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100 Glorious Years of Indian Film Industry


dfo izfni QkmMsa'ku lEeku lekjksg dk iqjLdkj nsus ?kj ij vk;s vfouk'k iakMs ¼,e-ih-½ vkSj ferqy izfni

nknk lkgsc ,sdsMeh }kjk fQYe i=dkfjrk es vius loksZPp ;ksxnku ds fy, lEekfur fd;k

fdLlk dqlÊ dk fQYe ds lekjksg esa 'kkfey gq, lakln ve`r ukgVk lkFk es ';ke dtkfj;k] vkj- ds- dajft;k vkSj ch- ih- tks'kh A

jk"Vªh; dfo iznhi th ds lkFk ch- ih- tks'kh vkSj deyk tks'kh


flusek ;knsa vkSj vuqHkwfr;kยก

cnz h iz l kn tks ' kh


flusek ;knsa vkSj vuqHkwfr;k¡ ys[kd cnz h iz l kn tks ' kh

laiknd eaxyk tks’kh

lokZfèkdkj % ys[kdkèkhu ewY; % 500 500/- #i,

iz d k'kd

flusok.kh iCyhds’ku ’ku izk- fy14@1] [ksrku lsaVj] VsfyQksu ,Dlpsat lehi] ,l-oh- jks M ] ekykM&if’pe] eqEcbZ & 400 064nwjHkk"k % 2882 41 91 / 2866 33 89 Website:cinevani.com


eu dh ckr nl n'kd dk le; ;kfu fd iqjs 100 o"kZ ds flusek d¨ lyke djrh ;g Ñfr vc vkids lkeus gS A uk tkus dgk dgk ls B¨djs [kkrh gqà vkSj fdru¨ dh mis{kkvks dk lkeuk djrh ;g iqLrd lu 2006 ls vki rd igqapus ds fy, rjlrh jghA ysfdu dgrs gS uk dh d¨f'k'k dHkh Hkh O;FkZ ugha tkrh vkSj vc nsj ls gh lgh fcuk fd'kh ifjorZu ds T;¨a fd R;¨ ,d bfrgkl vkSj lqugjh ;kn¨a ds :i esa vkids lkeus gSA ,l iqLrd esa lusek dk vrhr r¨ gS gh lkFk gh Hkfo"; ds ckjs esa Hkh vkius lkFkZd fopkj O;Dr fd, gSA baVjusV vkSj vaxzsth;r ds bl ;qx esa fganh flusek ds ckjsesa fganh esa fy[kuk fdlh t¨f[ke ls de ugha gSA dÃ;¨a us dgk dh vkc fganh esa i<+rk d©u gS] vkSj dÃ;¨a us fganh esa g¨us ls :fp gh ugha fn[kkÃA [ksj ! ckcwth dk ekuuk Fkk dh eu fdruk Hkh vk/kqfud D;¨a u g¨ tk;s] og l¨prk r¨ fganh es gh gSA blfy, esjs fy, ;g ?kMh HkkoukRed mQku dh gSA vkt esa vius ckcwth Jh cæhçlkn th t¨'kh ds lius d¨ lkdkj ysrs gqos ns[k jgk gqaA esjk fo"k; flusek ugha gS] ijarq bl lR; d¨ eS dSls >qByk ldrk gwa fd eSjh jx¨a esa t¨ [kwu n©M jgk gS og flusek lkfgR; dk gha gSa A fo/kkrk d¨ lk;n ;g eatwj ugha Fkk fd os vius d¨ lkdkj g¨rs gq, ns[ks] ysfdu mlh fo/kkrk us eq>s firk rqY; balku¨ ls feyk;k ftUg¨aus bl Ñfr d¨ vki rd igqapkus ds fy, lgh ekxZn'kZu fd;k A blh Øe esa ckcqthds ijEk~ fe= Jh lar¨"k flagth tSu ftUg¨aus ges'kk eSjk eu¨cy cuk;s j[kkA Jh nsosUæ t¨'kh ¼tu laidZ vf/kdkjh] e- i- 'kk'ku½ ftUg¨aus vius lEid¨Z ls gesa ç¨Rlkfgr fd;kA fQYe i=dkj ,oEk Lusgh Jh v#.k dqekj 'kk"=hth us iqjkuh n¨Lrh fuHkkrs gq, fdrkc ds fy, dà fVIl fn,A Jh fou¨n dqekj frokjhth ¼iwoZ laiknd ek/kqjh½ ftUg¨aus le; le; ij g©lyk fnyk;k fd pkgs nsj ls gh lgh t¨'khth d¨ blls vPNh J)katyh vkSj g¨ gh ugha ldrhA lkFk gh enu e¨gu 'kekZ vkSj mek ds çfr ÑrKrk vfiZr djuk pkgwaxk ftUg¨aus vius lg;¨x ls eq>s mtkZoku cuk, j[kkA eSjk N¨Vk Hkkà vkSj ckcwthdk ykMyk jktsaæ t¨'kh dk eS vkHkkjh gqa ftlus bl iqLrd ds Nius esa mRlkg fnyk;kA lkFk gh eS vkHkkjh gqa Hkkfou t¨'kh dk] ftUg¨aus eqæ.k ,oe çdk'ku lac/kh ckjhfd;¨a ls voxr djk;kA jf'e vkSj vkdk'k vius nknw fd bl fdrkc ds çfr cgqr ftKklq gS vkSj muds vudgs vuns[ks lg;¨x d¨ Hkh eS dSls Hkwy ldrk gqaA var esa t¨'kh th fd iq= o/kq eaxyk dk lg;¨x ljkguh; gS A ftUg¨aus bl ç;kl esa gj dne ij esjk lkFk fuHkk;k vkSj bl fdrkc ds laiknu dk Hkkj Hkh mBk;k A bl fdrkc ds fuekZ.k ls ysdj #ijs[kk vkSj çdVhdju rd eS eaxyk ds lg;¨x dk vkHkkjh gqa A Hkkokosx Ok vfrjsd esa vkxs D;k dgwa] le> ugh Ikk jgk gqa A tkus vutkus ds dà gfLr;¨a ds lg;¨x ls ckcwth fd fdrkc bfrgkl vkSj ;kn¨ ds :i esa vkids le{k gS A 'ks"k fu.kZ; esa ikBd¨ vkSj lHkh leh{k d¨a ij N¨M+rk gqa A &egsaæ t¨'kh


le; ds vkbus esa flusek dk ;FkkFkZ flusek lkfgR; dh rjg gh lH; lekt vkSj laLÑfr dh vfHkO;fDr dk ,d [kqclwjr ek/;e gSA ;g dykvksa dk ,d iwjk [ktkuk gSA blh dyk blh flusek us ns[krs ns[krs brus jax cnys dh vkt iwjh nqfu;k Hkkjrh; flusek dh nhokuh cu xà gsA flusek ds bUgh cnyrs jax¨a d¨ ckcwth us cgqr djhc ns ns[kk gS ]le>k gS vkSj tkuk gS A flusek dh nqfu;k esa viuk le; xqtkj pqds ckcwth dh ckr¨ d¨] vuqHko¨a d¨] muds tTckr¨a d¨ bfrgkl ds :i esa ,df=r dj vkids le{k ykus dk ç;kl fd;k gS A ckcwth t¨ /kj¨gj N¨M+ x, Fks mls T;¨ dk R;¨a çLrqr fd;k gS flusek ds tUe vkSj fodkl ls tqMh ;g çekf.kd iqLrd vkRela?k"kZ ds vuqHko dh Hkwfe ij fy[kh xà gSA flusek ds fuekZ.k dk ,d Hkh i{k ,slk ugha gS ftlls ckcwth ifjfpr uk g¨ vr: t¨ Hkh ys[k ;k ckrs gS mls os Lo;a tkudj Fks vkSj vuqHko¨a us cgqr dqN fy[kok;k] blfy, esjk ekuuk gS dh t¨ Hkh bl fdrkc esa gS og vkSj dgh ugha gS vkSj ;gh ckr bls [kkl cuk nsrh gSA blh fo'ks"krk ds pyrs ;g lHkh ds yh;s dkQh mi;¨xh fl) g¨xh ,slk esjk fo'kokl gSA blls vPNk l©HkkX; vkSj D;k g¨ ldrk gS dh flusek ds lrkCnh lky esa ckcwth dh fdrkc d¨ lEikfnr djus dk lqugjk e©dk eq>s feyk gS vkSj ;g vue¨y vk'khokZn gh gs ftls iwjk dj ikà A vk'kk gs dfe;¨a dh vkSj t#j /;ku vkdf"kZr djk;k tk;sxk A bl eqdke rd igqpus ds fy, tkus vutkus] çR;{k vçR;{k lHkh dk t¨ Hkh lg;¨x feyk mlds fy, esa fny ls vkHkkjh gq A var esa ckcwth dh ys[kuh vkSj mudh riL;k d¨ d¨fV d¨fV ç.kke A

laiknd


Le` f r;ka

Hkw f edk vius rdjhcu ik¡p n'kd ds ys[ku esa eq>s flusek dks mlds 'kS'kodky ls ysdj mldh ifjiDo voLFkk rd ds nkSj dk foLrkj ls lk{kh jgus dk volj feyk gSA flusek ds tUeus vkSj chloha 'krkCnh ds lcls foLe;dkjh vkSj peRdkfjd :i esa fodflr gksus ls ysdj vkt ds lcls T;knk XySejl vkSj rduhd ls foLe; jpus okys Lo:i rd ,d yEch ;k=k jgh gSA flusek rks liuksa dk 'kkL= gS vkSj mEehnksa dk iFkA ns[kk tk;s rks Hkkjr dh xaxk&tequh laLd`fr vkSj bl laLd`fr esa jph&clh&ixh 'kf[+l;rksa us fgUnh flusek dks og xkSjo iznku fd;k gS ftldh ped dHkh Hkh èkqaèkyh ugha iM+sxhA fgUnh flusek fiNys yxHkx nks n'kdksa esa ,d u;h dk;k esa izos'k dj x;k gSA ;g dk;k fpRrkd"kZd] nwj ls ns[kus ij euksgkjh vkSj deksos'k pednkj ekywe iM+rh gS] ysfdu Hkfo"; esa flusek dh le`f) esa bldk D;k ;ksxnku js[kkafdr fd;k tk;sxk] ;g Hkfo"; esa gh r; gks ik;sxk] ysfdu flusek ds ;gk¡ rd vkus vkSj etcwr vyaxksa dh rjg etcwr cqfu;kn iznku djus esa ftu foHkwfr;ksa] egku dykdkjksa ds lkFk&lkFk dbZ izfrHkklEiUu lekukUrj dykdkjksa dk ;ksxnku jgk gS] og vrqyuh; gSA eSa ;gk¡ ij dykdkj 'kCn dks lexzrk esa ys jgk gw¡A bl nk;js esa ,d fQYe dks rS;kj djus esa ftrus ekè;e gksrs gSa] mu lHkh ekè;eksa ds vfoLej.kh; gLrk{kjksa dks bl iqLrd esa ;kn djus vkSj d`rKrk O;Dr djus dk iz;Ru dj jgk gw¡A lEHko gS] dbZ gLrk{kjksa dk ft+Ø ;gk¡ u gks ik;k gks] ,sls esa muds izfr esjh t+jk T+;knk gh d`rKrk jgsxhA bl iqLrd dks rS;kj djus esa lsUVy flus lfdZV ,lksfl,'ku ds vè;{k lUrks"k flag tSu] dfo ,oa iwoZ lkaln ckydfo cSjkxh] eè;izns'k ds iwoZ ea=h vkSj xhrdkj foV~By HkkbZ iVsy] bUnkSj ds izcq) flus&fpUrd vkSj eq>s HkkbZ lk- vknj nsus okys Jhjke rkezdj] esjs nkekn eueksgu 'kekZ ,oa Hkrhts nsosUnz tks'kh us cM+k tru fd;k gSA esjs fy[ks dk ^fgUnh flusek % ;knsa vkSj vuqHkwfr;k¡* :ih iqLrd ds :i esa vkuk bUgha ds ln~iz;klksa dk Qy gSA vk'kk gS bl iqLrd ds ekè;e ls flus&jfldksa vkSj fo'ks"kdj vkt dh ih<+h dks flusek ds Lof.kZe ;qx dk foLe;dkjh lk{kkRdkj djuk fnypLi vkSj vuqHkwfrtU; izrhr gksxkA lq>koksa vkSj fopkjksa ds fy, eSa vkidk vkHkkjh jgw¡xkA

cnzhizlkn tks'kh

flus e k&2005

3


Le` f r;ka

ys[kd ifjp; cnz h iz l kn tks ' kh tUe % 1926] f[kyphiqj] eè;izn's kA f'k{kk % ch- dkWe-A1947&48 rd MkW- jkeeuksgj yksfg;k ds lfpo ds :i esa fgUnh dk dk;ZA 1948&50 rd iztke.My ds lfØ; dk;ZdrkZ jgsA 1948&55 rd lkjaxiqj ls izdkf'kr lkIrkfgd jktuhfrd if=dk ^egkHkkjr* ds lEiknd jgsA 1955 esa fQYe ^VªsM xkbM* if=dk ds laLFkkid lnL; ds :i esa lEc)A 1955&74 rd eqEcbZ ls izdkf'kr if=dk ^flusok.kh* lkIrkfgd dk lEiknu fd;kA ^fgUnh fQYeksa dk lqugjk lQj* uked iqLrd lEcUèkh vuqlaèkku] lEiknu ,oa ys[kuA 1950 esa fQYe ^vej flag jkBkSM+* ds izksMD'ku fMt+kbujA 1970 esa fQYe ^nks psgjs* ds lg&fuekZrkA 1973 esa ^fdLlk dqlhZ dk*] 1974 esa ^f{kfrt* vkSj 1982 esa ^t; ckck vejukFk* rFkk o`Rr fp=ksa ^pkSFkk ikyuk* rFkk ^ekSle cnyk gS* ds fuekZrk ds :i esa dk;ZA fQYe forj.k ds eè;izns'k] mRrjizns'k] egkjk"Vª vkSj lh-ih-] lh-vkbZ- vkfn lHkh O;kikfjd laxBuksa ds lnL; jgsA ^n xzsVj fQYe izksMD'ku dks&vkWijsfVo lkslk;Vh ds lfpo] ^eè;izns'k eS=h la?k* ds egklfpo rFkk ^tuZfyLV lkslk;Vh* ds lnL; jgsA

fuos n u fiNys 50 o"kksZa ls eSa fQYeh nqfu;k ls fdlh u fdlh :i esa lacafèkr gwaA 1950&60 ds n'kdksa esa rks Lo;a ^flusok.kh* lkIrkfgd izdkf'kr djrk Fkk] rc lEiknd ds :i esa fQj fQYe fuekZrk vkSj fQYe forjd ds :i esa flus m|ksx esa lfØ; jgk gwaA bl dky esa fQYe txr ds fuekZrk] funsZ'kd] vfHkusrk] vfHkus=h o rduhf'k;uksa ds laidZ esa vk;kA mudh ckgj dh vkSj vUnj dh lHkh ckrksa dh tkudkjh esjh Mk;jh esa ntZ gksrh jghA vPNs&cqjs] [kV~Vs&ehBs lHkh izdkj ds vuqHko vk,A cgqr le; chr x;k vc os lc Hkwyh&fcljh ckrsa ;knksa ds :i esa jg x;haA ,d blh rjg iqjkuh ;knksa esa [kks;k gqvk Fkk rks [;ky vk;k fd D;ksa u bu jaxhu ;knksa dks iqLrd ds :i esa rktk dj fn;k tk;sA ,slh cgqr lh ckrsa gSa tks flus txr ds ml chrs gq, dky dh rLohj dks is'k djrh gSa tks 'kk;n ubZ ih<+h dks ns[kus lquus dks ugha feysaxhA jfld ikBdksa dks ekywe rks iM+sxk fd ml nkSj esa fQYeh nqfu;k dSls pyrh FkhA dSlh&dSlh fQYeh gfLr;ka FkhaA muds uktks u[kjs D;k FksA fdu 'krksZa ij dke djrs Fks vkSj fQYe fuekZ.k dSls gksrk FkkA bls iqLrd D;k bls esjh nSuafnuh gh dguk Bhd gksxkA Mk;jh ds ogh iUus tks #fpdj vkSj mi;ksxh yxs ;gka izLrqr fd, x, gSaA blfy, fuosnu gS fd fo}ku ikBd bldh Hkk"kk vkSj 'kSyh ftls fganh lekt tSlh gS vkxarqd Hkh èkedk ldsA tks ckr tSlh gqbZ gS oSlh gh cksypky dh Hkk"kk esa fy[k nh gSA ikBdksa dh tkudkjh esa o`f) gksxh vkSj Hkjiwj euksjatu HkhA oSls ,d :i esa ;g vc rd dh Hkkjrh; fQYeksa dk ,d bfrgkl Hkh gks x;k gS vkSj bls ,d lanHkZ iqLrd ds :i esa Hkh mi;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gSA izLrqr d`fr dks vkRedFkk] laLej.k] fjiksrkZt esa fganh fQYe txr dh varjax Nqvu gSA jkspdrk] lkQxksbZ vkSj fuHkhZdrkiwoZd O;kolkf;drk dh iM+rky dh x;h gSA esjk fQYe m|ksx ds lHkh {ks=ksa dk vuqHko gSA ,DliksVZ&bEiksVZ] forj.k] fuekZ.k] lSUlj cksMZ dh lnL;rk] fQYe fuekZrk lgdkjh la?k laLFkk dh vè;{krk vkSj lHkh fQYe ls lacafèkr la?kksa dk eSa lnL; jgk gwa vkSj Hkh xkxj esa lkxj rks ugha Hkj ldrk ysfdu esjh xkxj esa ikuh t:j gSA fQYe dh pdkpkSaèk ds vkd"kZ.k ls dbZ uo;qod Hkkxdj vk;s mUgsa eSaus HkVdus ls cpk;k vkSj ekxZn'kZu fd;k vkSj dbZ dks okil vius ?kj HkstkA vc fQYe Hkh diM+k m|ksx dh rjg ,d m|ksx gSA diM+s vkSj vukt dh rjg euksjatu Hkh t:jh gS ;g le>dj ;g iz;kl fd;k gSA vkt rks m|ksx dh dk;kiyV Hkh gks xbZ gSA ped&ned dk lalkj nnZ ls Hkjiwj gks x;k gSA Vsyhfotu] ohfM;ks] lh-Mh-] Mh-oh-Mh- xhr fefDlax] fMftVy lkmaM] QksVksxzkQh us fQYe lalkj dks ekr ns nh gSA fQj Hkh fQYe m|ksx ubZ&ubZ Vsduhd dk ykHk ysxk vkSj vc dkys ckny cjlsaxs vkSj èku dh o"kkZ gksxhA vkidks ueu djrs gq, eaxy dkeuk djrk gSaA cnzhizlkn tks'kh 4

flus e k&2005


Le` f r;ka

larks"k flag tSu 17] ,Eik;j gkml] bjyk foys ikjys ¼os-½ ,l-ih- jksM eqEcbZ&400 056

'kq H kdkeuk,¡ Jh cnzhizlkn tks'kh ftUgksaus viuk lkjk thou fQYe m|ksx dks ,d fljs ls nwljs fljs rd tkuus& le>us] le>kus esa yxk fn;k gS] viuh bl iqLrd ds tfj;s fQYe m|ksx ds vPNs vkSj detksj igyqvksa dks mtkxj fd;k gSA fQYe m|ksx ds bfrgkl dks] tks 105 lky ls Hkh vfèkd iqjkuk gS] brus de i`"Bksa esa rks ugha lek;k tk ldrk] fQj Hkh brus lhfer lkèkuksa ls fd;k x;k iz;kl ljkguh; gh gSA fQYe m|ksx esa dksbZ ,slh laLFkk ugha gS tks laiw.kZ fQYe m|ksx ds fodkl ds fy, dke djsA laLFkk,a rks dbZ gSa ij lc vius&vius lnL;ksa ds fgrksa dk gh è;ku j[kus esa yxh gqbZ gSaA vkt vko';drk ,d ,slh laLFkk dh gS tks laiw.kZ m|ksx ds fodkl dh vksj è;ku nsaA flusek ds tUe ds 105 o"kZ ckn Hkh ftl Hkk"kk esa ge fQYesa cukrs gSa vkSj fons'kksa esa Hkstrs gSaA ml Hkk"kk esa flusek ij xEHkhj vè;;u ds fy, lkfgR; ugha ds cjkcj gSA vkt rd gekjs ;gka i<+s&fy[ks yksxksa dk rax utfj;k jgkA fo'ks"kdj ckSf)dksa dk joS;k cgqr mis{kkiw.kZ jgk] tcfd ;wjksi esa flusek vkrs gh cukZM 'kkW us dg fn;k Fkk fd flusek cgqr tYnh lHkh ekè;eksa ls vkxs fudy tk;sxkA ukVd rks i<+&s fy[ks yksx vfèkd ilan djrs gSa] ysfdu flusek rks lHkh yksxksa esa yksdfiz; gks tk;sxkA xksj[kh tSlh gLrh us rks lcls igys dg fn;k Fkk fd ;g ekè;e vk'p;Ztud Hkwfedk vnk djsxkA ysfdu gekjs ;gka rks lR;thr jk; us fons'kksa esa èkwe epkbZ tc gekjh uhan [kqyhA gekjs dykdkj Hkh ns'k vkSj fons'k esa dHkh viuh Hkk"kk dk iz;ksx ugha djrsA flusek ij vkt Hkh lcls vPNh iqLrd vkanzs cktka dh ^OgkbV bt flusek* gh ekuh x;h gSA gekjs flusek dk v'oes/k tkjh gSA ge vkLdj rd igqpa x;s gSAa euksjta u Hkh vukt dh rjg t:jh gSA vc rks flusek dks f'k{k.k ds laLFkku esa 'kkfey djds n'kZdksa dks f'kf{kr fd;k tkuk pkfg,A Hkkjrh; flusek ij 'kksèk djus okyksa ds fy;s ;g xzaFk lgk;d gksxkA blh ek;koh nqfu;k dks oSKkfud vkSj l`tukRed n`f"V ls ns[kk x;k gSA ys[kd dh viuh Lora= 'kSyh gSA bl xzaFk ls gj fQYe izseh ykHk mBk,xkA esjh 'kqHkdkeuk,¡A vè;{k nknklkgc Qkyds vdknseh ,oa fQYe QsMjs'ku vkWQ bafM;k vkSj lh-lh-lh-,Hkq l koy] bUnkS j ] t;iq j ] vejkorh

flus e k&2005

5


Le` f r;ka

ckydfo oSjkxh ¼laln lnL;& jkT;lHkk½

ckydfo cSjkx 153@,@f'k{kd uxj] uhep ¼eè;izns'k½ & 458 441 Qksu % ¼07523½ 221819@227911 lh&201] Lo.kZ t;arh lnu] MkW- ch-Mh-Mh- ekxZ] ubZ fnYyh&110 001 nwjHkk"k % 001&23350898

cèkkbZ! vfHkuanu!! 'kqHkdkeuk!!! ;g lq[kn izlax gSA fganh flusek dh èkefu;ksa] f'kjkvksa] dksf'kdkvksa vkSj jDrk.kqvksa ls ifjfpr ia- Jh cnzhizlkn tks'kh Hkkjr esa fganh flusek ds tUe vkSj fodkl rFkk Le`fr;ksa vkSj ?kVukvksa ls tqMh+ ;knksa ij izkekf.kd iqLrdsa ysdj vkids lkeus gSaA ;s iqLrdsa ,d rjg ls tks'kh th }kjk nh?kZ thou vkSj vkRela?k"kksZa ds vuqHkoksa dh Hkwfe ij fy[kh xbZ gSAa fganh flusek vkSj fQYe fuekZ.k dk ,d Hkh i{k ,slk ugha gS ftldk xgu xaHkhj vè;;u Jh tks'kh th us ugha fd;k gksA XySej ds bl jtr&i{k ij tks'kh th us le; nsork ds jFk dks pyrs] nkSM+rs] fBBdrs] Bgjrs] Hkkxrs] HkVdrs vkSj iFk Hkwyrs gq, Hkh ns[kk gSA ;g iqLrd oLrqr% vius vki esa dbZ 'kksèk xzaFkksa dh ekxZnf'kZdk vkSj Hkwfedk ds rkSj ij ns[kh&ij[kh ,oa j[kh tk,xhA eSa viuh vkReh; 'kqHkdkeuk,a bl ys[ku dks vfiZr djrk gwaA tks'kh th dk vfHkuanu djrk gwa vkSj ikBdksa rFkk izdk'kd dks viuh cèkkbZ nsrk gwaA iz.kke tks'kh th! vkidh ys[kuh vkSj riL;k dks dksfV&dksfV oanuk,aA

ckydfo cSjkxh ¼lkaln&jkT;lHkk½

foV~ByHkkbZ iVsy

lapkyd&yYywHkkbZ ch- iVsy ,.M dEiuh ¼izk-½ fylnL;& vf[ky Hkkjrh; dkaaxzsl desVh mikè;{k& eè;izns'k dkaxzsl desVh

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fouez lUns'k ije J/ns; Lo0Jh cnzhizlknth tks'k ¼esjs thtkth½ ds ckjs es ftruk fy[k tk;s de gS A e/;izns'k ds jktx<+ ftys es fLFkr rRdkyhu f[kyphiqj fj;klr ds jktLFkku ls yxs gqos vfUre NkSj ij fLFkr NksVs ls xako <aM es mudk tUe gqvk Fkk tgk f'k{kk dk dksbZ lk/ku miyC/k ugh Fkk A NksVh lh mez es gh os i<+kbZ djus f[kyphiqj uxj es vk x;s rFkk vius cMs+ Hkzkrk in~eJh Lo- Jh jruyky th tks'kh dh izsj.kk ls cpiu ls gh iztkeUMy ls tqM+dj Loar=rk ds vkUnksyu ls lfØ; Hkkxhnkj cu x;s A os esjs iwT; firkth Lo- Jh cnzhizlknth O;kl ds fiz; fo|kFkÊ Fks A firkth us mudh izfrHkk dks igpku fy;k rFkk viuh Hkrhth] esjs cgu Lo- deyk tks'kh dk fookg muds lkFk djus dk fu'p; dj fy;k A Lora=rk ds vaknksyu es mUgksus jktx<+ ftys es raojokM {kS= ds yksxks dks laxfBr dj dbZ vaknksyu fd;s A dbZ ckj ykfB;k [kkbZ rFkk Hkwfexr jgs A mUgksus ckn es viuh deZHkweh eqEcbZ dks cuk fy;k fdUrq vius xzke <aM rFkk raojokM {kS= dsa fodkl ds fy;s lnSo iz;Ru'khy jgS A bl {kS= dh xjhch csjkstxkjh rFkk vf'k{kk dh mUgs ges'kk fpUrk jgrh Fkh rFkk bl {kS= es lM+d] rkykc] Ldwy] vLirky rFkk jkstxkj ds lk/kuksa ds fy;s os thoui;ZUr la?k"kZ djrs jgs A ,sls xak/khoknh] mPppfj= okys ekuork ds lsod esjs ththth ds pj.kks ess fouez J/nkUtyh A


os dsoy vkneh vSj cl vkneh gh jgs cM+k eqf'dy gksrk gS ,d ,sls vkneh ds ckjs ess dqN dguk lk fy[krk tks fd vkt Hkh eqEcbZ vkSj rcdh cEcbZ ess fQYeh nqfu;k es jgs] pqipki viuk dke djrk jgs vkSj vthou cl ^vkneh* gh cuk jgs A vius dke ls dke j[ks vkSj fdlh ls cSj Hkko ugh ikyh vkSj , tkus fdruksa dk fgr lk/krs gq, pqipki nqfu;k ls pyk tk;s A LoxÊ; ia- Jh cnzhizlknth tks'kh ,d ,sls gh ^vkneh* Fks A os eqEcbZ esa Fks A izfl/n ^ukt* fcfYMax es viuk pksdjoqek nIrj pykrs Fks A fQYe fuekrkvks] vfHkusrkvksa ys[kdks dfo;ks] QWk;ukUlja] uk;dkssa] [kyuk;dks] laxhr funsZ'kdks vkSj vius le; dh NksVh cM+h vfHkusf=;ks rFkk xk;d xkf;kdkvks ls orZeku ,oa Hkfo"; ls fuekZ.k esa viuk lefiZr ;ksxnku nsrs jgrs Fks A dbZ iz'k.kksa es Fks vnHkwr ;s rks dbZ os vizfre vkSj vuqie A ewyr%os e/;izns'k es Fh e/;Hkkjr es Fks A ,d fl/nys[kd vkSj lqfFk i=dkj Fks A esjk mudk lEc/k lu 1954 ls cuk rks muds LoxÊ; gksus rd ;gh dksbZ vk/kh 'krkCnh ls vf/kd le; rd irk jgk A i=kpkj vkSj VsyhQksu lEidZ lnSo j[krk mudh thou 'kSyh os ges'kk lqf/k ysrs jgrs Fks A dq'ky xse iwNuk muds vkReh; cM+kiu dk ,d ihtudr~ vyadkj Fkk A vius yk;d dkedkt dh tkudkjh ysuk os viuk nkf;Ro ekurs Fks A es tgWak Hkh jgk ;fn os ogWk izokl ij i/kkjs rks eq>ls vkSj esjh iRuh rFkk ckycPps ls feyus dh volj fudky dj feys vo'; A muds vklikl tks Hks egkuqHko miyC/k jgs mUkls mUgksaus esjk ifjp; djok;k A os okd~iVq ;k okd~prqjugha Fks A viuh ckr cgqr gh euHkkou 'kSyh esa dguk mudk O;ogkjhd ph=Fkk viuh ckr vkijs jkgs mrkj nsus dk bZ'ojh; xqt muds ikl Fkk A ;Wwa ns[kks ys os fcydqy vkSj ,dne ^'kq/n ekyuh* euq"; Fks A dk;Z O;ogkj vkSj dkedkt es Fks [kqn ls gkfuykHk ls vf/kd lkeus okys dh uQ+k uqdlku ns[krs Fks A fQYe dk vkneh ftruk vkSj tSalk xf.krK gksrk gS oSlk vkSj mruk os ugha Fks A nqfu;knkjh dk 'kfcne ls T;kng rkfRod vFkZ os letrs Fks A O;ogkjr% os ,d fouez O;fDr Fks A muds pksdj es eSus yksxksa dks muds ekFks ij cSBrs vkSj Nkrh ij p<+rs Hkh ns[kk A rc Hkjs pqipki gWlus eqLdjkrs lkeusokys dks viuh equ";rk ls thr ysrs Fks A lekU;r% yksd mUgs ^tks'khth* ;k ch-ih-lkgc dg dj lEcksf/kr djrs Fks A viuk cM+kiu mUgksaus fdlh ij ukgh tknk A muds jgr lgr vkSj mudh os'kHkw"k.k esa eSaus vius thtu tSls ifjp; es Fkh dksbZ cukdj ;k rLHkM+d ugha ns[kh A ,d lknxh vkSj lqlaLd`r lqlekrk muds vkJ.k dk fo'ks"k J`axkj djrh Fkh A muds psEcj es muls feyus tks Hkh dksbZ vkrk bldk Lokxr ges'kk os viuh ekguh 'kSyhus eqEcb;k pk; ls djrs A euqgkj djuk mudh vknr es Fkk A ml lqxos tc fd vkt ogk eh'kkby vkSj dWkEI;wVj gekjs dkjksckj vkSj yksx O;ogkj es 'kkfey ugh gqvk Fkk rc os vius gSrqykbu VsyhQksu dk cgqr gh [kqyk mi;ksx djrs Fks A vklikl ds nIrjksa es vius dke ls vkus okys dbZ prwj l;ys yksx tks'khth ls psEcj es dsoy muds VsYkhQksu dh mi;ksx djus dh u;r ls gh vkrs vksj tks'khth dh tsc ekjdj pys tkr A ,slk esus lkeus ipklksa ckj gqvk A fQYeh i= if=dkvksa es Nwis foKkiuks dks us ,e gh flusek gkÅl esa ,d gh fQYe lekgks efguksa vkSj cjlksa pyk djrhFkh A vkt dh rjg fQYe fuek.k] fQYe lEinu vkSj fQYe forj.k dh vk/kfudhdj.k ugha gqvk Fkk A ;g Hkxoku dh d`ik vkSj gekjk lkSHkkX; gh jl Fks vius thou dky es os nwj lapkj vkSj fQYe O;ogkj dk mPpLrjh; thou es dk ikyu Hkh djrs Fks A cM+h cM+h nkrksa ls us ik=jkrs Fks A lekjksgks esa tkrs vuo;ks ysfdu [kMs [kkus ls izk;% nwj gh jgrs Fks A viuh jkst dh Fkkyh es Hkh ;fn muds lkeus ,d nky vksj ,d lcth ls vkJ; pqN lkexzh vktkrh Fkh ysus ß'kq# dSls djsÞ bl tgkiksg us mrj tkrs Fks A os'kHkw"k.k dh rjg mudk [kkuiku dh lknk vkSj lkfRod Fkk A fQYeh nqfu;k es fuoklh gksus ckotwn ogWk ds jgokfl;ksa dh rjg e|iku okys ugh cus A 'kjkc ls lnSo nwj jgs A O;fDr O;fDr ds chp ns[ks izlaxksa vkSj laLdkjks ij eS tknw ys tks'khth ij mudk cksyuk cfr;kuk vkSj mudk gWaluk gWlkuk vc esjh ;knksa us rjg rjg ls dkSa/k tkrk gS A os bl vkuks[ks vkSj vlcsys lalkj es Hkh ,d ^vkneh* & dsoy ,d ^vkneh* cu dj viku vk;qdky iwjk dj x;s ;g lpeqp ,d mYys[kuh; lR; gS A muds uke dh vki mnkgj.k ns ldrs gSa A dk;Z dj bZ'oj dh ;g fo'ks"k d`ik gS fd esA muds ijtuksa vkSj fiz;tuks es 'kkfey jgk A mudk vk'khokZn bl ij lnSo cuk jgs ;g izkFkZuk eSa mudh vej vkRek ls djrk jgrk gWw A


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Lo- cnzhizlkn tks'khth % ftUgs eSus utnhd ls tkuk A

tks/kiwj fo'ofon;ky; ls o"kZ 1969 esa ,e-,- djus ds ckn esa xako&cykM ¼C;koj½ pyk x;k Fkk A ogak jkst lsosjs [kkuk [kkus ds ckn uxj ikfydk] C;koj ds iqLrdky; esa tkdj jkstxkj ds foKkiu ns[krk Fkk vkSj vfTkZ;k Hkstk djrk FkkA ckdh le; esa dfork,a] dgkfu;ak fy[kk djrk Fkk] tks i=&if=dkvksa es Nirh jgrh FkhA blls dksbZ fo'ks"k vk; ugha FkhA dsoy ^/keZ;qx* vkSj ^lkIrkfgd fgUnqLrku* ls dHkh&dHkkj iSlk vk tk;k djrk FkkA bl chp tks/kiqj ds esjs lgikVh fe= Jh fo'oEHkj n;ky iqjksfgr dk ,d i= esjs ikl vk x;kA ml le; esa og vkdk'kok.kh fnYyh esa U;wt fMikVZesaV es laiknd in ij fu;qDr gksdj ,d fdjk;s ds edku esa ,d dejk yks/kh dWkyksuh esa ysdj vdsyk jg jgk Fkk] mlus fnYyh tkus dk U;ksrk Hkst fn;k] eSa rqjar mlds ikl Qjojh] 1970 esa igqWap x;k FkkA ogak Ng eghus rd i=&if;dkvksa esa HkVdrk jgk] ckr ugha cuh rks mUgksaus fQYe fuekZrk LOk- ve`r ukgVk th ls muds caxys ij feyok;k] rc os lakln Hkh FksA eqEcbZ fQYe fuekZ.k ds fy, tkrs jgrs Fks A muls vkxzg fd;k fd gjeu th vPNs fgUnh ds ys[k gS vkSj vkidh ;qfuV esa laokn vkSj fLØIV jkbfVax ds fy, j[k ysosa rks ;g viuh izfrHkk crk nsaxsA mUgksaus mijh eu ls ßgkÞ Hkj nhA fe= us fdjk;k o dqN iSsls nsdj eqEcbZ Hkst fn;k A eqEcbZ esa dsoy nks O;fDr;ksa dks tkurk Fkk] ftudk irk esjs ikl FkkA ,d Jh jktsUnz vxzoky] tks O;koj ls esjh igpku Fkh vksj dgk Fkk fd dHkh cEcbZ ¼vc eqEcbZ½ vkvks rks ;g esjk irk gSA nsljs Fks&tks/kiqj ds MWk- lR;izdk'k tks'kh thtks dWkyst esa izksislj Fks vkSj os ,d jktLFkkuh if=dk ekfld&ßgjkoGÞ fudkyk djrs FksA mudk irk Hkh esjs ikl FkkA eSa tc tks/kiqj esa i<+ jgk Fkk rc ßtk.kdkjh if=dkÞ fudkyk djrk Fkk] mlesa MWk- t;izdk'k tks'kh th dh ,d dfork Nkih FkhA muls esjk dsoy i=&O;ogkj Fkk] lks fe= jktsUnz vxzoky ds irs ij tkuk gh equkflc le>kA esa cksjoyh mRrj dj yksdyls mlds foys ikjys ds ?kj ds irs ij igwapk] la;ksx ls og ?kj ij gh fey x;kA og Hkh vius pkpk&pkph ds lkFk jg dj fdlh vPNh gkStjh ¼ekSts&cfu;ku vkfn½ daiuh esa uksdjh dj jgk FkkA mlus eq>s viuh etcwjh crk;h] og eq>s ,d lLrs xsLV gkml ys x;kA ogk ,d [kfV;k ds #i;s tek djok, ,Moakl esa vkSj lkeku j[k dj ogeq>s ,d lLrs gksVy esa ys x;k vkSj ekfyd ls feyok dj ,d ekg dk [kkus dk ,Moakl ns fn;k vkSj fe= cksyk fd vc rqEgkjs [kkus vkSj jgus dk bartke gks x;k gS] vc ;g cacbZ gS vkSj rqe gks gk] dHkh ipkl lkS #i;ksa dh t:jr iMs rc esjs vWkfQl esa vk tkuk] ;g yks dkMZ blesa esjs vWkfQl ds VsfyQksu u- vkSj irk gSA vc rqe tkuks vkSj rqEgkjk dke tkusA vxys fnu esa vius vfHk;ku ij fudy iM+kA gak] fe= us eq>s foys ikjys ds LVs'ku ij ys tkdj ekfld ikl Hkh cuok fn;k ppZxsV rd dkA gksVy esa [kkuk [kkdj LVs'ku igqWapkA rc rd ,d ct pqds FksA esjs ikl MWk- lR; izdk'k tks'kh th ds ikl QksVZ ,fj;k esa ,d ;wlwi esU'ku ds nIrj esa tkus ds vykok dksbZ pkjk gh ukgha Fkk tSls&rSls <kbZ cts igqapk frljh eaftyA ogakij ,d fleVh gqbZ dSfcu Fkh] pijklhuqek ,d yM+dk cSBk gqavk FkkA mls tks'khth ds ckjs esa iwNk rks og cksyk&dWkyst ls NwVus ds ckn ;gak pkj&iakp cts vk,saxs A dqN nsj eSa cSBk jgk A mlls ckrphr esa esjh etcwjh crk;h fd


muls esjk feyuk csgn t:jh gSA og cksyk&vki pkj cts tk tkb; A eSaus ml iwNk&rc eSa vc D;k d: \ ßog cksykÞ& vki jktLFkku ls vk, gSa] eS Hkh ogha dk gWawA dbZ ckj tc eS ;gak vk;k FkkA rks pkSikVh ls ysdj xsVos vkQ bf.M;k rc iSny gh ?kwerk FkkA ?kaVs&nks ?kaVs dh ckr gS] ?kqe vkvksA ckn eSa Qajlr ls ?kweus dk le; feys ;k ugha feysA mldk lq>ko eq>s ilan vk;k] eSus Hkh ,slk gh fd;kA ykSV dj vk;k rc vkxs tks'khth cSBs gq, FksA ifjp; fn;k rks ys[kd ds ukrs igpku dj gq, A eSus fQj viuh xkFkk foLrkj ls crk;h rks cksys&MS< lkS #i;s eghus dk nwaxk] ^gjkoy* dk laiknu ns[kks A ?kaVs nks ?kaVs vk tk;k djks 'kke dksA esjs ckr tc xbZ vkSj gj jkst 'kke dks tkus yxk A ogk ,d 'kke x;k rks tks'kh th ds ikl ml le; /keZ;qx ds iwoZ milaiknd Lo- iUukyky O;klth cSBs gq, Fks A tks'kh th us ifjp; djk;k A mlds ckn gekjh dbZ fnuks rd yach&pkSMh ckrphr gqb A eSus dgk&nks eghus esa vHkh rd dksbZ [kkl izxfr ugha gqbZ A mUgksaus vk'oklu fn;k vkSj dgk fd fQygky fQYe b.MLVªh ds ghjks&ghjksbu ds bVjO;wg ysdj vkvks A v[kckjksa esa Niokus dh xkjaVh esjh esa eku x;k] D;ksfd mlls dqN iSlk rks feysxk ,d fnu og eq>s 5 ,Q] ukt fcfYMax] ysfeaXVu jksM+ ys x, A iakpos ekys ij ,d vkfQl esa] tks NksVk lk Fkk] eqf'dy ls nks&rhu vkneh cSB ldrs Fks A ogak nks Vscqys yxh Fkh A nksuksa ij nks ykx fcjkteku Fks A iUukyky O;klth us vkil esa ifjp; djk;k A ,d Fks jke HkkbZ tks fQYeh iksLVj cukrs Fks vkSj fQYe izksM;wljksa dks Qkbusljksa ls C;kt ij iSlk fnyok;k djrs Fks A nwljs Fks cfnzukFk tks'kh th A jkeHkkbZ xqtjkr ls Fks] tks'khth e/;izns'k ls Fks vkSj iUukykyth o ^eS* jktLFkku ls Fks A lRrj ds n'kd esa eqEcbZ esa tkfrxr dksbZ HksnHkko gh ugha Fkk vkSj vkt jktuhfr esa yks HksnHkko vke gks x;k gS] ij fQYe&b.MLVªh esa dksbZ HksnHkko ugha Fkk A eq>s ;g vglkl tks'kh th vkSj jkeHkkbZ us djk;k ogak dke djrs le; esa A jk"Vªh; ,drk eq>s ogak gh ns[kus dks feyh A gak] rks esa ;g dg jgk Fkk fd iUukyky O;klthus tks'khth ls ifjp; djk;k rks ,d feuV rd rks tks'kh th dwN ugha cksys A fQj iwNk esjs lkIrkfgd v[ckj esa dke djksxs \ eSus gak Hkj nh A og cksys&;gak le; dh dksbZ ikcanh ugha gs] tc Hkh le; feys jkst ,d ckj vk tk;k djks A esa dke crk nwaxk] djrs jgks A fQj mUgksaus esjs ckjs esa foLrkj ls eq>ls tkudkjh th vkSj cksys fd dy ds dy esjs ;gak eykM esa jgus ds fy, vk tkvks A cacbZ es jksVyk eys Ns] ij vksVyk ugha A rqjar xsLV gkml ls viuk lkeku ysdj eykM igqapks] ;g esjk irk gS A vxys fnu esa ogka igqap x;k A eykM ls vc jsYos ikl ppZxsV dk cuok fy;k vkSj iwjs fnu O;Lr gks x;k A [kkuk gksVyksa esa ;k Bsyksa ij iko Hkkth vkSj brokj dks ?kj dk [kkuk buds ;gak gh A j{kkca/ku dk le; vk;ks rks Jherh deyk tks'khth us dgk fd gjeuth] vki esjs HkkbZ dh lqjr ls feyrs&tqyrs gqcgw oSls gh yxrs gSa] esa vkids jk[kh ck/kwaxh A vkSj mUgksaus jk[kh cak/k nh A mlds ckn deyk cgu th ls vkSj iwjs ifjokj ls eSa ?kqyfey x;k A le; chrrk x;k vkSj esa cnzhizlkn tks'khth ds vkfQl fnu esa vkSj 'kke dks lR;izdk'k tks'kh th ds ;gak QksVZ esa tkrk jgk A ckdh dke ghjks&ghjksbuksa ds b.VjO;w ysus iUukyky O;klth ds fy, nksM+rk&Hkkxrk jkr esa eykM igqaprk A cguth fpark djrh A ,d fnu lR;kizdk'kth tks'kh th us iwNk] rqe jg dgak jgs gks \ eSaus eykM] jktHkkou] ekosZ jksM crk;k A og cksys fdlds ;gak jg jgsa gks \ eSaus crk;k] fQYe izzksM;wlj] fMLVªC;wVj o i=dkj cnzhizlkn tks'khth ds ;gak ckgj cjkens esa [kkV ij BkB ls lksrk gwa A losjs vius dke ij fudy tkrk gwa A og pkSad x, vkSj cksyk&ogha ,d dne lekus vanj ds lkbM esjk lwjt dqVhj edku gS] losjs feyks A esa losjs fey vk;k vkSj b/kj tks'hth ls ftØ fd;k A vc esa [kq'k fd esjs nks&nks gh ugha] rhljs fgrfpard iUukyky th O;klHkh gks x,] m/kj eykM esa gh esjs tslyesj ds lkfgR;dkj MWk- iwj"kksRre Naxk.kh th ls Hkh mlds ?kj ij eqykdkr gks xbZ A vc esjs pkj&pkj fgrfpard gks x, A exj la?k"kZ tkjh Fkk A lHkh us esjk mRlkg c<+k;k A cnzhizlkn tks'khth dks ?kj esa lHkh ^ckÅath* cksyrs Fks A eSa Hkh ^ckÅth* gh dgrk Fkk A ?kj esa rks os jkr nsjh ls gh


