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U ni t 4

Pronouns

A pronoun takes the place a noun. A noun is a person, place, or thing. A noun or pronoun can be used as the subject of a sentence, the object of a sentence, or the object of a preposition. Using Subject Pronouns A noun or a pronoun can be the subject of a sentence. It answers the question who or “Who or what does the action?” Steve lives in Austin, Texas. (Who lives in Austin, Texas? Steve lives there.) He works there, too. (Who works there? He does. He = Steve.) The soccer players are happy now because they won. (Who is happy? The soccer players are. Who won? They won. They = The soccer players.) Subject pronouns can be used in the following situations: 1. to take the place of a noun before the verb We They Katy and I are going to the beach. My friends are not coming with us. It Our house is on Main Street. 2. to talk about the time, the day, the date, or the weather It’s 7:00. (time) It’s June 24. (date) It’s Friday! (day) It’s sunny and warm today. (weather) Forms of Subject Pronouns Singular I You He She It

am from Denver. study English. is not in our class. has a car. runs well.

Plural We You (plural) They

are late again. speak well. don’t like to study.

Note: The pronoun I is always capitalized, no matter where it appears in a sentence. Using Object Pronouns A noun or pronoun can be the object of a verb. It answers the question “Who or what receives the action?” A noun or pronoun can also be the object of a preposition. The preposition connects its object and another part of the sentence. Object pronouns can be used in the following situations: 1. to take the place of a noun after the verb We like the new computer a lot. (What do we like? The computer.) We use it a lot. (What do we use? it = the computer.) Paul is inviting Helen to the party. (Who is Paul inviting? Helen.) He always invites her. (Who does he always invite? her = Helen.)

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2. to take the place of a noun after a preposition it them All our friends are going to the party. The dictionary is under the books. her We play tennis with Maggie. Forms of Object Pronouns Singular Are you inviting John calls I see He is writing a letter to We put

me to your party? you every night. him. her. it on the table.

Plural She visits This present is for She’s taking a picture of

us every Saturday. you. them.

Using Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns Possessive pronouns can be used: 1. to take the place of a possessive adjective and a noun That’s not my sweater. Mine is yellow. Do you know her name? I don’t know hers. 2. as the subject of a sentence, object of a sentence, or object of a preposition Subject: Mine is a very special automobile. Object: Where is your car? I don’t see yours in the parking lot. Object of a preposition: Look for Carol’s car. I parked my car next to hers. 3. alone (Never add a noun after a possessive pronoun.) Mine sweater is lost. I parked my car next to hers ear. Forms of Possessive Adjectives and Possessive Pronouns Possessive Adjective my cat your car his paper her party its keyboard our apartment your friends their jackets

Possessive Pronoun mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs

Note: Its is a possessive adjective. Its cannot be used as a possessive pronoun. The car’s license plate is dirty. I can’t read its license plate. NOT I can’t read its.

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■ 4-1 Capitalization Read the sentences below. Should the pronoun in the second sentence be capitalized? Write the pronoun. 1. (we)

Hana and I are going to the movies tonight.

we In fact, _____________________________ are going right now. 2. (she)

Later, we’re going to visit Ines. _____________________________ lives near the movie theater.

3. (him)

Are you meeting with Hiro? Yes, I’m meeting with _____________________________ .

4. (you)

Are Lin and I invited to the party? Yes, _____________________________ are.

5. (I)

How are you today? OK, but _____________________________ am a little tired.

6. (us)

I’m sending you something. What are you sending _____________________________ ?

7. (me)

Are you going to be home tonight? Yes, call _____________________________ .

8. (she)

Where is Sara? _____________________________ ’s in the library.

9. (we)

When are you working? _____________________________ ’re working on Friday evening.

10. (her)

Are you calling Lupe next week? Yes, I’m calling _____________________________ on Monday.

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■ 4-2 Cloze The story below is about a family celebration. Some words are missing. Read the story and write a subject or object pronoun in each blank.

He Today is my grandfather’s birthday. (1) ____________________ is 80 years old today. My family and I are having a party for (2) ____________________ this evening. (3) ____________________ are taking (4) ____________________ to his favorite restaurant,The Seaside Restaurant. My aunt plans this party every year. (5) ____________________ is making a cake as usual. I am helping (6) _______________, too. My uncle is the chef at the restaurant, so (7) ____________________ is cooking the dinner—chicken in mushroom sauce. (8) ____________________ ’s my grandfather’s favorite dish. My uncle serves (9) ____________________ with pasta and fresh vegetables. After dinner, my brothers and I bring my grandfather his gifts. (10) ____________________ sing, too.When he gets the cards and gifts, he thanks (11) ____________________.He opens (12) ___________________ slowly and tells (13) ____________________ some jokes. (14) ____________________ all laugh. My brothers usually go outside to play. (15) ____________________ don’t like to sit around or dance. I don’t go with (16) ____________________.I like to stay inside and listen to the music.There’s always music at my grandfather’s birthday party. I love my grandfather a lot. I hug (17) ____________________,and he gives (18) ____________________ a kiss when I leave. My grandfather says to me, “(19) ____________________ are very special.” It makes (20) ____________________ feel good.

