Many yeast labs and breweries are also

odern craft beer is faced with a

breeding stock necessary to create brand new lager

persistent dilemma: the need for

hybrids. One of these scientists is Kristoffer Krogerus at

innovation in flavour, process, and

VTT in Finland, who has devoted his PhD to creating

ingredient selection. This is driven

lager yeasts with unique flavour profiles and enhanced

by competition within the craft beer

fermentation properties.

sector and also by consumer demand for novel beers.

This presents a significant challenge for craft breweries: how do they deliver consistently on new beers and novel flavours while keeping quality high? One

Other brewers and scientists are turning to yeasts

tinerking with wild yeasts, perhaps isolated from a perfect autumn apple, or from a verdant forest. A final option is yeast which was under our noses the

solution is to explore the vast landscape of alternative

whole time: brewing yeasts used in regions with active

yeast strains now on the market, in addition to the ever-

brewing traditions outside of industrial brewing. Such

expanding selection of specialty malts, patented hops,

“farmhouse brewing” cultures still exist in a surprising

fruit purées, spices, and so on. Careful selection of yeasts

range of places: the Fjords of Norway, rugged Lithuania,

is a way for a brewery to make their fruity New England

a flight and several bus rides deep into Russia, or inside

IPA different from the brewery next door, or to create

a Bhutanese farmhouse. Intrepid beer ethnologists such


Winter 2018

Brewers Journal Canada


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as Lars Marius Garshol from Norway and Canada’s own

Additionally, they can perform at a remarkably wide

Martin Thibault are discovering and writing about these

temperature range (20-40ºC), certainly an attractive

traditional beer cultures, many of which still have their

feature for homebrewers and for brewers in regions with

original yeast cultures.

hot summers typically requiring excessive glycol cooling

At the centre of the rediscovery of traditional brewing cultures and yeasts is the farmhouse brewing Mecca,

for fermentation. We think that traditional and underexplored yeasts

the Norsk Kornolfestival in Hornindal, Norway. It is a

like Norwegian kveik and others are a big part of the

festival established initially to celebrate the farmhouse

future of brewing. Since traditional, domesticated yeasts

brewing traditions of Norway, but growing to attract

exist in Russia and Lithuania, and who knows where

interest from far-flung brewers, whether they are

else, we have started referring to these as ‘landrace

traditional, homebrewers, or brewing professionals.

yeasts’. A landrace is defined as a domesticated, locally

The Kornolfestival is organized by Lars Marius Garshol,

adapted, traditional variety of a crop, and we think this

as well as by fjord local William Holden and others. At

term applies to traditional brewing yeasts and helps avoid

the Kornolfestival, we witnessed techniques as diverse

confusion with the ‘farmhouse yeasts’ typically associated

as Lithuanian stone brewing, malt kilning and smoking

with Belgian brewing. Already, brewers are exploring

using alder wood for a powerfully smoky Norwegian beer

landrace yeasts: several yeast labs have commercialized

called ‘Stjørdalsøl’, and the local style of (tart, tropical,

Norwegian kveik, and the Lithuanian ‘Simonaitis’ yeast is

woody) ‘raw ale’ brewing where the beer is not boiled at

making the rounds among hardcore homebrewers.

all, but instead lautered through hops and then chilled. In

Meanwhile, back at the lab, we have been exploring

fact, the only commonality among the diversity of beers

the use of kveik yeasts in beer: samples have been tested

presented at the festival is the ever-present use of juniper

by local homebrewers and extensive amounts of data

branch infusion in the brewing water.

collection have taken place at the University of Guelph.

Central also to the Kornolfestival is the exchange

We have scaled this up to collaborations with breweries,

of kveik: the traditional yeasts of western Norway,

including Guelph’s Royal City Brewing (Pining for the

maintained for what is reported to be hundreds of years

Fjords), Toronto’s Indie Alehouse (Loki’s Garden) and Folly

through drying and reuse. At Escarpment Laboratories,

Brewpub (Fjord Fiesta). Consumers are intrigued by the

we have been working closely with the Norwegians to

unique flavour profiles and story of these yeasts, and that

isolate and test kveik yeasts. We have found that these

is driving interest from other breweries. There is even a

yeasts are genetically distinct from other brewing strains,

distillery in Ontario making use of the citrusy flavour, fast

and have many intriguing brewing-related properties:

fermentation and high alcohol tolerance of a Kveik yeast

they do not produce phenolic flavours, they can ferment

for their whiskey fermentation.

wort rapidly, they produce fruity esters, and they are

Overall, there has never been a more exciting period

very alcohol tolerant. Overall this points to kveik being

of time for craft beer innovation, and a major component

as domesticated as a modern California Ale strain, and

of this is the development and discovery of yeast strains

that’s an extremely important point: craft brewers expect

by scientists and yeast suppliers. It’s hard to say what craft

new yeasts to perform like the standard workhorses do,

beer’s next top yeast strain will be, but I guarantee you

and so kveik present an opportunity for new and exciting

that it is already sitting in a test tube or a farmer’s kitchen

yeasts which aren’t an extreme challenge to manage.

as you read this sentence.

Winter 2018


date s


e v e nt s


Victoria Beer Week is a nine-day festival of events highlighting a broad selection of BC craft breweries while educating Greater Victoria residents about craft beer.

19/01/18 - 20/01/18

Brewzapalooza 87-90 Broadway, Orangeville 26/01/18 - 27/01/18

Burlington Winter Beer Festival Holiday Inn, Burlington 10/02/18

Roundhouse Winter Craft Beer Festival Roundhouse Park, Toronto


Williams Lake Craft Beer Festival Thompson Rivers University Gymnasium, BC 24/02/18

Hopwired Festival Croatian Cultural Centre, Vancouver 01/03/18 - 03/03/18

La Cuvée D’Hiver Le Salon 1861, Montreal 02/03/18 - 10/03/18

16/02/18 - 17/02/18

Brewski Craft Beer, Cider and Spirits Festival

Victoria Beer Week Various Venues, BC

Apex Mountain Resort, BC


Winter 2018

Brewers Journal Canada

HOPS | MALT | YEAST | CANS 800.234.8191

The Brewers Journal - Canada edition, Winter 2018  

The magazine for the Canadian brewing industry

The Brewers Journal - Canada edition, Winter 2018  

The magazine for the Canadian brewing industry