vkrs Fks A blyh, T;knk ckr ugha gks ikrh Fkh] ij 5 ,Q] ukt fcfYaMx esa muls cM+h varjaxrk ls ckr gksrh A eq>s fgEer cWa/kkrs] mRlkgotZu djrs vkSj vius vjctkj&ßflusok.khÞ ds fy, lq>ko gh ugha eakxrs cfYd mlesa eq>ls iwzQ feLVsd jgrh] mls ckjhdh ls galrs gq, crkrs A ljy g~n; ds Fks] blfy, gj ckr ogk gal dj gh dgrs A mudh eqLdjkgV ;k galh nQrj esa lHkh ds lkFk fQYeh dykdjksa ds pVdyks ds lkFk pyrh jgrh A dqN pqVdys e>s bl cq<kis esa vkt Hkh ;kn gS A ukt ds vkfQl esa fQYe izM;wlj gh ugha fQYeh dykdkj o fMfLVªC;wVj] dfo] xhrdkj o fuos'k djus okys Qkbusalj Hkh vkrs Fks A mu lc dks galkus dk ftEek tks'khth dk gh Fkk A fQYeh laLej.k] bfrgkl ;k dkbZ okfd;k ;k ?kVuk mudh tcku ij gkrs A lc Bgkdk yxk dj galrs A mu pqVdyksa esa ls nks&rhu vkidks crk gwa& ,d ckj gkL; dykdkj nhf{kr o xksi j.kthr LVfM;ksa esa tk jgs Fks A njokts esa ?kqls gh Fks fd lkeus ls ,d x/kk pyk vk jgk Fkk A nhf{kr us mls n.Mor /kksd fn;k rks xksi us gk& ;g D;k \x/ks dks n.Mor dj jgs gks \ rc nhf{kr us dk fd ;g fQYe b.MLVªh gs] D;k irk ;g x/kk dc izksM;wlj cu tk, \ nwljk pqVdyk gS & tks lPpkbZ Hkjk gS A ckEcs ySc esa fQYeksa dh ,fMfVax gksrh Fkh vkSj mlesa dkV&NakV gksrh Fkh A og lkjh dfVax jn~nh esa Mky nh tkrh Fkh A og dpjk bruk gks x;k Fks fd ml laHkkyuk ;k QSadus dh leL;k ,fMfVax Mk;jsDVj dqPpwHkkbZ dks leL;k gks xbZ A mUgksaus ,d izksM;wlj {eq>s uke ;kn ugh} og jhys dVh gqbZ Fkek nh A og izkM;wlj cksyk&esjh vxyh fQYe rS;kj gS A vkis cSBks vkSj bl esa n`'; feyk dj ,fMfVax djks A dquwuHkkbZ us vkSj mlus fey dj ,d etsnkj fQYe cuk nh A leL;k vkbZ fd bl fQYe dk uke D;k j[sk \ dqUlwHkkbZ pj[kk Nki fQYeh e'khu ppyk jgs Fks A og iwjkuh Fkh] blfy, pwapw&pwapw djrh Fkh A izksM;wlj ds fnekx esa vk;k vkSj og mNy iM+k] tSls vkdafefMt Vc esa Luku djrs gq, mNykfd fey x;k] fey x;k A og Hkh fpYyk;k& viuh fQYe dk uke gksxk & ßpwa-----pwa dk ejwCckÞ A fQYe py iM+h] chuk ctV dh A rhljk pqVdyk ;kn gS &mckÅ gkL; fQYeksa vkSj ÅckÅ gkL; dykdkjksa ds izfr ml le; ;g pqVdyk py iM+ Fkk & ,d ckj fdlh ifr&ifRuh ds chp fdlh ekewyh ckr ij >xM+k gks x;k A fLFkfr rykd rd igqap xbZ A ekeyk odhy nksLr ds ikl igqapk A mlus cgqr le>kus dh dksf'k'k djh ysfdu nksuksa gh viuh ftn~n ij vM+s jgsA odhy nksLr dks ,d rjdhc lw>h A og mUgsa ,d flusek gky ij ys x;k] tgak ij dksbZ gkL; fQYe py jgh Fkh A odhy mUgsa nks fVfdV nsdj cksyk& vxj vki bl fQYe dks rhu ?k.Vs rd vkjke ls ns[k ysa rks esa vki nksukas dks rykd fyok nwaxk A ysfdu vxj vki nksuksa chp esa mB dj ckgj pys vk, rks rykd ugha gksxk A nksuksa ifr&iRuh flusek gky ls ckgj le>ksrk lkFk&lkFk jgus dk djds gh fudys A ,sls pqVdqys mudh tcku ij lsdMks Fks A ;s pqVdys fQYe b.MLVªh ij djkjk O;aX; gksrk Fks A D;ksafd u gks muds ikl O;axdkj Lo- 'kjn tks'kh th vkrs Fks A os mu fnuksa {1971&72} fQYeksa dh fLØIV o laokn vkfn fy[kus esa O;Lr Fks A tks'kh th us u dsoy viuh fQYe esa volj fnyok;k Fkk A nksuksa ds chp xgjh fe=rk Fkh A Tks'khth us ,sls dbZ fe=ks dh izfrHkk dks igpku dj vkxs c<+kus ds fy, viuk “Hkjiwj lg;ksx fd;k A os ,Dds dakxzs'kh Fks A iwjh ftanxh ikVÊ ds izfr lefiZr jgs A ohj jl ds dfo&lkfgR;dkj ckydfo csjkxhth dks jktuhfr esa ykus dk Js; bUgha dks tkrk gS A vius lxs HkkbZ eakxhykyth dks Hkh jktuhfr dh vksj izfjr fd;k A izfl/n vfHkusrk /kesUnz th dks jrudqekj th dh fQYe ßckdsykyÞ esa uk;d ds #i esa volj fnyk;k] ykgkfd og fQYe fdlh dkj.ko'k nsj ls fjyh gqbZ] tc rd mUsa dbZ fQYesa fey pqdh Fkh vkSj fjyht Hkh gks pqdh Fkh A blh rjg fQYeksa esa vkxs c<+kus ds fy, jktusrk Lo-ve`r ukgVk] ch ds vkn'kZ] jkejkt ukgVk] Hkjr O;kl] fdo iznhi vkfn dks Hkh vkxs c<+us ds fy, Hkjiwj lg;ksx fd;k A fQYesa tc fjyht gksrh Fk] rc vius v[kckj ßflusok.khÞ esa LVkj nsdjh , ch lh xzsM dk izpyu 'kq# fd;k A ßxszM xkbMÞ dks blh ijaijk esa Hkjiwj lg;ksx fd;k A f'kolsuk ds laj{kd Jh cky Bkdjs th dks fQYe&{ks= esa gLr{ksi djus ess iwjk lg;ksx fd;k A vius lkIrkfgd i=&flusok.kh esa f'kolsuk dk fu;fer dkye fn;k djrs Fks A muds nknj fLFkr nIrj esa dbZ ckj [kcjsa o b.VjO;wa ysus eq>s Hkstk djrs Fks A i=dkfjrk ds xq.k eq>s mUgksaus gh fl[kk;s Fks A [ksrokM+h esa izfl/n osadVs'k izsl esa izwQ ns[kus vkSj ist lsfVax ds fy, eq>s gh Hkstk djrs Fks A eSaus u dsoy i=dkfjrk ds xj lh[ks] cfYd ys[ku esa Hkh os eq>s


izksRlkfgr djrs jgrs Fks A mudk dguk Fkk& de fy[kks Hkys gh] ysfdu Lrjh; fy[kks A vknj.kh; cnzhizlkn tks'kh th us dqN fQYesa Hkh fuekZrk ds #i esa cukbZ] ftuesa & N=ifr N=lky ßckck vejukFkÞ ßfdLlk dqlÊ dkÞ izeq[k Fkh A os fQYe forjd Hkh jgs A izeq[k #i ls e/;izns'k] jktLFkku o mRrj izns'k vkfn esa [kkl VsjVsjh esa fQYe b.MLVªh dh fQYes forfjr djrs Fks A os forjd gh ugha fQYeh&i=dkj Hkh Fks A dbZ laLej.k o fQYeha ys[k mu fnuksa vf[ky Hkkjrh; Lrj ds i=ds o if=dkvksa esa Nirs jgrs Fks A fnu Hkj vius dk;kZy; esa fQYeh gkfLFk;ksa ds lkFk O;Lr jgrs ;k fQj dqN u dqN ys[k bR;kfn fy[kus esa yxs jgrsa A ?kj esa lsosjs tYnh mBrs vkSj Luku&/;ku] iwtk&ikB djds gh nIrj ds fy, jokuk gkrs jktHkou eykM ls A eSAus ?kj esa dHkh mudks xqLlk djrs ugha ns[kk] u nIrj esa A ges'kk ean&ean eqLdkj clk vkSj uSjk'; dk Hkko rks muds psgjs ij dHkh ns[kk gh ughaa A eq>s ges'kk izksRlkfgr o mRlkfgr djrs jgrs Fks A o"kZ 1973 esa tc eqEcbZ nwjn'kZu ij vuqoknd ds in ij tFkkbZ #i ls p;u gks x;k rks esjk flusok.kh NwV x;k A eSus og ftEesnkjh esjs ,d fe= dks lksai nh] ftlls vdckj fujarj fuoyrk jgk A os mufnuksa ve`r ukgVk ds lg;ksx ls ßfdLlk [kqlÊ dkÞ ds fuekZ.k esa O;Lr Fks A fQYe tc rS;kj gqbZ] rc bejtUlh ns'k esa yx pqdh Fkh A ljdkj us bl fQYeij izfrca/k yxk fn;k rFkk mlds fizaV ckEcs ysc ls tIr dj fy, x, A bejtUlh mBus ds ckn ljdkj ds f[kykQ fizaV okil ysus ds fy, eqdnes ckth vkSj fnYyh ds ckj&ckj pDdj yxkus dkj.k vkfFkZd fLFkfr ls tw>uk iM+k rc Hkh muds psgjs ij uSjk'; ds dksbZ Hkko ugha A fiazV tc okil feys] rc fQYe fjfyt gqbZ] cM+h pfpZr vkSj lQy jgh A dWkxzsl ds fy, fQYe ßvak/khÞ vkSj ßfdLlk [kqlÊ dkÞ cM+h ljnnZ lkfcr gqbZ A esjk tc fgUnqLrku ftad esa o"kZ 1980 esa p;u gks x;k fgUnh vf/kdkjh ds in ij rks eq>ls eqEcbZ NwV x;k A eq>s fiad dh ;qfuV & ßftad LesYVj] fo'kk[kkiV~V.ke tkuk iM+k A ogak ij tks'khth eq>s cjkcj iskLVdkMZ fy[krs jgrs] ftudk mRrj esa Hkst nsrk A i=ksa esa Hkh izksRlkgu] mRlkg c<+krs jgrs Fks rFkk esgur] bekunkjh ds lkFk dke djrs jgus dh izsj.kk nsrs A ogak ls iakp lky ckn esjk rcknyk ftad dh ;wfuV jktLFkku esa mn;iwj ds ikl njhck ekbUl gks x;k] rc Hkh iksLV dkMZ vkrs jgrs Fks A ckn esa fQj iakp lky ckn mn;iqj ds ikl gh nwljh ;qfuV tkoj ekbUl esa rcknyk gks x;k A rc Hkh iksLVdkMZ gh vk;k djrs Fks] dHkh&dHkkj fyQkQk vk tk;k djrk A ml ferO;;rk dh vksj tc esjk /;ku x;k rc eSus Hkh fe=ksa dks iksLV dkMZ fy[kuk 'kq# dj fn;k A o"kZ 1995&96 esa cgu lk vkSj ckÅth mn;iqj vk, ukFk}kjk JhukFkth ds n'kZu djus rc tkoj ekbZl ifjokj ls feyus vk, A JhukFkth esa mudh cM+h J/nk Fkh A mudk LoxZokl gqvk] ml jkr os eq>s lius esa vk, vkSj cksys&ßeSa JhukFkth ds ikl tk jgk gwa AÞ vxys fnu muds iq= egsUnz us bldh [kcj nh A ,slh egku vkRek vkSj fonku ds lkfu/; esa jgk] ;g esjk lkSHkkX; gh le>ks A ml vkRek ds izfr esa ureLrd gwa A iRrk % gjeu pkSgku] 17@3690] vEcs dksykuh] xkso/kZu foykl mn;iqj- jkt - 331001 eks- 9509159514


Le` f r;ka

vuq Ø e 1 t;jkt ftuds fcuk dks b Z dk;Z Ø e lEiUu ugha gks r k Fkk 2 fQYeh flrkjks a dh ;knxkj 'kkfn;ka 3 eq > s rks tcjnLrh ,DVj cuk fn;k & nkjk fla g 4 fQYeksa esa ekfy'k djus okyksa dh dekbZ dk dksbZ fglkc ugha 5 iz k .k viuh futh ftUnxh es a [kyuk;d dHkh ugha jgs 6 fQYeks | ks x dh fofp= vla x fr;ka 7 psru vkuan % ckr dc cu tkrh gS 8 xq#nRr % flus e.My dk izdk'k fiaM 9 ewoh eqxy % ds- vkflQ 10 eueks g u ns l kbZ % ckDl vkfQl dk tknw x j 11 uthj gqlSu % lqHkk"kpUnz cksl dh QkSt esa Hkh Fks 12 fQYeks a dk gkyhoq M eq E cbZ 13 Mcy jksy] MqIyhdsV Meh vkSj LVUV ds dykdkjksa ds dfj'es vkSj mudh ekSrsa 14 iafMr th ls igyh eqy kdkr % ujfxl 15 ia f Mr eq [ kjke 'kekZ % ftudk uke fcdrk Fkk 16 fQYeks a es a tkfr&ikfr ugha ] u gh èkeks ± dk Hks n Hkko 17 ikuh esa dwnksxs rks rSjuk lh[kksxs 18 fQYesa le> vkSj lEcUèkksa ls curh gSa dsoy iSlksa ls ugha 19 fQYe fuekZ . k fdLer dk [ks y 20 >qejh ryS;k ls vk;k ,d ghjks cuus % ;knksa dh ckjkr 21 fQYe fuekZ . k dk cq [ kkj 22 fdLlk dq l hZ dk tUe vkS j vUr dh dgkuh fuekZ r k dh tq c kuh 23 fldanj dh #[klkuk % ouekyk vkt o`Unkou esa 24 ulhe ckuks ¼1916&2002 ½ 25 ykgkSj esa izk.k dks iku [kkrs czsd feyk 26 lq H kk"k dk vkRedF; 27 uokch 'kku okyk vfHkus r k & jgeku 28 budk Hkh tekuk Fkk 29 'kf'k diwj % ftUgsa cM+s HkkbZ jkt diwj VSDlh dgk djrs Fks 30 flusek ds vxznwr vCnqy vyh ;wlqQ vyh % LFkk;h flusek ds ekfyd 31 egkRek rq e us tUe fy;k ij dS l k ekS r la x C;kg jpk;k\ 32 vius tekus ds cs g n e'kgw j dykdkj ekLVj fulkj 33 pq E cdh; O;fDrRo dk èkuh pa n z e ks g u 34 flusek dh lqUkgjh ;knsa & 1 35 ewoh eqxy & ds- vkflQ 36 flusek dh lqUkgjh ;knsa & 2

8 10 12 15 16 17 19 20 21 22 23 25 28 30 32 34 36 40 41 44 45 46 47 53 55 56 59 62 65 69 79 80 83 84 -121 122 123 - 144 flus e k&2005

7


Le` f r;ka

fgUnh fQYe ds bfrgkl ds i`"Bksa dks iyVus ij mlesa Lo.kZk{kjksa esa vafdr tks uke fn[kkbZ nsrs gSa] mueas ,d uke gS t;jktA yxHkx 300 fQYeksa esa vfHku; dj pqds t;jkt fgUnh fQYe bfrgkl dk ,d lqugjk dky gSA t;jkt dk tUe 28 flrEcj] 1909 dks vkUèkzinz 's k ds futke LVsV ds djhe uxj uked LFkku ij ,d vPNs ?kjkus esa gqvk FkkA muds firkth dk uke vP;qr FkkA os ihMCY;w foHkkx ¼dydRrk½ esa gsM ,dkmUVsUV FksA gj 2 lky ij mudk rcknyk gqvk djrk Fkk] D;ksfa d os vyx&vyx ftyksa esa tkdj fjiksVZ Hkstus dk dke djrs FksA mu fnuksa jsy xkfM+;ka ugha Fkha] blfy, rcknyk gksus ij os cSyxkM+h ij iwjs ifjokj dks ysdj nwljh txg tk;k djrs Fks] tgka mudk rcknyk gksrk FkkA mu fnuksa lsokfuo`fRr dh mez 55 o"kZ gksrh FkhA ftl fnu t;jkt dk tUe gqvk Fkk] mlh fnu muds firkth dks lsok fuo`Rr gks tkus dk i= feyk FkkA ukSdjh ds ckn os ifjokj lfgr gSnjkckn esa cl x,A t;jkt lfgr mudh dqy 9 larkusa Fkha] ftuesa 3 HkkbZ vkSj 3 cgusa thfor jghaA t;jkt dh izkjfEHkd f'k{kk ^jkseu dSFkksfyd Ldwy* ls 'kq: gqbZA fQj mUgsa rhu lky ds fy, cksfM±x esa ^oqM us'kuy dkyst* Hkstk x;k] ogka mUgksua s laLd`fr dh tkudkjh ik;hA fQj gSnjkckn okil ykSVus ij ^futke gkbZ Ldwy* esa mUgsa Hkstk x;k] tgka os mnwZ ls ifjfpr gq,A t;jkt i<+kbZ ds ckn usoh esa tkuk pkgrs Fks] muds HkkbZ] t;jkt dks bathfu;fjax dh i<+kbZ ds fy, yanu Hkstuk pkgrs FksA t;jkt gSnjkckn esa ukSdjh djus ds i{k eas ugha FksA mUgsa cM+s 'kgj esa fdLer vktekus dh ykylk Fkh] fygktk firkth dk vk'khokZn ysdj os lu~ 1929 esa eqEcbZ vk x,A ml le; mudh mez 19 o"kZ dh FkhA mUgsa vius 'kjhj ls 'kq: ls cM+k eksg jgkA os vius 'kjhj dks O;k;ke djds lnSo vPNk j[krs FksA eqEcbZ esa os vius lgikBh jaxS;k ls feys] tks egkohj fQYe dEiuh esa dke djrs FksA t;jkt us mlus dgk fd os dke dh ryk'k esa gSa] rc t;jkt us ;g ugha lkspk Fkk fd os fQYeksa esa vfHku; djsaxsA muds nksLr us mudh eqykdkr jaxeap dh izfl) gLrh ekek cjsjdj ls djkbZ] tks fQYe fuekZ.k ds {ks= esa lfØ; gksus dh ;kstuk cuk jgs FksA t;jkt dh dn&dkBh dkQh vkd"kZd FkhA ekek cjsjdj tc t;jkt ls feys rks muds 'kjhj lkS"Bo ls cgqr izHkkfor gq,A mUgksaus t;jkt dks viuh fQYe esa dke fn;k vkSj 'kwfVax ds igys fnu [kqn ekek cjsjdj us t;jkt dk esdvi fd;kA os bl ckr ls csgn [kq'k Fks fd t;jkt i<+&s fy[ks gSAa rc fQYeksa esa f'kf{kr yksx ugha vkrs Fks vkSj fQYeksa esa dke djuk cqjk ekuk tkrk FkkA ekek cjsjdj us fQYe fuekZ.k dk dk;Z ikVZujf'ki esa 'kq: fd;k] ij fdlh dkj.k ls fQYe iwjh ugha gks ldhA mu fnuksa ds vius la?k"kZ ds ckjs t;jkt crkrs gSa% ßjaxS;k ds lkFk fxjxkao esa tgka jgrk Fkk] ogka ml NksVs ls dejs esa esjs lesr 4 yksx jgrs FksA eSa lqcg tYnh mB tkrk Fkk vkSj fxjxkao pkSikVh 8

flus e k&2005

Lej.h;&vfoLej.kh Lej.h;&vfoLej.kh;

t;jkt ftuds fcuk dksbZ dk;ZØe lEiUu ugha gksrk Fkk


Le` f r;ka

ij tkdj oftZ'k djrk FkkA fQj ugkus ds ckn uk'rk djrk FkkA esjk uk'rk gksrk Fkk] lRrw] ftls eSa xqM+ ds ikuh ds lkFk [kkrk FkkA mlds ckn ukSdjh ij tkrk FkkA LVwfM;ks Fkk Hkk;[kyk es]a tgka eq>s tkuk gksrk FkkA rc eqEcbZ esa Vªke lsok miyCèk Fkh] ftldk HkkM+k Fkk ,d vkukA og ,d vkuk cpkus ds fy, eSa fxjxkao ls Hkk;[kyk iSny pydj tk;k djrk FkkA fnu esa LVwfM;ks ds gksVy esa Hkkstu djrk FkkA rc ogka ukxsUnz etwenkj funs'Z kd FksA muds lkFk lgk;d funsZ'kd ds :i esa dke fd;kA dSejk eSu ds lgk;d ,oa laiknd ds lgk;d ds :i esa Hkh [kq'kh ls dke djrs FksÞA fQYeksa esa t;jkt dks iw.kZr;k vfHkusrk cuus dk ekSdk ukxsUnz etwenkj us gh fn;kA os t;jkt ds dn&dkBh ls dkQh izHkkfor FksA lu~ 1929 esa ukxsUnz etwenkj dh fQYe ^txexkrh tokuh* esa t;jkt dks lguk;d dh Hkwfedk feyhA blesa ekèko dkys us uk;d dh Hkwfedk fuHkkbZ FkhA bl fQYe esa t;jkt us ekLd yxkdj ekèko dk dke Hkh fd;k vkSj ;g dke Fkk ?kqM+lokjh dkA ;gka ls t;jkt dk fQYeh lQj 'kq: gks x;kA uk;d ds :i esa t;jkt dh 1929 esa cuh igyh fQYe Fkh ^jlhyh jkuh* ftlesa t;jkt dh ukf;dk Fkh ekèkqjhA t;jkt vkSj ekèkqjh dh tksM+h okyh ;g fQYe lQy jghA dSejkeSu uoy ih- HkV~V ds dgus ij t;jkt 'kkjnk fQYe daiuh ds ekfyd Hkksxhyky nos ls feysA mUgksaus t;jkt dks 100 #i;s ekgokj ij ,d o"kZ ds fy, vuqcfa èkr dj fn;kA t;jkt us ;gka ^egklkxj vkSj eksrh* uked fQYe esa dke fd;kA fQYe lQy jghA ghjksbu Fkh tscqfUulkA blds ckn t;jkt LVkj cu x;sA os jkrksa jkr i`Fohjkt diwj] ekLVj foV~By] fcfyeksfj;k] tky epsZUV ds led{k uk;d cu x,A lu~ 1931 esa cksyrh fQYeksa dk nkSj 'kq: gqvkA t;jkt dh igyh cksyrh fQYe Fkh ^f'kdkjh*A ;g 1932 esa iznf'kZr gqbAZ t;jkt us blesa ckS) fHk{kq dh Hkwfedk dh FkhA fQj t;jkt dh eqykdkr fgeka'kq jk; ls gqbZA mUgksaus ^ykgV vkQ ,f'k;k* esa t;jkt dks egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk nhA t;jkt us izsepan fyf[kr ^fey etnwj* esa ,d fey odZj dh Hkwfedk fuHkk;hA t;jkt us djkph dh fQYe daiuh esa yhyk fpVuhl ds lkFk fd;kA

t;jkt ds fQYeh dSfj;j dks ,d u;k eksM+ fn;k egcwc [kku ds xq: ys[kd&funs'Z kd vkj-,l- pkSèkjh usA mUgksua s t;jkt dks [kyuk;d cuk fn;kA fgeka'kq jk; us t;jkt dks nsfodk jkuh ds viksftV uk;d ysdj ^HkkHkh* uked fQYe cuk;hA ;g vius fdLe dk vuks[kk iz;ksx FkkA ckEcs VkWdht esa ckgj ds dykdkj ugha fy;s tkrs FksA lu~ 1939 esa lkfo=h uked ;qorh ls t;jkt dk fookg gqvkA dU;knku i`Fohjkt diwj us fd;k FkkA t;jkt us vius tekus dh yxHkx gj vfHkus=h ds lkFk dke fd;kA buesa oh.kk] jkfèkdk] nqxkZ [kksVs] pkan mLekuh] esgrkc] lfjrk nsoh] flrkjk nsoh] fu'kh] fuEeh] lqjS;k] 'kksHkuk leFkZ] ekèkqjh] [kq'khZn] 'kdqUryk] jsgkuk] fu:ik jk;] Lusg izHkk izèkku] xhrk futkeh] jatuk] uhuk vkfn vusd uke 'kkfey gSAa ;g ckr cgqr yksxksa dks Kkr gS fd ujfxl] ehukdqekjh] rcLlqe vkSj eèkqckyk tSlh izfl) vfHkusf=;ksa us t;jkt dh eq[; Hkwfedk okyh fQYeksa esa cky dykdkj ds :i esa dke fd;k FkkA t;jkt us crkSj uk;d 160 fQYeksa esa dke fd;k] pfj= Hkwfedkvksa dks tksMu+ s ij mudh fQYeksa dh la[;k 300 gks tkrh gSA t;jkt us fQYeksa dk funs'Z ku Hkh fd;kA crkSj funs'Z kd mudh igyh fQYe ^izfrHkk* FkhA ml fQYe esa mUgksua s ;wlQ q [kku ;kuh fnyhidqekj dks uk;d ds :i esa is'k fd;k FkkA t;jkt cgqr vQlksl ds lkFk crkrs Fks fd ;wlqQ bl lPpkbZ dks Lohdkj ugha djrs vkSj viuh Hkwfedk okyh fQYe ^Tokj HkkVk* dks viuh igyh fQYe crkrs gSaA t;jkt ds rhu ?kfu"B fe= Fks ftUgsa os f=ewfrZ dgrs FksA i`Fohjkt diwj] ds-,u-flag vkSj nhf{krA t;jkt ds ckjs esa ;g ckr Hkh cgqr de yksx tkurs gSa fd mUgksaus 28 lky ^fQYe Qs;j lekjksg* fd;kA blds vykok os pkSikVh ij jkeyhyk djrs jgsA mUgsa nknk lkgc QkYds iqjLdkj Hkh fey pqdk gSA t;jkt dks fdlh Hkh lekjksg esa LVst izcUèk ds fy, fuea=.k feyrs FksA fdlh dh 'ko;k=k] 'kknh] tUe fnu esa os gh lcls iwoZ igqaprs FksA

flus e k&2005

9


Le` f r;ka

fQYeh flrkjksa dh ;knxkj 'kkfn;ka dgrs gSa nwYgk&nqYgu dh tksM+h Hkxoku ds ;gka ls cudj vkrh gSA t:jr gksrh gS flQZ rkjrE; tqM+us dhA fQYe m|ksx esa dykdkjksa dh 'kkfn;ksa ls rks ;g ckr ,dne lkQ gks tkrh gSA lquhy nRr % ufxZl ^enj bafM;k* ds igys ufxZl dk uke jktdiwj ds lkFk tqM+k gqvk FkkA ysfdu bl fQYe ds lsV ij vkx yxus ij lquhy nRr us tku dh ijokg fd;s fcuk ufxZl dks vkx ls cpk fy;k FkkA bl rjg mUgksaus ufxZl dk fny thr fy;kA ifj.kke Lo:i 1958 esa 11 ekpZ dks bu nksuksa dh 'kknh gks x;hA blds ckn ufxZl us fQYeksa ls laU;kl ys fy;kA blds ckn ^jkr vkSj fnu* esa ,d ckj fQj ufxZl fQYeh ijns ij fn[kk;h nhA blds ckn ufxZl dks jkT;lHkk esa ukfeusV Hkh fd;k x;kA ckn esa ufxZl dh dSalj ls e`R;q gks x;hA fnyhidqekj % lk;jk ckuks bu nksuksa dh dgkuh rks yksddFkk dh Hkkafr gSA 1966 esa 11 vDVwcj dks 44 o"khZ; fnyhidqekj vkSj 22 o"khZ; lk;jk ckuks ds fudkg dk lekpkj i<+dj lcdks vk'p;Z gqvkA lk;jk ckuks ds lkFk fookg djus ds igys fnyhidqekj dk uke eèkqckyk ds lkFk tksM+k tkrk Fkk vkSj lk;jk ckuks dk izse jktsUnz dqekj ls py jgk FkkA lk;jk ckuks dh eka us jktsUnz dqekj vkSj lk;jk ckuks dks ,d nwljs ls nwj djus ds fy, ,d le; dh ghjksbu ulhe ckuw us fnyhidqekj ls lk;jk dk gkFk Fkkeus dk vkxzg fd;kA fookg ds ckn bu nksuksa us ^xksih*] ^lxhuk* vkSj ^nqfu;k* tSlh fQYeksa esa dke fd;k FkkA fnyhidqekj ds thou esa ,d vU; izdj.k ds vykok mudk nkaiR; thou vkn'kZ lkfcr gqvkA j.kèkhj diwj % cchrk j.kèkhj diwj vkSj cchrk dk fookg 1971 esa gqvk FkkA fookg ds ckn diwj [kkunku dh ijaijk ds vuqlkj cchrk us vfHku; dks frykatfy ns nh] ysfdu mudk oSokfgd thou yEcs le; rd ugha fVd ldkA dfj'ek vkSj djhuk ds lkFk cchrk us j.kèkhj diwj ds ?kj dk R;kx dj fn;kA vkt og viuh nksuksa iqf=;ksa dk dkedkt laHkkyus esa O;Lr gSAa ^fguk* fQYe dk funs'Z ku djus ds ckn j.kèkhj diwj vkj-ds- fQYe dk dkedkt laHkkyus esa O;Lr gSaA jkts'k [kUuk % fMEiy dkifM+;k ml le; jkts'k [kUuk dk tekuk FkkA lqij LVkj jkts'k [kUuk ;qofr;ksa ds fnyksa dh èkM+du FksA mèkj fMEiy dkifM+;k dh ^ckch* fQYe iznf'kZr gks pqdh FkhA tc jkts'k [kUuk us fMEiy dks baxstesaV dh vaxwBh iguk;h rks jkts'k [kUuk dks pkgus okyh tkus fdruh ;qofr;ksa ds fnyksa ij xkt fxjh FkhA 27 ekpZ] 1973 dks lEiUu gqbZ ;g 'kknh ,d ifjdFkk ds leku FkhA ysfdu mudh ;g 'kknh yEcs le; rd fVdkÅ u jg ldhA cchrk dh rjg gh fMEiy us Hkh fV~oady vkSj fjadh ds lkFk ek;ds dh jkg yhA nksuksa esa erHksn Hkys Fkk ysfdu fMEiy us jkts'k [kUuk dh daiuh dh fQYe ^t;&t; f'ko'kadj* esa dke fd;k FkkA vkt jkts'k [kUuk vkSj fMEiy ukuk&ukuh cu x;s gSaA jkts'k ls vyx gksus ds ckn fMEiy us fQj ls vfHku; ds {ks= esa inkiZ.k fd;k vkSj vius cy ij ,d l{ke vfHkus=h ds :i eas viuh èkkd tek;hA vferkHk cPpu % t;k HkknqM+h vferkHk vkSj t;k dh 'kknh rc gqbZ Fkh tc vferkHk ds vfHku; dh 'kq:vkr gqbZ FkhA tcfd t;k ,d iz[;kr vfHkus=h FkhA rhu twu] 1973 dks bu nksuksa dh 'kknh gqbZ FkhA dqN fnuksa rd t;k dke djrh jgha] ysfdu larkuksa ds tUe ds ckn os dkQh 10

flus e k&2005


Le` f r;ka

vjls rd fQYeksa ls nwj jghaA o"kks± ckn ^flyflyk* fQYe esa fQj os vk;haA gkykafd dkQh fnuksa rd vferkHk js[kk ds pDdj esa cnuke jgs] ysfdu mu nksuksa dh iq[rk bekjr esa blls lsèa k ugha yx ik;hA _f"k diwj % uhrw flag ijns ij nksuksa dh lQy tksM+h us okLrfod thou esa Hkh 'kknh djus dk fu.kZ; dj fy;kA 12 tuojh] 1980 esa nksuksa us 'kknh dj yhA 'kknh ds ckn uhrw us vfHku; dks frykatfy ns nh ysfdu _f"k diwj o"kksaZ rd :igys insZ ij Nk;s jgsA vc mudk iq= j.kohj firk ds uD'ks dne ij pyus dh rS;kjh dj jgk gSA vusd folaxfr;ksa ds ckn Hkh vkt nksuksa dh 'kknh vVwV cuh gqbZ gSA èkesZUn % gsek ekfyuh èkesZUnz ds lkFk gsek ekfyuh us fookg dj ckyhoqM esa nwljh iRuh dh ijaijk dh 'kq:vkr dhA ebZ 1980 esa fookg ds ckn Hkh gsek us viuk lEeku cuk, j[kk gSA vkjEHk esa èkesZUnz dh iRuh vkSj iq= dh vksj ls gsek dks uQjr dh fuxkg ls ns[kk tkrk Fkk] ysfdu ckn esa lc dqN Bhd gks x;kA iq=h bZ'kk vktdy vfHkus=h gSA vktdy èkesUZ n [kaMkyk fLFkr vius QkeZ esa jgrs gSaA tcfd gsek u`R; ds dk;ZØe vk;ksftr dj bZ'kk dks vfHkus=h cukus esa tqVh gSaA lat; nRr % _pk 'kekZ _pk ds lkFk 'kknh djus ls iwoZ lat; jaxhys LoHkko ds jgs gSaA 1986 esa lat; us _pk 'kekZ ds lkFk 'kknh dj yhA iq=h f='kkyk ds tUe ds ckn _pk dSla j ihfM+r gks x;h vkSj ckn esa mldh e`R;q gks x;hA fQj lat; us fj;k fiYybZ uke dh yM+dh ls 'kknh dhA fj;k ekWMy FkhA ckn esa nksuksa esa ugha cuhA vkt fj;k vkSj lat; nksuksa vyx&vyx jgrs gSaA tSdh JkQ % vk;s'kk nRr nsovkuUn dh ,d fQYe Lokeh nknk esa foyu dh

Hkwfedk ls 'kq:vkr dj tSdh JkQ lqHkk"k ?kbZ ds funs'Z ku esa ghjks cu x;sA ^rsjh ckgksa esa* uked ,d fQYe dh ukf;dk vk;s'kk nRr ls 'kknh djus ds ckn tSdh JkQ pksVh ds dykdkj cu x;sA mUgksaus twu 1987 esa 'kknh dh FkhA ge nks vkSj gekjs nks dk vkadM+k tSdh us viuk;kA vfHku; ds vykok tSdh us ,d fuekZ.k laLFkk dh Hkh 'kq:vkr dh gSA lSQ vyh [kku % ve`rk flag lSQ vyh [kku vkSj ve`rk flag dh 'kknh ls yksxksa dks cM+k vk'p;Z gqvk FkkA ,d flrEcj] 1991 dks nksuksa us 'kknh dh FkhA ve`rk vkt nks cPpksa dh eka gSA 'kknh ds ckn lSQ dh ekdsZV lqèkjhA ve`rk mlds cPpksa ds ikyu&iks"k.k esa O;Lr gSA o"kksZa ckn mlus luh nsvksy dh gkse izksMD'ku fQYe ^'kghn* esa dke fd;k FkkA vt; nsoxu % dktksy 24 Qjojh] 1999 ls 'kknh'kqnk dktksy vkSj vt; nsoxu vius&vius dke esa O;Lr gSaA dktksy vktdy de fQYeksa eas dke dj jgh gSA blds foijhr vt; nsoxu rks vius izksMD'ku dks Hkh laHkky jgs gSaA ^Qwy vkSj dkaVs* ls vfHku; ds {ks= esa izos'k djus okyk vt; vkt pksVh dk dykdkj gSA ^cs[kqnh* fQYe ls dktksy us vius vki dks ,d lQy vfHkus=h ds :i esa LFkkfir fd;k FkkA nksuksa ds chp jksekal ^gypy* fQYe ls 'kq: gqvk FkkA v{k; dqekj % fV~oady [kUuk ckyhoqM esa jaxhys fetkt ds fy, v{k; e'kgwj gSaA mudh izsfedkvksa dh la[;k dkQh cM+h gSA os f'kYik 'ksV~Vh ds lkFk izse esa Qals FksA v{k; dk vUnj&vUnj fVoady [kUuk ds lkFk Hkh izse FkkA yksxksa dh ukjktxh dk lkeuk Hkh mUgsa djuk iM+k Fkk] ysfdu 2001 esa 17 tuojh dks nksuksa ifj.k; lw= esa caèk x;sA vkt nksuksa ,d lqUnj iq= ds ekrk&firk gSaA

*** jktdiwj dh viuh ghjksbuksa ds lkFk izse jksx ikyus dh vknrksa ls ckt vkdj mudh iRuh d` " .kk ?kj Nks M + d j pyh x;h Fkha A ys f du fnyhi dq e kj mUgs a le>k&cq>kdj ?kj okil ys vk;s FksA flus e k&2005

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eq>s rks tcjnLrh ,DVj cuk fn;k & nkjk flag

eq>s izR;{k :i ls fQYeksa esa vfHku; dk vkWQj vk;k 1960 esa tc eSa eqacbZ dq'rh yM+us vk;k FkkA fuekZrk nsoh 'kekZ dk dksbZ vkneh esjs ikl vk;k vkSj dgk fd ^pfy,] vkidks Mk;jsDVj lkgc us cqyk;k gS*A ;g lqudj igys rks eq>s etkd&lk yxk] ysfdu ckr lp FkhA mUgksaus viuh fQYe ^fdaxdkax* ds fy, eq>s eq[; Hkwfedk djus dk izLrko j[kkA eSa Bgjk igyoku] eSaus euk dj fn;k fd ;g lc eq>ls ugha gksxk] eq>s rks ,fDVax dk ^,* Hkh ugha vkrkA fQj mUgksaus tksj fn;k vkSj cksys& ^vkidks gekjs Mk;jsDVj us dq'rh yM+rs ns[kk gSA mUgssa vki gh ilan gSa vkSj insZ ij Hkh rks vkidks ogh djuk gS tks v[kkM+s esa djrs gS*a A vc muds bruh dgus ij eSa jkth gks x;kA fQYe cuh vkSj [kwc pyh Hkh vkSj mlds ckn eSa Hkh dke djus yx x;k ;g lkspdj fd ftUnxh Hkj dqf'r;ka rks yM+h ugha tk ldrha] ;g ykbu cq<+kis dk lgkjk cu tk;sxhA ;dk;d igyoku ls ,DVj cuus esa eq>s rks dksbZ fo'ks"k ijs'kkuh ugha gqb]Z exj dHkh&dHkh esjs fuekZrk&funs'Z kd esjh uknkuh ls ijs'kku gksrs FksA dg Hkh dqN ugha ldrs Fks] D;ksafd eSa rks ,DVj cuus vk;k ugha Fkk] cfYd eq>s rks tcjnLrh ,DVj cuk fn;k x;k FkkA eq>s viuh igyh fQYe ^fdaxdkax* dk ,d okd~;k ;kn gSA ,d xhr dk fQYekadu py jgk Fkk] ftlesa eSa :Bk gqvk gwa vkSj ghjksbu dqedqe eq>s euk jgh gSaA vc eq>ls rks tks Mk;jsDVj lkgc dgas cl ogh djuk gSA blls T;knk eSa dqN ugha tkurk FkkA mUgksaus eq>ls dgk fd dqedqe xkuk xkrh gqbZ vk;saxh vkSj tc og ihNs ls vkdj vkids daèks ij gkFk j[ksaxh rks vkidks mUgsa :Bdj dksuh ekjdj nwj djuk gSA vc tSls dqedqe us ihNs ls vkdj esjs daèks ij gkFk j[kk vkSj tks eSaus dksguh ekjh] rks dqedqe nwj tk fxjhaA mUgsa FkksM+h pksV Hkh vk;h rks eSaus muls dgk fd D;k vkidks irk ugha Fkk fd dksguh ekjus dk lhu gSA rc Mk;jsDVj cksys fd nkjk vkidks dksguh ekjus dh ,fDVax djuh gS] u fd tksj ls dksguh ekjdj igyokuh fn[kkuh gSA [kSj] bu lHkh eqf'dyksa ds ckotwn mUgksaus eq>s cjnk'r fd;k vkSj vfHkusrk cuk fn;kA ^fdaxdkax* fgV gksus ds ckn ml rjg dh fQYe dk nkSj py fudyk vkSj bl rjg dh fQYe pkj&ikap lky rd [kwc cuhA ^gjD;wfyl*] ^lselu*] ^QkSykn*] ^#Lres&cxnkn* vkfn vkSj lHkh pyhaA yksx bl fQYe ykbu esa vkus ds fy, fdrus mRlqd jgrs gSa] fdruk la?k"kZ djrs gSa exj bl ekeys esa eSa ydh jgkA eq>s dqN ugha djuk iM+kA igyokuh ds ne ij gh 'kk;n eq>s ;g lc fey x;k] ysfdu igyoku cuus ds fy, eq>s tks ikiM+ csyus iM+s og eSa gh tkurk gwa vkSj vxj ckgj ;s ikiM+ csyus iM+rs rks 'kk;n vklku gksrk] ysfdu ;gka rks ?kj esa gh dksbZ jkth ugaha FkkA igyokuh ls fdlh dks dksbZ yxko ugha Fkk] cfYd ;g le>k tkrk Fkk fd igyoku flQZ [kkrs gSa vkSj iM+s jgrs gS]a dke&èkaèks ds rks gksrs ughaA vxj igyoku u cu lds rks cnek'k cu tkrs gSa vkSj esjk vkye ;g Fkk fd xkao esa dqf'r;ka yM+rs fQjukA eq>s vkt Hkh og fnu ;kn gS] tc xkao ds esys esa eSaus dq'rh thrh Fkh vkSj eq>s vkB vkus buke esa feys FksA ml fnu cgqr [kq'k gqvk FkkA bruh [kq'kh eq>s vkt yk[kksa #i;s ikdj ugha gksrh ftruh og vkB vkus feyus ij gqbZ FkhA 12