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■ 4-3 Sentence Writing A. Think about four people in your family. Write their names. Use subject pronouns and object pronouns to tell

who they are or what they do. Example: David: He’s my favorite cousin. He’s studying business in college. 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ B. Tell about a group of your friends. Write their names. Use subject pronouns to tell what they do with you and

what you do with them. Example: Julia and Oscar: They work with me in the library. I help them with their math homework. 5. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ C. Tell about some of your favorite things. Write the name of each thing. Use subject and object pronouns to tell

about each thing and where you got it. Example: my iPod®: It is very small, but it has a lot of songs on it. I got it at Tech Store. 9. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ D. Tell about what you and your friends do. Write the people’s names. Use subject and object pronouns to tell

what you do. Example: Julia and I: We go to the movies together. I buy the tickets for us. She gets the popcorn. We both like a lot of butter on it. 13. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 14. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 15. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 16. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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■4-4 Description of the Illustration Look at the illustration below. Use it to complete the activities.

A. Work in pairs. First, study the picture. Make a list of the nouns and verbs in the illustration.

people

verbs

things

goalie ____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

B. With your partner, ask and answer questions about the different people and things in the picture. Use simple

present and present progressive. Example: What is the goalie doing? He’s guarding the goal. C. In your notebook, write the answers you and your partner gave for each question in Exercise B. Use subject

and object pronouns. Example: What is the goalie doing with the goal? He’s guarding it.

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■ 4-5 Vocabulary Development: Nouns and Pronouns

A. Look at the picture. Write the words in the lists below.

Things I like

Things I don’t like

______________

______________

______________

______________

______________

______________

______________

______________

______________

______________

______________

______________

______________

______________

______________

______________

______________

______________

______________

______________

B. Work in pairs. Tell your partner about the things you like. Then ask your partner if he/she likes the same

things. Write down your partner’s answers. Example: I like the necklace. Do you like it? I don’t like the earrings. Do you like them? C. In your notebook, write two sentences about six of the things your partner listed in Exercise B. Use several

different subject and object pronouns. Example: Kara likes the earrings. They’re a good gift for her.

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■ 4-6 Theme-based Discussion Read each topic below. Make sure you understand the questions. Work in groups of four to discuss the first topic. Choose one person to report the group’s answers to the class. Then move to another group to discuss the next topic. Repeat this process until all the topics are discussed. A. Look at the picture of King Kong. King Kong and his friend are very different from each other. What about you

and your friends? Are you the same or different? Do you like the same things? What do you like? What do you like to do?

B. King Kong helps his friend, and his friend wants to help him. How do you help your friends? How do your

friends help you? Where do you like to go with them? C. Friends often play games together. What game or sport do you like to play with your friends? What do you

need in order to play? How do you play it? When do you win? Is there a prize? D. Here are some different occasions for giving gifts in the United States. We often give gifts to friends and family.

Do you give gifts for these occasions? What kinds of gifts do you give? • a birthday • a new baby • a marriage • a wedding anniversary • a new home

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■ 4-7 Grammar in Action A. Interview a classmate about a person he/she wants to meet. Ask about who the person is and what he/she

wants to tell the person. Write your partner’s answers in your notebook. Questions 1. Who do you want to meet? 2. What is he/she like? 3. Where is he/she from? 4. What does he/she do? 5. Why do you want to meet him/her? 6. Where do you want to meet him/her? 7. Do you have a suggestion for him/her? 8. What do you want to tell him/her? 9. What do you want him/her to do? 10. Who else do you want to introduce him/her to? B. Use the information above to write sentences in your notebook about your classmate’s answers to your

questions in Exercise A. Example: Daniela wants to meet the president of Liberia. She is Africa’s first female president.

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■ 4-8 Error Correction Read the sentences below. Each sentence has at least one mistake. The mistakes could be incorrect subject or object pronouns. Underline the mistake in each sentence, then write the sentence correctly. Make sure the subjects and verbs agree. 1. Paula isn’t inviting we to her party.

Paula isn’t inviting us to her party. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. I’m getting a new backpack for she because it’s her birthday.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. She doesn’t like he any more.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. The weather? He’s too hot and sunny.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Lin sits next to I in class.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. In the morning, us always listen to the radio.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. The radio? I never listen to them.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Are they sending the package to we?