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bèkj esjs ifjokj esa T;knkrj fctusl eSu Fks vkSj Hkkjr ls ckgj Hkh vkuk tkuk yxk jgrk FkkA fygktk eq>s Hkh esjs pkpk ds ikl flaxkiqj Hkst fn;k x;kA ml oDr eSa lksyg&l=g o"kZ dk FkkA ogka eSa dke&èkaèks ds mn~ns'; ls x;k Fkk] ysfdu ogka igqapk rks ns[kk fd jslfyax ¼dq'rh½ ogka Hkh tksjksa ij gSA esjk 'kjhj vPNk Fkk rks ogka tks fgUnqLrkuh Fks og dgus yxs fd rqe rks cus cuk;s igyoku gks] fQj VªkbZ D;ksa ugha djrsA rc eSaus vius pkpkth ls dgk fd eSa jslyj cuuk pkgrk gwa 'kq: ls gh ysfdu dksbZ eq>s izksRlkfgr ugha djrkA fQj mUgksaus eq>ls dgk fd os esjh [kqjkd dk cankscLr djsxa s vkSj ogha ls eSua s O;kolkf;d :i ls dq'rh yM+uk 'kq: fd;kA mu fnuksa eSa 3&4 ?kaVs O;k;ke jkst fd;k djrk Fkk vkSj esjh [kqjkd Fkh& 250 xzke ?kh] 200 xzke cknke] ,d eqxsZ dk lwi] 6 v.Ms nwèk esa QsaVdj] 3 yhVj nwèk vkSj blds vykok lhtu ds lHkh Qy vkSj lfCt;kaA mu fnuksa esjs cky cgqr cM+s Fks vkSj eSa ijaijkxr :i ls cky ckaèkk djrk Fkk ysfdu tc eSaus ,d xq# cuk;k nkao isap lh[kus ds fy, rks mUgksua s dgk fd cky dkVus gksxsa ]s ojuk os eq>s ugha fl[kk;sxa As eSua s lkspk dgha cky dVk fy, vkSj igyoku ugha cu ldk rks xM+cM+ gks tk;sxh] ?kj ykSVdj rks esjh [kSj ughaA 'kqØ gS fd ,slk ugha gqvkA ogka ls eSa vU; ns'kksa esa Hkh dqf'r;ka yM+us x;k vkSj fgUnqLrku vk;kA lu~ 1954 esa eq>s ^#Lre&,&fgan* dk f[krkc fey x;kA exj esjk liuk Fkk ^oYMZ pSafi;u* cuus dk] tks iwjk gqvk 1968 esa vkSj mlds ckn eSa dHkh dksbZ dq'rh ugha gkjkA blh chp ,d vkSj fnDdr vk;hA tc ckgj ns'k ds dkaVªsDV eq>s lkbu djus iM+rs rks og lHkh vaxzsth esa gksrs FksA ftl dkxt ij eSa lkbu dj jgk gwa mlesa D;k fy[kk gS ;gh eq>s le> esa ugha vkrk FkkA eq>s ,slk yxrk fd dHkh Hkh èkks[kk gks ldrk gS] rkS eSaus flaxkiqj esa gh vko';d vaxzsth dk Kku izkIr fd;k vkSj tc fQYeksa esa vk;k rc fgUnh dh ijs'kkuh D;ksfa d esjh fgUnh esa gfj;k.koh iqV Fkk vkSj esjk ry¶Qqt ¼mPpkj.k½ Hkh Bhd ugha FkkA rks esjh izkjafHkd fQYeksa esa esjh Mfcax fdlh vkSj us dhA vkf[kj ,slk dc rd pyrkA fygktk ;gka Hkh eSua s ekLVj j[kk tks mnwZ fl[kkrs Fks vkSj fgUnh dk lgh mPpkj.k djus dk vH;kl djkrs FksA

tc rd eSa jslfyax djrk jgk] eSaus fQYeksa dks ges'kk nwljs LFkku ij j[kkA eSa rkjh[ksa Hkh vius vuqlkj gh fn;k djrk FkkA fQYeksa dk izHkko eSua s dHkh jslfyax ij ugha iM+us fn;kA lu~ 1983 esa eSua s fnYyh esa jk"Vªifr ds lkeus ,ukmalesVa ¼mn~?kks"k.kk½ dh fd eSa jslfyax NksM jgk gwa tks yM+us dk bPNqd gks og yM+ ysA pkj dqf'r;ka gqbZa vkSj og pkjksa eSa thrk vkSj jslfyax NksM+h rc esjs tks QSUl Fks jslfyax ds] muds [kr vkus 'kq: gq, fd eSaus jslfyax D;ksa NksM+h] oxSjg&oxSjgA ,d [kr dh igyh iafDr rks eq>s vkt Hkh ;kn gSA fdlh us fy[kk Fkk ^^vki rks fgUnqLrku ds Hkhe gSa fQj ctkrs D;ksa chu gSa**A mldk dgus dk eryc Fkk fd igyokuh NksM+dj dgka ukpus&xkus okyksa esa 'kkfey gks x;sA T;knkrj yksxksa dk ekuuk gS fd igyoku tM+efr gksrs gS]a lgu'khyrk muesa ugha gksrh] fdlh ls Hkh >xM+ ysrs gSa ysfdu ,slk ugha gSA esjk rks vkt rd lsV ij fdlh ls >xM+k ugha gqvk vkSj u gh NksVh&eksVh ckrksa ij eq>s xqLlk vkrk gSA ;gka rks bulku Fks] ftUgsa iqfyl us laHkkykA exj tjk lksfp, ;fn lsV ij 'ksj tSlk [krjukd tkuoj gks vkSj og csdkcw gks rks D;k gks\ vkSj vDlj ,slk gks tkrk gSA esjs lkFk Hkh nks ckj ,slk gqvk gSA igyh ckj tc fQYe ^lselu* esa 'ksj ls yM+us dk lhu Fkk rks dSejk rks nwj Fkk] 'ksj dk ekLVj lkbM esa [kM+k Fkk vkSj eSa nksuksa gkFkksa ls 'ksj dks idM+s [kM+k FkkA tc lhu fy;k tkus yxk rks 'ksj dh dksbZ izfrfØ;k gh ughaA rc ekLVj us dgk fd ;g ,sls dqN ugha djsxk bls tjk rkdr ls nckdj idfM+, A eSaus dgk Bhd gSA vc vxys lhu esa eSaus mldh xnZu nckbZ rks og FkksM+k fgyk&MqykA eSaus FkksM+k&lk vkSj tksj yxk fn;kA cl ;g mlls cjnk'r ugha gqvk vkSj mlus eq>ls NwVus ds fy, 8&9 QhV Åaph Nykax yxkbZA mlds lkFk eSa Hkh mNydj ,d vksj fxjkA eSaus lkspk ;g eq>ls fcxM+ x;k vkSj eq>s Hkkxuk pkfg,A eSa rqjar mBdj mlls nwj Hkkxk] mèkj og Hkh QqrhZ ls mBdj esjs Åij yidkA mldk iatk esjh ihB ij iM+k] ysfdu eSua s peM+s dh csYV igu j[kh Fkh blfy, mldk vkèkk iatk ml csYV ij vk;k vkSj eq>s gYdh&lh [kjkspa vk;h] rc rd ml ij dkcw dj fy;k x;kA ^gj gj egknso* esa eSa egknso cuk vkSj xys esa lkai flus e k&2005

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Mkyus dh ckr vk;h rks eSua s dgk fd eSa vlyh lkai xys esa ugha Mkywxa kA rc udyh lkai eaxok;k x;k vkSj og eSua s xys esa MkykA ysfdu fQYe ^yydkj* esa jkekuan lkxj th ugha ekusA mUgksaus rks xys esa vtxj Mky gh fn;kA ^yydkj* esa lhu Fkk fd ge QkSth taxy ls xqtjrs gSa vkSj jkLrs esa eq>s vtxj tdM+ ysrk gS vkSj èkesUZ nz] jktsUnz dqekj vkSj eSa feydj mls NqMk+ dj Qsd a rs gSaA jkekuan th ls Hkh eSaus ogh jV yxkbZ fd ;g lhu eSa ugha d:axk rks mUgksaus og vtxj mBkdj vius xys esa Mky fy;k vkSj dgus yxs fd ns[kks ;g dqN djrk gS\ tc mUgksaus ,slk fd;k rks eSa Hkh foo'k gks x;k] cgjgky eSaus og lhu fd;k] nks&rhu fjVsd gq,] nks&rhu ckj ml vtxj ds lkFk geus [khapk&rkuh dh vkSj mls nwj Qsd a k vkSj fQj 'kwfw Vax ds ckn fdlh us vkdj crk;k fd og vtxj ej x;kA eSa vius vfèkdka'kr% LVaV lhu [kqn gh fd;k djrk Fkk] ysfdu ukpuk esjs fy, tjk Vs<+h [khj FkhA mlds fy, eq>s dHkh&dHkh MqIyhdsV dk lgkjk ysuk iM+rk Fkk tSls ^gj&gj egknso* esa tc eSa rkaMo djrk gwa rks Hkyk og rkaMo esjs cl dk dgka FkkA blfy, mlds lHkh ykax 'kkV~l esa xksihd`".k us esjs MqIyhdsV ds :i esa rkaMo u`R; fd;k Fkk] ysfdu D;k vkidks irk gS fd eSa ,d fQYe esa vkSjr cudj ukpk gw]a fQYe Fkh ^fdyj*A njvly blls igys ,d fQYe vk;h Fkh ^yqVsjk*] ftlesa eSaus FkksM+h&lh nsj ds fy, vkSjr dk :i èkkj.k fd;k Fkk] tc gekjs tgkt dks ?ksj fy;k tkrk gS rc muls cpus ds fy,A u tkus eSa yksxksa dks vkSjr ds :i esa dSls ilan vk x;k vkSj rc gh ls ftls ns[kks] ogh vkSjr cukus esa rqyk gSA rc ,d fuekZrk o funsZ'kd ds tksj nsus ij ^fdyj* esa eSa vkSjr cuk vkSj mUgksaus ,d iwjk xhr gh esjs Åij vkSjr ds :i esa 'kwV dj fn;kA vc mlesa dgka&dgka MqIyhdsV bLrseky djrs] fygktk eq>s gh ukpuk iM+kA mlds ckn eSaus dbZ èkkfeZd fQYeksa esa dke fd;k ^gj gj egknso*] ^cyjke&Jhd`".k*] ^ohj Hkhelsu* vkfnA ;s lHkh fQYesa lQy jgha] ysfdu bu lHkh ls cgqpfpZr vkSj yksdfiz; fQYe jgh ^ctjax cyh*A mlds ckn rks tgka ctjax cyh dh ckr vkrh Fkh] eq>s gh cqyk;k tkus yxk] vkSj ^jkek;.k* lhfj;y esa rks eSa guqeku th ds jksy esa LFkkfir gh dj fn;k x;kA cgqr 14

flus e k&2005

vPNs <ax ls izLrqr fd;k Fkk jkekuan lkxj usA pwfa d guqeku th esjs b"V nso gSa blfy, eq>s Hkh ;g jksy djus esa vkuan dh vuqHkwfr gqbAZ eSaus dbZ fQYeksa dk fuekZ.k o funsZ'ku Hkh fd;kA funs'Z kd Hkh eSa ftn esa cukA mu fnuksa ,d fQYe vkbZ Fkh iatkch esa ^ukud uke tgku* tks eq>s vPNh yxh vkSj oSlh gh ,d fQYe cukus dk fu'p; fd;k eSaus] vkSj 1970 esa ^ukud nqf[k;k lc lalkj* cukbZ] ftlesa funsZ'kd ds :i esa fy;k x;k cynso >haxM+ dks] tks igys dbZ fQYesa cuk pqds FksA ysfdu fLØIV dks ysdj muls fookn 'kq: gks x;kA og bls cnyuk pkgrs Fks eSaus euk fd;k rks mUgksaus dgk fd vxj ,slk gh gS rks [kqn gh Mk;jsDV dj yksA ;g ckr tjk yx xbZ vkSj eSa funs'Z kd cu cSBkA ;g fQYe [kwc pyhA blds ckn dbZ fgUnh fQYesa cukbZa ^esjk ns'k esjk èkje*] ^HkfDr esa 'kfDr*] ^fdlku vkSj Hkxoku* vkfnA esjh cukbZ vafre fQYe Fkh ^#Lre* tks 1982 esa fjyht gqbZ Fkh vkSj mlds nl lky ckn fQj ^dju* dk fuekZ.k fd;kA ;g fQYe eSaus vius csVs foanw ¼ohjsanz½ ds fy, cukbZ A mls fQYeksa esa dke djus dk cM+k 'kkSd gSA vkt rks baMLVªh us rduhdh :i ls dkQh rjDdh dj yh gSA fQYe cukus dk] mls ns[kus dk utfj;k Hkh cny x;k gSA ;g ns[kdj cgqr [kq'kh gksrh gS] ysfdu ik'pkR; lH;rk dks viukdj fcuk otg v'yhy n`'; fn[kkuk mfpr ugha gS] vkSj lsDl tc rd insZ esa jgrk gS rc rd gh mRrstd gksrk gS ;fn mls mtkxj dj fn;k tk;s rks v'yhyrk dgykrk gSA ^ohj Hkhelsu* dh vkmVMksj 'kwfVax t;iqj esa cgqr fnu pyhA eSa Hkh pandz kar HkkbZ ds fuekZ.k foHkkx esa FkkA vkmVMksj esa nkjkth ls ckrsa djus dk cgqr le; feyrk FkkA mlh le; mUgksua s ns'k vkSj fons'k ds cgqr vuqHko lquk;s& vius HkkbZ jaèkkok dks os [kwc I;kj djrs Fks ysfdu eqerkt dh cgu ls lEcUèk mudks ilUn ugha FkkA mudks ml le; D;k ekywe Fkk fd mudk csVk Hkh HkkbZ dh rjg yo eSfjt djsxk Qjgk ds lkFkA


Le` f r;ka

fQYeksa esa ekfy'k djus okyksa dh dekbZ dk dksbZ fglkc ugha ekfy'k djrs gSa] osru ugha ysrs buke ysrs gSaA dgrs gSa fnyhi lkgc us bZn ij ?kj ds lkjs cPpksa dks diM+s fnyok fn;s vkSj eq>s Hkh ,d gtkj dh bZnh nhA muls eSa esgurkuk D;k ekxwaxkA dbZ dykdkjksa ds ekfy'k okys gksrs gSaA dbZ dks dHkh&dHkh le; feyrk gS ekfy'k dk] ysfdu ekfy'k okys ?kj igqap gh tkrs gSaA ekfy'k okys ryoydj ds gksrs gSaA mudk osru ,d fnu dk <kbZ ls ikap lkS rd gksrk gSA dqN ekfy'k djus okys jkstxkj dh ryk'k esa vkdj dqN ugha feyrk] rks ekfy'k okys cu tkrs gSaA eq>s Hkh vknr gS ekfy'k djkus dhA ,d fnu ,d cqtqxZ ekfy'k okyk LoxhZ; vkj-Mh- ekFkqj lkgc ds ;gka fey x;kA eSa muds lkeus gh jgrk FkkA fQj D;k Fkk] ftl fnu og vkrk dbZ dykdkjksa ds ?kj dh nkLrku lqukrk vkSj ekfy'k djrk tkrkA dqN fnu ckn fQYeksa esa dke djus okyk ,d iqjkuk ekfy'k okyk fey x;kA mldk uke Fkk ekLVj vthtA muds fnypLi laLej.k vki Hkh lqu yhft, % mLrkn dgrs Fks] gquj dksbZ Hkh csdkj ugha tkrkA fQj tks gquj eSaus lh[kk Fkk] ob bruk eqQhl gksxk] ;g eq>s gh D;k ekywe FkkA 'kqØ gS ,d vkSj gquj mUgksaus vius fy, lh[k fy;k Fkk] ojuk [kqnk tkus xfnZ'k mUgsa dgka ys tkrh\ ,d [kkl vUnkt gS mudk] os utjksa ls utj ugha feykrsA viuk dke djrs tkrs gSaA fdLlk c;ku djrs tkrs gSaA dgrs gSa dqy feykdj Ms<+ lkS fQYeksa esa dke dj pqdk gwaA ysfdu og Hkh D;k fnu FksA eghuk iwjk gksrk Fkk vkSj daiuh ds ekfyd ru[okg ds uksV gkFk esa idM+k nsrs FksA u T;knk gk;&gk;] u T;knk nkSM+&èkwiA ets ls ,d daiuh idM+hA vc daiuh dh ethZ gS fd og vkidks ghjks cuk ns ;k foysuA oSls tekus ds fygkt ls iSls Hkh de ugha feyrs FksA tehu&tk;nkn dh dher u FkhA le>rs Fks geha ge gSaA vDy rks rc vk;h tc tksM+us dh dkSM+h Hkh ugha jghA vpkud gh ^Mkmu Qky* gks x;kA og rks lcdh ftUnxh esa vkrk gSA etk rks rc gS] tc vkneh gquj ds lgkjs fQj Hkh ftUnk jgsA ,d ckj 'kjhj dqN <hykiu fn[kk x;k] rks mLrkn us lcd fn;k] cnu lEHkky dj j[kksxs] rks og yk[k dk gksxk] ugha rks [kkd dk Hkh ughaA ,d ckj ckr djrs ekLVj vtht crkus yxs] ^^lquhy nRr lkgc D;k vPNs vkneh gSaA ckrphr esa D;k] O;ogkj esa D;k\ os gj ckr esa vPNs bUlku gSaA ,d fnu dgus yxs] ^^nsf[k, ekLVj th] esjk isV c<+us yxk gS**A eSaus ns[kk vkSj eqLdjk mBkA os gSjku gks x;sA iwNk] ^^vkf[kj ckr D;k gS\** eSaus dgk] ^lkgc*] isV ugha c<+k gS jrorsa c<+h gSaA fQj ekfy'k dh rtoht j[kh vkSj os eku x;sA tc eSaus cslu dk ysi rS;kj fd;k] rks lquhy nRr lkgc ?kcM+k;sA ysfdu fQj ufxZl th us mUgsa le>k;k% ekLVj bl QhYM esa u;s ugha gSa] rks eku x;s vkSj fQj tks eSaus nl fnu dk dkslZ fn;k] rks os [kqn gh [kq'k gks x;sA dgus yxs % vtht lkgc tc Hkh fdlh pht dh t:jr gks t:j gqDe djsaA ^^t:jrsa rks lkgc lc blh gquj ls iwjh gksrh gS] ysfdu [kqnk ch-vkj- pksiM+k dh lyker j[ksa] eSa cPpksa dh lsok dk iSlk ugha ysrkA ,d MkDVj lkgc Fks] mUgksaus pksiM+k th ls esjh flQkfj'k dj nhA pksiM+k lkgc us ekfy'k djk;h vkSj dgus yxs] cPpksa ij Hkh nks gkFk Qsj nhft,A cl ,d nks fnu esa gh lc dh jaxr fQjus yxhA os mNy&dwnus yxsA pksiM+k lkgc gkFk esa jde idM+kus yxs] eSaus dgk ugha] cPps Hkxoku dh nsu gSaA tSls os vkids] oSls esjsA [kqnk mUgsa cjdr nsA [kqn dek;saxs rks pkj iSls muls Hkh ysus esa ,rjkt u gksxkA cMh&cM+h txgksa ij rkjhQsa gqbAaZ lkgc jktsUnz dqekj us Hkh cqyk HkstkA ysfdu ekfy'k djkus ls os drjk;sA eSua s cgqr bljkj fd;k] vkf[kj ,sls cseqjOor D;ksa gq, tkrs gSa\ os eqLdjk,] dgus yxs] ^^ckr ;g gS vtht fe;ka] vki cqtqxZ vkneh gaSA vkils ekfy'k djokrs 'kje vkrh gS**A cl lkgc] eSaus mlh 'kke lj esa f[ktkc yxk fn;kA nwljs fnu jktsUnz lkgc mNy iM+sA ;g gqbZ u ckr vkSj mUgksaus Hkh ekfy'k dk iwjk dkslZ ys fy;k vkSj fQj mudh tks jrwcr fudyh vkSj psgjs ij fu[kkj vk;k] mldk D;k dgukA vc mudks Hkfo"; dh fpUrk ugha gSA jkst u;s dykdkj vkrs gSa vkSj cM+s&cM+s dykdkj mudh flQkfj'k dj nsrs gSa vkSj dke bruk fey tkrk gS fd nks 'kkfxZn j[k NksM+s gSaA flus e k&2005

15


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izk.k viuh futh ftUnxh esa [kyuk;d dHkh ugha jgs

tSls lHkh vius csVs dks dqN cukus dk iz;Ru djrs gSa] oSlk gh izk.k us Hkh fd;kA ysfdu fdlh dh lgk;rk ugha yhA muds ,d vPNs bZekunkj lfpo Fks yfyr HkkbZA os fuekZrkvksa ls fu;fer mudh fd'rsa ysrs FksA muds ikl ges'kk gh cgqr dke jgkA iSlk Hkh cgqr vkrk FkkA mUgksaus lfpo ls dg fn;k Fkk fd lc iSlk ysdj vius ikl j[kksA eq>s igyh rkjh[k dks ,d lkFk ns fn;k djksA ;g flyflyk pyrk jgkA jkst iSlk vkrk] ?kj esa jgrkA lfpo dh iRuh dks yxk ifrnso bruk dekrs gSaA [kpZ dqN djrs gh ughaA og ,d fnu iwjs eghus dh fdLr nl yk[k #i;s ysdj Hkkx x;hA izk.k lkgc dks yfyr HkkbZ us tkdj QkSju crk fn;kA izk.k lkgc cksys] vPNk gqvkA rqEgkjk xyr vkSjr ls fiaM NwV x;kA ^^rqEgsa gh NksM+ x;h rks esjs iSls dk D;k\** ;g gS izk.k lkgc dk LoHkkoA ftl fQYe esa dke dj jgs gks mlesa izk.k vk tkrk gSA izk.k dh fQYeh thou dh 'kq:vkr ykgkSj esa cuh iatkch fQYe ^;eyk tV* ls gqbZ FkhA og fQYe ,slh Fkh ftlesa mudh NksVh lh Hkwfedk FkhA fQj vk;h ^pkSèkjh* blesa Hkh mudh Hkwfedk dksbZ [kkl ugha FkhA blds ckn fQYe ^[kkunku* esa os uwjtgka ds uk;d cusA rRi'pkr ^[ktkaph* rFkk ^nklh* tSlh dqN fQYeksa esa fo'ks"k Hkwfedk,a djus ds ckn izk.k eqEcbZ vk x;sA ;gka urZdh dqDdw dh flQkfj'k ij mUgsa nso vkuUn dkfeuh dkS'ky vfHkuhr fQYe ^ftn~nh* esa [kyuk;d dk vfHku; djus dk ekSdk feykA bl fQYe esa mUgksaus vius rh[ks rsoj ls vfr 'kh?kz èkkd tek yhA blds ckn izk.k fgUnh flusek ds ijns ij cqjs ls cqjs vkneh cu x, vkSj flxjsV ij flxjsV ihdj èkq,a ls NYys cukdj flusek gky esa vkrad QSykuk muds ck,a gkFk dk [ksy cu x;k FkkA ^tathj* esa :eky ckaèk iBkuh xsVvi esa ,d lPps oQknkj nksLr 'ksj[kku dh Hkwfedk esa izk.k dk vfHku; csfelky gSA egkRek ds pfj= dks izk.k us bruh dq'kyrk ls ft;k fd os ekuks ik= dh vkRek esa foyhu gks x;s gSaA [kyuk;d dh best dks izk.k us fQYe ^midkj* esa ,d >Vds ls bl vankt ls m[kkM+ Qsadk fd n'kZd okg&okg dj mBsA bl fQYe esa izk.k us ,d ,sls ik= dh Hkwfedk fuHkk;h Fkh tks yaxM+k gksus ds ckotwn lekt dh cqjkb;ksa ds f[kykQ vkokt mBkrk gSA eyax ckck ds :i esa tc os fQYe ds ijns ij vk, rks n'kZd mudh cnekf'k;ksa dks Hkwy x,A mUgsa izk.k ls lgkuqHkwfr gks x;hA izk.k vc rd djhc 500 fQYeksa esa dke dj pqds gSAa gj fQYe esa mUgksua s viuh vfHku; dyk ds tkSgj fn[kk;s gSAa mudh Hkwfedkvksa esa fgalk dh yiVsa gSa rks lân;rk dk ejge HkhA ftUnxh dh [kqf'k;ksa dk ,glkl gS rks le; dh {k.k Hkaxqjrk dk ;FkkFkZ HkhA laiw.kZrk muesa gj :i esa izfrfcafcr gqbZ gSA 60 o"kks± ls izk.k ds vfHku; ds fdrus gh tqnk&tqnk [kkds gSaA lc ,d ls ,d vyx vkSj ckjhdh ls rjk'ks gq,A os vkt Hkh oSls gh gSa tSls igys FksA fQYeksa vkSj n'kZdksa esa mUgksaus pkj ihf<+;ksa ds n'kZu fd;s gSaA ihf<+;ka cnyrh jgha] fQYesa cnyrh jgha] fQYeksa ds n'kZd cnyrs jgs] ysfdu izk.k ugha cnysA gka mudh vfHku; 'kSyh t:j cnyrh jghA Hkwfedkvksa esa rCnhyh izk.k vkt Hkh ilan djrs gSaA ;g izk.k ds fy, iz'kalk dh ckr gS fd fQYe ds cM+s ls cM+s funsZ'kd vkSj ys[kd bl ckr dh izrh{kk vkt Hkh djrs gSa fd izk.k lkgc fQYe dh csgrjh ds fy, dksbZ [kwclwjr Vp ;k cf<+;k&lh lykg ns nsa] D;ksafd mUgsa fo'okl gS fd izk.k nwljksa dh rjg flQZ viuh Hkwfedk ls gh ugha] cfYd iwjh fQYe ls lacaèk j[krs gSaA 16

flus e k&2005


Le` f r;ka

fQYeks | ks x dh fofp= vla x fr;ka ,d ckj ,d fo[;kr Dyc dh ehfVax esa ,d cM+s Qk;usalj us fQYe m|ksx ds lacaèk esa vius fopkj izdV djrs gq, dgk& ^^bl m|ksx esa ;k rks cgqr ckSf)d oxZ ds ¼baVsfytsaV½ yksx vkrs gSa tks ;gh le>rs gSa fd os fQYeksa ds ckjs esa ftruk lgh tkurs gSa mruk vkSj dksbZ ughaA os flusek dks ilZuy flusek ekudj ,slh vViVh fQYesa cuk nsrs gSa tks fQYeksa dh izokfgr èkkjk ls drbZ esy ugha [kkrhA ,slh ilZuy flusek dh ilZuy fQYeksa dks vke n'kZd xzg.k ugha dj ikrsA ifj.kkeLo:i yk[kksa dh ykxr okyh ;s fQYesa ,d lIrkg rks D;k pkj fnu Hkh ugha py ikrhA Hkyk vki gh crkb,] ilZuy flusek ds bu cqf)ekuksa dks Qk;usal dkSu nsxkA tks djsxk og [kqn muds lkFk fnokfy;k gks tk,xkA fQYe Qk;usla dkjiksj's ku& jk"Vªh; fQYe fodkl fuxe ¼,u,QMhlh½ djhc 80&90 yk[k #i;k&Hkkjrh; turk ds [kwu&ilhus dh dekbZ & ,slh fQYeksa ij ikuh dh rjg cgk pqdk gSA bl ckSf)d oxZ ds vykok dqN vfo'oluh; NaVs xksj[kèkaèkh XySej ds lEeksgu esa f[kap pys vkrs gSaA os dHkh fQYe fuekZ.k ds izfr oQknkj vkSj xaHkhj ugha jgrsA os dqN Qk;usaljksa dks izyksHku nsdj] dqN u, lqanj psgjksa dh >yd fn[kkdj liuksa Hkjs vk'okluksa ds tky esa Qalk ysrs gSaA os fQYeksa dk eqgqrZ djrs gSa] u'khyh ikfVZ;ksa ij gtkjksa #i;k ikuh dh rjg cgkrs gSaA dqN u, psgjksa dks Vki ds ghjks ghjksbu cukus dk >kalk nsdj mUgsa xqejkg djrs gSaA fQj xqyNjsZ mM+kdj viuk cSuj cny nsrs gSaA vkSj blh Øe dks nqgjkus ds fy, ,d u;k Øe izkjaHk dj nsrs gSaA fiNys nl o"kZ esa bl :i&fØ;k ls djhc rhu gtkj fQYeksa dk eqgqrZ gks pqdk gS tks dHkh cuus okyh ugha gSaA fQYeksa ds pDdj esa djksM+ksa #i;s yx pqds gSaA ;g jk"Vªh; iwath dk nq#i;ksx gSA Hkyk crkb,] eSa ,sls O;olk; ij iwath D;ksa yxkÅa\ blls vPNk rks ;gh gS fd eSa 'ks;j [kjhn ywaxk----** mUgksua s tks dqN dgk] mldh lR;rk dks udkjk ugha tk ldrkA ,sls xksj[kèkaèkh yksxksa ij vad'q k yxkus ds fy, Li"V fQYe fuekZ.k uhfr cukdj dkuwu cuk, tk ldrs gSaA ij tc fQYe ds Lo;a d.kZèkkj lud esa vlaxfr;ka mRiUu djrs gSa rks ml ij dSls fu;a=.k j[kk tk,A fQYe m|ksx dh lcls cM+h tfVy leL;k ;gh gSA lu~ 1951 esa Lo- ds- vkflQ us fuEeh dks eq[; ghjksbu cukdj ^ySyk etuaw* izkjaHk dh FkhA dqN fnuksa ckn ml fQYe dh lkjh rS;kjh dks jn~n dj mUgksaus ^eqxy&,&vkte* dks fQj ls izkjaHk dj fn;kA ftls mUgksaus lu~ 1947 esa can dj fn;k FkkA ^eqxy&,&vkte* dks cuus esa dqy 14 lky yx x,A mldh vikj lQyrk ds ckn mUgksaus fQj ls ^yo ,aM xkWM* izkjaHk dh tks mudh LFkfxr ^ySyk etuw* dk u;k :ikarj FkhA blesa mUgksaus fuEeh ds lkFk xq#nRr dks fy;kA ij fQYe dh xfr vR;ar èkheh Fkh vkSj vdLekr xq#nRr dk nsgkar gks x;kA mldh xfr fQj eaFkj gks x;hA bl fQYe dh cq>rh gqbZ T;ksfr dks mUgksaus fQj ls latho dqekj dks ysdj txk;k ij mlds igys fQYe dks jks'kuh feys] os Lo;a py clsA mlds ckn ds-vkflQ ds ifjokjokyksa esa ml fQYe dks ysdj okn&fookn gks x,A fQYe baMLVªh ds fdlh Hkh O;fDr us bl fQYe dks iw.kZ djus dh fn'kk esa dne mBk;k ughaA ckn esa cksdkfM+;k us fgEer fn[kk;h ij rc rd dkQh nsj gks pqdh FkhA ml fQYe dks iwjh djus dh fn'kk esa dne mBk, gh tk jgs Fks fd latho dqekj py clsA urhtk ;g gqvk fd ds-lh- cksdkfM+;k dks ml vèkwjh fQYe dks mlh :i esa iznf'kZr djuk iM+kA ij og fgV ugha gqbZA mUgsa djksM+ksa dk ?kkVk mBkuk iM+kA blh rjg lu~ 1952 esa fQYedkj us deky vejksgh funsZ'kd cukdj ^vukjdyh* dks izkjaHk fd;k ftlesa vukjdyh dh Hkwfedk eèkqckyk dks nh xbZ FkhA ij ds- vkflQ us eèkqckyk dks viuh ^eqxy&,&vkte* esa ys fy;kA rc deky vejksgh us mlds LFkku ij ehukdqekjh dks fy;kA vthr mlesa fizal lyhe dk jksy dj jgs FksA ml fQYe dh 'kwfVax Hkh izkjaHk gks xbZ Fkh] vkSj vfuy fo'okl ds laxhr funsZ'ku esa yrk eaxs'kdj ds Lojksa esa Lojc) fd, x, ,d xkus dks ehukdqekjh ij fQYek;k Hkh x;kA ij vpkud fuekZrkvksa us fcuk Li"Vhdj.k vkSj dkj.k crk, ml fQYe dks LFkfxr dj fn;kA blh rjg blh fuekZ.k laLFkk fQYedkj us viuh egRokdka{kh fQYe ^f'kdok* dks Hkh] ftldh nl jhysa cu pqdh Fkh] fcuk lcc crk, can dj fn;kA ml fQYe dh dgkuh vkSj iVdFkk ds-vCckl vkSj oh-ih- lkBs us feydj rS;kj dh FkhA mlesa fnyhi dqekj vkSj uwru dh tksMh+ vius vfHku; flus e k&2005

17


Le` f r;ka

thou dh Js"Bre Hkwfedk,a dj jgs FksA bu nksuksa egRoiw.kZ fQYeksa dks can djus dk jgL; vkt rd fdlh Hkh O;fDr dks le> esa ugha vk;k tcfd fQYedkj dh vU; lHkh fQYesa fgV gks pqdh FkhaA ^nhnkj* tSls mRd`"V lQy fQYe dk fuekZ.k blh fuekZ.k laLFkku ds cSuj rys gqvk FkkA jkts'k [kUuk us deky vejksgh ds funsZ'ku esa ,d eYVhdkLV fQYe ^etuw* dk vkj-ds-LVwfM;ks esa cM+s 'kku 'kkSdr ds lkFk HkO; eqgqrZ dk la;kstu fd;kA ml ij ykk[kksa #i;s dh èkqvkaèkkj ifCyflVh Hkh dh xbZ Fkh ij u tkus D;ks]a og ,d dne Hkh vkxs ugha c<+ ldhA blh rjg jkts'k [kUuk vkSj ch-lh'kadj us egcwc LVwfM;ks esa ,d tsEl ckaM fQYe dk iwathoknh eqgrq Z fd;kA ml eqgrq Z ds fy, LVwfM;ks esa ,d gqcgw lceSfju dk lSV cuk;k x;kA ml le; rd bruk fo'kky oSKkfud midj.k dk lSV ugha cuk ftl ij yk[kksa #i;s [kpZ gks x, FksA ij og iuMqCch Hkh eqca bZ ds lkxj esa Mwc xbZA bu nksuksa fQYeksa ia j yk[kksa #i;s feV~Vh esa feyk fn, x,A bl vlaxfr ds fy, dkSu ftEesnkj gSA fQYeksa dh vdky e`R;q blh rjg deky vejksgh ds funsZ'ku esa cuus okyh djksM+ksa ykxr okyh fQYe ^vkf[kjh eqxy* vkSj dud feJk ds funs'Z ku esa cuus okyh HkO;re fQYe ^oru* Hkh can dj nh xbZA bu nksuksa fQYeksa dh rS;kjh esa de ls de 70&80 yk[k #i, Lokgk gks x,A ij ;g dksbZ viokn ;k nq?kZVuk ugha gSA tc ls fQYeas cuuh 'kq: gqbZ gSa& ,d fofp= vlaxfr ns[kh xbZ gS fd gj lky vusd fQYesa viw.kZ jg tkrh gSaA dqN fQYeksa dh rks eqgqrZ ds rRdky ckn gh vdky e`R;q gks tkrh gSA dqN dh dqN 'kwfVax ds ckn lkal [kRe gks tkrh gSA dqN fQYesa rks 14&14 jhy cudj Hkh lacafèkr O;fDr;ksa ds fooknksa ls fMCcksa esa can gSaA dqN lsalj gks tkus ds ckn Hkh fFk;sVjksa ij ugha vk ik jgh gSaA lSdM+ksa ,slh fQYesa gSa tks cudj rS;kj gSa&ij muds fuekZrkvksa ds ikl fizaV fudkyus ds fy, iwath ugha gSA dqN fQYesa blfy, #dh iM+h gSa fd mudh Mfcax ugha gks ik jgh gS] D;ksfa d mlds O;Lr vkfVZLVksa ds ikl Mfcax djus dh MsV~l ugha gSa & dqN fQYeksa dh izxfr blfy, te xbZ gS fd mlds ghjks vc dsoy 'ks"k nks fnu dh 'kwfVax dk Hkh le; ugha ns ik jgs gSaA ;fn fQYe baMLVªh ds d.kZèkkj mu fMCCkksa esa can fQYeksa dh eqfDr dk iz;kl djsa rks lewps fQYe m|ksx esa vk'kk dh u;h ygj QSy tk,xhA ;g dksbZ cM+k eqf'dy dk;Z ugha gSA ;g 18

flus e k&2005

tulaidZ vkSj ln~Hkkouk dk dk;Z gSA fQYe baMLVªh dk ml fnu lcls cM+k lekjksg vkSj mRlo gksxk tc bu fMCcksa esa can fQYeksa dks fFk;sVj rd igqapus dk volj feysxkA mu fMCcksa esa fQYesa gh ugha] iwjs fQYe O;olk; ls tqM+s vusd yksxksa dk Hkfo"; Hkh dSn gSA fQYeks|ksx dh ,d vkSj vlaxfr gS fd tc Hkh dksbZ fQYe fgV gksrh gS rks yksx mlh iSVuZ ij fQYe cukus dh vaèkh nkSM+ esa 'kkfey gks tkrs gSAa dksbZ funs'Z kd] ghjks&ghjksbu] [kyuk;d fdlh fQYe ds fgV gks tkus ij fgV tkrs gSa rks [kke[kkg fQYeokys muds ihNs iM+dj mudh ekax dks c<+k nsrs gSaA QyLo:i os yksx Hkh viuh ,d fQYe ds fgV gksrs gh jkrkas jkr viuh izkbl nqxuh&pkSxuh dj nsrs gSaA bl HksM+pky dk gh urhtk gS fd fQYeksa dh ykxr izfrlky c<+rh tk jgh gS vkSj mldh vFkZO;oLFkk MkaokMksy gks jgh gSA cM+h gkL;kLin ckr gS fd ^larks"kh eka* fgV gqbZ rks mlds uke ij mlh rjg dh dFkkvksa dks ysdj dqN fuekZrkvksa us bl vk'kk ls fQYesa izkjaHk dj nha fd mu ij larks"kh eka dh d`ik gks tk,xhA ij os lc ckWDl vkfQl ij fiV xb±A ^'kksys* fgV gqbZ rks vusd yksxksa us mlh iSVuZ ij ,D'ku okyh fQYesa cukus ds fy, nkSM+&èkwi 'kq: dj nhA ukx&ukfxu dks ysdj ,d ugha nl&nl fQYesa cuuh 'kq: gks xbZa vkSj rc rd curh tk,axh tc rd fd vlQyrk dk ukx fdlh fuekZrk dks ugha Ml ysxkA ^izfr?kkr* ds fgV gksus ij mldk Qksfc;k QSy x;k gS fQYe baMLVªh esaA D;k pysxk dksbZ ugha tkurk ;g dksbZ ugha dg ldrk gS fd ges'kk lkekftd vkSj laosnu'khy fQYesa gh pysaxhA dHkh os pyrh gSa rks fQj ,D'ku fQYeksa dk tekuk vk tkrk gSA dHkh ghjks izèkku fQYesa ,d ds ckn ,d djds fgV gksrh gSa rks dHkh ghjksbu izèkku fQYeksa dk tekuk vk tkrk gSA ckWDl vkfQl QkewZyk dk dksbZ fuf'pr oSKkfud vkèkkj ugha gSA fdlh fQYe ds pyus vkSj u pyus ds ihNs ,d ugha vusd dkj.k gksrs gSaA bu dkj.kkas dh [kkst gks] fjlpZ gks] LVMh gks rks fuf'pr gh fQYeokyksa dk lgh ekxZn'kZu gks ldrk gSA ij iz'u gS&dkSu izkjaHk djs ;g dk;Z\ D;k dksbZ bu rF;ksa dk fo'ys"k.k dj ldrk gS fd egcwc [kka us viuh fQYe ^vkSjr* dks ^enj bafM;k* ds :i esa fQj ls cuk;k rks og mlls Hkh vfèkd fgV D;ksa gqbZ vkSj og Hkkjrh; fQYeksa ds bfrgkl esa ekby LVksu D;ksa cu xbZ\ D;k dksbZ bldk dkj.k crk ldrk gS fd ^nsonkl( ds ,d ugha] vusd laLdj.k cusA


Le` f r;ka

ij tks igyh ewy nsonkl fQYe Fkh mls dksbZ chV ugha dj ldk&D;ksa\ ,slh ckr ugha gS fd bl rjg dh folaxfr;ksa ds dkj.kksa dk fo'ys"k.k ugha gks ldrkA ;g xgjs vè;;u dh ckr gSA vU; m|ksxksa esa vkt rks dEI;wVjksa dh lgk;rk ls NksVh&NksVh ckrksa dk fo'ys"k.k gksrk gS rkfd m|ksxksa dks lgh ekxZn'kZu fey ldsA fQYe m|ksx dks m|ksx dk Lrj fnykus ds fy, bl izdkj dh vlaxfr;ksa dks nwj djuk iM+sxkA mlds fy, vko';d gS fd O;fDrxr Lora=rk ds fl)kar dk fuokZg djrs gq, mls vuq'kkflr vkSj O;ofLFkr fd;k tk,A fQYe fuekZrkvks]a forjdksa

vkSj izn'kZdksa rFkk lkFk gh lkFk dykdkjksa vkSj rduhf'k;uksa ds fy, ,d ^dksM* cuk;k tk,A dksM cuk;k gh u tk,] cfYd ml ij vey Hkh fd;k tk,A dqN iwoZ dksM cuk;k x;k Fkk fd ,d vkfVZLV ,d lkFk lkr fQYeksa ls vfèkd fQYeksa esa dke ugha djsxk vkSj ,d f'k¶V esa dsoy ,d fQYe ds fy, dke djsxkA ij ml vuq'kkflr fu;e dk ikyu ugha gqvk D;ksfa d fuekZrkvksa ds O;fDrxr LokFkZ Vdjkus ls ml eqnn~ s ij ,drk ugha gks ikbZA ;gh lcls cM+h detksjh jgh gS fQYe baMLVªh dhA vc rks m|ksx dk ntkZ fey pqdk gSA

psru vkuan % ckr dc cu tkrh gS

nsuk ugha pkgsxk] rLohj cksy ugha ldrh] laxhr [kkeks'kh ugha crk ldrkA tks dfork esa ckr dgh tk ldrh gS] og x| esa ml [kwclwjrh ls ugha dgh tk ldrhA tks lkfgR; esa dgkuh ds :i esa ckr dgh tkrh gS] og flrkj ij ugha ctk;h tk ldrhA tks laxhr dg tkrk gS] og u`R; ugha dg ikrkA tks u`R; esa fn[kk;k tkrk gS] og nwljh dyk ds tfj;s ugha crk;k tkrkA fQYe bu lc dykvksa dks vius esa lesVdj cksyrh gSA blfy, gj dyk ls T;knk cksy ldrh gSA fQYe flQZ dyk ugha] dykvksa esa egku dyk gS fQYeA fQYe dk vlyh lkj og gS] tgka fQYe ls dgh gqbZ ckr fdlh vkSj tfj;s ls u dgh tk ldsA vke fQYesa fy[kh gqbZ dgkfu;ksa dk vuqokn ek= gksrh gSaA blesa dksbZ nks"k ughaA lkfgfR;d jpukvksa dks fQYekuk Hkh cgqr cM+k dke gSA nqfu;k esa vPNh&vPNh fQYesa e'kgwj lkfgR;dkjksa dh jpukvksa ij cuk;h x;h gSa vkSj mu fQYeksa dks bTtr feyh gS] ysfdu dbZ fQYesa vius vlyh :i esa Hkh cuk;h x;h gSaA bl fdLe dh fQYe lkfgR; dk vuqokn ugha gksrhA ,slh fQYe ds tfj;s tks dgk tk ldrk gS] og u dye ls vkSj u eqga ls dgk tk ldrk gSA bl fQYe dh egRrk dks eSa cgqr vPNh rjg le>rk gwAa tks Hkk"kk fQYe cksyrh gS] og fQYe gh cksy ldrh gS vkSj mlesa Hkk"kkvksa ls dgha T;knk 'kfDr gSA mnkgj.k nsrk gwaA fQYe ^gdhdr* rhu ?kaVs rd n'kZdksa dks idM+s jgrh gSA cgqr dqN dgrh gSA iqjtksj dgrh gSA fny ij vlj dj tkrh gS] ysfdu flusek ls ckgj vkdj vki mldh dgkuh fdlh dks lqukus dh dksf'k'k dhft,A vki eqf'dy esa iM+ tk;saxsA blh rjg fQYe ^vkf[kjh [kr* gS] viuh Hkkouk iw.kZ tcku ls cksyrh gSA bl fdLe dh fQYesa nqfu;k esa vkSj Hkh cgqr curh gSaA

,d dgkuh gksrh gS vkSj ,d dgus dk vUnkt gksrk gSA nksuksa esa cjkcj dk esy gks tk;s rks ckr cu tkrh gSA lquus okys dks Hkh etk vkrk gS vkSj lqukus okys dks HkhA fQYe ogh pht gS % dgkuh vkSj dgus ds vUnkt dk esyA dgkuh vPNh gks vkSj mlds c;ku dk vUnkt Bhd u gks] rks fQYe esa pqLrh ugha vk ikrh] vUnkt&,&c;ka fnypLi gks vkSj dgkuh flQj gks rks Hkh deh jg tkrh gSA dgkuh vkSj mldk fQYeh vUnkt&,&c;ka nksuksa esa dqN ckr gksuh pkfg,] rHkh ckr curh gSA fQYe dgkuh is'k djus dk ,d tfj;k gSA blfy, fQYe ,d tcku gS] Hkk"kk gSA dgkuh dbZ tfj;ksa ls is'k dh tkrh gSA cksys gq, 'kCnksa esa] fy[ks gq, 'kCnksa esa] u`R; esa] dfork esa] xhr esa] gkoHkko esa] rLohjksa esaA fQYe esa ;s lc leka tkrs gSaA fQYe lc tfj;ksa dk lewg gSA blfy, fdlh ,d tcku ;k Hkk"kk ls dgha Åaph gS fQYe vkSj D;ksafd fQYe gj pht dks vkSj gj vkokt dks c<+k&p<+k dj is'k djrh gS] blfy, ns[kus okyksa ds eu ij T;knk vlj djrh gSA fny vkSj fnekx ij gkoh gks tkrh gSA ;gh otg gS fd fQYe gj tcku ;k Hkk"kk ls Åapk LFkku j[krh gSA dgkuh dgus ds tfj;s dks] Hkkouk dks nwljksa rd igqpa kus dh dyk dks fQYe dg ldrs gSAa dbZ dykvksa ds tfj;s dykdkj vius fopkj] viuh Hkkouk,a nwljksa rd igqapkrs gSa vkSj gj dykdkj dk ,d viuk Lrj gS] viuk {ks= gS vkSj viuh lhek gSA mlls ckgj dyk ugha tk ldrhA laxhrdkj viuh dyk esa igkM+k]as diM+kas vkSj cktkjksa dk ftØ ugha djrk] ewfrZdkj 'kCn vkSj fctyh dh ped dks :i

flus e k&2005

19


Le` f r;ka

xq#nRr % flus e.My dk izdk'k fiaM

lu~ 1950 ds vklikl Hkkjrh; flusek ds uHkeaMy esa ;g izdk'k fiaM igyh ckj n`f"Vxkspj gqvkA e`R;q ds le; xq#nRr dh vk;q 39 o"kZ ls dqN gh Åij FkhA brus NksVs thou esa bruk 'kksj o bruh Jh Hkj nsus okys xq#nRr tSls O;fDr de ns[kus dks feyrs gSaA ml flus txr esa Hkh tgka yksxksa dk HkkX; pØ vDlj vkSj rsth ls cnyrk gSA Hkkjrh; flusek dh izxfr esa xq#nRr dk ;ksxnku Lej.kh; gSA funsZ'kd cu tkus ds ckn vius pkSng o"kZ ds lfØ; thou esa mUgksaus vkB fQYeksa dk fuekZ.k fd;k] ftuesa ls ikap fQYeksa ds os Lo;a funsZ'kd FksA fuekZrk cuus ls igys os nks vU; fQYeksa dk funsZ'ku dj pqds FksA Lo;a viuh fufeZr lHkh fQYeksa esa dsoy ,d dks NksM+dj mUgksaus uk;d dh Hkwfedk fuHkk;hA blds vykok vU; fuekZrkvksa dh cuk;h gqbZ dksbZ vkèkh ntZu fQYeksa esa Hkh mUgksaus izèkku Hkwfedk,a fuHkk;haA bl rjg fuekZrk] funsZ'kd vFkok vfHkusrk ds :i esa xq#nRr dk jpukRed lEcUèk yxHkx iUnzg fQYeksa ls gqvkA e`R;q ls igys os ^cgkjsa fQj Hkh vk;saxh* dk fuekZ.k dj jgs FksA blds vykok os fuekZrk ds- vkflQ dh ^ySyk etuw* esa rFkk enzkl dh ,d fQYe esa uk;d dh Hkwfedk fuHkk jgs FksA flusek ds uHkeaMy esa xq#nRr Hkkjrh; flus txr ds ,d vR;fèkd dq'ky ,oa izfrHkk'kkyh fQYedkj FksA mudk dSejk Kku o lEiknu iz.kkyh dqN bruh lQy o vuwBh Fkh fd flus lalkj esa fQYe cukus ds <axksa esa ^xq#nRr iz.kkyh* Hkh izfl) gks mBhA fQYeksa ds ,d gh f?kls&fiVs QkewZys ls lEc) u gksdj mUgksaus viuh fQYeksa esa u;h&u;h dFkk lkexzh izLrqr djus dk iz;kl fd;k rFkk viuh flus dyk dks os fujarj ekatrs o pedkrs jgsA muds funsZ'ku esa cuh ^ckth* igyh fQYe FkhA nwljh fQYe ^tky* FkhA fQj ^ckt* vk;hA blds ckn mUgksaus ^vkj&ikj* cuk;hA mudh vxyh fQYe Fkh laxhr izokg gkL; fQYe ^feLVj ,.M felst 55*A fQj mUgksaus vius iqjkus lgk;d funsZ'kd jkt [kkslyk ds funsZ'ku esa ,d vkSj vijkèk fp= ^lh vkbZ Mh* cuk;h ftlus dkQh èku dek;kA ^lh vkbZ Mh* ds ckn vk;h ^I;klk*A ;g xq#nRr dh ,d cgqr gh egRoiw.kZ fQYe FkhA ,d ek;wl dfo dk thou ysdj mUgksaus bl fQYe esa lekt ds Åij dbZ O;aX; ok.k NksM+sA xq#nRr ds bl fp= esa 'kk;n igyh ckj uk;d ds pfj= esa ,d xgu osnuk dk iqV FkkA tks vkxs pydj xq#nRr ds vU; fp=ksa esa Hkh feyrk gSA ^I;klk* ds ckn xq#nRr us fQYe ^dkxt ds Qwy* cuk;hA ;g Hkkjr dk izFke flusekLdksi fp= FkkA blesa xq#nRr us vius fQYe lalkj ij gh n`f"Vikr fd;k vkSj ,d ,sls fQYe funsZ'kd dh dgkuh izLrqr dh tks viuh iRuh ,oa ?kjokyksa dh lgkuqHkwfr ds vHkko esa rFkk muls misf{kr gksdj ,d ,slh rkfjdk ds izse esa iM+ tkrk gS ftldks rkfjdk in fnykus dk Js; Lo;a mldks gh gS vkSj fQj HkkoukRed Hkaoj esa iM+dj viuk thou u"V dj cSBrk gSA ^lkgc chch vkSj xqyke* dks 1962 dk jk"Vª iqjLdj izkIr gqvk FkkA ;g fganh dk loZJs"B fp= ekuk x;kA eaxykSj ds ,d lkjLor ifjokj ds lnL;] xq#nRr dk tUe 9 tqykbZ] 1925 dks csaxykSj esa gqvk FkkA mudh ekr`Hkk"kk dksad.kh Fkh] fdUrq eSfVªd rd dh f'k{kk dydRrs esa ikus ds dkj.k mudks caxyk dk vPNk Kku FkkA eSfVªd ds ckn mUgksaus mn;'kadj dh vYeksM+k flVh u`R; vdkneh esa f'k{kk ik;h] ftlds QyLo:i os iwuk dh izHkkr fQYe daiuh esa u`R;dkj ds :i esa fQYe lalkj esa inkiZ.k dj ldsA 20

flus e k&2005


Le` f r;ka

ewoh eqxy % ds- vkflQ

pkj fQYesa& Qwy] gypy] yo ,.M xkM vkSj eqxy&,&vkte is'k djds ds- vkflQ fQYeh nqfu;k ds ^ewoh fdax* vkSj ^ewoh eqxy* dgs tkrs gSaA ds- vkflQ ,d lPps Qudkj Fks] tks vius Qu dks frtkjr ugha bcknr le>rs FksA mudk iwjk uke djhe vkflQ FkkA mudk tUe mRrjizns'k ds bVkok ftys esa ukeh eqdke ij 14 twu] 1924 dks gqvk FkkA vius oDr ds e'kgwj vnkdkj uthj muds ekek FksA mUgha ds dkj.k ds- vkflQ dks fQYeh nqfu;k esa vkus dk ekSdk feyk vkSj fQj cgqr tYn ;s vkyk gkSlyk ukStoku fQYe b.MLVªh esa viuk ikao tekus esa dke;kc gks x;sA os ,d vPNs nthZ Hkh FksA mUgksua s igyh fQYe ^Qwy* is'k dhA ;g fgUnqLrku dh igyh eYVh LVkjj fQYe FkhA blesa ml oDr ds lHkh ukeh vnkdkjksa us dke fd;k FkkA ^Qwy* ,d cgqr cM+s eulwcs dh fQYe Fkh] ysfdu og ckDl vkfQl ij dke;kc ugha gqbZA ^Qwy* dh O;kolkf;d vlQyrk ds- vkflQ ds bjknksa ij dksbZ vlj ugha Mky ldhA mUgksaus ,d vkSj cM+h fQYe dh rS;kjh 'kq: dj nhA blh nkSjku uthj ls rykd gkfly djds flrkjk nsoh ds- vkflQ dh ftUnxh esa vk x;h FkhaA os mudh ekeh FkhaA bl jksekUl vkSj 'kknh us csgn vQokgksa vkSj gaxkeksa dks tUe fn;k FkkA ds- vkflQ us fnyhidqekj vkSj ufxZl dks ysdj ^gypy* cuk;hA rduhdh n`f"V ls ^gypy* fnyhidqekj vkSj ufxZl dh csgrjhu fQYe le>h tkrh gSA bl fQYe esa fnyhidqekj dbZ fnu ds Hkw[ks gSaA os ,d vkneh dks lRrw [kkrs gq, ns[kdj vius lw[ks gksaBksa ij tcku Qsjrs gSaA bulku dh csolh vkSj cspkjxh dk fny ngyk nsus okyk lhu fnyhidqekj dh fQYeh ftUnxh ds csgrjhu dkjukeksa esa fxuk tkrk gSA csbfUrgk I;kj djus okyh ,d fgUnqLrkuh ukf;dk ds :i esa ufxZl dks Hkh bl fQYe ds fy, ges'kk ;kn fd;k tk;sxkA ds- vkflQ dh ftUnxh dk lcls cM+k dkjukek ^eqxy&,&vkte* gSA ;gh ,d fQYe ds- vkflQ dks fgUnqLrkuh fQYe b.MLVªh dk lcls cM+k fQYedkj fgnk;rdkj lkfcr djus ds fy, dkQh gSA 1942 esa tc ds- vkflQ us ^eqxy&,&vkte* dk [okc ns[kk Fkk] ml oDr mUgksaus fQYe QkbusUlj fljkt vyh gdhe ls dgk Fkk % ^^eSa bl fQYe ds tfj;s vdcj egku dks nksckjk ftUnk d:axkA* fljkt vyh gdhe us fQYe esa iwath yxkuk eatwj dj fy;kA ds- vkflQ us eqEcbZ ds if'peh miuxj eykM fLFkr ckEcs Vkdht esa fQYe 'kq: dj nhA vdcjs vkte dk jksy pUnzeksgu dj jgs Fks] vukjdyh Fkh ufxZl vkSj 'kgtknk lyhe dk fdjnkj vnk dj jgs Fks lizwA fQYe dh 'kwfVax csgn ,greke ls tkjh Fkh fd Hkkjr ds c¡Vokjs ds gaxkes 'kq: gks x;sA pUnzeksgu dk nsgkUr gks x;kA fljkt vyh gdhe ikfdLrku pys x;sA mu fnuksa deky vejksgh Hkh ds- vkflQ dh ;wfuV esa 'kkfey gks x;s FksA vius cqyan gkSlys ds lgkjs ,d ckj fQj eulwck cuk;kA bl ckj [kq'kulhch ls mUgsa Qkbusal dk ;dhu fnyk;k 'kkiqjth ikykuth usA ds- vkflQ u;s cycys vkSj tks'k ds lkFk vius dke esa tqV x;sA mUgksaus ml nkSj esa ,d djksM+ dk ctV cuk;k FkkA ml le; cM+h ls cM+h fQYe nl&ckjg yk[k esa rS;kj gks tkrh FkhA eqxy&,&vkte dh vkmVMksj 'kwfVax jktLFkku vkSj Qrsgiqj lhdjh tSls LFkkuksa ij dh x;hA feysVªh dh enn yh x;h vkSj eqxy&,&vkte ds flQZ ,d lsV 'kh'k egy ij iangz yk[k #i;s dk [kpZ vk;kA vdcjs vkte dk 'kh'k egy fQjkstkckn ds e'kgwj 'kh'kxjksa us rS;kj fd;k FkkA 'kh'k egy ds gj 'kh'ks ij ds- vkflQ vDl ns[kuk pkgrs Fks] ysfdu dSejk eSu vkj-Mh- ekFkqj us lsV ds ijh{k.k ds ckn dgk] bl pdkpkSaèk esa 'kwfVax djuk eqf'dy gSA fons'k ls dSejkesu vk;s fQj Hkh ckr cuh ughaA fQj vkj-Mh- ekFkqj us gh oks peRdkj dj fn[kk;k tks fons'kh ugha dj lds] 'kh'k egy gS cl gks x;kA ds- vkflQ ds 'kkiqj th vkf'kd Fks vkSj muls vius csVs dh rjg eksgCcr djrs FksA ds- vkflQ ^eqxy&,&vkte* ds ,d eatj esa eksfr;ksa dk ,d ijnk yxkuk pkgrs Fks ftls tksèkkckbZ vius csVs lyhe dh okilh ij yqVk nsrh gSA ijnk bruk cM+k Fkk fd eksrh iwjs ugha fey jgs FksA vkflQ lkgc us 'kwfVax jksd nhA cksys ^^tc eksrh feysaxs rc dke pysxkA** mu fnuksa bZn vk;haA flus e k&2005

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'kkgiqjth us bZnh esa ,d cM+h jde ds- vkflQ dks nhA dsvkflQ us ,d #i;k mBk;k vkSj dgk fd ^^ckdh jde ls eksrh eaxok nhft,A** eqxy&,&vkte nl lky esa cudj rS;kj gqbZA ds- vkflQ us vius ml nkos dks lgh dj fn[kk;k Fkk fd os viuh fQYe ds tfj;s vdcjs vkte ds 'kkgh tyky [kkunku rSewjh dh rkjh[k ¼bfrgkl½ ds bl rkcukd nkSj dks ftUnk dj nsxa As eqxy&,&vkte ds vdcj i`Fohjkt] 'kgtknk lyhe] fnyhidqekj] Bkdqj nqtuZ flag vthr] tksèkkckbZ] nqxkZ [kksVs vkSj vukjdyh eèkqckyk dks ds- vkflQ us ftUnk fdjnkj cuk fn;kA tkfye ekSr us 9 ekpZ] 1971 dks bUMLVªh ds bl csrkt ckn'kkg dks Nhu fy;kA djksM+ksa dh fQYe cukus okys dsvkflQ ds ckjs esa ;g ckr csgn vthc yxrh gS fd mUgksaus viuk ?kj ugha cuk;kA fdjk;s ds edku esa jgrs FksA cSad cSysal

ugha j[kkA csgn lknxh ilUn vkSj lPps bulku FksA os nwljksa dh rdyhQ cnkZLr ugha djrs FksA vthtksa ij] t:jreanksa dks fujk'k djuk xqukg le>rs FksA ds- vkflQ viuh futh ftUnxh esa csgn feyulkj vkSj lTtu O;fDr FksA LokFkZ] ?keaM vkSj j[kj[kko ls cgqr nwjA ds- vkflQ dh igyh choh flrkjk nsoh FkhA ckn esa mUgksua s fuxkj lqyrkuk ls 'kknh dh FkhA fuxkj ls mUgsa pkj cPps gSa] vdcj] 'kkSdr] eqfujk vkSj 'kckukA mUgksaus fnyhidqekj dh cgu v[rj [kkue ls 'kknh dh] ftlls rkchj vkSj tjhu nks cfPp;ka gSaA vc Hkh muds pkgus okys ;gh dgrs gSa fd vc fQYe m|ksx esa ,slk vkneh iSnk ugha gks ldrkA

eueksgu nslkbZ % ckDl vkfQl dk tknwxj eueksgu nslkbZ dk tUe 26 Qjojh] 1937 dks gqvk FkkA os ekrk dykorh] firk fddw HkkbZ nslkbZ dh rhljh larku FksA ml le; fddw izfl) fuekZrk funsZ'kd FksA os iSjkekmUV LVwfM;ks ¼fQYeky;½ ds ekfyd Hkh FksA lu~ 1956 esa cM+s HkkbZ lqHkk"k nslkbZ us fQYe fuekZ.k esa dne j[krs gq, funsZ'kd dh ckxMksj eu th dks lkSaihA jkt diwj uwru dks ysdj cuh fQYe ^Nfy;k* eu th dh igyh funsZf'kr fQYe FkhA ^Nfy;k* ds ckn ^OyQ ekLVj*] cnreht vkSj fdLer us vikj lQyrk fnykbZ eu th dksA ckn esa eu th ds thou esa ,d u;k vè;k; tqM+ x;kA 1970 esa jkts'k [kUuk dks ysdj ^lPpk >wBk* fQYe cuhA ftlls jkts'k [kUuk lqij LVkj cu x;sA blds ckn 'kjkjr] jksVs h] jkeiqj dk y{e.k] vk xys yx tk csgrjhu fQYesa lkfcr gqbA± diwj ifjokj ds lHkh lnL;ksa us eueksgu nslkbZ ds lkFk dke fd;kA ^vej vdcj ,UFkksuh* ls mUgksaus vius cSuj dk uke ,e-dsMh- j[kkA ;g fQYe ^IySfVue tqcyh* jghA bl fQYe dks def'kZ;y ekdsVsZ us rks ljkgk gh] lkFk gh vkVZ flusek okyksa us rkjhQ ds iqy ckaèk fn;sA Hkkjr dh igyh fQYe Fkh ftls ch-lh-Vh-oh- ds izkbe Vkbe ij izlkfjr fd;k x;kA bldk fjdkMZ jgk fd eqEcbZ egkuxj ds ukS flusek?kjksa esa ,d lkFk flYoj tqcyh euk;h x;hA vfHkus=h uank eueksgu ds fy, dqoa kjh jghaA e`R;q ls iwoZ izfl) vfHkus=h uank ls lxkbZ dh Fkh ij ikfjokfjd leL;kvksa ds dkj.k os fookg ugha dj ik;s FksA ,d vuwBh ckr ;g Fkh fd mudh igyh iRuh thou izHkk dk fuèku Hkh 14 o"kZ iwoZ fcfYMax ls fxj tkus ls gqvk FkkA Bhd mlh izdkj eu th Nr ij Vgyrs gq, uhps fxj iM+s vkSj nqfu;k NksM+ x;sA eu th ,d eqacbZ ds [ksrokM+h bykds esa jgrs FksA mUgsa ogh ilan FkkA bruh lQyrk ds ckn Hkh mUgsa u'kk ugha FkkA mUgsa fQYe m|ksx esa tqcyh fdax dgk tkrk FkkA os dgk djrs Fks fd eSa rks fQYesa blfy, cukrk gwa fd ns[kus okys ns[krs le; lkjs Vsa'ku vkSj xe Hkwy tk,aA

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uthj gqlSu % lqHkk"kpUnz cksl dh QkSt esa Hkh Fks ejgwe uthj gqlSu dk tUe mRrjizns'k ds Mfl;k xkao esa gqvk FkkA mUgsa viuh iSnkb'k dh rkjh[k vkSj lu~ ekywe ugha gSA cpiu ls gh mUgsa fQYesa ns[kus dk 'kkSd FkkA mUgksaus tks igyh fQYe ns[kh oks lkbysUV fQYe Fkh vkSj mldk uke ^b'd dk tky* vkSj blesa tqcsnk vkSj tky epsZUV us dke fd;k FkkA ewd fQYeksa ds tekus ds ekLVj foV~By] tky epsZUV] ekLVj cPpw muds pgsrs vnkdkj FksA uthj gqlSu vPNs QqVcky f[kykM+h FksA blfy, mUgsa eSp ds fy, y[kuÅ tkuk iM+kA mUgksaus y[kuÅ ls gh eSfVªd fd;k FkkA vkxs pydj os jsyos dh Vhe esa [ksyus yxsA nwljs fo'o;q) esa 1939 esa jsyos foHkkx ds tfj;s ,d ljdkjh uksfVl tkjh dh x;h fd jsyos dk tks Hkh O;fDr QkSt esa HkrhZ gksuk pkgrk gS mlds ckjs esa fopkj fd;k tk ldrk gSA uthj gqlSu us Hkh viuk uke jftLVj djok;k vkSj mUgsa QkSt esa HkrhZ dj fy;k x;kA mUgsa rqjar ?kj okil vkus ds fy, dgk x;k] ysfdu tax tksjksa ij FkhA os HkrhZ gks x;sA ftl VqdM+h esa uthj lkgc Fks] mls eqEcbZ ys tk;k x;kA ogka ls mUgsa vkSj muds lkfFk;ksa dks X;kjg tgktksa esa Hkjdj igys lkmFk dh vksj ys tk;k x;k vkSj vkxs iwjc dh vksj eksM+ fn;k x;kA bl rjg mudk csM+k flaxkiqj igqapkA blh oDr tkiku us tax dk ,syku dj fn;kA QkSft;ksa dh vxyh QkSth yM+kbZ dh rS;kjh 'kq: gks x;hA tkiku vkxs c<+ jgk FkkA mlus fczVsu ds fizUl vkQ osYl yM+kbZ tgkt dks rgl&ugl dj fn;kA blfy, T;knkrj fczfV'k QkSth vkSj 'kgfj;ksa dks lkmFk bZLV ,f'k;k esa ls QkSju [kkyh djk fn;k x;k] ysfdu Hkkjrh; QkSft;ksa vkSj 'kgfj;ksa dks ogha j[kk x;kA Hkkjrh; lSfudksa dks dSn dj fy;k x;k vkSj mUgsa okj dSai esa fHktok fn;k x;kA mUgha esa uthj gqlSu Hkh FksA muls yk'k mBkdj fBdkus yxkus dk dke l[rh ds lkFk fy;k tkus yxkA pkjksa vkSj e`rdksa ds 'koksa dh cncw QSy jgh FkhA dqN fnuksa ds ckn usrkth lqHkk"kpUnz cksl] jkl fcgkjh cksl vkSj tujy eksguflag us feydj bafM;u us'kuy vkehZ dk xBu fd;kA uthj gqlSu bl vkehZ esa 'kkfey gks x;sA yM+kbZ [kRe gksus ds ckn uthj gqlSu dks ;q) cfUn;ksa dh gSfl;r ls Hkkjr yk;k x;kA ftl rjg vkSjksa dks tkap ds fy, lkeus yk;k x;k] blh rjg mUgsa Hkh yk;k x;kA ckn esa mUgsa fjgk dj fn;k x;kA uthj lkgc dk fQYeh lQj U;w fFk;sVlZ dh fQYe ^igyk vkneh* ls 'kq: gqvkA fQYe ds funsZ'kd foey jk; FksA ;g 1950 dh ckr gSA bl fQYe dks uthj us Lo;a fy[kk FkkA blesa mUgksaus ,d egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk Hkh fuHkk;h FkhA foey nk dh ^ifj.khrk* ,d [kwclwjr vkSj lkQ&lqFkjh fQYe FkhA blesa uthj lkgc us xq#pj.k dk fdjnkj fuHkk;k FkkA mUgksaus yxHkx 215 fQYeksa esa dke fd;kA uthj gqlSu lkgc us Hkkstiqjh fQYeksa dk Hkh fuekZ.k fd;k FkkA mUgksaus lSfud thou dh i`"BHkwfe ij dbZ ukVd fy[ks vkSj Mk;jsDV Hkh fd;sA de mez esa gh izkS<+ firk dh Hkwfedk dhA

vktkn fgUn QkSt esa usrkth us D;k fl[kk;k\ ,d ckj uthj gqlSu us vktkn fgUn ds tekus dk ,d fdLlk lqukrs gq, dgk Fkk % jaxwu esa vkt+kn fgUn lsuk yM+ jgh FkhA lsuk esa lHkh tkfr;ksa ds yksx FksA ,d fnu usrkth vpkud Hkkstx`g esa vk;sA ml fnu Hkkstu ekalkgkjh FkkA fgUnw] eqlyekuksa vkSj fl[kksa dk Hkkstu vyx&vyx gqvk djrk FkkA os lc vyx&vyx cSB dj Hkkstu flus e k&2005

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djrs FksA fQj Hkh ,d nwljs ls HkkbZ pkjk gqvk djrk FkkA lcdk mn~ns'; ,d gqvk djrk FkkA lc fu"Bkoku gksrs vkSj HkkbZpkjs dh Hkkouk ls feytqydj jgrs FksA usrkth dks gj tekr dh vyx&vyx jlksbZ dh ckr ugha taphA mUgksua s gj vkneh ds Hkkstu ls xks'r ds VqdM+s ykdj ,d Fkkyh esa j[kus ds fy, dgkA mUgksua s lcls dgk] ^^vc blesa ls viuk&viuk xks'r vyx fudky dj crkvksA lc ,d nwljs dk eqga rkdus yxsA ,d vQlj us fgEer djds dgk] ^^vc ;g eqefdu ugha gSA** fQj usrkth us dgk] ^^vxj ;g laHko ugha gS vkSj vxj ;g vlaHko gS rks gesa lkFk jgus ls dkSu euk dj ldrk gSA dkSu vyx dj ldrk gSA fQj vyx&vyx lainz k; ds fy, vyx&vyx jlksbZ D;ksa\** ;g NksVk&lk b'kkjk lc ds fy, dkQh FkkA ml fnu ls lcds fy, [kkuk ,d gh jlksbZ esa cuus yxk vkSj lc yksx ,d lkFk cSBdj [kkuk [kkus yxsA

tokc Fkk] ^^iSlk dkSu nsxk\** 'kkgkcknh th Qk;usal djus ds fy, jkth gks x;sA fp=xqIr fcgkj ds FksA laxhrdkj gks x;sA dqUnudqekj Mk;jsDVj] dqedqe ukf;dkA ukftj gqluS us dgkuh fy[kh % ^xaxk eb;k rksgs fi;jh p<+bcks* ikap yk[k dh fQYe esa 2 djksM+ dk O;kikj fd;kA fQj D;k FkkA Hkkstiqjh fQYesa 'kq: gks x;haA bldk lkjk Js; uthj gqlSu dks tkrk gSA uthj gqlSu ekykM esa gh jgrs FksA dbZ ckj muls eqykdkr gksrh vkSj os vktkn fgUn QkSt dh ;knsa Hkh [kwc lqukrsA mUgksaus viuh fQYesa Hkh fy[kha vkSj funsZf'kr Hkh dhaA os cM+s O;ogkjdq'ky bUlku FksA Lo;a vkfQl esa feyus vk tk;k djrs FksA mUgsa vkSj 'kkgkcknh th dks Hkkstiqjh fQYeksa dk firkeg dguk pkfg,A

Hkkstiqjh fQYeksa ds tUenkrkvksa esa ls ,d uthj gqlSu ,d fnu fcgkj ds fo'oukFk 'kkgkcknh vius dqN fe=ksa ds lkFk 'kwfVax ns[kus x;sA ogka 'kwfVax esa uthj gqlSu Hkh FksA 'kkgkcknh th cM+s O;kikjh FksA èkuckn iVuk esa mudk O;kikj FkkA mUgksua s ogka dgk fd vki yksx Hkkstiqjh esa fQYe D;ksa ugha cukrs\

*** lqizfl) xk;d eqds'k fQYe baMLVªh ds uk;d cuus ds fy, vk;s FksA 1941 esa iznf'kZr fQYe ^funksZ"k* eas mUgksaus ufyuh t;oar ds lkFk uk;d dh Hkwfedk dh FkhA bl fQYe esa eqds'k us viuk igyk xhr Hkh xk;k Fkk] ftlds cksy Fks] ^fny gh cq>k gqvk gks rks Qlys cgkj D;k gSA* *** e'kgwj xkf;dk rFkk vfHkus=h uwjtgka dh igyh fQYe 1934 esa iznf'kZr ^eSlwj dk flrkjk*FkhA bl fQYe esa mUgksaus cky dykdkj dh Hkwfedk fuHkkbZ FkhA 1941 esa vk;h fQYe ^[kkunku* esa og igyh ckj ukf;d cuhaA mlds ckn 1947 esa iznf'kZr fQYe ^tqxuw* Hkkjr esa iznf'kZr mldh vafre fQYe Fkh] D;ksafd Hkkjr&ikd foHkktu ds nkSjku

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flus e k&2005


Le` f r;ka

fQYeksa dk gkyhoqM eqEcbZ eqEcbZ dh ikS- 10 izfro"kZ ds fglkc ls fdaxtkuZ f}rh; us iqrZxky dh jktdqekjh ls 'kknh dh vkSj ngst esa bZLV bafM;k dEiuh dks ns fn;kA eqEcbZ ,slh uxjh gS tgka puk tksj xje cspus okys pus okys] xsVdhijh djus okys xksj[ks] xkM+h lkQ djus okys yksx] nwèk cspus okys rFkk Qsjh okys yksx QqVikFkksa ij lksrs gSa] ysfdu ;gka dksbZ Hkh Hkw[ks isV ugha lksrk gSA eqEcbZ uxjh vusd yksxksa dh vk'kk] vjeku] lQyrk] la?k"kZ vkSj ihM+k dh lk{kh cu x;h gSA dsoy Mksjh&yksVk ysdj eqEcbZ 'kgj esa vkus okys vusd yksx bl egkuxj esa djksM+ifr cu x;s gSaA bl 'kgj esa vusd O;kikfj;ksa] m|ksxifr;ksa] odhyksa] izksQsljksa us jkr fnu yxkrkj la?k"kZ vkSj esgur djds lQyrk vftZr dh gSA fdrus fo|kfFkZ;ksa us fo|k izkfIr ds fy, eqEcbZ 'kgj esa vkJ; fy;k gS vkSj mYys[kuh; izxfr dh gSA bruk gh ugha] Hkkjrh; fQYe m|ksx Hkh bl fo'kky vkSj fojkV eqEcbZ uxjh dh vksj vkdf"kZr gqvk gSA Hkkjrh; fQYe m|ksx dk vkd"kZd ,oa izeq[k dsUnz ekuh tkus okyh eqEcbZ uxjh dks fQYe m|ksx ls fo'ks"k izse jgk gSA fQYedkjksa us viuh fQYeksa esa eqEcbZ dh egkurk] fo'kkyrk] izfr"Bk] oSHko ,oa fof'k"Brk ds lkFk bl 'kgj ds la?k"kZ] ;kruk] vaèksjxnhZ] vkijkfèkd izo`fRr;ksa rFkk ekuo thou dh fofoèk xfrfofèk;ksa dks fpf=r fd;k gSA dsoy fganh gh ugha cfYd leLr Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkvksa dh fQYeksa dk izfrfcac cu x;k gSA blhfy, eqEcbZ dks feuh Hkkjr dgrs gSaA vHkh gky esa vcZu fMtkbu fjlpZ baLVhV~;wV ds rRokoèkku esa vk;ksftr lEesyu esa eqEcbZ egkuxj vkSj fQYe txr ds ckjs esa dkQh fo}kuksa us ppkZ dh FkhA bl lekjksg esa ,d etsnkj ohfM;ks fQYe dk izn'kZu fd;k x;k Fkk ftlesa vyx&vyx fQYeksa esa eqEcbZ lfgr vU; e'kgwj 'kgjksa ds ckjs esa tks tkudkjh nh x;h mlds ckjs esa fn[kk;k x;k FkkA ;g ohfM;ks fdlh fQYe dh dgkuh dh rjg jkspd FkhA blls tkfgj gksrk gS fd fgUnh lfgr gekjh fQYeksa esa eqEcbZ] dksydkrk rFkk vU; 'kgjksa dk izfrfcac t:j fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA nwljh rjQ gkyhoqM dh fQYeksa esa fdlh 'kgj vkSj mlds n'kZu ds eqn~ns dks gYds <ax ls cgqr izHkko'kkyh <ax ls iznf'kZr fd;k gSA bl n`f"V ls gkyhoqM dh fQYeksa vkSj mlds 'kgjksa dk fj'rk fuf'pr :i ls izxk<+ jgk gSA mnkgj.k ds :i esa oqMh ,yu dh fQYe ^esugVu* esa U;w;kdZ dh lqUnjrk] HkO;rk] LoPNrk ogka ckx&cxhpksa] mldh dykd`fr;ksa rFkk iqyksa vkfn dk n'kZu lpeqp cgqr gh jkspd <ax ls djk;k x;k gSA fo'o esa Hkkjr dk uke mtkxj djus okys fQYedkj lR;thr jk; dh egkuxj] izfr}Unh] lhekc) vkfn fQYeksa esa dydRrk 'kgj dk fQYekadu vkSj mldk fQYe ls lacaèk vn~Hkqr rjhds ls gqvk gSA blh rjg tkus&ekus fQYe fuekZrk e`.kky lsu dh fQYe ^dydRrk 71* vkSj ^baVjO;w* esa Hkh dfooj jfoUnz ukFk VSxksj] jked`".k ijegal] foosdkuUn] oSKkfud txnh'kpUnz cksl vkSj izfl) dFkkdkj 'kjn ckcw vkfn dk dydRrk 'kgj ds lkFk izxk<+ lEcUèk cgqr gh lqUnj <ax ls is'k fd;k x;k gSA blh rjg vusd fganh fQYeksa esa ek;k uxjh] LoIu uxjh vkSj iapjaxh uxjh eqEcbZ dh etsnkj ckrksa dk lekos'k fd;k x;k gSA 1956 esa iznf'kZr fQYe ^lh vkbZ Mh* esa ml tekus ds tkus&ekus gkL; dykdkj tkuh okdj xkrs gSa] ,s fny eqf'dy gS thuk ;gka] tjk gVds] tjk cp ds] ;g gS eqEcbZ esjh tkuA bl xhr esa eqEcbZ egkuxj dh leL;kvksa dks rks t:j iznf'kZr fd;k x;k gS] blds lkFk gh eqEcbZ ds izfr izse Hkkouk Hkh iznf'kZr dh x;h gSA tks O;fDr ,d ckj eqEcbZ 'kgj esa iSj j[k nsrk gS og viuh vafre lkal rd blh 'kgj esa gh jgrk gSA eqEcbZ uxj mlds jkse&jkse esa cl tkrk gSA lek tkrk gSA dgus dk eryc ;g gS fd ^lh vkbZ Mh* ds bl xhr esa lPpk vuqHko O;Dr gqvk gSA flus e k&2005

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bl eqEcbZ 'kgj dh fo'ks"krk ;g gS fd bl 'kgj esa ,d vksj rks vusd y{eh ifr jgrs gSa ftuds ikl vdwr lEifRr gSA os ftl bykds esa jgrs gSa] ogka le`f)] lqfoèkk vkSj LoPNrk jgrh gS] tcfd nwljh vksj blh 'kgj esa vR;Ur xjhc] nq[kh vkSj daxky yksx Hkh jgrs gSaA os VwVs&QwVs >ksiM+ksa esa jgrs gSaA muds lkeus vusd dfBukb;ka gksrh gSaA ,d rjQ bl eqEcbZ esa èkeZ] èkekZank] nku] n;k] iq.;] iq'; dk Øe pyrk jgrk gS rks nwljh vksj ogha ywVikV] vigj.k] [kwu[kjkck vkSj g¶rkckth vkSj vkrad dk tksj gksrk gSA ,d rjQ bl 'kgj esa vkeksn izeksn vkSj euksjatu dh cgqrk;r gS] rks blh uxj esa ,d dksus esa fujk'kk vkSj volkn dk okrkoj.k O;kIr gSA ^nhokj] lR;k] ifjUnk] n;koku] daiuh] r{kd] ckEcs] okLro vkfn fQYeksa esa eqEcbZ 'kgj dh Hk;kud Nki fn[kk;h nsrh gSA [krjukd xqMa s vkSj [kw[a kkj ekfQ;k bl uxj ds m|ksxifr;ks]a fcYMjks]a ghjs ds O;kikfj;ksa vkfn dk vigj.k djrs gSAa fQjkSfr;ka olwy dh tkrh gSAa fQjkSfr;ka u nsus ij tku dk [krjk gksrk gSA lksus&pkanh dh nqdkuksa] cSadksa vkSj fcYMjksa ds vkfQl esa ywVikV gksrh gSA Åij crk;h x;h fQYeksa esa bl 'kgj dk gj i{k cgqr gh izHkko'kkyh <ax ls fpf=r fd;k x;k gSA egku fQYedkj xq#nRr dh fQYe ^vkjikj* esa cSad esa MdSrh ¼Nkik½ dk [krjukd n`'; fn[kk;k x;k gSA fQYe ^nhokj* esa rks ,d tekus esa eqEcbZ esa rLdjksa ds ljnkj ekus tkus okys gkth eLrku ds thou ij vkèkkfjr dgkuh yh x;h FkhA lkFk gh lkFk bl fQYe esa vferkHk cPpu dk vfHku; Hkh mPp dksfV dk jgk fQj fuekZrk funs'Z kd jkexksiky oekZ us viuh fQYe ^lR;k* vkSj gky gh esa iznf'kZr fQYe dEiuh esa Hkh nkÅn vkSj NksVk jktu ds chp dkfrykuk [ksy fQYe esa n'kkZ;k gSA bruk gh ugha rfey fQYeksa esa ef.k jRue dh fQYe ^ckEcs* esa eqEcbZ dh èkjrh ij dkSeh jDrikr dh dgkuh dk fp=.k Hkh fd;k x;k gSA ets dh ckr ;g gS fd fQYeksa ds vkyk ntsZ ds fQYe fuekZrk vkSj vQykrwu 'kks eSu jktdiwj us Hkh bl uxjh dh okLrfodrk viuh nks fQYeksa esa ^tkxrs jgks* vkSj ^Jh 420* esa O;Dr fd;k gSA ^tkxrs jgks* esa vuhfr] Hkz"Vkpkj vaèksjxnhZ vkfn dh vaèksjh jkr esa gksus okys [ksy dk fp=kadu fd;k x;k gSA jkr 26

flus e k&2005

ds vaèksjs esa fdrus dkys dke fd;k djrs gSa bldk okLrfod fp=.k fd;k x;k gSA ^Jh 420* esa rks NksVs ls xkao ls 'kgj esa vk;s gq, jktw dh eqf'dyksa] vR;kpkjksa vkSj la?k"kZ dk lkeuk djuk iM+rk gS mls fn[kk;k x;k gS] gkjk&Fkdk jktw jkr dks QqVikFk ij lksus dk iz;kl djrk gS] dgus dk eryc xjhc vkneh bl èkjrh ij eq¶r uhan Hkh ugha ys ldrk gSA eqEcbZ ds 'kfDr'kkyh] pkykd vkSj O;olk;h izo`fRr ds yksx Hkksys vkSj xjhc vkSj Hkys yksxksa dk 'kks"k.k djds mudk ygw pwlrs gSAa Hkkjr dh vkfFkZd jktèkkuh ekuh tkus okyh eqEcbZ dk ;g psgjk Hkh ns[kus ;ksX; gSA tcfd ^fi;k dk ?kj* vkSj ^?kjksank* tSlh fQYeksa esa ^bl egkuxj esa jksVh feyrh gS] ysfdu edku ugha feyrk gS* pfjrkFkZ djkrh gSA xanh cfLr;ksa vkSj pkyksa esa jgus okys yksxksa dks D;k&D;k le>kSrs djus iM+rs gSa bldk fp=.k bu nksuksa fQYeksa esa c[kwch fd;k x;k gSA pky ds NksVs ls :e esa ifj.k; lw= esa caèks ifr&iRuh vius eu dh ckr Hkh ugha dj ldrs gSAa ,dne lcsjs fcLrj ij ls tkxrs gh gkFk&eqag lkQ djus vkSj fuR; deZ iwjs djus ls ysdj jkr dks lksus dh O;oLFkk djus esa dSlh fnDdrksa dk lkeuk djuk iM+rk gS ;g lc ns[kus dks feyrk gSA lpeqp eqEcbZ esa jgus okys yksx thou dk ;g la?k"kZ galrs&galrs lgu djrs gSaA ^xfnZ'k* esa rks eqEcbZ ds O;fDr dk cgqr gh okLrfod fp=.k fd;k x;k gSA ;g psgjk gS fHk[kkfj;ksa dkA fdlh Hkh jkLrs ij fudy tkb,] vkidks fHk[kkjh rks t:j ns[kus dks feysaxsA fHkUu&fHkUu Hkxoku vkSj nsoh nsorkvksa ds uke ij cPpksa ls ysdj cM+s&cw<+s fHk[kkjh rd yksx dgha u dgha ekaxrs jgrs gSaA fQYe ^xfnZ'k* esa vfHkusrk vUuw diwj] 'kgj ds fHk[kkfj;ksa dk nknk gSA vUuw diwj ds ikl i<+s&fy[ks ;qod Hkh dke djus dh ekax djus vkrs gSaA vR;Ur nq%[k dh ckr ;g gS fd fHkUu&fHkUu bykdksa esa fHkUu&fHkUu rjg ds fHk[kkfj;ksa dks Hkstk tkrk gSA mnkgj.k ds :i esa csdkj MkDVj gkfLiVyksa ds vkl&ikl] Lukrd vFkok i<+s&fy[ks ;qodksa dks xsV&os vkQ bafM;k ds vkl&ikl ds bykdksa esa ^^lkgsc FkksM+k iSlk ns nks]** dgus vkSj Hkh[k ekaxus ds is'ks esa Hkstrk gSA blds vykok dqN fQYeksa esa rks laokn Hkh fp= fofp= izdkj ds vkSj izrhdkRed rjhds ds lquus


Le` f r;ka

dks feyrs gSaA ^lR;k*] ^dkuwu*] ^okLro*] ^Jh 420* ^tku dh ckth* vkSj ^gsjkQsjh* vkfn fQYeksa esa blh rjg ds laokn lquus dks feyrs gSaA eueksgu nslkbZ dh izfl) fQYe ^vej] vdcj] ,aFkksuh* esa vferkHk] ^viqu] vtqu ryd* tSlh eqEcbZ;k fgUnh cksydj euksjta u djrs gSAa bruk gh ugha vusd fQYeksa esa ejkBh fefJr fganh] nf{k.k Hkkjr dh viuk;h fganh rks lquus dks feyrh gS] ikjlh Nki fganh Hkh vDlj lquus esa vkrh gSA jktdiwj dh fQYe ^Jh 420* esa ,d o`) efgyk jktdiwj ls dgrh gS] ^fdèkj >ksirk gS\*] ^gsjkQksjh* esa lqUnj yM+dh dks ns[kdj ,d iq#"k mls eLrhHkjh tcku esa ^pkyw eky* dgrk gS rks ^tku dh ckth* esa lat; nRr eqEcbZ 'kgj ds izfr viuk izse iznf'kZr djrs gq, dgrs gSa] ^ns[k bMyh Mkslk* eqEcbZ viuk eka&cki gS] mldks xkyh er nsukA* ;g rks gqbZ fganh lfgr vU; Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkvksa dh fQYesa vkSj vius 'kgjksa ds ckjs esa muds izxk<+ lEcUèkksa dh ckr] tcfd vkt ds ckyhoqM ds vfèkdka'k vfHkusrk] vfHkusf=;ka] fuekZrk funsZ'kd] laxhr funsZ'kd rFkk ys[kd xhrdkj vkfn us ;k rks QqVikFkksa ij jgdj ;k fQj NksVh&NksVh [kksfy;ksa esa vius izkjafHkd fnu xqtkj dj cgqr la?k"kZ fd;k gSA fganh fQYeks|ksx ds izfl) laxhr lezkV ukS'kkn lkgc us vius vkjafHkd fnuksa esa blh

eqEcbZ uxjh esa cgqr nq%[k&nnZ >sys gSaA vusd o"kksZa rd ukS'kkn th jkr dks QqVikFk ij lks;k djrs FksA ,d le; flYoj tqcyh LVkj ekus tkus okys jktsUnzdeq kj] gh eSu èkesZaUnz] eukstdqekj] lquhy nRr] nso vkuUn vkSj fnyhidqekj vkfn vusd dykdkjksa us pus eqjeqjs cM+k iko [kk ih dj ;k QVh pIiy igudj fnu xqtkjs gSAa vieku lgu fd;s gSa vkSj cgqr gh de osru ij LVwfM;ks esa ukSdjh Hkh dj pqds gSa o"kksZa dh riL;k ds i'pkr mudh ftUnxh esa lQyrkvksa ds lwjt dk mn; gqvk gS vkSj os tkus&ekus vfHkusrk vkSj LVkj cu ik;sA

*** lqjS;k vkSj jktdiwj] dkjnkj dh ^nkLrku* esa ,d lkFk vkus ls igys ckEcs Vkdht dh ^gekjh ckr* esa ,d lkFk is'k fd;s x;s FksA *** ds- vkflQ dh fQYe ^gypy* esa cyjkt lkguh dk Hkh vge jksy FkkA 'kwfVax ds fy, mUgsa tsy ls LVwfM;ks iqfyl fuxjkuh esa yk;k tkrk FkkA *** Lo- ik'oZ xk;d eqds'k us xk;d cuus ls igys crkSj ghjks fQYe ^funksZ"k* esa dke fd;k Fkk] ysfdu fQYe dh vlQyrk ds dkj.k lQy ghjks cuus dk mudk liuk iwjk u gks ldkA flus e k&2005