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. No, but them are sending it to Singh.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. My parents? I think about they all the time.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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■ 4-9 Sentence Structure Read each question below. Think of an answer for each question. Use subject and object pronouns in your answers. 1. When do you call your best friend?

I call her when I’m sad or when I’m glad. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. What do your friends call you?

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Do you like hamburgers and hot dogs?

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Where do you keep your favorite things?

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. When do you and your friends watch movies?

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

■ 4-10 Sentence Stems Think about what you do for other people. Use the sentence stems to write statements using subject or object pronouns. Make sure the subjects and verbs agree. I help her wash it. 1. When my aunt’s car is dirty, _________________________________________________________________________________ 2. When my sister has a birthday, ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. When my friends are sick,___________________________________________________________________________________ 4. When you are sad, __________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. When my uncle is on vacation,______________________________________________________________________________

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■ 4-11 Sentence Conclusions Think about what other people do for you. Use the sentence conclusions and subject and object pronouns to write sentences about them and what they do for you. Make sure the subjects and verbs agree.

My brother does my grocery shopping. He does it 1. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ on Saturdays. 2. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ in the evening. 3. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ when I’m tired. 4. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ in the summer. 5. _________________________________________________________________________________________ when I go on a trip.

■ 4-12 Communicative Activity: Who or What is it? A. Choose one of the nouns (people or things) listed below. Think of some “clues” that describe the person or

thing. Tell your clues to the class, but don’t mention the noun! See if your classmates can guess it. Example: a soccer ball Clues: We play with it. We don’t touch it with our hands. You kick it to me. I kick it to you. We try to kick it in the goal. The goalie tries to stop it. What is it?

Nouns a teacher

a book

children

a doctor

a bird

trees

a girlfriend

a motorcycle

earrings

a grandfather

a dog

glasses

a cook

a table

friends

a soccer ball

an e-mail

shoes

a president

a pizza

songs

B. When your classmates take their turns, listen carefully to their clues. Can you guess their nouns?

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â–  4-13 Description of the Illustration Look at the illustration below. Use it to complete the activities.

A. Work in pairs. First, study the picture. Ask questions about the man.

Example: Who is he? Where is he going? Who are the flowers for? Why is he giving flowers to that person? B. In your notebook, write sentences telling about that person. Use subject and object pronouns.

Example: This man is going to visit his aunt. She is sick. He is bringing her some flowers. C. When do you bring flowers to other people? Think of three occasions when you give flowers. In your notebook,

write three sentences about the occasions and the people. Example: I bring them to my sister for her birthday.

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â–  4-14 The Writing Page

A. Look at these three different parties. Choose one type of party. Answer the questions below to plan it.

Type of party: _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Who is it for?________________________________________________________________________________________________ Who are you inviting? _______________________________________________________________________________________ What kind of food are you having? __________________________________________________________________________ What kind of drinks are you serving? ________________________________________________________________________ What else do you need? _____________________________________________________________________________________ B. Now write five sentences about the plans you made in Exercise A. Use subject and object pronouns.

Example: The party is for my little cousin. She has a birthday next week. I’m inviting Maria and Kelsey because my cousin likes to play with them. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ C. Work with a partner. Tell your partner about your plans. You partner will tell the class about them. Creative Grammar 1

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â–  4-15 Unit Review Directed Writing Task: Write a paragraph about you and your best friend.

Prewriting Think about your best friend. What is he/she like? What does he/she do? Ask your friend some questions if you need more information. In your notebook, make notes about your friend and yourself: your names, things you like to do, eat, or play. Use a diagram like the one below.

me

my friend

First Draft Use your diagram and notes to write a first draft of your paragraph. Use subject and object pronouns and possessives. Include details about things you and your friend both like. Here are some verbs you may want to use: like, enjoy, work, play, eat, go.

Model

My best friend is my neighbor, Sokanno. She lives next to me. We do a lot of things together. She helps me a lot during the week. I pick up food for her at the store, and she watches my little brother after school. Sokanno stops and visits many people in the neighborhood. She brings them flowers or cookies. I often go with her on the weekend. Sokanno makes us all laugh. She’s a great friend.

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Revision Read through your paragraph and check for correct subject and object pronoun use, possessives, and clear main idea and details. Share your paragraph with a partner. Your partner should be able to answer the following questions about your paragraph: • Who is your best friend? • What is he/she like? • What do you do with your friend? • Why do you like him/her? • Did you use correct forms of pronouns? • Do you have any errors in spelling? • Does the paragraph need any more information?

Final Draft Make any changes or additions that are needed in your paragraph. Then write or type a final copy. You may want to include your final paragraph in a portfolio of your writing.

Evaluation Your teacher will grade your paragraph. You will be evaluated on: • the detail level to support your main idea; • the correct use and forms of subject pronouns; • the correct use and forms of object pronouns; and • the correct use and forms of possessives.

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