27


Le` f r;ka

Mcy jksy] MqIyhdsV Meh vkSj LVUV ds dykdkjksa ds dfj'es vkSj mudh ekSrsa fQYe ^jke vkSj ';ke* esa fnyhi dqekj dk Mcy jksy FkkA ^lhrk vkSj xhrk* esa gsek ekfyuh dk Mcy jksy FkkA dbZ fQYeksa esa ,d gh dykdkj ds dbZ :i ns[kus dks feyrs gSaA dbZ fQYEkkas eas yM+dh&yM+dk cudj fgV gks tkrh gSSA ,slk mnkgj.k gS lkfjdk dkA lkfjdk fQYe ^ckyd* essa yM+dk Fkha vkSj fQYe m|ksx esa firkeg nknklkgsc Qkyds us rks xtc dh fgEer dh FkhA tc mUgksaus ,d gh yM+ds dks lhrk vkSj jke nksuksa cuk fn;k FkkA xtc dh dyk gS flusekA izfl) LVUV ekLVj vtheHkkbZ dgrs gSa fd eSa futke gSnjkckn dk ?kqM+lokj FkkA lsuk esa dbZ ind fy;s Fks gSjr vaxst dkjukeksa ds fy,A ysfdu tc eSa èkesZUnz dk MqIyhdsV cudj Mcy jksy esa mNy dj ?kksM+s ij cSBrk gwa vkSj ?kksM+k nq'eu dk ihNk djrk gS rks n'kZd rkfy;k¡ ctkrs gSa vkSj tc eSa [kqn NksVh fQYe esa ?kksM+k nkSM+rk gwa rks n'kZd cksj gksrs gSAa LoIu lqUnjh ;k fo'o lqUnjh tc yrkth dk xk;k xkuk xkrh gS rks ns[kus okys LrCèk jg tkrs gSAa ogh xkuk dksbZ cnlwjr yM+dh ijns ij xkrh gS rks gwfVax gks tkrh gSA blfy, dgrs gSa fd nqfu;k >qdrh gS] >qdkus okys pkfg,A cgqr dykdkj fdLer ysdj iSnk gq, gSa] tks dHkh ?kksM+s ij ugha cSBs vkSj ntZuksa LVUV fQYeksa ds lQyre uk;d cu x,] tSls eghikyA vkt vkSj dy dy lkèku ugha Fks] [kqn dykdkj dks xkus Hkh xkuk iM+rk Fkk vkSj og Lo;a LVUV Hkh djrk FkkA os viuh tku dh ijokg ugha djrs FksA ml le; mudh dher gtkjksa esa FkhA vkt djksM+ksa esa gSA vkt chek daifu;ka gSaA dykdkjksa dh ;wfu;usa gSaA ljdkj lsUlj ds le; fuekZrkvksa ls ikap gtkj #i;s dykdkjksa ds fgr ds fy, ysrh gSA vkt LVUV ds lkèku vkSj dyk Hkh cgqr fodflr gks x;h gSA geus fQYe ^fdLlk dqlhZ dk* esa 'kckuk vkteh ds xys esa jLlh ckaèk dj jk"Vªifr Hkou ds lkeus isM+ dh Mky ls yVdk fn;k FkkA vkidks tku dj rkTtqc gksxk fd Qkalh nh tk jgh gS vkSj 'kckuk vkteh eqLdjk jgh FkhaA D;ksafd jLlh xys esa Fkh <hyhA ysfdu mUgsa dej esa csYV ckaèkdj yVdk;k x;k FkkA jLlh flQZ xys esa fn[krh FkhA ml tekus esa Hkh ouekyk fQYe ^fldUnj* esa lkjs LVUV ckth Lo;a djrh FkhaA D;ksafd os jkt?kjkus ls vk;h Fkha vkSj ogka feysVªh Ldwy esa Vªsfuax ysdj vk;h FkhA blds vykok dqN dykdkj rks brus bZekunkj Fks tSls uokc] ftUgksaus cw<+s dk vfHku; djus ds fy, vius lkjs nkar fudyok fn;s FksA ,d Qwy tks f[kyrs gh eqj>k x;k ';ke pM~<k dk tUe fl;kydksV esa 20 Qjojh] 1928 esa gqvk FkkA muds firk ljdkjh ukSdjh esa Fks vkSj os pkgrs Fks fd csVs dks Hkh i<+k fy[kk dj rglhynkj] dysDVj cuk nsa] D;ksafd buds nknk th iVokjh FksA mUgsa is'kkoj ds Mh-,-ch- dkyst esa HkrhZ djk fn;k x;kA ogka mudh eqykdkr frydjkt] cyjkt lkguh vkSj ne;Urh ls gks x;hA vc mUgsa Hkh eqEcbZ esa fQYeksa esa fdLer vktekus dk fopkj vk;kA os vius ifjokj ls vuqefr ysdj vius pkpk lwcsnkj tksxsUnz flag ds ikl eqEcbZ vk x;sA ;gka vkus ij la?k"kZ 'kq: gqvkA ckEcs VkWdht esa LØhu VsLV gqvk vkSj mlesa lQy gks x;sA mudk dn Ng QhV ls Hkh Åij Fkk ysfdu mudh ukf;dk LusgizHkk izèkku flQZ ikap QhV dh Fkh funsZ'kd ts-ds- uank us mUgsa volj ugha fn;kA fQj mUgsa ,d caxyk fQYe feyh ftldh ukf;dk ml tekus dh vfHkus=h dTtu FkhA ,d iatkch fQYe ^xokgh* esa Hkh dke feyk] ysfdu igyh fgUnh fQYe ^[kkeks'kh* Fkh ftlesa mUgsa lqn'kZu ghjks cuk fn;kA vc mudh xkM+h iVjh ij vk x;h] jeksyk mudh ukf;dk cuh vkj-lh-ryokj dh fQYe esa ftlesa yhyk feJk] vejukFk 28

flus e k&2005


Le` f r;ka

vkSj euksjek FkhA 'kkyhekj fiDplZ ds cSuj rys cuh fQYe ^eu dh thr* FkhA ftldh vfHkus=h uhuk Fkh tks funs'Z kd MCY;w-tsMvgen dh iRuh Hkh FkhA 1946 esa os ^dejk uacj 9* esa xhrk futkeh ds lkFk vk;s vkSj 1948 esa ckEcs VkWdht dh ^etcwj* iznf'kZr gqbZA ukf;dk Fkh equOoj lqyrkuk vkSj vehj ckuksA blh fQYe esa ,d ;knxkj ?kVuk gqbZA blh fQYe esa vkt dh Hkkjr jRu yrk eaxs'kdj dh vkokt dks;y dh dgdj 'k'kèkj eqdthZ us ekLVj xqyke gSnj dks euk dj fn;k FkkA ysfdu ekLVj th vius Qu esa fo'kkjn FksA mUgksaus eqdthZ lkgc dks le>k;k fd bl yM+dh esa dqN ne gS] eq>s ekSdk nhft, vkSj mudh ftn us yrk dks dgka ls dgka igqpa k fn;kA ml le; mudk xkuk ^fny esjk rksMk+ ] dgha dk u NksMk+ * vkSj ^xksjk vaxjsth Nksjk pyk x;k] vc Mjus dh dksbZ ckr ugha* [kwc pysA 1949 esa dkjnkj fe;ka dh fQYe ^fnYyxh* iznf'kZr gqbAZ ghjks ';ke ,dne LVkj cu x;s vkSj vk;h ^1949 esa ';ke dh ,d vkSj fgV fQYe ^iraxk* ftlesa fuxkj] xksi] ;kdwc FksA 1949 esa gh ^duht* vk;h ftlesa ukf;dk equOoj lqyrkuk Fkh vkSj dqynhi dkSj Hkh FkhA 1950 esa mudh ^lekfèk* dk ,d xkuk ^fi;k x;s jaxwu] ogka ls fd;k gS VsyhQwu] fi;k dh ;kn lrkrh gSA* [kwc pykA ';ke dh vfUre fQYe Fkh 1951 dh fQfYeLrku ds cSuj ij ^'kfcLrku*A budh 'kwfVax eqEcbZ ds miuxj cksjcUnj ij py jgh FkhA ukf;dk Fkh lyhe ckuks vkSj funs'Z kd Fks foHkwfr feJkA bl fQYe esa [krjukd n`'; dh 'kwfVax FkhA toku

fuHkhZd uk;d ';ke feysVªh ifjokj dk lkglh ;qod FkkA MqIyhdsV dh mlus dksbZ t:jr ugha le>hA vktdy tSls uk;d viuk ?kksMk+ lqjf{kr djk ysrs gSAa ml le; bruk fjokt Hkh ugha FkkA ,d gknlk gqvk] ';ke us ?kksMs+ ij cSBk yxke [khap dj ,sMa + yxk;h vkSj ?kksMk+ gok gks x;k] ysfdu dSls ?kksMs+ us lokj dks flj ds cy fxjk fn;k fdlh dks ugha ekyweA dksbZ dgrk 'kk;n fdlh nq'eu us ?kksMs+ dks u'kk djk fn;k gksxkA ojuk ';ke tSlk toku ?kqM+lokjh dk 'kkSdhu dSls lj ds cy fxjk vkSj xEHkhj pksV vk;hA fQj mls dksbZ MkWDVj ugha cpk ldkA 23 o"kZ dh mez esa ';ke dh vfUre fØ;k eykM ds 'e'kku esa gqbZ vkSj ml le; gtkjksa yksx ekStnw FksA ckn esa muds uke dk psEcwj esa ';ke ikdZ Hkh cukA oks vkt ekywe ugha dSls feL=h ikdZ gks x;kA fQYe m|ksx vkSj dykdkj la?k us Hkh mudh bl vkdfLed ekSr dh Le`fr esa dqN ugha fd;kA vc 50 o"kZ gks x;s fQj Hkh gj uk;d ?kksM+s ij lokj gksus ds iwoZ ';ke dks t:j ;kn djrk gksxkA

*** ds- vkflQ fQYeksa esa vkus ls igys nthZ dk dke fd;k djrs FksA *** vius tekus ds yksdfiz; vfHkusrk ;kdwc us 1928 esa iznf'kZr ewd fQYe ^panzkoyh* }kjk fQYeksa esa izos'k fd;k FkkA 1931 esa iznf'kZr jksekafVd fQYe ^fizal* mudh igyh cksyrh fQYe FkhA flus e k&2005

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Mk;jh dk ,d iUuk

iafMr th ls igyh eqykdkr % ujfxl usg: th ls esjh igyh eqykdkr Hkh ,d fnypLi dgkuh gSA ns'k dks vktkn gq, pUn vjlk gh xqtjk Fkk] ,d fnu ufxZl ds cM+s HkkbZ v[rj gqlSu ds uke xouZj gkml ls ,d fuea=.k i= vk;kA ogka gksus okyh ,d nkor dk fuea=.k Fkk] ftlesa usg: th Hkh mifLFkr gksus okys FksA dkMZ esa feLVj vkSj felst v[rj gqlSu dks fueaf=r fd;k x;k FkkA tc ---- ufxZl dks ekywe gqvk fd usg: th Hkh ml ikVhZ esa gksaxs rks os ogka tkus ds fy, epy iM+hA fQYe ds O;fDr;ksa esa ufxZl ds flok ikVhZ esa dksbZ Hkh ugha FkkA lHkh cM+s&cM+s ljdkjh vQlj rFkk vU; yksx mifLFkr FksA muds chp geus vius vkidks cM+k vtuch&lk eglwl fd;kA usg: th vk;s rks os yksx muls ?kqy fey&dj ckrsa djus yxs vkSj ufxZl vius HkkbZ ds lkFk ,d dksus esa nqcdh [kM+h jghA viuh n;uh; voLFkk ns[k dj HkkbZ tku [kh> mBsA ysfdu ufxZl dh [kq'kfdLerh] FkksM+h nsj rd yksxksa ls ckrphr djrs&djrs vpkud usg: th dh utj ufxZl ij iM+hA utj feyrs gh ufxZl us gkFk tksM+ fn;sA usg: th dh ikj[kh vka[kksa esa ufxZl dh n;uh; voLFkk dk vkHkkl fey x;k vkSj os lc yksxksa dks NksM+ dj [kqn pydj ufxZl ds ikl vk;s vkSj mUkls CkkRks djUks YkXksA ufxZl us tc viuk ifjp; nsrs gq, usg: th dks crk;k fd og fQYeksa esa dke djrh gS rks os cM+s [kq'k gq, vkSj ufxZl dks mRlkfgr djrs gq, cksys] cgqr cM+h vkfVZLV cudj vius vktkn ns'k dk uke jks'ku djukA ckrksa gh ckrksa esa tc mUgsa irk pyk fd ufxZl bykgkckn dh jgus okyh gS] rks izlUu gksrs gq, mUgksaus dgk] ^^vksg rc rks rqe fcydqy vius ?kj dh yM+dh gksA** muds djhc chrs os pUn iy fdrus lq[ke; Fks] ufxZl us ;g eglwl fd;kA ij vxys gh fnu esjs ?kj xouZj gkml ;s ;g iwNrkN vk;h fd ml ikVhZ esa ge yksx dSls igqap x;s FksA njvly ckr ;g Fkh fd og dkMZ v[rj gqlSu ,e-,y-,- dk FkkA tks xyrh ls gekjs ;gka igqap x;k FkkA ysfdu mudh og fdruh [kwclwjr xyrh Fkh] ftlus eq>s iafMr th ls feyk fn;k FkkA fQj Hkh ml iwNrkN ls eq>s csgn vQlksl gqvkA fQYe okyksa ds izfr ljdkjh yksxksa dh ml gs; n`f"V dks ns[kdj ufxZl Xykfu ls Hkj mBh vkSj mlh iy ufxZl us ;g izfrKk dh fd fQYeksa esa jgdj og Hkjld bl nqfu;k rFkk blls lEcfUèkr yksxksa dks lekt esa lEeku fnykus dh dksf'k'k djsaxhA lkFk gh vius vki dks fdlh ÅapkbZ rd igqapkus ds fy, th&rksM+ dksf'k'k djsaxhA mlds ckn ls vDlj gh usg: th ls feyus dk bRrQkd mls feyrk jgk tc rd os thfor jgs vkSj ufxZl thrh jghA og tc Hkh muls feyrh ,d u;h [kq'kh] ,d u;h izsj.kk ysdj okil ykSVrhA og dgrh Fkh iafMr th dh gj ckr mls vPNh rjg ;kn FkhA og iy og dHkh ugaha Hkwy ldrh] tc mls in~eJh dh mikfèk feyh Fkh vkSj ml lekjksg esa iafMr tokgj yky usg: Hkh mifLFkr FksA mikfèk forj.k lekjksg esa igys mikfèk ysus okyksa dks fjglZy djuk iM+rk gS] ftlesa mUgsa fl[kk;k tkrk gS fdl rjg mBdj fdruk dne vkxs vkSj nk;s&a ck;sa pydj mikfèk ysuh gSA eSua s Hkh fjglZy fd;kA ysfdu tc og jk"Vªifr ls mikfèk ysus ds fy, c<+h rks dqN nk;sa&ck;sa dh xM+cM+h gks x;hA ufxZl us lkspk fdlus è;ku fn;k gksxkA ysfdu ml oDr ufxZl ds vk'p;Z dk fBdkuk u jgk tc mikfèk Lohdkj djds ykSVrs le; usg: th f[kyf[kyk dj cksys] ^^cM+h ,DVªsl rks curh gks] exj bl 30

flus e k&2005


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oDr fdruh uoZl gks x;hA ck;sa dh rjQ dne j[kuk gh Hkwy x;hA** 'keZ dh ykyh ufxZl ds psgjs ij nkSM+ x;h] ij mlh iy eq>s <k<l caèkkrs gq, os cksys] ^^ij dksbZ ckr ugha] Hkkjr jRu dh mikfèk ysrs le; esjs lkFk Hkh ,slk gks x;k FkkA**

iafMr th ds cM+Iiu ds ckjs esa ftruk Hkh dgk tk;s FkksMk+ gSA ufxZl dgk djrh Fkh fd ns'k ds fy, yM+us okyk lcls cM+k lsukuh vkSj ns'k dk izèkkuea=h eq>s brus djhc ls tkurk gSA ge lc muds lkFk Fks vkSj lnk jgsaxsA

ufxZl dks og iy Hkh vPNh rjg ;kn Fkk tc iafMr th ls feyus og muds fuokl LFkku ij x;h FkhaA ml fnu ckgj ls dqN Nk= Hkh muls feyus vk;s FksA ckrphr djrs gq, ufxZl ds lkFk gh os muls feyus vk;sA eq>s ns[krs gh tc Nk= vkVksxzkQ ds fy, esjh vksj yids rks [kq'k gksus ds ctk; ufxZl ml ij [kh> mBhA ufxZl dks fcYdqy vPNk ugha yxk brus egku O;fDr ds lkeus Nk=ksa dk ufxZl esa fnypLih ysukA ufxZl us vkVksxzkQ nsus ls budkj dj fn;kA ysfdu usg: th dh LiksVeZ uS fLifjV rFkk egkurk nsf[k, fd os eqLdjkrs gq, cksys ^^ns nks HkbZ] vc euk djus ls dksbZ Qk;nk ughaA** ufxZl dks vius vlyh gkyr dk irk yx x;k gS vkSj iafMr th f[kyf[kyk dj gal iM+As

,d ckj ufxZl us iafMr th ls iwNk ^th vki bl mez esa Hkh brus glhu gSa& bldk jkt D;k gS\* usg: th us Hkh rqjkZ ekjk& ^muds ns[ks ls tks vk tkrh gS eq[k ij jkSud oks le>rs gSa fd chekj dk gky vPNk gSA*

*** Loj lkezkKh yrk eaxs'kdj dks igyk fQYe Qs;j iqjLdkj foey jk; dh fQYe ^eèkqerh* ds xkus ^vktk js ijnslh---* ds fy, feyk FkkA *** 1935 esa iznf'kZr ^ttesaV vkQ vYykg* crkSj funsZ'kd egcwc [kku dh igyh fQYe FkhA crkSj fuekZrk vkSj funsZ'kd ^rdnhj* mudh igyh fQYe Fkh rFkk 1962 esa iznf'kZr fQYe ^lu vkQ bafM;k* mudh vafre fQYe FkhA *** Lo- [kyuk;d vfHkusrk thou us vius dSfj;j esa 750 fQYeksa esa [kyuk;d dk dke fd;k Fkk] tks vius vkiesa ,d fjdkMZ gSA *** 1951 esa cuh fQYe ^uxhuk* dh ghjksbu uwru Lo;a blfy, ;s fQYe ugha ns[k ik;h] D;ksafd og fQYe dsoy o;Ldksa ds fy, Fkh] tcfd uwru dh vk;q ml le; 18 o"kZ ls de FkhA flus e k&2005

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iafMr eq[kjke 'kekZ % ftudk uke fcdrk Fkk iafMr eq[kjke 'kekZ vius tekus ds ,sls ys[kd Fks] ftudk uke lqurs gh n'kZd VwV iM+rs Fks vkSj forjd fcuk iz;kl ds gh fQYesa [kjhn fy;k djrs FksA mUgha eq[kjke 'kekZ ds thou dh dqN ?kVuk,a ;gka izLrqr gSa%& esjB 'kgj ds ikl ugj ls yxrk gqvk mudk xkao gS iqVhA mudh ckY;koLFkk ogha chrhA ,d fnu tc os Ldwy ls ykSVrs le; ugj ij igqaps rks mudk ,d lgikBh] tks mu ij cgqr xqLlk djrk Fkk] ugj ij vk èkedkA [ksydwn esa mlus eq[kjke ls ekr [kk;h FkhA ekSdk ikdj mlus eq[kjke dks ml ugj esa èkdsy fn;kA ml le; mudh mez dqy 9 o"kZ dh FkhA ftl mTtM+ yM+ds us eq[kjke dks ikuh esa èkdsyk Fkk mldh mez yxHkx 21 lky FkhA ikuh esa fxjuk eq[kjke 'kekZ ds fy, ojnku gks x;kA blds igys mUgsa rSjuk fcydqy ugha vkrk Fkk] ysfdu tku cpkus ds fy, mUgksaus ikuh esa gkFk&ikao pykuk 'kq: fd;kA ifj.kke ;g gqvk fd os ikuh dh lrg ij vk x;sA muds gkFk&iSj cjkcj ikuh esa pyus yxsA mUgksaus eglwl fd;k fd mUgsa rSjuk vk x;k FkkA ikuh esa ;g mudh igyh Mqcdh Fkh vkSj blh Mqcdh ls mUgsa rSjuk vk x;kA eq[kjke th us tc iqLrdky; dk ykHk ik;k eqEcbZ vkus ij iafMr eq[kjke 'kekZ ,d O;olk;h ds cPps dks i<+k;k djrs FksA ml cPps ds ?kj ds ikl gh ,d cgqr cM+k iqLrdky; FkkA bl iqLrdky; esa iqLrdksa dk [ktkuk la;ksx ls gh iafMr th ds gkFk yxk FkkA 11 cts ls 4 cts ds chp iqLrdky; cUn jgrk FkkA bl iqLrdky; esa 11 cts ls 4 cts ds le; dks NksM+dj ckdh le; ;gha ekStwn jgrs FksA iqLrdky; dh yxHkx lkjh iqLrdsa os pkV x;s FksA lSdM+ksa miU;kl] vusd dFkk&dgkfu;ka] euq] rqylh] dkfynkl ls ysdj vkèkqfud ;qx ds jfoUnz ukFk VSxksj ls ysdj izsepUnz dk lkjk lkfgR; i<+ Mkyk FkkA izHkkr ds ekfyd ls eqykdkr ,d fnu nksigj ds chp lqizfl) fQYe fuekZrk] Qrsgyky] iqLrdky; ds ,d dksus esa iqLrdksa dh rg esa Mwcs iafMr th ls feysA Qrsgyky Lo;a dqN lkfgR; ns[kus ds fy, bl ykbczsjh esa vk;s FksA os iqLrdsa myV&iqyV dj ns[k jgs Fks fd mudh utj iafMr eq[kjke 'kekZ ij iM+hA ikjlh Qrsgyky eq[kjke dh vksj x;s vkSj vutkus esa daèks ij gkFk j[krs gq, cksys] ^^{kek djuk Jheku] eSa fQYe fuekZrk Qrsgyky gwaA** blls vkxs fd os dqN vkSj cksysa] iafMr eq[kjke 'kekZ us vnc ls [kM+s gksrs gq, mudk vfHkoknu djrs gq, dgk] ^^eSaus vkidk uke rFkk izHkkr daiuh }kjk cuk;h x;h lHkh fQYeksa ds ckjs esa i<+k gSA esjk vgksHkkX; gS fd eSa vki tSls [;kfrizkIr fQYe fuekZrk ls eqykdkr dj jgk gwaA** Qrsgyky us eqLdjkrs gq, iwNk] ^^D;k vki fgUnh vkSj laLd`r lkfgR; i<+ jgs gSa\** iafMr eq[kjke us mRlkfgr gks tokc fn;k] ^gka] okLro esa eSa ;gh dj jgk gwaA eSaus bl iqLrdky; esa lkfgR; dk xgu vè;;u fd;k gSA eSaus 'kdqaryk] rkjkerh vkfn ds ckjs esa Hkh foLr`r tkudkfj;ka vftZr dh gSaA** Qrsgyky us chp esa gh dgk] ^^rks vki esjs dk;kZy; esa vkdj eq>ls fefy,A eSa vkidks vius LVksjh foHkkx esa dke nsuk pkgrk gwaA** blds ckn mUgksaus vius ilZ ls lkS #i;s dk ,d uksV fudky dj mUgsa nsrs gq, dgk] ^^;g vkidk okgu dk [kpZ jgkA D;k vki esjs fopkj ls lger gSa\** iafMr eq[kjke 'kekZ tks mu fnuksa va'kr% Hkw[ks Fks] mUgksaus dgk] ^^gka&gka]A bl dke dh gh vfHkyk"kk Fkh eq>sA** eq[kjke th nwljs fnu fuf'pr le; ij Qrsgyky ls feysA mlh fnu <yrh gqbZ nksigj esa mUgsa ys[kd dk dke ns fn;k x;kA vktdy ds fuekZrkvksa dh rjg vktdy Vkyus dh vknr Qrsgyky esa ugha FkhA og ekuo ikjlh Fks vkSj n`<+ fu'p;h FksA blds ckn rks iafMr eq[kjke ,sls izfrf"Br ys[kd cus fd mudk uke fcdus yxkA 32

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fQYe txr esa iafMr eq[kjke 'kekZ dk uke bruk izfl) Fkk fd NBsa ls ysdj vkBosa n'kd rd muds uke ls fQYesa fcdrh vkSj pyrh FkhaA fQYe ys[ku esa lkekftd dgkfu;ka fy[kus okyksa esa dsoy ,d gh uke Fkk] ;g uke Fkk iafMr eq[kjkt 'kekZA dykdkjksa dk mruk egRo ugha FkkA izHkkr esa iafMr eq[kjkt 'kekZ dks ejkBh dykdkjksa dks fgUnh laoknksa dk lgh mPpkj.k cksyus dk Hkh vH;kl djkus dk dke lkSaik x;k FkkA blds lkFk&lkFk vko';drkuqlkj fdlh lhu ds laokn c<+kus ;k laf{kIr djds fy[kus dk dke Hkh fn;k x;k FkkA ^lar Kkus'oj vkSj ^lar l[kw* esa mUgsa ,d xhr fy[kus dk volj feykA blds ckn funsZ'kd jktk usus funsZf'kr ^nl cts* ds laokn vkSj xhr fy[kus dk lkSHkkX; mUgsa feykA izHkkr ds bl fp= us vPNh lQyrk vftZr dhA lu~ 1943 esa funs'Z kd jktk usus us vius xziq ds lkFk izHkkr daiuh NksM+ nhA mUgksaus eqEcbZ esa je.khd izksMD'ku esa ikSjkf.kd fp= ^rkjkerh* cukus dk vuqcèa k dj fy;kA jktk ukus ds lkFk iafMr eq[kjke 'kekZ us ^rkjkerh*] ^Jh fo".kq Hkxoku* rFkk ^uy ne;arh* vkfn fQYesa fy[khaA ^rkjkerh* vkSj ^Jh fo".kq Hkxoku* dks Hkkjh lQyrk feyhA eq[kjke 'kekZ dks ikSjkf.kd fQYesa fy[kus esa #fp ugha FkhA os leL;k ewyd fQYesa fy[kuk pkgrs FksA dgrs gSa lPph yxu gks rks vo'; iwjh gksrh gSA jktk usus us gh tq, ij vkèkkfjr fQYe ^'kknh ls igys* cuk;hA ;g fQYe iafMr eq[kjke 'kekZ dh fy[kh gqbZ dgkuh ij vkèkkfjr FkhA fp= esa lHkh u, vkSj vutku ejkBh dykdkj FksA ;g fQYe bruh vPNh cuh Fkh fd vkpk;Z v=s tSls cqf)thfo;ksa us fQYe dks cgqr ilan fd;k Fkk] fdUrq ;g fQYe n'kZdksa dh dlkSVh ij [kjh ugha mrjhA iafMr eq[kjke dh ,d nwljh fQYe ^vkt dk loky* ij fuekZrk nRrk èkekZfèkdkjh us ejkBh esa ^L=h tUekgh rq>h dgkuh* uke ls fQYe cuk;hA ;g fQYe [kwc pyhA bl fQYe ls iafMr eq[kjke 'kekZ ds uke dk f<a<ksjk fiVus yxkA rc os iwuk esa gh jgrs FksA bl fQYe ds ckn eqEcbZ ds fuekZrk muls dgkuh ysus ds fy, iwuk vkus yxsA ckn esa rks iafMr eq[kjke Lo;a eqEcbZ vk x;sA eqEcbZ esa mudh dgkfu;ksa ij cuh fQYesa gSa% vkSykn] vfèkdkj] opu]

,d gh jkLrk] nq'eu] lkèkuk] larku] vfHkeku] nsoj] HkkHkh] nks cgusa] rkaxsokyh] rykd] èkwy dk Qwy] lekfèk vkfnA bu fQYeksa dh lQyrk us iafMr eq[kjkt 'kekZ dks f'k[kj ij igqapk fn;kA izpkj ls nwj eq[kjkt 'kekZ us dHkh dksbZ QksVks fdlh if=dk esa ugha fHktok;kA vokMZ nsus okyksa dks Hkh mUgksaus vius ls nwj j[kkA mudk dguk Fkk] turk us eq>s ilUn fd;k gS] fQj vki muls vkxs gSa D;k\ eSa Hkh eq[kjke th ls feyrk jgrk FkkA ,d ckj os ,d fQYe dh dgkuh fy[k jgs FksA bl fQYe esa eSa Hkh FkkA iafMr th dgrs Fks] fuekZrk esjs ikl dgkuh fy[kokus vkrs gSaA os viuh iRuh dh i<+h dgkuh lqukrs gSaA fQj dgrs ;g gSa fd ;g mudk vkbfM;k gSA rc eq>s dguk t:jh gks tkrk Fkk fd vki fy[kdj vkbfM;k ns nhft,] ysfdu blds ckn os fuekZrk nqckjk ykSV dj ugha vkrs FksA laxhrdkj jfo dks volj fnyk;k eq[kjkt 'kekZ us laxhrdkj jfo ds fy, fuekZrk vkSj mlds lkfFk;ksa ds lkeus ?kks"k.kk dj nh fd vxj jfo dk laxhr ugha pyk rks eSa ^opu* ds izn'kZu ds ckn fy[kuk NksM+ nwaxkA ysfdu fQYe Hkh pyh vkSj jfo ds laxhr okyk xkuk ,slk pyk fd os fQYeksa esa izos'k ik x;sA laxhr ds Hkh ikj[kh Fks iafMr thA iafMr eq[kjke 'kekZ dks lu~ 1961 esa Lo- jk"Vªifr ckcw jktsUnz izlkn ds dj deyksa ls laxhr ukVd vdkneh iqjLdkj ls lEekfur fd;k x;k FkkA mudh dqN fQYeksa dks fQYe Qs;j vkSj tuZfyLV ,lksfl,'ku ds iqjLdkj Hkh feys FksA ^I;kj dh I;kl* dks ljdkj dh rjQ ls ;ksX;rk izek.k&i= izkIr gqvk FkkA n'kZdksa esa iafMr th uke ls igpkus tkus yxs FksA fQYe txr esa mUgsa Hkjiwj lEeku feyk vkSj thou fuokZg ds fy, vPNk [kklk iSlk Hkh mUgsa izkIr gqvkA mUgksaus fu'p; dj fy;k Fkk fd 70 o"kZ dh mez ds ckn os dke ugha djsaxsA blfy, dsoy ?kj ij gh fpUru euu djrs jgsA 80 o"kZ ds mijkUr tc mUgsa yxk fd bl feV~Vh dks tUe LFkku dh feV~Vh esa feykuk gS] rks os eqEcbZ NksM+dj esjB pys x;s vkSj tkus ds ckn ogka mudk fuèku gks x;kA

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Le` f r;ka

fQYeksa esa tkfr&ikfr ugha] u gh èkeks± dk HksnHkko naxksa&Qlkn ds dkj.k vU; O;olk;ksa dh rjg fQYe dk O;olk; Hkh dqN fnuksa ds fy, #d tk;k djrk gSA u;h fQYeksa dk izn'kZu rks #d gh tkrk gS] igys iznf'kZr fQYeksa ds fctusl dks Hkh Hkkjh uqdlku dk lkeuk djuk iM+rk gSA cjlksa igys egcwc [kku us ^enj bafM;k* cuk;h FkhA mlesa dykdkjksa dh ewy ilanxh vyx FkhA bl fQYe esa fcjtw dh Hkwfedk ds fy, egcwc us fnyhi dqekj dk pquko fd;k FkkA blds ckn fnyhi&ujfxl dh tksM+h izseh izsfedk ds :i esa izfl) gks x;hA blds ckn bl ghjks dks ml ghjksbu ds csVs dh Hkwfedk esa n'kZd ugha Lohdkj dj ldrsA bl rdZ esa ne Hkh FkkA ckn esa ufxZl vkSj lquhy nRr dk fookg gks x;kA ufxZl dh mez lquhy nRr ls ,d o"kZ vfèkd Fkh] ysfdu blls Hkh cM+k fookn ;g Fkk fd ;g fgUnw yM+ds vkSj eqfLye yM+dh dh 'kknh FkhA gkykafd ufxZl dh eka tn~nuckbZ eqfLye ckn esa gqb±] igys os fgUnw FkhaA cVokjs ds le; nl yk[k yksxksa ds dRysvke ds ckn lkekftd thou esa lquhy nRr vkSj ufxZl dh 'kknh us eyge dk dke fd;k FkkA ifr&iRuh us ljgn ikj yM+us okys lSfudksa ds euksjatu dk dk;ZØe fd;k vkSj HkkbZpkjs dh Hkkouk fodflr dhA lquhy nRr vkSj ufxZl ls ysdj BsB _frd jks'ku rd ds fookg us bl ckr dks lkdkj fd;k gS fd ^etgc ugha fl[kkrk vkil esa cSj j[kuk*A vktdy ds vfHkusrk vkehj [kku vkSj 'kkg:[k [kku us Hkh ;gh felky vkxs dk;e dhA cjlksa igys 'kfeZyk VSxksj vkSj uokc iVkSnh dh 'kknh gqbZ FkhA blh rjg vfHkus=h eqerkt us e;wj ekèkokuh ds lkFk fookg dj fy;kA rc Hkh izse gh lcls cM+k èkeZ FkkA bu XySejl vfHkusf=;ksa us ;gh fl)kUr izfrikfnr fd;k FkkA 'kfeZyk vkSj iVkSnh ds yM+ds lSQ vyh us ve`rk flag ds lkFk fookg fd;kA rc ;g ijaijk vkSj vkxs c<+hA mYys[kuh; gS fd bl 'kknh ds fy, vkjEHk esa 'kfeZyk dh eatwjh ugha Fkh] ysfdu blds fy, ve`rk ds lkFk mez 'kk;n #dkoV Fkh ysfdu èkeZ ds ekeys esa ughaA _frd jks'ku ds llqj lat; [kku us ikjlh tjhu ckuw ds lkFk fookg fd;k Fkk vkSj fQjkst [kku us lqUnjh ds lkFkA lyeku dh cgu vychjk us vfHkusrk viwoZ vfXugks=h ds lkFk fookg fd;k gSA lyeku ds firk lyhu [kku us fØf'p;u èkeZ dks ekuus okyh tsfuQj ds lkFk fookg fd;k gSA 'kf'k diwj dk Hkrhtk _f"k diwj us fl[k èkeZ ekuus okyh uhrw flag ls fookg fd;kA fgUnw ekyk flUgk us Hkh fØf'p;u lh-ih- yksgkuh dks thou lkFkh cuk;k gSA tSdh JkQ dh iRuh vk;'kk gaAS blh rjg fQYeh nqfu;k vkSj mlds dykdkjksa us èkeZ dh ifo=rk dks lkFkZd djus ds lkFk gh lkFk HkkbZpkjs dh Hkkouk c<+kus ds fy, ;g xhr gh ugha xk;k ^rw fgUnw cusxk u eqlyeku cusxk] bUlku dh vkSykn gS bUlku cusxk*A cfYd bls iafDrc) lkFkZd djds Hkh crk;k gSA Hkkjr esa loZèkeZ leHkko dh Hkkouk dks fodflr djus esa fQYeksa dk cgqr cM+k gkFk gSA fQYeksa esa xhr] mlds laokn] dgkfu;ksa ds vykok fQYeh dykdkjksa ds 'kknh&C;kg Hkh yksxksa ds fy, vkn'kZ gSaA fQYe dykdkjksa us eqEcbZ ce foLQksV ds ckn egs'k HkV~V dh vxqokbZ esa cgqr dke fd;k FkkA egs'k HkV~V dh eka eqfLye FkhaA bl dFkkud ij vkRe dFkkRed fQYe --- ^t[e* vkSj fgUnw eqfLye ifr&iRuh ds cPps rwQku esa fcNM+ tkrs gSa bl lEcUèk esa ân; fonkjd ckr crkrh gqbZ ef.k jRue dh fQYe ^ckEcs* Hkh lekt lsok ds ;ksX; fQYe gSA naxs&Qlkn ds ckn rjg&rjg ds ijps Hkh ckaVs tkrs gSa] ftuesa nksuksa èkeZ ds yksxksa }kjk ,d nwljs èkeZ ds dykdkjksa dh fQYeksa dks ugha ns[kus ds Qjeku tkjh fd;s tkrs gSaA lkSHkkX; ls fQYe n'kZdksa ij bl rjg dh Qjekuksa dk dksbZ vlj ugha gksrk gSA fQYe m|ksx esa èkeZ ds vkèkkj ij dqN Hkh ugha gks ldrkA fgUnw èkeZ dk Js"B Hktu ukS'kkn vkSj 'kdhy cnk;wuh dh eqfLye tksM+h us 'kCn vkSj laxhr ls laokjk FkkA eksgEen jQh vkSj fnyhi dqekj dh tksM+h us Hkxoku ds le{k bl Hktu dks xk;k FkkA 34

flus e k&2005


Le` f r;ka

xksih esa ^lq[k ds lc lkFkh] nq%[k esa u dksbZ* esa fnyhidqekj us ^esjs jke esjs jke* iafDr;ka xk;h gSaA bu iafDr;ksa dks mUgsa xkrs gq, lqfu;s rks yx gh ugha ldrk fd ;g ;wlQq [kku uke dk dksbZ O;fDr xk jgk gSA cfYd yxrk gS fd dksbZ jke HkDr bls xk jgk gSA ^fQtk* esa t;k cPpu vkSj ^dqyh* esa vferkHk cPpu dks njxkg ij bcknr djrs gq, ns[ksa rks dksbZ dg gh ugha ldrk fd ;s fgUnw dykdkj gSaA ^vej vdcj ,UFkksuh* esa vdcj bykgkcknh cus _f"k diwj dh dOokyh gSA ^esjs gqtwj* esa uokc ds :i esa jktdqekj dk BkB ns[kus yk;d\ ^esjs egcwc* rks iwjh fQYe gh eqfLye lkekftd dgkuh ij vkèkkfjr FkhA blesa dykdkj Fks jktsUnz dqekj] lkèkuk vkSj v'kksd dqekjA ;kuh rhuksa fgUnwA blds fuekZrk funsZ'kd ,p-,l- joSy Hkh eqfLye ugha FksA ^fudkg* tSlh lqij fgV fQYe cukus okys ch-ckj- pkSiM+k vkSj mlds nks eq[; ghjks jkt cCcj rFkk nhid ikjk'kj eqfLye ugha FksA bruk gh ugha d`".k Hkxoku dh ewfrZ ds lkeus izkFkZuk Hktu xkdj viuh O;Fkk fgUnh ijns ij lcls T;knk O;Dr djus okyh vfHkus=h dkSu gS\ bldk tokc gS ehukdqekjhA mudk ewyuke Fkk egtchaA esjh lqu ys vjt cuokjh] rsjs }kj [kM+h nqf[k;kjh] rksgjk eu niZu dgyk;s] lqu ys iqdkj vkbZ] vkt rsjs }kjk ysds vkalqvksa dh èkkj] ejs lkaojsA* bruk gh ugha ekFks ij flanwj dk Vhdk ehukdqekjh ls vfèkd fdl vfHkus=h ij 'kksHkk;eku gksrk FkkA ^eksgs iu?kV ij uUnyky NsM+ x;ks js* xhr xkus okyh eèkqckyk Hkh eqlyeku FkhA mldk ewy uke Fkk esg#fUulkA bl fQYe ds laxhrdkj ukS'kkn xhrdkj 'kdhy cnk;wuh rks eqfLye Fks gh funsZ'kd ds-vkflQ Hkh bLyke ds ekuus okys FksA blh rjg enj bafM;k ds cukus okys egcwc [kku Fks vkSj eq[; ik= ^jkèkk dk Hktu djus okyh ufxZl Fkh*A mldk ewy uke Qkfrek Fkk] ysfdu fQYe esa eqfLye ijaijk dk uke ek= ugha FkkA ^'krjat ds f[kykM+h esa lR;thr jk; us latho dqekj

dks uokc ds :i esa ilan fd;k Fkk] rc mUgksaus èkeZ ugha ns[kk FkkA cyjkt lkguh us ^xeZ gok* esa Hkkjrh; eqfLyeksa dh leL;k dks ijns ij ftl [kwclwjrh ls O;Dr dh Fkh] fd dksbZ dg gh ugha ldrk fd os tUe ls fgUnw Hkh gksaxsA oh- 'kkarkjke us tc ^iM+kslh* dk fuekZ.k fd;k Fkk rks tkucw> dj mlesa mUgksaus eqfLye ik= tkxhjnkj dks lkSaik Fkk vkSj fgUnw Hkwfedk etgj [kku dks nh FkhA ;g fQYe vktknh ds igys 1941 esa cuh FkhA blfy, thur veku ds ifr etgj [kku ugha FksA os etgj [kku dksbZ nwljs gh dykdkj FksA ^egkHkkjr* lhfj;y esa ch-vkj- pkSiM+k us lEokn ys[ku dk dke MkW- jkgh eklwe jt+k dks lkSaik FkkA fQYe m|ksx dk brus cjlksa dk loZèkeZ izsj.kknk;h bfrgkl gS fd vk'kk ikjs[k dh eEeh eqfLye gS feFkqu pØorhZ dh iRuh ;ksfxrk ckyh ¼fl[k½ gS bldh n'kZd dksbZ fpUrk ugha djrs gSAa ikjlh gkseh okfM;k us lcls vPNh fQYe cukbZ ^lai.w kZ jkek;.k* vkSj dbZ fQYesa ladV ekspu guqeku ij cukbZAa eqfLye ukfM;kn okys us fQYe ^egkHkkjr* vkSj ^fp=ys[kk* cukbZA mudh iRuh Hkh iq"ik FkhA fuekZrk fdlh Hkh tkfr dk gks fQYe dk eqgqrZ djrs gSa& iwtk gksrh gS] ukfj;y p<+rs gSa] ;gka lc dchj iaFkh gSa& jke&jghe esa dksbZ Hksn ugha gSA fQYe Fkh ^vej jgs ;g I;kj*A izfl) dykdkj jkèkkfd'ku us cukbZ Fkh& naxs gksrs gSa& ,d eqfLye fgUnw ds ?kj esa fNi tkrk gS& naxkbZ 'kksj epkrs gSa& mls ckgj fudkyks& ?kj dk ekfyd fgUnw xhrk ysdj ckgj vkrk gS vkSj dle [kkrk gS fd esjs gkFk esa xhrk gS&?kj esa dksbZ ugha gS&fl)kUr Fkk mudk&bUlku dh ftUnxh ls dksbZ cM+k ugaha gSA

*** fuekZrk funsZ'kd ds- vkflQ dh vky Vkbe fgV fQYe ^eqxy&,&vkte* ds eq[; laokn ys[kd vekuqYyk [kku lqijfgV vfHkus=h thur veku ds firk FksA flus e k&2005

35


tc Hkh dksbZ ikuh esa dwnrk gS ;k fxj tkrk gS rks ikuh esa og ,dne ugha Mwc tkrkA ikuh ,d ckj t:j mls Qsadrk gSA vxj dksbZ lkèku gksaxs rks og cp ldrk gSA fQj nwljh ckj e`R;q ds ckn 'kjhj ikuh dh lrg ij rSjrk feyrk gSA blhfy, vkRegR;k djus okys dq,a esa dwnrs gSa rks iRFkj ckaèk dj fxjrs gSa] ftlls ej Hkh tk;sa vkSj irk Hkh u pysA vusd nhokus fQYeksa esa HkkX; vktekus vkrs gSaA muesa ls vfèkdrj ghjks ghjksbu cuus vkrs gSaA dqN xhrdkj rks dqN laxhrdkj Hkh ekuks yrk] jQh] 'kadj t;fd'ku cuus vkrs gSaA ys[kd rks dksbZ Hkh cuus pys vkrk gS] D;ksafd fQYe m|ksx esa mlds fy, dksbZ ;ksX;rk ;k fMxzh dh t:jr ugha gkssrhA fuekZrk cuus dk lqxe mik; fQYe baLVhV~;wV esa Hkh fuekZrk ds fy, dksbZ dkslZ ugha gSA tks Hkh fuekZrk cus gSa veweu yxu egRokdka{kk ls cus gSaA lR;ftr jk;] egcwc [kku] 'kkUrkjke blds mnkgj.k gSaA vaxzsth dh dgkuh ^LikbMj ,aM fn fdax* Hkh blds fy, ,d vkn'kZ gSA eSa Hkh VªsM xkbM esa vkn'kZ th ds lkFk tqM+ x;kA iSlk Hkh dqN yxk;k gS dke Hkh lc fd;k] ysfdu i=dkfjrk dks vkn'kZ i=dkfjrk cukus ds pDdj esa dksbZ ykHk ugha gqvkA vkn'kZ th us v[kckj ds ekè;e ls nykyh 'kq: dj nh vkSj mudk lEidZ forjdkas vkSj fuekZrkvksa ls gks x;kA eSa le>krk jgk fd ge laiknd gSa] czksdj ugha] ysfdu mudk rdZ Fkk fd fQj iSlk dgka ls vk;sxkA ge xkaèkh th dk ^gfjtu* rks ugha fudky jgs gSaA vUr esa ogh gqvk tks ,d O;kikjh vkSj cqf)thoh ds chp gksrk gSA fQj eSua s eqEcbZ esa igyk fgUnh lkIrkfgd i= fudkyk ^flus ok.kh* ;g lkspdj fd fQYesa fgUnh esa curh gSa] laokn fgUnh esa] xhr fgUnh esa] forjd vfèkdka'k fgUnh izns'kksa ds gSaA t:j lg;ksx nsaxs] ysfdu ns[kk x;k fd dykdkjksa dh mlesa dksbZ fnypLih ugha jghA ikBd t:j feysA tks v[kckj ghjks ghjksbu i<+rs Fks] mUgha esa foKkiu fn;k tkrk FkkA ;gka rd irk yxk;k tkrk Fkk fd nsokuUn dkSu&lh lM+d ls ,jksMªe tkrs gSaA ogka cSuj yxk, tk,aA os dkSu&lk v[kckj i<+rs gSa] mlesa foKkiu fn;k tk;sA iksLVj Hkh forjd] fuekZrk] uk;d ukf;dk ds ?kj ds vklikl gh vfèkd fpidkps tkrsA fdlh Hkh rjg ls mUgsa izlUu j[kuk gksrk FkkA ftlls os dksbZ f'kdk;r ugha djsaA dykdkj Hkh dHkh fgUnh esa ugha cksyrs u gh os fgUnh ds v[kckj i<+rs gSaA i=dkj cRrhl nk¡rksa ds chp dh rjg gksrk gS v[kckj esa fdlh ds fo"k; esa dqN rkjhQ Ni x;h rks os ekurs gSa] tks lp gS ogh fy[kk gSA blesa dkSu u;h ckr gS vkSj mudks dqN vlfy;r fy[kuh gks rks f'kdk;r ;g fd laiknd iSlk ekax jgk FkkA ugha nsus ij nq'eu gks x;kA vxj dqN gjdrsa vkius ns[kha vkSj Nki nha rks os dksVZ dk njoktk [kV[kVk;saxs ;k xq.Ms dks Mjkus ds fy, HkstsaxsA fuHkhZd laiknd dks D;k D;k Hkksxuk iM+rk gSA mlds dqN mnkgj.k gSa%& uhjk lehj uke dh ,d u;h yM+dh ghjksbu cuus vk;h FkhA fpYMªsu fQYe lkslk;Vh esa mls ,d fQYe feyh vkSj ml fQYe ds eqgrq Z esa eksjkjth HkkbZ tSlh gLrh ls eqgrq Z djk;k x;k vkSj og yM+dh iqfyl }kjk idM+ yh x;hA lekpkj Nik uke uhjk 'kjkc ¼eqjkjth HkkbZ nk:cUnh ds elhgk½ iqfyl vk;haA lc lkeku lfgr v[kckj ys x;hA iqfyl us dgk dsl pykA laoknnkrk dey vkuUn dks pksVsa vk;hA vUr esa 2 o"kZ ckn esa i=dkj fe= jke vkSjaxkckn us le>kSrk djok;kA 36

flus e k&2005

;kns a

ikuh esa dwnksxs rks rSjuk lh[kksxs


bfUnjk uke dh ,d fQYeksa dh ukf;dk FkhA mlu¢ fuekZrk dks rkjh[k nh vkSj vPkkUkd xk;c gks x;hA fuekZrk dks iSd vi djuk iM+kA [kcj Nirs gh nwljs fnu mudk eSdvi eSu Nqjk ysdj lkeus [kM+k gks x;kA rqEgkjk uke D;k gS\ mlus Nqjk [kksydj Vsfcy ij j[kkA cksyk] ^yxrk ugha* [kknhèkkjh rqe ,slk ugha fy[k ldrs gksA ekQh ekax yks] ugha rks ;g Nqjk vkjikjA brus esa osn enu dh tksMh+ ds fuekZrk funs'Z kd vkfQl esa vk;s vkSj mls igpku dj ekjus yxsA ;g mudk Hkh eSdvi eSu FkkA tku cphA 'kkguokt [kka vktkn fgUnh ds iwoZ dIrku jsyos jkT; ea=h FksA ÝfUV;j esy ls eqEcbZ lsUVªy ls fnYyh tk jgs FksA dksbZ vUrjax muls feyus tc rd ugha vk;s rc rd xkM+h ugha pyhA xkM+h ,d ?kaVk ysV gks x;hA laoknnkrk us ?kM+h dk QksVks Hkh ys fy;kA jsyos LVky ls nwljs lIrkg esa lHkh txg ls ^flus ok.kh* xk;cA laiknd izdk'kd dks [kkl dj NksVs v[kckj dks D;k >syuk ugha iM+rk gSA vusdkusd dfBukb;ksa ds gksrs gq, fgUnh lkIrkfgd 20 o"kZ rd pykA bejtsUlh ds le; ij jftLVªkj dks le; ij fjiksVZ ugha Hkst ikus ds dkj.k cUn dj nsuk iM+k] D;ksafd ml le; ge ^fdLlk dqlhZ dk* ds dsl esa Qals gq, FksA fQj geus ^moZ'kh* fudkyhA nSfud i= ds vkdkj esAa fQYe dh jktuhfr esa [kkl lgk;d FkhA eSa Hkkxhnkj Fkk iDds ,xzhesUV ds lkFkA [kwc esgur dhA Vkbi <yok;sA lcls iqjkus izfl) izls osd a Vs'oj izls ls fizUV djok;kA bl i= ls D;ksa eq>s Hkkxuk iM+k] bldk ftØ ugha fd;k tk;s] rks gh vPNk gS] D;ksfa d esjs I;kjs fe= tks vc bl nqfu;k esa ugha gSAa fQj eSa okil vius vkfQl 5 ,Q ukt flusek esa vk x;kA tgka ls ^VªsM xkbM* fudyh Fkh vkSj blh uke ls mlesa dkye Hkh pyrk FkkA fQj ,d ckj bUnkSj&eqEcbZ nksuksa LFkkuksa ls lkFk&lkFk ,d v[kckj ^fdj.k* fudkykA mlds laiknu dk nkf;Ro xksiky ikUMs dks fn;k x;kA tks vktdy cgqr ukeh ih-vkj-vks- gSaA ;gka ls Nidj dqN ist ogka tkrs Fks vkSj dqN ogka ls ;gkaA bruk ikuh cjlk fd ftl Vªd esa ^fdj.k* ds fy, Cykd vkSj ist vk jgs Fks] ,DlhMsaV gks x;kA LVkQ dks Hkh pksV vk;hA mlh fnu ls flyflyk VwV x;k v[kckj cUn gks x;kA rSjrs&rSjrs rkykc dk ikuh gh [kRe gks x;k

vc eSnku esa vkdj dqN djus ds fy, lkspus yxsA 5 ,Q ukt flusek fcfYMax esa tgka ^flusok.kh* dk vkfQl Fkk] ogka ,d u;h dEiuh ^fdax ewoht* Hkh vk x;h FkhA gekjs fe= jrudqekj th us dbZ o"kksZa la?k"kZ djds dbZ uke cny dj ,d fQYe cuk;h Fkh ^ckadys ky* i`Fohjkt th mlds uk;d FksA muds LoxZokl ds ckn mudh Le`fr dks lnSo rktk j[kus ds fy, mls èkweèkke ls iznf'kZr djuk pkgrs FksA blfy, os fQYe dks gekjs vkfQl ds ,d fe= Jh tSu ls iznf'kZr djok;hA jkt] 'kf'k] 'kEeh lHkh csVksa dks vkeaf=r fd;k fd ikik th dh vfUre fQYe ds izhfe;j 'kks esa ièkkjsAa gkFkh ij ckadys ky dk iqryk fudky dj izHkkrQsjh tSls izpkj dk izcUèk fd;k x;kA uhps ukt flusek esa gh fQYe iznf'kZr gqbAZ ns[kus okys ugha vk;sA cM+k flusekA vfèkd mldk HkkM+kA cspkjk fe= nksLrh vkSj mRlkg esa jde xoka cSBkA dksbZ csVk Hkh ugha vk;k] tks ikikth flrkj ysdj ,jksMªe igqpa rs Fks rks lHkh csVs ,d ds ckn ,d vkdj pj.k Li'kZ djrs FksA vkfQl de Dyc 5 ,Q ukt esa vkfQl ,d ysfdu dbZ fe=ksa ds ftuds ikl vkfQl ugha Fkk mudks Hkh vkus] cSBus] Mkd dk irk nsus dh lqfoèkk nh x;h FkhA lkFk gh ikap cts ds ckn vkfQl Dyc tSlk gks tkrk FkkA dqjeqjk lso ] dqyd.khZ ds izfl) Hkft;k eaxkdj fd'ku pijklh Vsfcy ij ltk nsrkA x;k ds izes VkWdht ds eqjyh ckcw ikiM+ ysdj vkrs vkSj ogha lsadrsA iwjh ¶yksj ij [kq'kcw vkrhA esEcj vk tkrs vkSj etk ysrsA dbZ ckj dfo esa iznhi th vkSj iafMr Hkjr O;kl igqap tkrsA dkSulh fQYe ds fy, D;k fy[k jgs gSa&lqukrsA dgrs gSa le; ls igys dksbZ dke ugaha gksrk ,d fnu fuekZrk funsZ'kd b'kkjk th vk x;sA muds lkFk ges'kk 555 flxjsV jgrh FkhA gekjs ;gka tc rd os cSBrs pk; ihrs vkSj di esa vkèks ?kaVs esa 2&3 flxjsV vèktyh Qsad nsrsA os dbZ ckj de ls de ihus dk oknk djrsA mlh fnu jryke ds iwoZ yksdlHkk lnL; ek.ksd HkkbZ Hkh vk x;sA lc dks ns[kdj cksys] ^tks'kh th vki dksbZ fQYe D;ksa ugha cukrsA Mk;jsDVj vkids lkeus gSaA eSaus dgk] ^esjh fQYe b'kkjk th Mk;jsDV ugha dj ldrsA mudks ^psruk* tSlh fQYe cukuk gSA eq>s èkkfeZd fQYe cukuh gSA ;g èkeZ dks rks tSlk ,d fQYe esa mUgksaus crk;k % ^^yM+dk fgUnw Fkk vkSj yM+dh eqlyeku*A nksuksa flusek&2005

37


,d nwljs ij ej feVs FksA eEeh dsoy mlh yM+ds ls 'kknh djus dks rS;kj Fkh tks eqfLye gksA eEeh us dgk] rqe èkeZ cny yksA 'kknh dj yksA yM+ds us dgk] eEeh èkeZ cnyus okyk yM+dh Hkh cny ldrk gSA èkeZ D;k gS\ ,d iks'kkd iguh vkSj nwljh mrkj nh] ysfdu tks chp dk uaxkiu gS] ;g eq>s cnkZ'r ugha gSA blfy, eSa èkeZ ugha cnyrkA eka us lkspk yM+dk bZekunkj gSA esjh yM+dh dks Hkh ugha cnysxkA og jkth gks x;h vkSj 'kknh gks x;hA** b'kkjk th [kM+s gks x;s ßvki gqDe djsa] tks dgsaxs d:axkA gyokbZ tysch Hkh cukrk gS uedhu Hkh] ysfdu vxj vki èkkfeZd fQYe ^ckck vejukFk* gh cukuk pkgrs gSa rks fo"k; vki dkA iks'kkd vkidh ilUn dhA fnXn'kZu esjk] ysfdu dsoy ,d 'krZ vej ukFk dh xqQk es*a * tks 17000 QhV dh Å¡pkbZ ij gSA ogka tkdj yksd's ku ij 'kwfVax djuk gksxkA fdruh Hkh eqf'dysa vkosa ^eatjw * eSua s dgk vkSj ^t; ckck vejukFk* dh ckr iDdh gks x;hA mlh fnu ls dgkuh xhr laxhr uk;d ukf;dk ds fy, nkSM+èkwi 'kq: gks x;hA j{kk cUèku ds fnu vejukFk èkke igqapuk pkfg,A mlh rjg dh rS;kjh djuh FkhA lcls cM+k iz'ufpUg rks èku dk FkkA tks'k rks Fkk ysfdu dksbZ ;g ugha dg jgk Fkk fd eSa bruk iSlk ns jgk gwAa dgrk Hkh D;ks]a ;g rks fuekZrk dh ftEenkjh FkhA fcgkj ds ,d fe= dks Qksu fd;kA os Fks guqeku izlkn iksn~nkj mudk mRrj feyk & 25 dk Mh Mh Hkst jgk gwaA dqN fgEer gqbZA b'kkjkth vkSj ,d fe= eksgu [kUuk ftUgksaus fQYe ^,d utj* cuk;h Fkh] izcUèk ds fy, tEew jokuk gks x;sA pkj fnu ckn iwjh Vhe dks ysdj ogka igqpa us dh ckr r; gks x;hA uk;d èkesUZ nz dh ekSlh dk iq= ohjsUnz r; gqvkA og fnYyh ls vk;sxk vkSj ogka ls ;wfuV dks tkyUèkj esa feysxkA iznhi dqekj dh yM+dh chuk ukf;dk FkhA iznhi th ds xhr vkSj m"kk [kUUkk dk laxhrA ;wfuV ds ckgj tkus dh rS;kjh vkmVMksj esa tkus ds iwoZ cgqr lkeku ys tkuk gksrk gSA VkpZ] Vªkyh] fj¶ysDVj] ftysfVu isij] tujsVj] fctyh dk lc lkekuA dSejk] eSdvi dk lkekuA dPph fQYe] jk LVkd rFkk lHkh dykdkjksa dh vyx&vyx n`'; ds fy, iks'kkdsaA lc 38

flus e k&2005

feyk dj cgqr Hkkjh lkeku gks x;kA tEew roh eqEcbZ lsUVªy ls 6 cts NwVrh FkhA eqEcbZ ds nwj&nwj jgus okys ;wfuV ds lnL;ksa dks bruk lcsjs igqapuk eqf'dy FkkA lkFk gh yxst cqd djkus dh leL;k FkhA fVdV rks 40 lnL;ksa dk fjVuZ ys fy;k FkkA lc dks jkr 12 cts rd igqpa us dk lekpkj Hkst fn;s FksA xeZ diM+ksa ds lkFkA funsZ'kd dh fgnk;r b'kkjk th us iwjh ;wfuV ds lnL;ksa dks lwfpr dj fn;k Fkk fd ;g èkkfeZd fQYe gSA le> yks fd ge ;k=k ij tk jgs gSAa dksbZ ekalkgkjh Hkkstu ugha ekaxAs lc 'kkdkgkjh gksxa As ;k=k esa dksbZ 'kjkc ugha fi;sxkA p<+kbZ cgqr gSA blfy, fny ds ejht lkFk ugha pysaA lc O;oLFkk ckck dh d`ik ls gks x;hA lqij QkLV xkM+h esa ;wfuV lokj gks x;hA jryke ls ,d fe= lkFk pyus okys FksA ugha feysA lekpkj feyk fd cq[kkj gks x;k gSA uk;d fnYyh ls viuh xkM+h esa tkyUèkj ds fy, pykA Hk;kud ,DlhMsaV gks x;kA xkM+h pdukpwj gks x;hA mudks Hkh pksV vk;hA brus bZekunkj Fks ohjsUnz fd xkM+h dks ogha NksM+k] VSDlh ls le; ij LVs'ku igqapsA ogha QLVZ ,M djkdj rS;kj FksA X;kjg cts tEew igqpa x;sA tEew esa tujsVj dh ryk'k esa cgqr foyEc gks x;k] ysfdu iwjh cl cqd FkhA blfy, 2 cts fudysA jkr 10 cts ds ckn bl ekxZ ij vkuk&tkuk jksd fn;k tkrk gSA blfy, fefyVªh ds tokuksa us jksd fy;kA eksgu [kUuk ds iz;Ru ls lcdks fudyus fn;kA igyxkao izkr% 6 cts igqap x;sA jetku ds fnu FksA blfy, 10 cts rd ljdkjh vkfQl esa dksbZ ugha feykA fQYe okyksa ds uke ij tks gksVy cqd fd;k Fkk mldk fdjk;k gh brus yksxksa dk 7 gtkj FkkA ekxZ ds fy, VsUV vkSj [kkus ds izcUèk ds fy, 12 gtkj esa r; gqvkA ?kksM+ksa dk vyxA brus esa gekjs fe= eq¶Qjiqj ds Hkh iRuh ds lkFk vk x;sA dqN jkgr feyhA fglkc yxk;k rks le> esa vk;k fd tks gekjs ikl iSlk gS og rks ;wfuV ds jokuk gksrs gh lekIr gks tk;sxkA fQj D;k gksxk\ dqN lnL; p<+kbZ ds Mj ls gksVy esa gh jg x;sA ;wfuV dks jokuk djds eSa okil tEew vk;k vkSj guqeku th ds O;kikjh fe= ds irs ij 20 fe=ksa dks nks&nks gtkj #i;k Hkstus ds rkj fn;s vkSj ogka ls fnYyh dh xkM+h idM+hA fnYyh ls dqN fe=ksa ls dqN lgk;rk yh vkSj Iysu ls fdlh Hkh rjg Jhuxj igqpa x;kA ,d


fe= ds yM+ds dks tEew esa vk;k gqvk iSlk ysdj igyxkao vkus dks dg fn;kA vkrs vkSj tkrs ikuh vkSj cjlkr esa dke djrs&djrs ;wfuV Fkd pqdh Fkh] ysfdu dke djds ykSVh FkhA b'kkjk th us n'kZu ds iwoZ Luku fd;k vkSj xyrh ls lkcqu yxk fy;k rks BaM ls 'kjhj vdM+ x;kA ,d uaxs ckck us nkSM+ dj [kwc jk[k eyh rc tku esa tku vk;hA mudh vknr gS fd os 'kwfVax ges'kk uaxs iSj djrs gSaA ogka cQZ esa Hkh mUgksaus twrs ugha igusA ekxZ esa ,d lnL; us BaM ds Mj ls czkUMh dh cksry j[k yh FkhA ?kksM+s ij cSBrs oDr og fxj x;h vkSj tksj dh vkokt vkbZA lcus [kwc rkyh ctk;hA pksj idM+k x;kA jax lc dk cny x;k FkkA igyxkao ,d fnu 'kwfVax djds iwjh cl djds tEew igqpa As fVfdV ,d fnu ckn dk FkkA D;k djrsA ogka efUnj dh 'kwfVax dh vkSj gksVy esa Bgjuk iM+kA eky lc lekIr A yksx 'kwfVax ns[k jgs FksA eSa ,d dksus esa fujk'k FkkA fuekZrk dkSu gS] iwNrs gq, ,d lTtu esjs lehi vk;s vkSj cksys ^esjs ?kj pk; ihus pysaxs\ IyhtA esjh gkyr ns[kdj oks lTtu cksys&vki mnkl D;ksa gSa\ eSa D;k tokc nsrkA eSaus muls fuosnu fd;k fd vki cPpksa ds lkFk 'kwfVax nsf[k;s vkSj esjh mnklh dk dkj.k er iwfN;sA os fcydqy ftn ij vk x;sA eq>s dguk iM+k& gekjs ikl dk iSlk [kRe gks x;kA mldh fpUrk gSA mUgksaus dgk] ^^flQZ ,d pk; ihft;sA ?kj esjk ikl esa gh gSA** os eq>s vius ?kj ys x;s vkSj pk; ds di ds lkFk nl gtkj dh xM~Mh esjs gkFkksa esa j[k nhA ^^;g D;k dj jgs gSa\** u tku u igpku] vkidk iSlk Mwc tk;sxkA os cksy]s ^^bldh fpUrk ugha gSA vki Hkst ldsa rks Hkst nhft,xkA dksbZ 'krZ ;k le; lhek ugha gSA** fQj mUgksaus iSlk esjh tsc esa Mky fn;kA eSaus eu gh eu dgk] ^t; ckck vejukFk* vkSj gksVy esa vk x;kA eksgu th gkFk esa lksus dk dM+k igu dj vk;s FksA os cktkj esa cspus fudysA dsoy ikap feysA dqN cksys ughaA ,d lkFkh us crk;kA

nwljs fnu Vªus idM+hA ;wfuV dks ftruk iSlk feyk Fkk [kwc ekdsZfVax dhA d'ehj ds lsc vkSj v[kjksV [kjhnssA dqN oS".ko nsoh Hkh tkdj vk;sA xkM+h esa ljnkj th pSd djus vk;sA fVdV ns[ksA lc fVdV ysdj cksy]s dkSu ls LVs'ku ij mrjuk pkgrs gSAa vki lc MCY;wVh gSaA ugha rks iwjk iSlk isukYVh ds lkFk HkjksA fVdV fjVuZ dk Fkk] ysfdu ihNs fy[kk Fkk fd MsLVhus'ku ij LVs'ku ekLVj ls rLnhd djkuk gksxkA ;fn ,slk ugha djk;k rks fcuk fVdV ekuk tk;sxkA ;k=h D;k djrsA ge le>rs Fks lc dqN gks x;kA brus lkeku ds lkFk dSls dgha mrj ldrs Fks] ljnkj th dks dqN ns ys dj cM+h eqf'dy ls jkth fd;kA ftu nSfud LVkQ dk iSlk pqdk fn;k Fkk] muls okil dqN fy;k vkSj dke fudkykA eqEcbZ vkdj lcdks VSDlh Vªsu ds iSls fn;sA [kkyh tsc ysfdu fQYe ds 5 fMCcs 'kwfVax ds ikl FksA 1 yk[k #i;s dh ykxr ysdj igqapsA ;g Fkh ^t; ckck vejukFk* dh laf{kIr ;k=k dh nkLrkuA peRdkj dks ueLdkj vejukFk th dk QksVks vkSj 'kwfVax dh fLVy~l vkfQl esa yxk nhA fMCcs ckEcs ySc esa tek djk fn;s FksA fjtYV Hkh vPNk FkkA nks eghus chr x;s dksbZ izxfr ugha gqbAZ lcls igys tEew ds lTtu dks 11 gtkj dk Mh-Mh- HkstkA mUgksua s ,d gtkj euhvkMZj ls okil dj fn;kA dgka feysaxs ,sls yksxA ,d esjs fe= MkW- f'ko 'kekZ mTtSu ls Vsik lEesyu ;kus egkew[kZ lEesyu djrs gSaA muds lkFk muds lg;ksxh ykykth Hkh FksA mUgksaus QksVks ns[kdj iwNk] ;g D;ksa yxk;s gksA fQYe fdruh cuh ] eSa 20 o"kZ ls vejukFk tkrk gwaA mTtSu esa dqEHk esyk yxus okyk gS ogka dHkh 'kwfVax dj yksA eSa izcUèk djok nwaxkA mudk fQYe dk dksbZ O;olk; ugaha Fkk] ysfdu mUgksaus ,d ljfdV [kjhn Hkh fn;k vkSj dqEHk esys esa igqaps rks gesa vius caxys esa ,;j daMh'ku esa Bgjk;kA izkr% mudk iq= vk;k rks eq>s cgqr 'keZ vk;hA eSa cgqr yfTtr gwAa bl egkdqEHk ds dkj.kA os cksys vady ikik cgqr [kq'k gksaxs fd eSaus bUgsa vkmV dj fn;kA ;gka rks bl rjg ds esgeku fuR; fnu vkrs gSAa muds ?kj [kkuk ijlus ds fy, ,d cgw jgrh gS vkSj lRdkj ds fy, ,d csVs dh M~;wVh jgrh gSA vkus okys vfrfFk [kwc ets

flusek&2005

39


esa ekSt djrs gSAa izkr% mUgsa egkdky ds n'kZu djkus Mªk;oj tkrk gSA ,d vkSj peRdkj ,d fnu gSnjkckn ds ,d lTtu fdlh dk irk iwNrs vkfQl esa vk x;sA mUgksua s Hkh rLohjsa ns[khaA dgus yxs gSnjkckn ds fy, [kjhnwa rks\ geus dgk vkidk O;olk; D;k gSA cksys ?kksMs+ jsl dsA ?kksM+s vkSj fØdsV dk eSpA vkidh nqdku fldUnjkckn esaA jkst 500 Mcy jksVh t:jrean cPpksa dks nsrk gwaA crkvks D;k nke gksxkA eSa Mj x;kA Hkyk vkneh fQYe ds pDdj esa iM+ tk,xkA mUgksaus dgk] ^^vki viuh dher crkvksA ugha crk

ldrs rks ;g crkvks fd bl rjg dh fQYe fdrus esa fcdh gSA crk nks ogh esjh izkblA dy lc iSlk ns nwaxkA** mUgsa le>k;k vkSj mfpr ewY; crk;k vkSj iSlk izxfr ds lkFk esa nsus dh ckr le>kbZA fQj os 11 gtkj dS'k ns x;sA dke pyus yxkA

fQYesa le> vkSj lEcUèkksa ls curh gSa dsoy iSlksa ls ugha ,d lkèkkj.k fQYedkj fnYyh ls vk;s vkSj mUgksaus fQYe cukus dh ?kks"k.kk dj nhA muds dqN ifjfpr yUnu ,jksMªe ij ekewyh ukSdjh djrs FksA fQYe dk uke j[kk mUgksaus ^ukbV bu yanu*A ifjfprksa dks lwfpr fd;k fd cM+s flrkjksa dks ysdj yanu esa 'kwfVax djsaxsA vki ogka fdruk lg;ksx ns ldsxa As dqN yksx XySej dh nqfu;k esa vkus ds izyksHkuksa esa ru&eu&èku ls rS;kj gks x;sA eqEcbZ esa mUgksaus ;g irk yxk;k fd vHkh rd fdu flrkjksa vkSj laxhrdkjksa dk fons'k tkuk ugha gqvk gSA mUgha flrkjksa dks mUgksaus viuh fQYe esa ys fy;kA y{ehdkar I;kjsyky Hkh ml le; dY;k.k th vkuUn th ds ckn yksdfiz; gks jgs FksA muds lkeus izLrko j[kk fd vki laxhr nsxa ]s ysfdu yanu esa 'kwfVax esa gekjs lkFk tkus ds fy, ,d lIrkg dk le; Hkh fudkysaxsA vkids fy, ogka izcUèk gks x;kA dsoy ikap xkuksa dh ogka 'kwfVax djuh gSA yksds'ku gksVy lHkh dqN cqd gSA vxys ekg dh nl rkjh[k dh cqfdax gks x;k gSA xkus ysdj pyuk gSA vc laxhrdkjksa dks ikap xkus QkSju djuk gS vkSj yanu tkus dh rS;kjh djuh gSA iSls dh dkSu ckr djsA xkus gks x;sA fQYe cu x;h D;ksafd uke esa vkd"kZ.k Fkk vkSj yanu dh 'kwfVax esa XySej gksxk bl ykyp esa forjd us fQYe [kjhn yhA

40

flus e k&2005

blls cM+h frdM+e vHkh rks dsoy yUnu tkus dk gh vkd"kZ.k Fkk fd ,d nwljs fuekZrk ikNh us ?kks"k.kk dj nh fd eSa ,d ,slh fQYe cuk jgk gwa ftlesa lkjh nqfu;k dh lSj n'kZdksa dks djk nwxa kA dykdkj Hkh fo'o Hkze.k djsaxsA uke j[kk ^,jkm.M nh oYMZ-----*& mUgksua s dqN dydRrk ds ekjokM+h Qk;uUljksa dks Hkh fo'o Hkze.k ds fy, rS;kj dj fy;kA tks viuh xkaB ds iSls ls dHkh ugha tkrsA mudk rks fl)kar Fkk HkkbZ rqe dkSulh Dykl dk fVdV ys jgs gksA igyh Dykl dkA D;k ;g lsd.M Dykl ls igys igqpa xs hA cekZ ds jk"Vªh;dj.k ds ckn os fVEcj O;kikjh u;s&u;s gh fQYe Qk;usUl esa vk;s FksA os Hkh rS;kj gks x;s vkSj mUgsa u`R; ds fQYehdj.k rd esa dykdkjksa ds lkFk fcBk;k x;k vkSj mUgksaus Hkh ftUnxh esa igyh ckj jktdiwj ds lkFk 'kwfVax dh vkSj FkSyh [kkyh dhA jktJh] 'kkarkjke dh csVh dks rks blh fQYe esa gokbZ }hi esa ,d vesfjdu fgIih fey x;kA fQj oks fgUnqLrku vk;k vkSj jktJh mUkd¢ lkFk pyh XkbZ A ,d vPNs [kkunku dh yM+dh ,d fgIihuqek o'khdj.k esa vkdj viuk Hkfo"; xjr dj x;h] ysfdu ikNh lkgc dh fQYe cu x;h vkSj xtc dh ;k=k fQYe cukus dh fgEer dh mUgksausA bldh iz'kalk djuh iM+sxhA blhfy, dgrs gSa fd fQYe dsoy iSlksa ds cy ij ugha curh] O;olk; dh le> vkSj frdM+e Hkh dbZ ckj dkjxkj gksrh gSA


fQYe fuekZ.k fdLer dk [ksy

,d cM+s Qk;usUlj Fks b'kjnklA mUkdk fo|qr fcfYMax esa vkfQl FkkA Hkkjr foHkktu ds ckn ikfdLrku ls vk;s FksA igys os Hkkjr ds flUèk okys fgLls esa jgrs FksA os dgrs Fks ^^HkkX;e~ Qyfr loZ= u fo|k p ikS#"kae~A** ;g dgkor muds fy, pfjrkFkZ gqbZA os egk'k; jru HkV~Vkpk;Z dks ysdj ftl fQYe dk Qk;usUl dj jgs Fks mlesa 'kkUrkjke dh iq=h jktJh ukf;dk FkhA mlh le; geus Hkh ,d fQYe dh ?kks"k.kk dh] ftlesa jktJh vkSj èkesZUnz ds lkFk egewn vkSj gsyu Fks] laxhr 'kadj t;fd'ku dk FkkA dSejkeSu eqxys vkte Qse vkj-Mh- ekFkqj FksA fnXn'kZd jatu cksl Fks] tks ml le; dh pfpZp fQYe ^veu* fy[k jgs FksA èkesZUnz dk ml le; ehukdqekjh ls jksekal py jgk Fkk vkSj iwjh baMLVªh eas mlds cgqr ppsZ FksA egewn jsldkslZ ds ?kksM+ksa ds pDdj esa Fks vkSj mudk ekdsZV ml le; pksVh ij FkkA izpkjd izdk'k oekZ jktJh ds lfpo Fks vkSj ekykM ds iou ckx esa gh jgrs Fks] os esjs fe= FksA jktJh vk x;hA jatu cksl us èkesZUn dks fuekZrk eksgu dqekj dh lgk;rk ls jkth dj fy;kA ekFkqj lkgc brus cM+s flusekVksxzkQj Fks fd dqN iwNuk gh ugha Fkk] ysfdu esjk muls dsoy bruk gh lEcUèk Fkk fd n¶rjh okM+h esa os esjs lkeus dh fcfYMax esa jgrs FksA eSua s muls ckr dh rks mUgksua s dgk] ^^'kwfVax ds nks fnu igys crk nhft,xkA iSls dh ckr er dhft, vkSj lpeqp mUgksaus dqN ugha fy;kA bruk gh ugha 'kwfVax ds ckn ;wfuV ds yksxksa dks jkLrs esa viuh xkM+h ls NksM+rs gq, ekykM vkrs FksA lkjk fnu [kM+s jgrsA yap esa nks rhu lSaMfop [kkrsA muds lgk;d muds lkeus pk; rd ugha ihrs FksA flxjsV dh ckr rks nwj FkhA gsyu dks rks dqN djuk gh ugha FkkA mudk rks muds ekfyd Jh ih-,u-vjksjk ,d lIrkg iwoZ udn iSlk nsdj rkjh[k crk ns rks og igqap tkrhA izfr fnu dk mudk fglkc gksrk FkkA N% cts ds ckn mUgsa ekfyd ds ikl igqapuk gksrk FkkA bruk dM+k cUèku FkkA ftls os lg"kZ Lohdkj dj jgh FkhA gka egewn dh MsV dh leL;k jgrh FkhA og fdl fuekZrk dh 'kwfVax djsxk ;g dksbZ ugha tkurk FkkA 'kfuokj dks rks ?kksM+ksa ds gkypky ns[kus os igqap tkrsA dsoy ,d gh jkLrk Fkk bl ckr dk irk yxkus dk fd os dgka tk jgs gSaA muds eSdvi eSu dks lkS #i;s nsdj bl ckr dk irk py tkrk FkkA fQj ml fuekZrk ds ;gka tkdj viuh ckjh vkus ij dgks HkkbZtku dSls Hkwy x;s iwNus ij dgrs] ^^vjs dksbZ ckr ughaA vki dy ds fy, j[k yksA eSa igqap tkÅaxkA** 'kadj t;fd'ku ds 'kadj ls ckr gks pqdh FkhA cM+s fuekZrk vkdj cSB tkrsA muds njckj esa [kwc ckrsa gksrhaA fdldk xkuk dc gksus okyk gS irk gh ugha pyrk FkkA drkj esa fuekZrk Fks] ysfdu os cgqr xq.kh FksA rhu fnu rd fjglZy djrs vkSj pkyhl ds djhc E;wftf'k;u vkrsA mUgsa fuekZrk dks dqN nsuk ugha iM+rkA Lo;a tc larq"V gks tkrs Fks rks fuekZrk dks fjdkfMZax dh rkjh[k crk nsrs FksA 'kSyUs nz muds ilanhnk xhrdkj FksA os mUgha ls xhr fy[kokrs FksA 'kSysUnz th ml le; ^rhljh dle* ds fuekZ.k esa dtZ esa Mwcs Fks vkSj ih ih dj xe xyr dj jgs FksA muls feyuk vkSj fy[kokuk cgqr eqf'dy FkkA ?kj ds dbZ pDdj yxk;s ysfdu ckr ugha cuhA fQj ,d xhr banhoj ls fy[kok;k] ,d xhr gljr t;iqjh ls fy[kok;kA 'kSysUnz th dHkh gks'k esa ugha jgrsA

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ik'oZ xk;dksa dh ljyrk bUnhoj dk ,d xhr dksjl FkkA mlesa eksgEen jQh vkSj eUuk Ms o izhfr vkfn FksA eUukMs dks nwljh txg fjdkfMZax ij tkuk FkkA mUgksaus dg fn;k ckn esa ?kj fHktok nsukA jQh lkgc ds lfpo ls ckr gqbZ rks muls eSaus dgk] ^^eq>s lkgc ls ckr djus nksA** muls feyk] rks dgus yxs] tks ysrk gwa] ogh vkidks crk;k gksxkA vki D;k ns jgs gSa oks nhft,A ;g Fkk mudk LoHkkoA vkt rks ;g lc liuk yxrk gSA fdLer dk [ksy ^uSu feys pSu dgka* dk eqgwrZ gqvkA vkVZ Mk;jsDVj ckcw jko us 'kkunkj lsV uVjkt LVwfM;ks esa yxk;k FkkA 'kwfVax gqbAZ èkesUZ nz] jktJh] enuiqjh] egewn] gsyu lHkh us dke fd;kA mlh le; èkesUZ nz ds lfpo nhukukFk us Hkh ^èkjrh dgs iqdkj ds* uke dh fQYe nqyky xqgk ds funsZ'ku esa 'kq: dh FkhA nks jhy LVkd ds fMCcs mUgksaus ekaxsA mudh fQYe esa thrsUnz] latho dqekj] uUnk vkSj dUgS;k yky FksA èkesZUnz dks mUgksaus ugha fy;kA dgrs Fks] eSa ekfyd dks ukSdj ugha cuk ldrkA rhu&pkj fuekZrk ds fQYe dh ukf;dk Hkh jktJh FkhA iaNh dh fQYe ^,jkmUM n oYMZ* esa gokbZnhi esa ,d vesfjdu ls eqykdkr gqbZA mudk mlls izes izdj.k py jgk FkkA og ;gka vk x;kA uke cnydj mlls fookg jpk fy;kA gekjh fQYe dh lkr jhy cu x;h FkhA ;gka og O;Lr Hkh cgqr FkhA iSlk ek¡ ysrh FkhA rdktk vk;k fd iSlk Hkstks tYnh&tYnh fQYe dh 'kwfVax djksA eSa esjs fe= vkSj forjd txr th ds ikl dydRrk x;k vkSj ogka ls ,d yk[k #i;k ysdj vk;kA fnYyh ds forjd Jh nslkbZ us Hkh dqN fn;kA 'kwfVax dk izkxs kz e cuk;kA lsV yxk;kA jktJh dks 25 gtkj #i;s nsdj ikap dh rkjh[k ys yhA jktJh dk jru HkV~Vkpk;Z dh fQYe ^lqgkxjkr* dh Hkh gfj}kj esa vkmVMksj 'kwfVax Fkh vkSj iwjh ;wfuV ogka tkus okyh FkhA gesa jktJh ls gokbZ vM~Ms ij feydj mUgasa viuh 'kwfVax dh ;kn Hkh djkuh FkhA ftldh lc rS;kjh py jgh FkhA ge lkUrkØwt gokbZ vM~Ms igqpa As jru HkV~Vkpk;Z dh ;wfuV ,d fnu igys gh pyh x;h FkhA dqN yksx vkxs tk jgs FksA ge ogka igqpa s rks os yksx jktJh dk bUrtkj dj jgs Fks] ysfdu og ugha 42

flus e k&2005

igqaphA lc ijs'kku gks x;sA ?kj Qksu fd;kA mRrj feyk ?kj ls rks fudy x;hA fdlh nq?kZVuk dk Mj yxk lcdksA muds ?kj rd yksx nkSMs+ ysfdu dksbZ tokc ugha feykA fQj gokbZ vM~Ms ij irk yxk;k rks ekywe iM+k fd ÝSadQVZ ds fy, xkSre vkSj jktJh jkr dks gh pys x;sA ml le; lwpuk izlkj.k ea=h Jh 'kkg eqEcbZ vk;s gq, FksA ppkZ dk fo"k; Fkk fQYeksa eaas pqEcuA ge ejrs D;k u djrsA muds ikl igqaps] tgka ehfVax py jgh FkhA jktdiwj dk bUrtkj gks jgk FkkA 'kkUrkjke th Hkh FksA geus viuh f'kdk;r j[kh] rks jktJh ds firk dk mRrj Fkk] yM+dh o;Ld gS] vc eSa mlds ckjs esa dqN ugha dj ldrkA ea=h egksn; dks dksbZ tokc le> esa ugha vk;kA dkuwu dh yM+kbZ iSlk rks geus t;Jh dks fn;k Fkk] jlhn gekjs ikl FkhA fe=ksa ds ijke'kZ ls ukeh odhy jke tsBeykuh ls ckr dhA mUgsa iwjh Qkby fn[kkbZA mUgksua s vk'oklu fn;k fd os gekjs lkFk gSaA fxjxkao dksVZ esas tc dsl dh rkjh[k vkbZ rks ukeh odhy jktJh dh rjQ ls [kM+s FksA geus vodk'k izkIr tt dksVsokys dks dj fy;k FkkA mUgksua s tt lkgc ls dgk] ^^ekbZ ykMZ esjs fe= dy rks IysfUVQ dh rjQ FksA** mUgksua s tt lkgc ls dgk] ^^eSua s odkyrukek ij gLrk{kj ugha fd;s FksA fQj geus gFkxaMh lkgc dks fy;kA og Hkh tt ls bLrhQk nsdj ukSdjh NksM+ pqds FksA ,d uktqd rykd ds eqdnes ds dkj.kA dbZ rkjh[ksa iM+rh xbZaA jktJh dks vesfjdk esa Hkh dksVZ }kjk ugha cqyk;k tk ldrk Fkk] D;ksafd ogka gj LVsV esa vyx&vyx dkuwu gSa vkSj fQj gekjs lkèku Hkh lekIr gks x;s FksA fQYe eSaus nwljh ukf;dk dks ysdj 'kwfVax djus dk fu'p; fd;kA ^ljLorh panz* tSlh lQyre fQYe dh ukf;dk uwru ls ckr dhA ,d ckj èkesZUnz Hkh jkth gks x;s rc geus uwru dks vuqcaèk fd;kA muds ifr dekUMj cgy feysA cgqr izlUu gq,A dgus yxs èkesUZ nz dks eSua s ^lwjr vkSj lhjr* esa pkUl fn;k FkkA uwru Vªs ltk dj esjs fy, okbu ykbZA eSua s dgk] eSa rks ihrk ugha gwAa mUgsa cgqr vk'p;Z gqvkA eSua s dgk] eq>s tYnh tkuk gSA esjh iRuh eqEcbZ vLirky esa HkrhZ gSA ml le; X;kjg gtkj nsus ds ckn esjs ikl dsoy cl dk fdjk;k cpk FkkA uhps mrjdj eSa cl dh ykbu esa [kM+k gks x;kA lksprk Fkk 'kk;n ghjksbu viuh fuekZrk dh gkyr ns[k jgh gksxhA fQj


èkesZUnz ds ikl [kq'k[kcjh lqukus x;s rks os cksys]A eSa ,d vPNh yM+dh dh ryk'k esa gwaA ckr [kRe gks x;hA os jkth ugha gq,A uwru dk ihNk djuk 'kq: fd;k fd 11 gtkj fey tk;s] rks dqN jkgr feys] ysfdu dekUMj lkgc us lkQ bUdkj dj fn;kA cksy]s ^^iSlk dke djus ds fy, fn;k gSA ge rS;kj gSAa èkesUZ nz ugha djrk rks vkidk gsMsd gSA os uwru ls ml le; ukjkt FksA os ,;j daMh'ku xkM+h esa gh jgrsA esdvi :e rd ugha tkrsA latho dqekj ds vQs;j dh ckr mM+ jgh FkhA blhfy, lkgc dks [kq'k djus ds fy, mUgksaus latho dks LVwfM;ks esa tkdj pkaVk ekjkA ge feys rks cksyha] ^^lkgc dks fn;s Fks] muls ekaxks**A bruk t:j fd;k fd esjh iRuh ds ikl vLirky esa xqynLrk fHktok fn;kA oks feyk blfy, ugha fd oks tujy okMZ esa FkhA dkSu igpkurk fd fdlh fuekZrk dh iRuh ;gka gks ldrh\ ckr [kRe gks x;hA dtZ dh ekj 'kq: gks x;hA txr th dydRrs ds forjd] ftUgksaus ,d yk[k fn;k Fkk vk;s vkSj cksys] ^^dqN cpk gS D;k\ fQj [kqn gh cksy]s cprk D;kA vki ?kj rks ys ugha x;sA lc fQYe esa pyk x;kA fpUrk er djks] eSa vc Hkh vkids lkFk gwaA dqN djks] rHkh xkM+h vkxs pysxhA fQj brus o"kks± ckn eSaus mUgsa ^tc ckck vejukFk* ds forj.k vfèkdkj lLrs esa fn;sA fQYeksa esa vPNs yksx Hkh gksrs gSa vkSj vfèkdka'k fQYedkj dksVZ&dpgjh ds pDdj esa ugha iM+rsA jktJh vfHkuhr dqN fQYeksa dh ukf;dk dh nq?kZVuk esa e`R;q crkdj iwjh dhA fdlh us fo"k; cnydj nks ukf;dk dh fQYe dj nh] ysfdu gekjs lkFk dksbZ ,d Qk;usUlj ugha FkkA blfy, dqN ugha dj lds] ysfdu b'kjnkl ukmey ds Qk;usUl dh fQYe iwjh gks x;hA os eq>s feys rks cksy]s ^^eSua s dgk Fkk u HkkX;a Qyfr loZ= u p fo|k u ikS#"kaA

'ks[k eq[rkj & dSnh ua- 911 6 QhV 2 bap ds fo'kky O;fDrRo ds LokehA 1944 esa 'kga'kkg ckcj cudj vk;sA 1938 ls 1980 rd m|ksx esa 'ks[k lkgc Nk;s jgsA mUgksaus 40 fQYeksa esa vfHku; fd;k vkSj 8 fQYeksa dk fuekZ.k fd;kA ^uwjtgka* vafre fQYe FkhA mUgksaus bl egRokdka{kh fQYe esa thou dh lkjh dekbZ yxk nhA fQYe ¶yki gks xbZA mudk jaxhu liuk VwV x;kA os dtZnkj gks x;sA os fdlh Hkh

^lR;dke* ds fuekZrk dk nqHkkZX; Jh iaNh vÝhdk ls vk;s FksA cM+s izfrf"Br ifjokj ds O;fDr FksA eqEcbZ esa vkdj èkesZUnz ds cguksbZ cu x;sA 'kjkc] flxjsV ls ijgstA cgqr gh lknk thouA Åaps fopkjA mUgksaus cgqr vPNh fQYe cuk;h ^lR;dke*A ;g èkesZUnz dh vc rd dh lcls vPNh fQYe gSA _f"kds'k eq[kthZ tSls funsZ'kd dh fQYe vksoj ctV gks x;hA vPNh fQYe dks vPNs forjd ugaha feysA èkesZUnz dks lgk;rk djuh iM+hA iaNh th cgqr nq%[kh gq,A fQYe dks ,okMZ feys] fjokMZ ughaA euksjatu dj ls Hkh NwV feyh] ysfdu iaNh th dks dqN ugha feykA dsoy lj ij dtZ feykA fQYe bruh lkFkZd Fkh fd èkesZUnz dk bZekunkj fdjnkj ns[kdj n'kZd jks nsrs Fks vkSj jks;s fuekZrkA esjh iaNh th ls cgqr ?kfu"Vrk gks x;h FkhA mudk uk'rk gksrk Fkk jkLrs esa xkM+h esa pyrs&pyrs ewaxQyh [kkuk vkSj Mªkbo dk bruk 'kkSd Fkk fd Vªsu] gokbZ tgkt esa ugha cSBdj viuh xkM+h ls gh iatkc esa vius ?kj tkrs FksA muds dbZ fj'rsnkj cM+s vQlj FksA os dHkh llqjky ij vkfJr ugaha jgsA cgqr LokfHkekuh FksA ^lR;dke* ds i'pkr Hkh mUgksaus fQYesa cukus dk iz;kl fd;k] ysfdu fdLer us mudk lkFk ugha fn;kA rjg ^uwjtgka* dks ikfdLrku ys x;sA ogka Hkh muds fo#) gM+rky gks xbZA fQYe dks izn'kZu ls jksdus ds fy, dksVZ igqapk ikfdLrku fQYe O;olk;] ysfdu ykgkSj gkbdksVZ us ;kfpdk [kkfjt dj nhA 11 ebZ 1980 esa ;g fu.kZ; gqvk Fkk vkSj mlh jkr dks mUgsa fny dk nkSjk iM+k vkSj os [kqnk ds ?kj igqap x;sA ikfdLrku esa n'kZdksa dh HkhM+ ij ykBh pktZ gqvkA ogka fQYe us dbZ fjdkMZ rksM+ fn;s] ysfdu 'ks[k lkgc ns[k ugha ldsA flusek&2005

43


>qejh ryS;k ls vk;k ,d ghjks cuus % ;knksa dh ckjkr ns'k ds dksus&dksus ls yksx viuk HkkX; vktekus eqEcbZ esa vkrs gSaA lcls vfèkd fQYe dh ek;k uxjh esa vkus okys ?kj ls Hkkxdj vkrs gSaA eqEcbZ lsaVªy ;k cksjh cUnj ij mudk Lokxr djus okys Hkh rqjUr fey tkrs gSaA mudk gqfy;k ns[kdj igpku rqjUr gks tkrh gSA fdlh u fdlh ghjks dh LVkby ds cky ;k diM+s muds gksrs gSaA lkeku de ls de muds ikl gksrk gS] D;ksafd ?kj ls dgka tk jgs gSa fdlh dks ugha crkrsA blh rjg ds ,d uo;qod euksgj yky cksjh cUnj LVs'ku ij mrj dj fdlh ls egcwc LVwfM;ks dk irk iwN jgs FksA mudks ;g ugha ekywe Fkk fd ckUnjk dgka gS vkSj egcwc lkgc dk LVwfM;ks dgka gS\ os le>rs Fks fd brus cM+s fuekZrk funsZ'kd dk irk rks dksbZ Hkh crk nsxkA vkfcn HkkbZ xsV ij gh f'kdkj dh ryk'k esa [kM+s Fks cksys] HkS;k D;k igyh ckj eqEcbZ vk;s gks ge crk nsrs gSa egcwc LVwfM;ksA gekjh Hkh ogka igpku gSA vkvks cM+s ?kj ds yxrs gksA bruh nwj D;ksa iSny pyksxs vkSj dy rks ukeh ghjks cu gh tkvksxsA vkvks VSDlh dj ysrs gSaA eka us t:j vkrs oDr pqipki tsc [kpZ ns fn;k gksxkA QkSju ea=ky; ds xsV ij igqapdj vkfcn HkkbZ cksys] fdlh ls ckr er dhft,A ugha rks ;gka ckgj ls vkus okys dks ejkBh yksx ugha vkus nsrsA ns[kks larjh [kM+k gS] ysfdu eq>s igpkurk gS] vkus nsxk rqe esjs lkFk jgks] igys ekys ij lkgc LVksjh ij cSBs gksaxsA lyke yxkdj vkrk gwaA ea=ky; fQYe LVwfM;ks gks x;k dsoy eqEcbZ ds gh ea=ky; esa dksbZ Hkh 3 cts ds ckn fcuk ikl ds tk ldrk gSA 'kk;n Hkkjr esa dgha ,slh lqfoèkk ugha gS] rks vkfcn HkkbZ jkSc ls Hkhrj pys x;s vkSj ejkBh esa larjh ls ^t; egkjk"Vª* dg fn;k vkSj okil vk x;sA cksys] HkkbZ euksgj ,d leL;k gSA egcwc lkgc xjhcksa dh enn djrs gSaA dgus yxs dksbZ t:jrean cPpk gks rks HkstukA vehjksa ds cPps gqDe ugha ekursA vc D;k djsaA vki rks tUetkr ghjks yxrs gSaA p'es dh egaxh Ýse] pSu] vaxwBh rks jbZlh esa pkj pkan yxk nsrh gSA ;g leL;k gSA bUgsa larjh ds ikl j[k nksA eSa bldh fuxjkuh d:axkA vki vdsys tkvksA euksgj cspkjk djrk D;k ugha djrkA dgrs gSa ghjks ogh cu ldrs gSa] tks fnekx dgha Hkwy vk;k gksA og cksykA larjh dks D;ksa vkids ilZ esa j[k yhft, dke gksrs gh lquk gS fd pkSikVh dh Hksy cgqr e'kgwj gS] fQj ogka pysaxs] vki ;gha jfg;sA dgrs gSa egcwc lkgc vtesj 'kjhQ dks [kwc ekurs gSa] eSa Hkh mudh eUursa djus muds ikl tkrk gwaA cspkjk euksgj lc dqN vkfcn HkkbZ ds gokys dj mèkj pyk x;kA pkj uEcj ds dsfcu esa iwNk fd egcwc lkgc fdl dsfcu esa gS\a ejkBh egcwc lkgc dkSu] ;gka egcwc gS] u mldk cPpkA bFks ckpkA xsV vkmVA eklwe us ejkBh esa tokc fn;k] esVkipk\ rqEgsa reht ughaA brus cM+s vkneh dks bl rjg ls cksyrs gksA vc nks ls rhu gks x;s vkSj euksgj dks ne nkVh nsus yxsA cspkjk uhps mrj vk;k ;g lkspdj vc lkFk esa vkfcn HkkbZ dks ykÅaxkA ckgj vkdj ns[kk rks vkfcn lkgc ugha FksA larjh ls iwNk rks tokc feyk] ^^xykA** ^^dgka\** ^^ekghr ukghA** euksgj us [kwc bèkj&mèkj pDdj yxk;sA fQj ogh gqvk tks >qejh ryS;k ls vkus okyksa ds lkFk gksrk gSA vk;s Fks ghjks cuus thjks cudj jg x;sA ,d #i;k esa ,d yk[k #i;k fQYe ds èkaèks dks xksj[kèkaèkk Hkh dgrs gSaA ,d forjd enu eksgu dydRrk ls eqEcbZ fQYe [kjhnus igqapsA cgqr fQYeksa dk Vªk;y ns[kkA fuekZrkvksa us [kwc [kkfrj dhA vkf[kj esa ,d fQYe ilUn vk x;hA nyky us rkjhQ ds iqy ckaèk fn;sA ^^cl bls er tkus nhft,A** cgqr yksx ihNs iM+s gSa ysfdu fuekZrk dks vkidh ÝSadusl cgqr ilUn gSA jkr dks dkdVsy ikVhZ j[kh gSA lqcg ds eqgwrZ esa lkbu dj yhft,A lc dke r; gksxkA Hkkorko gks x;kA LVSEi ,xzhesaV Vkbi gks x;k vkSj forjd us fQYe [kjhn 44

flus e k&2005


yhA ewY; 10 yk[kA lkbfuax ,ekmaV iPphl gtkj ,d #i;sA iPphl gtkj ds pSd vkSj ,d #i;k 'kxquA fuekZrk dh 'kwfVax py jgh Fkh] iSlksa dh t:jr FkhA psd rqjUr Mky fn;kA dydRrk cSad dk psd Fkk] mlh cSad esa forjd dk ,dkmUVsaV] ikVZ Vkbe dke djrk FkkA psd tYnh ikl ugha gqvkA cgqr VsyhQksu fd;k] rhl eghus ckn pSd ckmUl gksdj vk x;kA uksfVlckth gqbZA fQYe dh izxfr ds lkFk gh izkbl Hkh c<+rh x;hA 10 dh txg 12 dk vkQj vkus yxkA ekeyk dksVZ esa igqapkA fuekZrk us nyhy nh fd eq>s dksbZ dalhMjs'ku ugha feykA pSd ckmUl gks x;kA forjd us izekf.kr dj fn;k fd 25000 dk pSd ckmUl gqvk ij ,d #i;k dalhMjs'ku rks fuekZrk ds ikl gSA fuekZrk gkj x;kA dEizksekbt esa fQYe NksM+us ds fy, mls ,d yk[k #i;k nsuk iM+k] D;ksfa d vkxs ml forjd dk D;k fo'okl fd;k tk ldrk FkkA mldh fQYe dk nwljk forjd Hkh rS;kj FkkA ejrk D;k ugha djrkA

fQYe fuekZ.k dk cq[kkj ftls fQYe cukus dk cq[kkj jgrk gS mls uhan ugha vkrhA mls lius vkrs gSa vkSj fQj liuksa dks csprk jgrk gSA fQYeh Hkk"kk esa mls fQYesfj;k dgrs gSaA ;g cq[kkj dHkh mrjk ugha gSA ,d pVthZ egk'k; Fks tks vius vkidks ,dek= caxkyh nyky dgrs FksA lHkh caxkyh fuekZrkvksa lss mudk vPNk ifjp; FkkA os nykyh NksM+dj fuekZrk cuuk pkgrs FksA iSlk Fkk ugha] ysfdu frdM+e ckth esa e'kgwj FksA mUgsa fQYe rks 'kq: djuh gh Fkh] ysfdu fQYe dk izkjaHk vkyh'kku rjhds ls gks ;g mudh reUuk FkhA 'k'kèkj eqdthZ ml le; ds lcls izfl) fuekZrk FksA mudk fQYeky; LVwfM;ks Fkk vkSj mUgksaus vius csVs tkW; eqdthZ dks viuh fQYe ^yo bu f'keyk* vkSj ^fny ns ds ns[kks* esa uk;d cuk;k FkkA os muds ikl igqpa As cksy]s ^nknk taxy esa eksj ukpk fdlus ns[kkA* csVs dks viuh fQYe esa uk;d cuk;kA uke vkidk gks jgk gSA csVs dk uke rks gks ugha ldrkA tSls og oV o`{k ds uhps nwljk dksbZ ikSèkk iui ugha ldrkA tkW; dks [kqys ekdsZV esa vkuk pkfg,A ;wlqQ lkgc dks fufru nk us fnyhi dqekj cuk;k FkkA tkW; dks Hkh fufru nk pkfg,A eSua s muls ckr dh gSA os dgrs gSa fd csVs esa VSysUV gSA volj feyuk pkfg,A eSa mls f'k[kj ij igqapk nwaxkA os ewM esa FksA vki D;k lksp jgs

gSaA ^;gh u fd vki Lo;a fufru nk ls dSls ckr djsaA os rks vkids cqtqxZ gSaA vkids lkFk dke Hkh dj pqds gSaA* fQj Hkh eSa ckr d:axk vkSj fQYe Hkh 'kkunkj rjhds ls 'kq: djok nwaxkA fQj D;k Fkk] pVthZ egkjkt dks gjh >aMh dk bartkj Fkk oks fey x;hA os igqaps ghjksbu dh ryk'k esaA ml le; uank vkSj 'kf'k diwj dh tksM+h fgV gks x;h FkhA ^ejkBh yksx 'kxqu esa fo'okl djrs gSaA caxkyh Hkh fot;kn'keh dks fot; fnol ekurs gSa vkSj bl volj ij u;k dke 'kq: djrs gSaA pVthZ egkjkt uank ds ;gka igqapsA mudk dke mudh cM+h cgu ns[krh Fkha ftUgksaus chvkj- pksiM+k ds Hkkxhnkj 'kkL=h th ls 'kknh dh FkhA tkrs gh mUgksaus csVh uUnk dks vkokt yxk;h vkSj uank dks nss[krs gh ,d fxUuh gkFk esa ns nh vkSj cksys] ^csVh eSa ,l- eqdthZ ds ;gka ls vk;k gwaA vkt 'kqHk fnu gSA ;g 'kqHk dkeukvksa dh HksaV Lohdkj djks o muds yM+ds tkW; ds lkFk vki ukf;dk gksxa h vkSj fufru cksl] ftUgsa fnyhi dqekj xkWM Qknj ekurs gSa] ftudh ^xaxk tequk* vHkh lqij fgV gqbZ gS] os fnXn'kZd gksaxsA cspkjh uUnk bu ckrksa ds lkeus D;k djrhA QkSju fcuk eksy Hkko ds dke djus ds fy, rS;kj gks x;hA fQj pVthZ egk'k; fufru nk ds ikl igqapsA pj.k Li'kZ fd;k % ^nknk % ¼'ks"k i`"B 50 ij½ flusek&2005

45


fdLlk dqlhZ dk tUe vkSj vUr dh dgkuh fuekZrk dh tqckuh ve`r ukgVk dE;qfuLV ikVhZ ds dkMZ gksYMj FksA ØkfUrdkjh Fks vkSj mudh tkudkjh nsus okys dks tksèkiqj fj;klr us ikap gtkj dk buke j[kk FkkA muds cM+s HkkbZ fcjnsjkt ukgVk fQYeksa esa xhrdkj cuus ds fy, eqacbZ vk x;s Fks] ysfdu os la?k"kZ dj jgs FksA ml le; ve`r th ekykM ds d`".k ckx esa esjs lkFk fNi dj jgsA dke ikVhZ dk gh djrs FksA eSa muds fopkjksa ls fcYdqy lger ugha FkkA ge ?kaVksa cgl djrs jgrsA os cgqr bUVsfytsUV FksA os ,e-,- ds fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks rhu eghus i<+kdj viuk [kpZ fudkyrs FksA xqeuke O;fDr mUgsa dHkh&dHkh euhvkMZj Hkstrk FkkA os ckn esa yky cgknqj 'kkL=h th ls feys vkSj muls fuosnu fd;k fd ckM+esj ls vHkh rd dkaxzsl dk dksbZ O;fDr yksdlHkk esa ugha igqap ik;kA eq>s fVdV nsa] rks thrdj eSa vk ldrk gwaA ckM+esj ikfdLrku lhek ls yxk gqvk {ks= gSA gqvk ;g fd os nks ckj ckMesj yksdlHkk {ks= ls thrdj vk;s vkSj mlds ckn ,d ckj ikyh ls thrsA vc muds nksuksa HkkbZ vkn'kZ th vkSj jkejkt th fQYe m|ksx esa te x;s FksA mUgksua s ,d fQYe ^lUr Kkus'oj* dk funs'Z ku Hkh dj fn;k Fkk] dsoy fLØIV ns[kdj fcuk fdlh vuqHko dsA ;g fQYe py x;hA esjk mudk ifjp; rks Fkk gh ysfdu vius Hkkb;ksa dks NksM+dj mUgksaus u ekywe D;ksa esjs lkFk ^fdLlk dqlhZ dk* fQYe cukus dk izLrko j[kkA ml le; f'kosUnz flUgk us ,d fQYe cuk;h Fkh ^fQj Hkh*A og mudks ilUn vk;hA f'kosUnz vkSj vthr flUgk ls esjk vPNk lEcUèk FkkA muds la?k"kZ dky esa mudks vkfFkZd lgk;rk Hkh dh Fkh vkSj O;kikj esa Hkh esjs vkfQl ls gh mudk dke pyrk FkkA ve`r ukgVk ml le; ;ax VdZ pUnz'ks[kj] vtqZu vjksjk] èkkfj;k ds lkFk FksA dykdkjksa esa fnYyh ls euksgj flag] eqEcbZ ls 'kckuk vkteh] jsgkuk lqyrku dks fy;k x;k FkkA jkt cCcj dks mudh iRuh ds vkxzg ls fy;k x;k] D;ksafd mUgksaus dbZ ukVd muds fn[kk;s Fks vkSj gksugkj Hkh yxrs Fks] ysfdu 'kwfVax ds rhu fnu iwoZ os vkdj cksys fd eq>s fnyhidqekj ds lkFk cM+k czsd fey jgk gSA d`i;k eq>s NksM+ nhft;sA muds diM+s Hkh cu x;s FksA fQj ,dne esjh utj jkt fdj.k ij yxhA tks b'kkjk th dh fQYe esa dke dj jgs FksA th-ih- flIih dh fQYe ^'kksys* lsUlj esa vVdh Fkh vkSj ;g vHkh rd cuh fQYeksa esa lsalj dh fuxkg esa dHkh ikl gksus okyh fQYe ugha FkhA ml le; fo|kpj.k 'kqDy lwpuk izlkj.k ea=h FksA bejtsUlh esa lcls rkdroj ea=h vkSj jtuh iVsy eqEcbZ dkaxszl ds vè;{k FksA flIih lkgc us ,d pky pyh vkSj ,d fQYe dh ?kks"k.kk dj nhA ;g fQYe iafMr tokgjyky ls lacafèkr crk;h x;hA 'kkunkj eqgrw Z gqvkA flIih lkgc 'kqDyk th ds utnhd vk x;sA bldk ifj.kke ;g gqvk fd bruh [krjukd ekuh tkus okyh fQYe lsUlj ls ikl gks x;hA lwpuk ea=h th us fuekZrkvksa dks Hkh dbZ leL;kvksa dk lekèkku djus dk oknk fd;kA eSaus Hkh Qsel LVwfM;ks esa fo|k HkS;k dks foV~By HkkbZ dh lgk;rk ls eè;izns'k eS=h la?k ds eap ij vkeaf=r fd;k Fkk vkSj rHkh fQYe ds fizUVksa dks Vsªuksa esa tkus nsus dk vkMZj feyk Fkk] D;ksafd vc fQYeksa esa fizUV dsjksflu isVªksy dh Js.kh ls fudy x;s FksA flIih lkgc dh og fQYe eqgwrZ ds ckn gh cUn gks x;h vkSj ^'kksys* lqij fgV gks x;hA jkt cCcj dks dqN ugha feykA flIih lkgc viuk [ksy&[ksy x;sA jktfdj.k fnYyh igqap x;sA vesfjdu QkmUMs'ku u;k cuk Fkk mlesa 'kwfVax 'kq: gks x;hA nwjn'kZu ds peu cXxk dks Hkh [kyuk;d dh Hkwfedk ds fy;s ilUn fd;k x;kA isVªkfs y;e ea=h ds caxys esa ;wfuV dks Bgjk;k x;kA egktu tSls dSejkeSu Hkh rS;kj gks x;sA deys'oj th dh iwoZ iRuh rFkk fnYyh gh ds eap ds dykdkjksa dks fy;k x;kA lqjs[kk lhdjh O;Lr gksus ds dkj.k ugha feyhaA dsoy eugj nslkbZ dks Hkh eqEcbZ ls cqyk;k x;kA izksMD'ku daVªksyj Hkh fnYyh Mªkek fMfotu ds Jh okenso flUgk dks fy;k 46

flus e k&2005


x;kA os flUgk caèkqvksa ds lEcUèkh FkhA vthr flUgk dh ns[kjs[k esa gh lkjk dke gksrk FkkA muds lkFk tkfgjk dh lgsyh Qjk Hkh Fkh tks muds lkFk gh jgrh FkhA mudk Hkh fQYeksa esa ,d jksy fudkyk x;k Fkk euksgj flag ds lkFk esaA funsZ'kd dks tc ilhuk vkrk Fkk funsZ'kd egksn; ,d fQYe dk funsZ'ku dj pqds Fks ysfdu vuqHko ds dksjs FksA fLØIV esa Nqjk ekjuk vkSj [kwu dh èkkj fudkyuk fy[kk Fkk rks os ?kcjk x;sA ;g dSls gksxkA ?kaVksa ppkZ pyrh jghA MkWDVj dh fljhat eaxkbZ xbZA gksyh [ksyus dh fipdkjh eaxkbZ x;hA fQj Hkh ckr cuh ughaA 'kckuk dks jk"Vªifr Hkou ds lkeus Qkalh dk Qank Mkydj isM+ ls yVdkuk FkkA rks D;k djrsA fQj LVUVA Mk;jsDVj dh enn ls dejcUn cuok;k x;kA dej esa jLlh vkSj xys rd Qkalh dk QankA lkM+h ds Hkhrj jLlh vkSj xys esa dsoy QankA lkjk otu dej ds Qans esAa rc tkdj 'kwfVax gqbAZ ,d ckj rks egktu th fcxM+ x;sA cksy]s ^^eq>s dSejk ugha pykuk gSA eSa dke ds le; nk: ugha ihrk gwAa jkr esa t:j ihrk gwaA Mk;jsDVj dksdk dksyk esa feyk dj ihrs gSaA ge Hkh ihrs gS] ysfdu dke ds le; ughaA** cM+h eqf'dy ls mUgsa euk;k x;kA dSls Hkh fQYe cu x;h vkSj vPNh cu x;hA ve`r th jkst jkr esa u;s lhu fy[kdj ykrs rc fnu esa 'kwfVax gksrhA jkr esa cSB dj lc ppkZ Hkh djrsA yksdlHkk ds dbZ lnL; 'kwfVax ns[kus vkrsA ml le; ds x`g ea=h Hkh vk;s Fks vkSj ;'kiky diwj Hkh ftudk jksy peu cXxk dj jgs FksA 'kckuk turk cuh Fkh vkSj euksgj flag cUnj dks upkus okys ckthxj ls usrk vkSj fQj fMDVsVjA vkikrdky dh ?kks"k.kk vkSj f'k[kj okrkZ ds cgqr vPNs n`'; Fks] ftlesa nksuksa ns'kksa ds jk"Vªifr dgrs gSa fd gekjh nksuksa dh dqlhZ [krjs esa gSA turk gesa vinLFk dj nsxhA dqN djksA fQj izsl lEesyu esa ?kks"k.kk djrs gSa fd gekjh okrkZ vlQy jghA vc dsoy ,d gh jkLrk cpk gSA ;q) vkSj rksisa pyrh gSaA turk viuh eqlhcrsa Hkwy dj tUeHkwfe dh j{kk ds fy, ejus ekjus dks rS;kj gks tkrh gSA lHkh rjg ds ladVksa ds gksrs gq, fQYe eqEcbZ vkdj iwjh gqbZA jkuh vkSj jktk dks u`R; ds fy, cqyk;k x;kA vkVZ Mk;jsDVj ghjk HkkbZ iVsy us 'kkunkj lsV cuk;kA laxhr j?kqukFk lsB dk FkkA fQYe lsalj esa igqaph lsalj ds fy, vkosnu fd;k x;kA nks rhu Vªk;y gq,A dsoy lsalj ds fy, ,d fizaV fudkyk x;kA Jh Fkkik mu fnuksa

lsla j esa FksA mUgksua s crk;k fd [kkl vM+pu ugha gS] ysfdu fnYyh esa vfèkdkjh ns[kuk pkgrs gSAa fizVa ogka Hkst jgs gSAa eqEcbZ ls cksMZ dk dksbZ mRrj ugha feykA fnYyh esa lquk x;k fd fQYe dh Vªk;y py jgh gSA ea=h ns[k jgs gSa] ysfdu dksbZ fu.kZ; ugha fy;k tk jgk gSA mlh le; bykgkckn gkbZ dksVZ esa bafnjk xkaèkh dk dsl py jgk FkkA bejtsUlh yxh Fkh] fouksck th us Hkh dgk Fkk] ^;g vuq'kklu ioZ gS* fQYe tIr dj yh x;hA vkMZj Fkk % ^fdLlk dqlhZ dk* lEcUèkh gj lkexzh dks tIr fd;k tk;sA lh-ch-vkbZ- okys vk;s esjs vkfQl es]a fQYe ds fuekZrk ogka Fks ch-ih- tks'khA gqDe gqvk fQYe dk fuxsfVo fizVa lc crkvks dgka gS\a tIrh dk vkns'k gSA mUgsa crk;k fd fuxsfVo yscksjVs jh esa gksrk gS] vkfQl esa ugha rks cksys] pyks gekjs lkFkA lc lqiqnZ dj nksA vU;Fkk ge dqN Hkh dj ldus dk vfèkdkj j[krs gSaA muds lkFk ckWEcs ySc igqapsA ml le; vkB ct x;s FksA ySc cUn gks x;h FkhA mUgksua s xksMkmu lhy dj fn;k vkSj nwljs fnu fQj igqapsA esjs ?kj vkSj vkfQl esa dqN Fkk ughaA D;k fudyrkA ySc esa ekfyd ls ^fdLlk dqlhZ dk* lEcUèkh lkexzh tIr djus dk vkns'k ySc ds ekfyd dks crk;kA ekfyd us ,rjkt fd;k fd fuxsfVo ij rks esjk 60 gtkj #i;k fudyrk gSA dSls ns ldrk gwaA lh-ch-vkbZ- okyksa us dgk] fQj ljdkjh dke esa ckèkk Mkyus ds tqeZ esa vkidks Hkh vUnj djrs gSaA okfM;k lsB ?kcjk x;kA cksyk] ^^ys tkvks eq>s NksM+ksA** tIr djus okyksa dks ;g ekywe ugha Fkk fd fuxsfVo esa D;k&D;k gksrk gSA 35 fMCcs fiDpj fuxsfVo vkSj lkm.M ds FksA dqN ,sfMV fd;s gq, fMCcs vyx FksA mUgksaus lcdks ,d lkFk jn~nh v[kckj dh rjg [kksydj j[k fn;sA fQj mUgsa le>k;k x;k fd tks vki ys tk jgs gSa budks vyx&vyx fMCcksa esa Mkyuk gksxk vkSj ysfoy yxkuk gksxkA ogha ls dsu [kjhns] fyLV cukbZ vkSj ,d dkih ij muds gLrk{kj dj fy;s vkSj eq>s ysdj os iqfyl eq[; dk;kZy; ØkQMZ ekdsZV igqapsA ogka lc uksV djkdj fQj lsalj cksMZ ds vkfQl esa j[k fn;kA iwjk fnu bl dke esa pyk x;kA ?kj ij vkSj vkfQl esa reke yksx bdV~Bs gks x;s fd ;g D;k gks jgk gSA fdldks D;k le>krs fd ;g dksbZ pksjh dk eky ugha Fkk tks cjken gqvk] ysfdu ppkZ gqbZ] rjg&rjg dh ckrsa mM+us yxhaA bruk t:j eSa dj ik;k fd cgqr ls QksVks tks ?kj esa Fks& mUgsa ihNs ds njokts 'kSyh ds ;gka igqapk fn;k& iqfyl ckgj njokts esa [kM+h FkhA flusek&2005

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lqizhe dksVZ igqaps fQYe lsla j cksMZ esa x;h vkSj dksbZ tokc ugha feyk vkSj fQj fQYe tIr Hkh gks x;hA bejtsUlh esa ogka igqpa uk vkSj dksVZ dks vkosnu Lohdkj djuk Hkh vklku ugha FkkA fe=ksa us lq>ko fn;k fd tfLVl d`".k v¸;j cgqr ncax tt gSa vkSj NqfV~V;ksa esa f'keyk esa gSAa dksbZ igqpa k gqvk odhy gh ;g dke djk ldrk gSA dqN laidZ fey x;s vkSj f'keyk esa d`".k v¸;j lkgc us vkosnu Lohdkj dj fy;kA ve`r th us vius uke ls vkosnu fd;k FkkA dbZ fnuksa rd rkjh[ksa pyrh jghaA tt lkgc us fQYe fn[kkus ds fy, fizUV is'k djus dk vkns'k fn;kA ljdkj us fuosnu fd;k fd fizVa ekxZ esa dgha [kks x;sA os fn[kkuk ugha pkgrs FksA fizaV rks fnYyh esa gh Fks vkSj dbZ eaf=;ksa us ns[kdj etk Hkh fy;k FkkA ,d gh fizaV Fkh ftls lsalj ds fy, fnYyh Hkstk x;k FkkA d`".k v¸;j lkgc cgqr ukeh tt FksA mUgksua s 'kklu ls dgk fd fizaV xk;c gks x;h fQj Hkh tIr fd;k x;kA fuxsfVo rks gksxkA mlls nwljk fizaV cukdj fn[kk;k tk;sA dqN rkjh[ksa ysrh jgh ljdkjA fQj vkosnu fd;k usxfs Vo dgha felIysl gks x;kA tt lkgc dk fjekdZ Fkk % ljdkj rks dgha ugha x;hA bejtsalh [kRe gks x;hA bfUnjk xkaèkh pquko esa gkj x;haA bykgkckn gkbZ dksVZ ds tt flUgk lkgc us Hkh muds f[kykQ fu.kZ; fn;k FkkA fQj t;izdk'k th dk vkUnksyu 'kq: gks x;kA bfUnjk th dks [kwc izrkfM+r fd;k x;k] ysfdu tsy tkus ls cp x;hA turk thr x;hA 'kkg deh'ku cSB x;kA ^fdLlk dqlhZ dk* eqdn~nek vc rhl gtkjh dksVZ esa pyus yxkA tsBeykuh gekjs odhy FksA lh-ch-vkbZ- us ek#fr m|ksx ls fQYe ds dqN fMCcs cjken fd;s FksA mUgsa dksVZ esa is'k fd;kA fo|k HkS;k Hkh gktjh yxkrsA lat; th vkrs rks [kwc ?kwers fQjrsA pqVdqys lqukrsA flikgh mUgsa Hkh lykeh nsrsA eSaus iwNk] ^^D;ksa HkkbZ fdls lyke ns jgs gksA bu ij rks dsl py jgk gS** flikgh th cksys] ^^rqEgsa ekywe ugha ;g dkSu gSa] pqi jgksA** fQYe ds fMCcksa ds yscy ij fQYe ;wfuV ds ftu lnL;ksa ds gLrk{kj Fks os Hkh vkSj eSa Hkh gj is'kh ij rhl gtkjh dksVZ esa gktjh yxkrkA dksVZ esa ,d fnu eSua s fo|k HkS;k ls iwNk] ^^vc dgka gSa vki\** cksys lqUnj uxj esa vkvksA flikgh nkSM+k vkSj cksyk xokg ls ckr ugha djukA os pqi gks x;sA eSa Hkh pqi gks x;kA fQj Hkh eSa lqUnj uxj igqapkA ?kj fey x;kA os ?kj esa dqlhZ ij cSBdj ukbZ ls cky cuok jgs FksA vPNh rjg ls feysA cksys] gekjs odhy ds ikl tkdj ckr dj yksA dqN gks ldrk gS rks 48

flus e k&2005

djksA VSDlh okyk ys tk,xk gekjs ,dkmUV esaA eSaus dgk] eSa vkids odhy ds ikl D;ksa tkÅa\ vkidks ;gka cqykuk FkkA jgk iz'u VSDlh dk rks vHkh esjs ikl bruk iSlk gS vkSj eSa tkus yxkA muds ;gka ,d pkj ikap o"kZ dk cPpk cqjh rjg ls jks jgk FkkA lHkh euk jgs FksA eSa Hkh ikl x;kA pqi ugha gks jgk FkkA cksyk] ^^yky cRrh**A ifjokj okyksa us dgk] ikik dh ljdkjh xkM+h dh yky cRrh esa cSBus dh ftn~n dj jgk gS] vc oks dgka\ eq>s Hkh cPps dh ftn~n ij rjl vk;kA dgka Fks] dgka vk x;s lqUnj uxj esaA

lat; dk eqEcbZ vkxeu

lat; eqEcbZ vk;sA ml le; [kq'koar flag th VkbEl vkQ bafM;k dh vaxzsth if=dk ^byLVsªVsM ohdyh* ds lEiknd FksA muls feysA vkbZ-,l- tkSgjh Hkh ogka FksA fQj mUgksaus eq>s lan's k fHktok;k fd os eq>ls feyuk pkgrs gSAa tkSgj lkgc us Hkh Qksu djds dqN dgk] ^^dqN dj yks HkkbZ! mudk esjs vkfQl ds ikl izfl) daiuh Mh&yDl esa 'kadj th ds ;gka vkuk tkuk FkkA FkksM+h nsj ckn esjs vkfQl] 5&,Q] ukt flusek fcfYMax esa ,d lTtu vk;sA cksys] ^^vki uhps pyks rks vkidks lat; th ls feyokrk gwaA** eSaus dgk] ^^D;ksa! mudks ;gka vkuk pkfg;s vkSj dkj.k Hkh crkuk pkfg,A eSa muls feyuk ugha pkgrkA dksVZ esa dsl py jgk gSA fQj os cksys] ^^le> yks] dVZ'kh dkyA** eSa ugha x;kA nwljs fnu bafM;u ,Dlizsl esa 'kh"kZd esa [kcj Nih ^chih- tks'kh fj¶;wTM Vq ehV lat; xkaèkh*A 'k=q?u flUgk us Hkh vius lfpo iou th ls iwNkA ;g ogh ^flus ok.kh* okys tks'kh gSAa dksVZ esa dsl pyrk jgkA eksjkjth HkkbZ izèkkuea=h gq,A fQj pj.k flag Hkh dksbZ ljdkj pyk ugha ik;sA pquko esa fQj bafnjk jkt gks x;kA ve`rth ls lat; th dh D;k ckr gqbZ ekywe ugha] ysfdu ukFkZ ,osU;w ls eSa muds lkFk yksdlHkk fo.Mks ls eqEcbZ dk fVdV ysus fudyk] rks lat; dh xkM+h lkeus ls fudyhA mUgksaus gkFk fudky dj fo'k fd;kA eSaus iwNk] ^^;g D;k pDdj gS\** cksys feyus ds fy, cqyk;k gSA rhljs fnu v[kckjksa esa i<+k % eq>s >wB cksyus ds fy, etcwj fd;k x;kA turk ikVhZ ds lkaln ve`r ukgVk us mPpre


U;k;ky; esa ,d 'kiFki= nkf[ky djrs gq, dgk] ^^turk ljdkj rFkk muds ckn vkus okyh ljdkj vius jktuSfrd mn~ns';ksa dh iwfrZ ds fy, mudk bLrseky dj jgh FkhA** ukgVk us dgk fd eSa pj.kflag rFkk lh-ch-vkbZ- ds vè;{k ,u-dsflag ds mdlkos esa dke dj jgk FkkA cnys dh Hkkouk lsA ukgVk us izkFkZuk dh Fkh fd eq>s ^fdLlk dqlhZ dk* ds ekeys esa lPpkbZ tkuus ds fy, cqyk;k tk;sA mUgksaus viuh ;kfpdk esa dgk fd rRdkyhu vfrfjDr l= U;k;kèkh'k vks-,u- cksgjk ds le{k c;ku nsus ds ckn rFkk fo'ks"kdj bl ekeys dk fu.kZ; gks tkus ds ckn esjh uhan gok gks x;h vkSj esjh vkRek bl ckr ds fy, dkslus yxh fd bl ekeys esa funksZ"k Qals gSa] mu ij eqdnek pyk gS] mUgsa ltk lquk;h x;h gSA ;kfpdk esa mUgksaus dgk fd turk ljdkj ds xBu ds rqjUr ckn Jh pj.kflag us eq>s cqyk;k vkSj dgk fd eSa HkwriwoZ izèkkuea=h bafnjk xkaèkh ls cnyk ywaA eSa fQYe xk;c gks tkus ds lEcaèk esa mUgsa ;k muds iq= dks QalkÅaA blds ckn iqfyl vèkh{kd ¼dsanzh; tkap C;wjks½ Jh ,u-ds- flag us eq>ls dgk fd eSa fQYe ls lacafèkr dqN gLrfyf[kr o eqfnzr lkexzh miyCèk djkÅaA bu yscyksa dk mi;ksx ;g crkus ds fy, fd;k x;k Fkk fd budh izkfIr ek#fr fyfeVsM ls dh x;h FkhA Jh ukgVk us dgk fd ,u-ds- flag us mUgsa 1976 ds rhljs lIrkg esa crk;k fd lat; dks Qkalus ds fy, ek#fr fyfeVsM ds dqN lqj{kk deZpkfj;ksa rFkk Jfed usrkvksa dks iVk fy;k x;k gSA fdruh bTtr djrk Fkk eSa mudhA ;g mUgksua s D;k fd;k vkSj D;ksa fd;k\ ljnkj [kq'koar flag dgrs Fks] lat; dqN Hkh djk ldrk gSA og lp fudykA eq>s yxk] eSa bl nqfu;k esa ugha gwaA bruk gh ugha] eSaus lat; th ls feyus ls budkj dj fn;k Fkk ;g [kcj tc ve`r th us fnYyh esa i<+h] rks eq>s mUgksua s Qksu ij dgk Fkk] ^^HkkbZ lkgc] cèkkbZ Lohdkj djsaA vkius vPNk fd;kA** ^fdLlk dqlhZ dk* dksVZ dh dgkuh 1- vizSy 1975 esa fQYe lsalj cksMZ dks fn[kkbZ x;hA Fkkik lsalj cksMZ ds ,fDVax vè;{k FksA fQj fjokbftax desVh dh 1 ebZ dh cSBd esa lkr lnL;ksa us fQYe ns[khA muesa ls 6 lnL;ksa us loZlEefr ls dqN dV nsdj fQYe ikl djus dh flQkfj'k dhA fQj vè;{k ,u-,l- Fkkik us ohVks dk

234-

567-

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9-

vfèkdkj fd;k vkSj fizaV fnYyh esa fQYe fMohtu ds vkMhVksfj;e esa Hkstus dk vkns'k fn;kA 17 ebZ dks fQYe ogka igqap x;hA fjV vkosnu oSds'ku tt d`".k v¸;j us f'keyk esa dhA ls'ku tt vks-,u- oksjk us 17 Qjojh] 1979 dks lat; xkaèkh vkSj oh-lh- 'kqDy dks ltk lqukbZA vc dksVZ vkSj ljdkj dk [ksy 'kq: gqvkA 2 twu dks lqihz e dksVZ ls ;g vkxzg fd;k x;k fd og fQYe dks lsalj djkus dk vkns'k djsA lkexzh tIrh ds vkns'k dks fujLr djus dk vkxzg fd;k] tks ukeatjw gks x;k] ysfdu dksVZ us ljdkj dks fizaV vkSj fuxsfVo dks lqjf{kr j[kus dk vkns'k fn;kA tc rd dsl [kRe u gksA 25 twu dks vkikrdky yx x;kA 'kqDyk th lwpuk izlkj.k ea=h gks x;sA vkbZ-ds- xqtjky dh txg mUgsa ekLdks jktnwr cukdj Hkst fn;k x;kA 7 vxLr dks vkns'k 7@11@75 ,Q lh rkjh[k 15 tqykbZ 75 ds vkns'k esa dgk x;k fd lHkh lkexzh fQYe dh tIr gks x;h gS vkSj iqfyl yscksjsVjh ls lc ys Hkh x;hA dksVZ us ljdkj dks 17 uoEcj dks fQYe fn[kkus dk vkns'k fn;kA 5 uoEcj dks ljdkj us vkMhVksfj;e cqd dj fn;kA tkus dh lwpuk nhA bldk vFkZ ;g Fkk fd 5 uoEcj rd fizaV FkkA 11 uoEcj dks fizaV ugha feyus dh lwpuk feyhA rc dksVZ us 12 fnlEcj dks fQYe fn[kkus dh rkjh[k nhA nks fnu iwoZ dksVZ dks lwpuk nh x;h fd fizVa ugha feyhA fQj dksVZ us ukjkt gksdj vkns'k fn;k fd fuxsfVo ls nwljk fizaV cukdj 22 tuojh dks fn[kk;k tk;s] ysfdu ugha fn[kk;k x;kA var esa ekpZ 22] 1976 dks lgk;d lfpo ?kks"k us vkosnu fd;k fd vUrjkZ"Vªh; QsfLVoy esa tks fQYeksa ds fMCcs vk jgs Fks] muesa ^fdLlk dqlhZ dk* fMCck Hkh [kks x;kA lh-chvkbZ- dh lgk;rk yh x;hA 1977 esa pqukoksa dh ?kks"k.kk gks x;hA 15 tqykbZ dks lh-chvkbZ- us lat; xkaèkh vkSj oh-lh- 'kqDyk ij vkjksi&i= nkf[ky fd;s vkSj lat; xkaèkh dh tekur jn~n dj nh x;h vkSj os frgkM+ tsy igaqpk fn;s x;sA blh le; ek#fr fyfeVsM ds nks vfèkdkfj;ksa us eku fy;k fd mUgksaus ekfyd ds vkns'k ls fQYe tyk nhA flusek&2005

49


10-27 Qjojh] 1979 dks ls'ku tt vks-,u- oksjk us lat; xkaèkh vkSj oh-lh- 'kqDyk dks 2 lky dh ltk vkSj tqekZuk Bksad fn;kA 11- turk ikVhZ x;hA fQj dkaxlsz vk x;hA tsBeykuh dh txg u;s ljdkjh odhy gks x;sA ek#fr ds vfèkdkjh gksLVkby gks x;sA lat; xkaèkh vkSj 'kqDyk th us vihy dhA fcuk fdlh fo'ks"k nyhy ds mPpre U;k;ky; esa D;k gqvk] dSls gqvk vc Hkh ppkZ dk fo"k; gSA dbZ dkuwu fo'ks"kKksa dh

vyx&vyx jk; gSA U;k;kèkh'k egksn; dh [kaMihB ds lkeus dksbZ nyhy ugha gqbZA dgk x;k fd ,d eqtfje rks nq?kZVuk esa pyk x;kA vc bl dsl esa xM+s eqjns fudkyus ls D;k ykHk\

¼i`"B 10 ls vkxs½ yhft;s isM+s] 'kqHk lekpkj gS] vkids fy,A ^xaxk teuk* esa rks lc ØsfMV fnyhidqekj ys x;sA deky vkius fd;kA uke mudk gqvkA vc vki rS;kj gks tkb;sA eqdthZ lkgc ls vkids fy, izLrko yk;k gwAa vki tkW; dks fnyhidqekj cuk nsxa As ,d fQYe dhft,A uUnk] vkidh ghjksbu gksxhA tkW; ghjksA eqgqrZ 'kkunkj gksVy uVjkt dh Nr ij gksxkA lkjh baMLVªh ns[ksxhA vc jgk iz'u ctV dk rks egk'k; igqpa s vkisjk gkml dh ,d cM+h gksVy esa ftudk yM+dk ghjks cuus ds fy, pDdj yxk jgk FkkA ^,d IysV jlxqYYkkA* ckck jkèksyky dks Hkh cqykvksA jkèks ds vkrs gh pVthZ us mls cèkkbZ nhA ^jkèks xqM ydA rqEgkjk dke cu x;kA ,l- eqdthZ] fufru nk] tSls yksx vc rqEgkjs lkFk gSaA ftuls feyuk rqEgkjs fy, vlaHko Fkk pyks esjs lkFk eqgwrZ ds fy, cqd dj nsrs gSaA fdlh T;ksfr"kh ls vHkh eqgwrZ Hkh iwN ysrs gSa vkSj os gV dj uk'rk djds fudy iM+sA jkèks us xkM+h fudkyh vkSj izlUu eqnzk esa pVthZ dks èkU;okn fn;k fd vkidh d`ik gS fd eq>s ;kn fd;kA gksVy uVjkt dh Nr cqd gks x;hA fnyhidqekj dks cqykus ds fy, fgrsu pkSèkjh ls lEidZ gqvkA tks muds cgqr

50

flus e k&2005

djhc Fks vkSj ikyh fgy esa ikl gh jgrs FksA fuea=.k i= esa ^xaxk teuk* ds ckn fufru cksl ds funsZ'ku dk u;k dekyA lkFk esa eqdthZ lkgc dk vk'khokZn vkSj laidZ ds fy, esjk uke fy[kk FkkA ftlls eSa Hkh mudh nqfu;k esa fey tkÅaA eSaus i=dkjksa dks fuea=.k fn;k vkSj QksVksxzkQj dks tc fuea=.k fn;k rks mUgksaus ,d 'krZ j[kh fd brus cM+s lekjksg esa vPNk volj gS] rLohjksa dk ysfdu eSa chp esa vkdj muds QksVks [kjkc u d:a\ Fkh u etsnkj ckrA eSaus eu esa dgk] ^cUèkq QksVks nsdj fcy tc ekaxksxs rks ukuh ;kn vk tk;sxhA* eqgwrZ 'kkunkj <ax ls gqvkA eqgwrZ ij egcwc lkgc] eqdthZ] fnyhidqekj rFkk dbZ fQYeh gfLr;ksa us vk'khokZn fn;kA fQYeh m|ksx ds ukeh v[kckj ^LØhu* esa iwjk ist QksVks ls Hkjk vk;k vkSj lHkh us bl vkyh'kku eqgwrZ dh cgqr rkjhQ dhA Qk;usUlj cnyrs&cnyrs vUr esa jk"Vªh; fQYe fuxe us fQYe dks Qk;usUl fd;k vkSj fQYe cu x;h] ysfdu pVthZ egk'k; tks la?k"kZ ds fnuksa esa jkr dks lks;s rks Fks ysfdu ckn esa irk yxk fd os uhan esa gh LoxZ flèkkj x;sA fQYe ijns ij vk x;hA LoxhZ; pVthZ lkgc dh vkRek dks 'kkfUr feyh gksxhA


fldanj ouekyk

dh #[klkuk vkt o`Unkou

% esa

ouekyk ds firk Xokfy;j jkT; ds ize[q k ljnkjksa esa ls ,d FksA jktdqekjksa ds lkFk i<+h FkhA ?kqMl+ okjh] pkanekjh] rhjankth] f'kdkj] iksyks lHkh esa os ikjaxr FkhaA i`Fohjkt us mUgsa Hkkxrs ?kksM+s ls fuf'pr LFkku ij dwnrs ns[kdj dgk Fkk % yxrk gS ouekyk dk ykyu&ikyu ?kksM+s dh ihB ij gqvk gSA tc muds firkth dks irk pyk fd mudh yM+dh vfHkus=h cu jgh gS vkSj Xokfy;j ds gh flusek?kj esa mldh fQYe yx jgh gS] rks mUgksaus flusek ?kj dks cUn djk fn;kA mUgksaus dHkh viuh vfHkus=h cuh yM+dh dks ekQ ugha fd;k] ysfdu lc dqN NksM+dj ouekyk firkth ds ikl x;h vkSj mUgsa iwjs Hkkjr ds rhFkksZa dk n'kZu djk;k vkSj {kek;kpuk dhA fQj lc dqN NksM+dj mUgksaus Xokfy;j ?kjkus ds xksiky eafnj ls gh u;k thou 'kq: fd;kA ogha muls lk{kkRdkj gqvk vkSj ns[kk fd o`Unkou eas ftèkj ge tkrs lq'khyk cgu th dks lHkh ueu djrsA mudh mez tSls Bgj x;h gksA xksoèkZu dh ifjØek ds iwoZ rks os gekjs ns[krs&ns[krs rkykc esa dwn x;h vkSj Mqcdh yxkus yxhA bl BaMs ekSle esa xeZ ikuh ls Luku djus okys ge yksx fdukjs [kM+s ds [kM+s jgs x;sA fdlh dh fgEer ugha gqbZ muds Luku ds fuea=.k dks Lohdkj djus dhA dHkh ftlus viuh vnkdkjh ls vla[; flus izsfe;ksa dk euksjatu fd;k] ftldh mifLFkfr ek= ls n'kZdksa dks ÅtkZ feyh] mYykl feyk] vkt ogh le; ds izokg ls misf{kr gSA ij vQlksl fd lekt d`rKrk ds ukrs Hkh mUgsa ;kn ugha djuk pkgrhA 1940&50 ds n'kd dh ,d lqizfl) ouekyk bl ?kksj mis{kk esa viuk thou clj dj jgh gSA cgqr igys 1954 esa tc mudh fQYe ';ke ph vkbZ dks jk"Vªifr dk ^Lo.kZ ind* iqjLdkj feyk FkkA mUgksaus fQYeh nqfu;k NksM+ nh FkhA ,d yEcs varjky ds ckn mUgsa ns[krs gSa --- ;g fQYe m|ksx dk igyk iqjLdkj Fkk ;s mUgsa feyk FkkA yEch] Njgjh] 'osr oL= ifjèkku fd, tc ouekyk vkrh gS] mudh pky esa ogh QqrhZ ogh 'kku gS] tks fldUnj dh ^:[klkuk* esa gesa fn[kk;h nsrh gSA vkt o`Unkou esa jkèks jkèks dk tki vkSj xksoèkZu dh ifjØek djrh fn[kk;h nsrh gSA vc os ^lq'khyk cgu th* gSA lekt lsfodk vkSj vkjkèkuk esa layXuA mTtSu esa tUeh ouekyk dk egRo dsoy blfy, ugaha gS fd os ,d lQy fQYe vfHkus=h Fkha] cfYd blfy, Hkh fd Xokfy;j jkT; ds ,d lkear ?kjkus esa tUeh] mPp f'k{kk izkIr ouekyk us ml le; fQYe vfHku; dks vius fy, pquk] tc fQYe vfHku; dks ,d fxjk gqvk dke le>k tkrk FkkA ch-,-ch-Vh- dj os rc iwuk esa f'kf{kdk dk dke dj jgh Fkha] tc mUgsa uo;qx fp=iV dh ejkBh vkSj fgUnh esa cuh fQYe ^yiaMkos* ¼vka[k fepkSuh½ esa ukf;dk dh Hkwfedk feyhA mlds ckn ,d ds ckn ,d lQy fQYeksa dk Øe py fudykA lksgjkc eksnh dh ^fldUnj*] oh 'kkarkjke dh ^ioZr is viuk Msjk*] ,tjk ehj dh ^chrs fnu*] okfM;k ewohVksu dh ^'kjcrh vka[ks*a vkSj fp= eafnj dh ^olar lsuk* mudh mRd`"V fQYesa FkhaA vius le; ds cM+s ls cM+s vfHkusrkvksa ds lkFk mUgksaus ukf;dk dh Hkwfedk dhA ^fldUnj* esa i`Fohjkt diwj ds lkFk] ^dknEcjh* esa igkM+h lkU;ky] ^ifjUns* esa lqjsUnz] ^eqLdjkgV* esa eksrhyky vkSj ^olarlsuk* esa 'kkgw eksMd rFkk xtkuu tkxhjnkj muds uk;d FksA ^olar lsuk* dks os viuk mRd"V dykRed fp= ekurh gS vkSj ^';ke dh vkbZ* dks] ftldh os fuekZrk Hkh jgha] Js"B lkekftd fQYeA og muds thou dk Lo.kZdky FkkA flusek&2005

51


lQy O;fDr ds pkjksa LokFkhZ rRo oSls gh eaMjkrs gSa tSls xqM+ ds bnZ&fxnZ efD[k;kaA ouekyk bl udyhiu ls Åc x;haA lc dqN R;kx fQYe txr ls pyh x;ha] ij dyk f'k{k.k vkSj lekt lsok ls mudk ukrk ugha VwVkA u;h ih<+h dks dyk] f'k{k.k lqyHk djkus ds fy, mUgksaus eFkqjk&o`Unkou esa Jh Lokeh gfjnkl dyk laLFkku dh LFkkiuk dhA orZeku esa os mudh lapkfydk gSAa N=ifr f'kokth egkjkt jk"Vªh; Lekjd] fnYyh dh lnL; ,oa izfr"Bku dh ,d VªLVh Hkh og gSaA fQYe fuekZrk os vc Hkh gSa vkSj lkaLd`frd ,oa f'k{kkizn fp=ksa ds fuekZ.k esa mudh vfHk#fp gSA geus tkuuk pkgk fd 85 o"kZ dh vk;q esa igqap dj mUgsa dSlk yx jgk gS\ thou ds izfr mudk n`f"Vdks.k D;k gS\ os galus yxh vkSj cksyh] geus rks O;olk; esa Hkh lsok dh gSA dykdkj dk O;olk;h gksuk cgqr dfBu gksrk gSA ekse dk fny j[kus okys dykdkj] ftUgsa ekywe Hkh ugha gksrk fd dkSu mUgsa Bx jgk gS] le>rs gSa fd dke gh iwtk gS vkSj fQYe fuekZrk muls pkj&pkj f'k¶Vs esa dke ysdj mudk nksgu djrs gSAa vkt dh vfHkusf=;ksa dks esjk ,d gh lan's k gS fd os viuk vkRelEeku u [kks,Aa viuh izfr"Bk ge Lo;a cukrs gSAa islS s ds fy, ;k lLrh yksdfiz;rk ds fy, geus viuk lEeku [kks;k] rks ,d fQYe vfHkus=h vkSj ,d iSls ds fy, ukpus okyh ckbZ esa dksbZ vUrj ugha jgsxkA esjs le; esa laHkzkUr ifjokjksa ls vk;h vfHkusf=;ka cgqr de Fkha fQj Hkh lHkh vfHkusf=;ka gko&Hkko vkSj igukos

esa lH;rk dk nk;jk ugha yka?krh FkhaA n`'; Hkys gh csM:e dk gks ;k Nhuk&>iVh dk vkSj cykRdkj dk gks] vius 'kjhj izn'kZu dh ge ,d lhek j[kk djkrh FkhaA blh dkj.k gekjh viuh ,d izfr"Bk cuk Fkh vkt rks ;FkkFkZokn ds uke ij D;k dqN ugha gks jgk gSA ukjh 'kjhj dk uXu izn'kZu lkoZtfud :i ls gekjs ns'k esa gks jgk bruk dHkh ugha gqvkA ;g gekjs ns'k dh lH;rk ugha gSA fons'kh fQYeksa dh HkkSaM+h udy gSA fQYe fuekZrkvksa dk ykyp gh bldk dkj.k gSA fQYe fuekZrk rks dkSjo gSaA mudk cl pys rks nzkSinh dks oL= gh u iguus nsAa ij vkt dh vfHkus=h igys ls dgha T;knk Lora= gSA vius ckjs esa og dgha vfèkd QSlys dj ldrh gSA ,d vfHkus=h dks ;g dHkh ugha Hkwyuk pkfg, fd mlds pkgus okys yk[kksa n'kZdksa ds fy, og ,d izsj.kk gksrh gSA mlds gko&Hkko] mldh pky&<ky vkSj iks'kkd lHkh dk vuqdj.k n'kZd oxZ djrk gS] blfy, fQYe ds vfHkusrk dsoy ,d u, QS'ku pykus okys gh ugha os ,d u;h lH;rk dks Hkh tUe nsrs gSaA eSa ;g ugha dgrh fd Jhnsoh] ekèkqjh nhf{kr laU;kl ys ys]sa ysfdu ftl lekt ls tks fy;k gS mls fdlh :i esa okil rks djuk gh gSA lekt dY;k.k ds ekxZ dk fu'p; djrs gh vkdk'k LoPN gks tk;sxkA lc lkèku miyCèk gks tk,axAs cl ,d ladYi dj ysaA bruh gh nsj gSA

*** ikfdLrkuh xkf;dk uwjtgak us 1957 esa vius ifr fuekZrk&funsZ'kd lS;n 'kkSdr gqlSu ls rykd ysdj vnkdkj ,tkt nqjkZuh ds lkFk 'kknh dj yhA nwljh vksj muds ifr 'kkSdr us Hkh uwjtgak dh lgsyh ;kLehu ls 'kknh dhA *** fuekZrk funsZ'kd dsnkj 'kekZ ds funsZ'ku esa cuh fQYe ^tksxu* esa jktsUnz dqekj us fnyhi dqekj ds nksLr dh NksVh&lh Hkwfedk fuHkk;h FkhA

52

flus e k&2005


ulhe ckuks ¼1916&2002 ½

fgUnh fQYe txr dh ;g ijEijk jgh gS fd dykdkjksa dks fdlh miuke ls lEcksfèkr fd;k tkrk gSA tSls xkf;dk vfHkus=h uwjtgka dks ^eYdk, rjUuqe] ehuk dqekjh dks ^Hkkouk izèkku*] fnyhi dqekj dks] ^'kga'kkgs ttckr*] eèkqckyk dks ^eYdk&,&gqLu* rFkk ukS'kkn vyh dks ^ekSfldkj&,&vkte*A blh rjg vfHkus=h ulhe ckuks ds pkgus okyksa us mudks ^ijh psgjk* C;wVh Dohu uke fn;kA ulhe ckuks 1916 esa fnYyh fLFkr uokc vCnqy oghn ds ?kj iSnk gqbAaZ mldh eka 'ke'kkn vius tekus dh e'kgwj 'kkL=h; xkf;dk FkhaA 'ke'kkn xk;u&oknu ds vykok vfHkus=h Hkh FkhA ;g og nkSj Fkk tc nqxkZ [kksV]s lqykspuk ¼:ch es;lZ½] tScfq Uulk] tqcnS k] xksgj] ljnkj v[rj] tgkavkjk] dTtu bR;kfn dk cksyckyk FkkA ulhe ckuks dk fQYe nqfu;k esa izos'k cM+s gh ukVdh; <ax ls gqvkA xfeZ;ksa dh NqfV~V;ksa esa og viuh eka ds lkFk eqEcbZ vk;h FkhA Nk= voLFkk esa gh og vfHkus=h lqykspuk ¼:ch es;lZ½ rFkk lqfurk nsoh dh iz'kald FkhA eqEcbZ vkrs gh ulhe viuh ilanhnk vnkdkjk lqfurk nsoh dh 'kwfVax ns[kus lkxj LVwfM;ks igqaphA ;gka eksrhyky vkSj lquhrk ij fQYe ^flYoj fdax* dk 'kkV fQYek;k tk jgk FkkA 'kwfVax ns[kus ds fy;s vk;s reke yksx ulhe dks Hkh vnkdkj le> cSBsA lkxj ewohVksu dh bl fQYe dks lh-,e-yqgkj funsZf'kr dj jgs FksA vpkud mudh utj HkhM+ esa [kM+h ulhe ij iM+hA dqN {k.kksa ds fy, mlds lkSUn;Z ls ea=eqXèk gks x;sA yqgkj us QkSju ulhe ls dgk fd D;k og fQYeksa esa vfHku; djuk pkgsaxhA ysfdu 'kh?kz gh fQYe if=dkvksa vkSj vU; v[kckjksa esa ;g ppkZ gks x;h fd fQYe ds ijns ij ,d glhu ijh Hkh vk x;hA ulhe ckuks us ^gSEysV* esa dke djuk eatwj dj fy;k vkSj bl rjg lksgjkc eksnh dh fgnk;r esa cuh ulhe ckuks dh igyh fQYe ^gSEysV* 1935 esa fjyht gqbZA bl fQYe esa dsUnzh; Hkwfedk Lo;a lksgjkc eksnh us vfHkuhr dh Fkh vkSj vU; Hkwfedkvksa esa Fks xqyke gqlSu] mudh eka 'ke'kkn csxeA ^gSEysV* ds ckn ulhe ds ?kj ds lkeus fQYe fuekZrkvksa dh drkjsa yxus yxh tc fd ml tekus esa fQYe daifu;ksa us vius vnkdkjksa ij bl ckr dh ikcUnh yxk j[kh FkhA fQj feuZok ewohVksu ds loslZ okZ lksgjkc eksnh us 1938 esa ulhe ckuks dks ysdj ^Mk;oksl*Z cuk;h] ftlesa vU; dykdkjksa esa xtkuu tkxhjnkj] 'khyk vkSj izse vnhc FksA fQYeh nqfu;k ij ulhe ds gqLu dk tknw vlj dj pqdk FkkA fQYe ^Mk;okslZ* ds ckn mlh lky ulhe ckuks dh vkSj nks fQYesa ^ehBk tgj* vkSj ^oklUrh* iznf'kZr gqbZA fQYe ^ehBk tgj* lksgjkc eksnh ds funs'Z ku esa cuh ,d dke;kc fQYe FkhA fQYe ^oklUrh* ds-,e- eqyrkuh us funsfZ 'kr dh FkhA uohu ;kfKd us ulhe ds ghjks dk jksy fd;k FkkA dsoy pkj fQYeksa esa dke djus ds ckn ulhe ckuks dh 'kksgjr vkSj yksdfiz;rk dk vanktk blh ckr ls yxk;k tk ldrk gS fd mUgsa vkt ls 64 o"kZ iwoZ Hkh ,d fQYe dk esgurkuk ,d yk[k #i;k fn;k tkrk FkkA 1939 esa ,d ,slh uk;kc o ,sfrgkfld fQYe vk;h ftlesa lksgjkc eksnh] ulhe ckuks] pUnzeksgu vkSj ljnkj v[rj dks 'kksgjr dh mu cqyfUn;ksa rd igqapk fn;k tks rdnhj okyksa dks gh ulhc gksrh gSA bl fQYe dk uke Fkk ^iqdkj*A bl fQYe esa pUnzeksgu dks 'kga'kkg tgkaxhj vkSj ulhe dks eYdk uwjtgka dh Hkwfedk us vf}rh; cuk fn;kA lksgjkc eksnh ds funsZ'ku esa cuh flusek&2005

53


;knxkj fQYe esa ljnkj v[rj] lkfnd vyh] ftYyks vkSj xqyke gqluS us Hkh Hkwfedk,a dh FkhaA ^iqdkj* dk laxhr ehj lkgsc us fn;k FkkA bl fQYe dh dke;kch ds lkFk gh ulhe ckuks us vius gtkjksa pkgus okys iz'kaldksa dh Hkkouk dh dnz u djrs gq, 'kknh dj yhA ulhe ckuks us ml tekus ds e'kgwj bathfu;j vkfdZVDs V tukc [kku cgknqj ds-Qtan eksgEen ,glku ls 'kknh dj yhA ulhe ds llqj ,d x`gLFk FksA mUgsa vaxtsz ljdkj us u;h fnYyh dk uD'kk cukus ij ^[kku cgknqj* ds f[krkc ls uoktk FkkA ulhe ckuks us vius llqj ds [okfg'k dk eku j[krs gq, fQYeksa ls fdukjk dj fy;kA mUgksaus dsoy mu fQYeksa dks

iwjk fd;k tks 'kknh ls igys lkbu dj j[kh FkhA mu fQYeksa esa esgkjh ¼1940½] py py js ukStoku ¼1944½ rFkk esjk xhr ¼1946½ eq[; gSaA ftl oDr 1944 esa ulhe ckuks fQfYeLrku vkSj Kku eq[kthZ dh fQYe py py js ukStoku esa dke dj jgh Fkha] Bhd mu fnuksa ulhe ckuks ds gksus okys nkekn fnyhi dqekj viuh ftUnxh dh igyh fQYe ^Tokj HkkVk* esa dke dj jgs FksA vkt ulhe ckuks gekjs chp ugha gSA ulhe ckuks ds lkFk gh gqLu dk tknw Hkh fc[kj x;k tks lkyks lky rd n'kZdksa ds flj ij p<+ dj cksyrk FkkA ulhe ckuks dks fQYe bfrgkl ds ,d glhu psgjs ds :i easa ges'kk ;kn fd;k tk;sxkA

yhyk uk;Mw yhyk uk;Mw ds fQYeh thou esa dbZ p<+ko&mrkj rFkk fojke vk;s gSaA mudh vfHku; ;k=k ftusok ds ,d baVjus'kuy Ldwy ds ,d ukVd ^yhyk vk, n lksy Vw okUVsM Vw bDoy n xkM~l* esa ,d Hkwfedk ds lkFk 'kq: gqbZA mlh Ldwy ds ,d iqjkus Nk= us mUgsa ;g Hkwfedk djrs ns[kk vkSj mUgsa viuh ,d iz;ksxkRed fQYe ^cFkZ vko , lksy* esa ekSdk fn;kA bl fQYe dk :i cM+k gh vijaijkxr FkkA blds ckn mUgksaus dqN Ýsap vkSj vaxzsth ukVdksa esa dke fd;k vkSj dqN le; ds fy, Hkkjr ykSVsA rHkh muds lkFk ^vuqjkèkk* vk x;haA _f"kds'k eq[kthZ us mu ij ,d utj Mkydj gh dg fn;k fd rqEgha esjh vuqjkèkk cu ldrh gksA bld ckn epsZUV vkbojh dh 'kf'k diwj ds lkFk okyh fQYe ^n gkml gksYMj* ¼fgUnh esa 54

flus e k&2005

?kjckj½ vk;hA ^gkml gksYMj* dk izhfe;j U;w;kdZ esa gqvk tgka dukMk ds funsZ'kd gkoZ gkVZ us mUgsa ^Qsl bu n lu* esa ,d Hkwfedk nhA yhyk us vkj-ds- uk;j dh ^;s jkLrs I;kj ds*] ^ckxh* rFkk fQYe foRr fuxe dh ^, Qsl bu n lu* ds fgUnh laLdj.k ^mEehn* esa Hkh vfHku; fd;kA mUgksaus vaxzsth ds izfl) dfo ys[kd Mke ekjsl ds lkFk fookg fd;kA yhyk uk;Mw us ';ke csusxy dh fQYe ^f=dky* esa ,d ckj fQj Mksuk ekfj;k dks ltho dj fn;kA yhyk dh ekrk Ýsap rFkk firk izfl) oSKkfud MkW- jkeu uk;Mw gSaA Mke ls mUgsa nks csfV;k Hkh gqbZaA ckn esa Mke ls mudk rykd gks x;kA mudh fQYe ^vuqjkèkk* dks jk"Vªifr us iqjLd`r fd;k FkkA


vc izk.k cus eyax pkpk

ykgkSj esa izk.k dks iku [kkrs czsd feyk vxj izk.k dks iku [kkus dh vknr u gksrh vkSj ykgkSj esa ml jkr iku [kkus ds fy, iku dh nqdku ij u x;s gksrs rks 'kk;n izk.k T;knk ls T;knk ,d xqeuke QksVksxkz Qj gksrs vkSj nqfu;k mUgsa [krjukd [kyuk;d ds :i esa dHkh u tkurhA dSfj;j ds 62 o"kksZa vkSj thou ds 83 o"kZ iwjs dj pqds egku vfHkusrk dks D;ksa u ge muds cpiu ls gh ;kn djsAa 12 Qjojh] 1920 dks fnYyh esa tUes izk.k us ckeqf'dy ls eSfVªdqys'ku rd dh i<+kbZ dhA og Hkh diwjFkyk] mUuko] esjB] nsgjknwu vkSj jkeiqj ds Ldwyksa esaA okLro esa izk.k ds firk ykyk ds'kod`".k fldan ,d ljdkjh flfoy dkaVDªs Vj Fks] tks jksM vkSj iqy cukus ds Bsds ysrs FksA tgka firkth dk dke pyrk Fkk] ogha ifjokj tk clrk FkkA izk.k dks QksVksxzkQh dk 'kkSd cpiu ls FkkA blfy, os fnYyh esa ,d QksVks 'kki ls tqM+ x,A tYnh gh nqdku dh ,d 'kk[kk f'keyk esa [kqyh vkSj izk.k lkgc dks ogka Hkst fn;k x;kA nks lky ckn nqdku dh 'kk[kk ykgkSj esa [kqyh rks ,d ckj fQj mudk VªklaQj gqvkA izk.k lkgc ykgkSj tkdj vius QksVksxzkQh ds dke esa je x;sA ,d fnu os jkst dh rjg iku [kkus ,d nqdku ij x;sA ns[kk fd ,d vtuch eq>s ,dVd ?kwjs tk jgk gSA vkf[kj mlus esjk uke iwNk vkSj cnys esa eSaus mls QVdkj fn;kA rc mlus viuk ifjp; fn;kA ;g vifjfpr O;fDr mu fnuksa ds e'kgwj iVdFkk laokn ys[kd o xhrdkj eksgEen oyh FksA mu fnuksa og ykgkSj fLFkr vius LVwfM;ks ^iapksyh LVwfM;ks* ds fy, iatkch fQYe ^;eyk tV* dh fLØIV fy[k jgs FksA mUgksaus izk.k lkkgc dks fQYe esa dke djus dk izLrko fn;kA LVwfM;ks tkdj oyh lkgc ds ekfyd iapksyh ls feyus dk oknk Hkh fd;k] ij lqcg dks lc dqN Hkwy x;sA vxys 'kfuokj dks izk.k lkgc ogka ds flusek?kj ^Iyktk* esa fQYe ns[kus x, rks oyh ogka Hkh mUgsa Vdjk;sA mUgksaus izk.k dks oknk f[kykQh ds fy, yrkM+k vkSj mUgsa LVwfM;ks ys x,A izk.k us ml le; dh lcls T;knk jde dh ekax dhA mUgksaus 50 #i;s ekgokj dh ekax dh lkFk gh ;g 'krZ Hkh fd bl ,fDVax dh ukSdjh ds fy, viuk tek&tek;k

QksVksxzkQh dk dke gjfxt ugha NksM+saxsA izk.k dh lkjh 'krZ eatwj dj yh x;hA bl rjg os ^;eyk tV* ds [kyuk;d cu x;sA ;g fQYe lqij fgV jghA mUgsa vxyh fQYe ^[kkunku* ds fy;s lkkbu dj fy;k x;k] ysfdu bl ckj os [kyuk;d ugha uk;d FksA mudh ukf;dk Fkh e'kgwj xkf;dk uwjtgkaA mudh crkSj ghjksbu ;g igyh fQYe FkhA gkykafd ^[kkunku* Hkh fgV jgh ysfdu izk.k dks crkSj ghjks dke djuk tapk ughaA ykgkSj esa izk.k us ykgkSj baMLVªh esa ^[kkunku* ds ckn lgkjk] dSls dgwa] jkfxuh] cnukeh vkfn dbZ fQYesa dhaA mUgsa QksVksxzkQh Hkh NksM+ nsuk iM+kA ysfdu vxys lky gh vxLr ls ykgkSj esa lkaiznkf;d ruko Nk x;kA rc izk.k us lqj{kk dh n`f"V ls viuh iRuh vkSj csVs dks bUnkSj esa vius fj'rsnkjksa ds ;gka Hkst fn;k] ysfdu ykgkSj esa fQYe baMLVªh Hkh cjckn gks x;hA os bUnkSj x;sA fQj ogka ls eqEcbZ vkdj la?k"kZ djus yxsA ,d o`) ifjokj ds lkFk isbax xsLV ds :i esa jgus yxsA ,d fnu oyh lkgc ls os ;gka Vdjk;sA mUgksua s izk.k dks 1000 #i;s ekgokj ij lkbu fd;kA blds ckn ,d gh lIrkg esa mUgsa ckEcs Vkdht dh ^ftn~nh*] izHkkr dh ^vijkèkh* vkSj ,l-,e- ;wlqQ dh ^x`gLFkh* tSlh izfrf"Br cSujksa dh fQYesa fey x;haA fQj dHkh izk.k us okil eqM+dj ugha ns[kkA cgqr yEch lwph gS izk.k dh fQYeksa dhA bruh fd flusek ds bfrgkl esa izk.k lkgc ds uke dk ,d vè;k; tqM+ tk,A izk.k ijns ds brus Hk;kud [kyuk;d Fks fd flusek?kjksa esa cPps viuh eka ds vkapy esa nqcd tkrs FksA eukst dqekj us ^midkj* esa izk.k dks ikWtsfVo Hkwfedk nsdj mudh Nfo cny nhA os cPpksa ds fy;s eyax pkpk cu x;sA blds ckn izk.k us 'kk;n gh dksbZ [kyuk;d dh Hkwfedk dh gksA vferkHk cPpu us mUgsa ,d vuwBk rksgQk fn;k Fkk ftldk ftØ djuk dHkh ugha Hkwyrs] mUgksua s esjh fQYeksa ds lhu ,d= djds ,d ohfM;ks ,yce cuk;k vkSj eq>s HksVa fd;kA ;g mudk I;kj gSA flusek&2005

55


lqHkk"k dk vkRedF; esjk tUe ukxiqj esa vius ukuk ds ?kj gqvk FkkA eSa ogka viuh eka ds lkFk jgrk Fkk] tks ogka Ldwy Vhpj FkhA ukxiqj esa eSa FkMZ LVasMMZ rd dkUosaV esa i<+k FkkA tYnh gh esjs firkth us pkanuh pkSd esa ,d NksVk&lk ?kj [kjhn fy;k vkSj ge muds ikl vk x;sA dkUosUV ls fgUnh ehfM;e okys lukru èkeZ Ldwy esa i<+us tkuk esjs fy, ^dYpjy 'kkd* gh FkkA tc esjh eka gesa NksM+ dj pyh x;h rks eSa vkBoha d{kk esa i<+rk FkkA gesa ;kuh esjk NksVk HkkbZ] esjh cgu vkSj eSaA vkt eSa le> ikrk gwa fd os lkFk jgus ds fy, cus gh u gh FksA esjs firk us nksckjk 'kknh dj yhA mudh iRuh ,d vPNh efgyk Fkh ij eq>s ;kn gS fd eSa fdruk rwQku epkrk Fkk vkSj mudk thou nwHkj dj nsrk FkkA esjs firk pkgrs Fks fd eSa pkVZMZ ,dkmUVsaV cuwa ij D;ksafd esjs vPNs uEcj ugha vk;s Fks] blfy, ch-dke- djus ds fy, eSa jksgrd pyk x;kA eSa tYnh gh ukVd Hkh fy[kus vkSj funsZf'kr djus yxkA dkyst esa eSa ghjks cu x;k vkSj eq>s dbZ esMy feysA blls dykvksa esa fnypLih ysus dh vkè;kfRed 'kfDr feyhA eSa ,d VwVs ?kj ls vkus dh lkjh rdyhQ vkSj uSjk'; Hkwy tkuk pkgrk FkkA laxhr dk è;ku FkkA eSa viuk ruko Hkwy x;kA vkt Hkh laxhr esjk igyk I;kj gSA jksgrd esa eSaus vius detksj 'kehZys vkSj vUreqZ[kh O;fDrRo ij Hkh fot; ik;hA viuh miyfCèk;ksa dks vius firk ls fNikrk FkkA eq>s irk Fkk mUgsa laxhr] u`R;] ukVd ls uQjr gSA muds fy, ;g dksbZ dSfj;j Fkk gh ugha] ysfdu esjs bu NksVs&NksVs jktksa esa eka lk>h FkhA eSa muls lky esa ,d ckj feyrk Fkk vkSj 'ks"k le; ge i=ksa ds ekè;e ls yxkrkj laidZ cuk;s j[krs FksA os cgqr vPNk fy[krh FkhaA vxj vkt eSa ys[kd cuk gwa rks eSa dg ldrk gwa fd muds ys[ku dk eq> ij lcls cM+k izHkko FkkA eSaus firkth ls dgk fd eSa vfHkusrk cuuk pkgrk gwa rks mUgksaus iq.ks ds fQYe baLVhV~;wV dk ,d foKkiu eq>s fn;kA os ugha pkgrs Fks fd ftl rjg èkesZUnz ?kj ls Hkkxs Fks] eSa Hkh vfHkusrk cuus ds fy, ?kj ls HkkxwaA eq>s ;kn gS esjs lkFk la?k"kZ djus okyksa esa 'k=q?u flUgk] vljkuh] vferkHk] t;k HkknqM+h] tkosn v[rj Hkh FksA ge lc vDlj ppZxsV esa ^xsykMZ* jsLrjka ds ckgj feyk djrs FksA viuh fujk'kkvksa vkSj egRokdka{kkvksa dh ppkZ djus ds fy,A ge jsLrjka ds vUnj tkuk ,QksMZ dj ugha ldrs Fks] fygktk ge ,slk fn[kkok djrs Fks tSls ge vHkh&vHkh mlds ckgj vk;s gksAa ge lcesa 'k=q?u flUgk lcls T;knk dkUQhMsUV FksA mu 'kq:vkrh fnuksa esa Hkh og fuekZrkvksa ls ^LVkj* dh rjg ckr djrs Fks] feyrs FksA mu fnuksa esa [kkus dks iSls ugha gksrs Fks exj og fuekZrk ls dg nsrk Fkk % ^cl ls ugha] vki VSDlh ls Hksft, eq>s ysus ds fy,A* dbZ yksxksa us eq>s dgdj dke ugha fn;k ysfdu esjk Hkjkslk dHkh Mxexk;k ughaaA 'kfDr lkear us ^vkjkèkuk* esa ,d NksVh&lh Hkwfedk nhA ckn esa eSaus crkSj ghjks Ng fQYesa lkbu dha exj lkèkkj.k fQYesa djds eq>s fujk'kk gks gh jgh FkhA eSa rks vfHkusrk cuuk pkgrk Fkk exj ;g njvly ,d ist dk var vkSj nwljs dh 'kq:vkr FkhA izdk'k esgjk us lquk fd eSaus ,d fLØIV fy[kh gSA os mls [kjhnuk pkgrs Fks exj esjh ,d 'krZ Fkh] vki ;g dgkuh ys ldrs gSa ij eSa fQYe esa vfHku; d:axkA rhu eghus yx x;sA eSa vius dks ys[kd le>rk gh ugha FkkA eSaus ^dkyhpj.k* 'k=q?u dks fnekx esa j[kdj fy[kh Fkh exj tc eSaus mls fLØIV lquk;h rks og cksyk ^lqHkk"k* ,fDVax ls rqe tk jgs gks jkbfVax ls Hkh tkvksxsA vUrr% ,u-,u-flIih dks ;g fLØIV ilan vk;hA mUgksaus eq>ls iwNk fd esjs fopkj ls bls funsZf'kr djus ds fy, lcls vPNk dkSu jgsxk\ eSaus dgk] eSa bls Mk;jsDV dj ldrk gwaA QkSju gh eSaus eglwl fd;k fd eSaus D;k dg Mkyk gS vkSj eSaus tksM+k fd eSa etkd dj jgk gwaA rhu fnu ckn mUgksaus ,d ikVhZ nh vkSj esjk ifjp; viuh vxyh fQYe ds funsZ'ku ds crkSj djk;kA esjs gkFk&iSj BaMs gks x;s dkuksa ij fo'okl ugha gqvkA eq>s fQYe funsZ'ku dk dksbZ vuqHko ugha FkkA vkt eSa tks gwa lc tkurs gSaA vius eqag D;k viuh O;Fkk lqukÅa vc turk dgrh gS lquuk 56

flus e k&2005


Hkh t:jh gSA

vkt ds pfpZr fuekZrk vkt ls djhc 20 lky igys fQYe baLVhV~;wV ls fudykA cxy esa Qkby nck;s eSa ukt flusek ds 5 ,Q vkfQl esa vk;kA lkeus [kM+s gksdj vkxUrqd cksyk% ^eSa lqHkk"k ?kbZ dykdkj rks gwa ysfdu funs'Z kd cuuk gS vkSj tks esjh dgkuh ij fQYe cuk;sxk mldks eSa Mk;jsDV d:axkA ^eSua s dgk] cSB tkvksA gkSlyk rks cqyUn yxrk gS% ysfdu ys[kd ugha] Mk;jsDVj gh cuuk gSA esjh fLØIV ij eSa gh Mk;jsDV d:axkA dgkuh fdlh dks ugha nwaxkA eq>s vk'p;Z gqvk fd vthc uo;qod gSA fQj mlus dgk fd ;gka dksbZ flaèkh gS tks fQYe cukuk pkgrs gSaA ml le; ukjh flIih dk ,d NksVk&lk vkfQl Fkk 5 ,Q ukt esa esjs ikl ghA ys[kd egk'k; ls eSua s dgk vki ukjh ls feyus ls iwoZ muds ijke'kZnkrk tokgj euksr ls fefy,A os Qk;usUlj Hkh gSa vkSj mudk dguk dksbZ ugha VkysxkA viuh dgkuh ukVdh; <ax ls lqukb,] eSaus mUgsa mudk irk vkSj VsyhQksu fn;k vkSj eSa gh dkyLo:i cukA ,d ckj lqHkk"k ?kbZ us jke xksiky xqIrk dh fQYe ^'kghn Hkxrflag* dh esjs ?kj esa 'kwfVax Hkh dhA esjk ?kj ekykM esa ekjos jksM ij gSA jktdiwj ds ckn lqHkk"k ?kbZ ,d ek= ,sls fQYedkj gSa ftUgsa fQYe m|ksx esa 'kks eSu dk ntkZ fn;k tkrk gSA mudh yxHkx lHkh fQYesa pfpZr vo'; jgha] Hkys gh os dke;kc u gks ik;ha gksAa fQYe fuekZ.k dk ?kbZ dk viuk vyx QkewyZ k gS] ftlesa yksdfiz; flusek ds yxHkx lkjs rRo ekStwn gksrs gSaA 'kkL=h;rk vkSj dykRedrk dh dlkSVh ij gkykafd mudh fQYeksa dks ugha dlk tk ldrk] ysfdu muesa vke n'kZdksa ds fy, ,d csgrj euksjta u dh Hkjiwj xqtaq kb'k vo'; gksrh gSA ;g Hkh bRrQkd dh ckr gS fd fQYe m|ksx esa lqHkk"k ?kbZ crkSj vfHkusrk fdLer vktekus vk, Fks] exj mudh igpku cuh ,d dke;kc fuekZrk funsZ'kd ds rkSj ijA tc ge nwljs fQYedkjksa ls mudh rqyuk djrs gSa rks ?kbZ dh fQYesa ,d vyx eafty ij [kM+h utj vkrh gSaA mudh fQYeksa esa meax] mYykl vkSj rjax ds vglkl brus izcy gksrs gSa fd fujk'kk vkSj volkn ds fy, dksbZ LFkku gh ugha gksrk mudh fQYeksa dk NksVk ls NksVk ik= Hkh ftUnxh dks Hkjiwj rjhds

ls thrk gSA ftUnkfnyh dk ;g vglkl mudh yxHkx gj fQYe esa gS vkSj dqN yksx blh dks ?kbZ dh 'kkunkj dke;kch dk jkt ekurs gSAa vc ls pkSchl lky igys tc lqHkk"k ?kbZ us igyh fQYe ^dkyhpj.k* cuk;h Fkh] rc T;knkrj yksxksa dk ekuuk Fkk fd n'kZd bls 'kk;n gh ilan djsaxs 'k=q?u flUgk bl fQYe ds uk;d FksA mUgsa uk;d cukdj ?kbZ us ,d rjg ls tqvk gh [ksyk gh Fkk D;ksafd 'k=q?u ml nkSj esa udkjkRed Hkwfedkvksa ds fy, vfèkd igpkus tkrs Fks] ysfdu mudk ;g nkao lgh lkfcr gqvk vkSj ^dkyhpj.k* us fVdV f[kM+dh ij lQyrk ds >aMs xkM+ fn,A blds ckn mUgksaus ^fo'oukFk* cukbZ vkSj bls Hkh n'kZdksa us Hkjiwj ilan fd;kA ^fo'oukFk* dh dke;kch ds ckn ?kbZ us viuh fQYe fuekZ.k laLFkk dk;e dh ^eqDrk vkVZ~l*A blds ckn dh dgkuh Hkh ?kbZ dh dke;kch gh c[kku djrh gSA ^dtZ* ls ydj ^ghjks*] ^dekZ*] ^lkSnkxj*] ^[kyuk;d* vkSj ^ijns'k* rd lqHkk"k ?kbZ us yksdfiz; flusek esa dbZ u, eqgkojs x<+s vkSj dbZ ubZ izo`fRr;ksa dks tUe fn;kA ^dekZ* dk MkWDVj Msxa vkSj ^[kyuk;d* dk pksyh xhr lqHkk"k ?kbZ ds fnekx dh gh mit Fks] gkykafd lqHkk"k ?kbZ ij vke n'kZdksa dh #fp;ksa dks dyqf"kr djus ds vkjksi Hkh yxs] ij lQyrk ds 'kksj rys ;s vkjksi Hkh nc x,A jksekal vkSj xhr&laxhr mudh fQYeksa esa izcy :i esa ekStnw FksA vkt Hkh gaAS dSlh Hkh iVdFkk gks os blds fy, xqta kb'k fudky gh ysrs gSaA ^ghjks* esa tSdh JkQ ds :i esa ,d dksey ân; vkSj laosnu'khy yqVsjs dk tks pfj= mUgksaus is'k fd;k oSls pfj= fgUnh flusek esa de gh feyrs gSAa ^dekZ* esa vkradokn tSls dBksj fo"k; dh ekStnw xh ds ckotwn mUgksua s jksekal vkSj xhr&laxhr dks Hkjiwj LFkku fn;kA mudk ekuuk gS fd vke n'kZd flusek esa flQZ euksjta u dh ryk'k esa vkrk gS] fygktk os viuh fQYeksa esa blh rRo dks izeq[krk ls ysrs gSaA vc rd dbZ fQYesa cukus ds ckotwn lqHkk"k ?kbZ ^dkyhpj.k* dks viuh Js"B jpuk ekurs gSAa gky gh esa ,d baVjO;w esa mUgksua s dgk Fkk] ^igyh fQYe vkSj igyk I;kj nksuksa ,d tSls vglkl gSaA*

lqfp=k lsu % vkaèkh vkSj eerk lkSUn;Z esa eèkqckyk ds led{k flQZ lqfp=k lsu dks j[kk tk ldrk gSA fgUnh esa eerk] eqEcbZ dk ckcw vkSj vkaèkh flusek&2005

57


tSlh pan fQYesa gh n'kZdksa dks ns[kus dks feyh gSa] ysfdu caxyk fQYe m|ksx esa mudk eqdkcyk dHkh ugha jgkA muds psgjs ds Dykst vi esa bruh lEeksgd 'kfDr gksrh Fkh fd n'kZd Bxs jg tkrs FksA vius thou ds f'k[kj ij laU;kl ysdj lqfp=k lsu ,d jgL;e; igsyh cuh gqbZ gSA lqfp=k lsu ds psgjs dks fdlh Hkh dks.k ls fQYek;k tkrk gj dks.k ls og lqUnj fn[kk;h nsrk FkkA blfy, mudh fQYeksa esa dbZ&dbZ xkus gksrs Fks vkSj ftlesa muds psgjs ds Dykstvi dks ,d fo'ks"k lEeksgd 'kfDr ds :i esa bLrseky fd;k tkrk FkkA izpkj esa Hkh muds psgjs dk Dykst mudh fQYe dh lQyrk dk izrhd cu x;k FkkA mudh fQYeksa esa tgka laokn vnk;xh dk egRoiw.kZ LFkku gksrk Fkk ogha laè;k eq[kthZ ds xk;u dh Hkh fgLlsnkjh gksrh FkhA muds vfèkdrj xkus laè;k us gh xk, gSAa lqfp=k lsu us flQZ euksjatu nsus okyh fQYeksa esa T;knk dke fd;k gS vkSj os izk;% mlh ls lar"q V Hkh jgh gSAa bldk ,d eq[; dkj.k ;g gks ldrk gS fd os funsZ'kdksa ds egRo dks c<+us ugha nsuk pkgrh FkhaA lgh ek;us esa os vfHkus=h de ,d

58

flus e k&2005

LVkj ds :i esa vius vkidks LFkkfir djuk pkgrh FkhaA ,d ,slh LVkj ftlesa ped&ned iw.kZ Hkko T;knk gksaA lw;Zrksj.k] vfXu ijh{kk] iz.k;ikl] nsoh pkSèkjkuh] lkr ikds ckaèks vkfn mudh ize[q k fQYesa gSAa tgka rd fgUnh fQYeksa dk loky gS lqfp=k ds fgLls esa uke ek= dh fQYesa vk;haA vflr lsu dh ^eerk* vkSj xqytkj dh ^vkaèkh* dh lqfp=k lsu dks dkSu Hkqyk ldrk gSA lqfp=k lsu us vfèkdka'k caxyk fQYesa mRre dqekj ds lkFk dh FkhaA mUgsa ^lkr ikds ckaèk esa* ekLdks QsfLVoy esa lEekfur fd;k x;k FkkA ,d ckj tc ge mUgsa ,d fQYe esa vuqcèa k djus x;s rks mUgksua s cM+s ets esa ;g dgrs gq, badkj dj fn;k fd mRre vkSj lqfp=k nks caxky ,d lkFk fgUnh fQYeksa esa ugha jgsa rks vPNkA blfy, os mRre dqekj dh fgUnh fQYeksa esa Hkh ugha vkbZAa


uokch 'kku okyk vfHkusrk & jgeku

bfrgkl dh fdrkcksa ds uke ik=ksa dks ftUgsa Hkqyk fn;k x;k] mUgsa ftUnk djus dk dke jgeku us fd;k gSA 30 twu] 1924 dks DosVk cywfpLrku esa tUes jgeku dh f'k{kk d'ehj esa gqbZ] ysfdu mUgsa Lora=rk laxzke esa Hkkx ysus ds vkjksi esa fudky fn;k x;kA 1942 ds vkUnksyu esa Hkh mUgksaus Hkkx fy;kA fQj ,;j QkslZ esa pys x;sA ij ogka Hkh ugha fVdsA fQj eqEcbZ vkSj iqus igqapsA ogka ckcwjko isa<kjdj us izHkkr LVwfM;ks esa dqN dke fn;kA ckn esa fQYe ^jke 'kkL=h* dh ;wfuV esa foJke csMsdj ds lgk;d gks x;sA 1947 esa ^ge ,d gSa* esa ,d NksVk&lk jksy feykA nso vkuUn uk;d Fks] bldk funsZ'ku larks"kh dj jgs FksA fQj MhMh-d';i dh fQYe ^ufxZl* esa ghjks dk volj feykA ghjksbu ujfxl FkhA bruh dke;kch ds lkFk dbZ uk;d lkeus vk x;sA ^I;klk* ¼1957½ ls pfj= vfHkusrk ds :i esa dke djus yxsA fQj jgeku dh fdLer pedh Qsel fiDplZ ^I;kj dh thr* esa lsA bldh lQyrk us mUgsa lQy uk;d cuk fn;kA fQj vk;h ^cM+h cgu*A blesa Hkh mUgksaus lQyrk ds >aMs xkM+ fn;sA blds ckn jgeku fQYe fuekZ.k ds ukeh flrkjk gks x;sA fQj rks ^lkofj;k*] ^'kku*] ^'kknh dh jkr*] ^jktjkuh*] ^ijns'k*] ^I;kj dh eafty*] ^ty rjax*] ^,d utj vthc yM+dh*] ^xkSgj*] ^enHkjs uSu* vk;hA fQj Hkh mUgsa pfj= vfHkusrk ds fdjnkj esa Hkh [kwc lQyrk vkSj nkSyr feyhA tSls ^rktegy*] ^;s jkLrs gSa I;kj ds*] ^lkfgc chch vkSj xqyke*] ^ikydh* vkfn fQYeksa esaA jgeku us yxHkx 200 fQYeksa esa vfHku; fd;kA eqfLye iks'kkd okyh fQYeksa esa vfHku; dj lQy fdjnkj fuHkkus ds dkj.k mUgsa uokc dgk tkus yxkA jgeku dh vkf[kjh fQYe Fkh ^fny vkf[kj fny gS*A 5 uoEcj] 1984 dks bl nqfu;k ls os pys x;s] ysfdu uokc dh xjtnkj vkokt dks muds iz'kald vkt Hkh ;kn djrs gSAa

fd'kksj lkgw % vfUre fQYe dk izhfe;j ukt esa] ij fQYe ugha yxh fd'kksj lkgw dk tUe nqxZ eas gqvk FkkA ukxiqj esa fMxzh ysus ds ckn tc fd'kksj lkgw eqEcbZ x, rks mUgsa ckEcs Vkdht dh ,d egRoiw.kZ fQYe ^thou izHkkr* crkSj uk;d feyhA mlesa mUgksaus QLVZ ysMh vkQ flYoj fLØu nsfodk jkuh ds lkFk dke fd;k FkkA fd'kksj lkgw dh 'kf[l;r vkSj {kerk dks v'kksd dqekj vkSj nsfodk jkuh dkQh ilan djrs FksA vktknh ds igys rd fd'kksj dk thou izHkkr] cgwjkuh] iqufeZyu] dqaokjk cki] jktk] 'kjkjr] balku] ohj dq.kky] lktu vkSj flanwj tSlh nlksa fQYesa vk pqdh FkhaA 1948 esa fd'kksj lkgw us ^ufn;k ds ikj* fQYe cuk;h Fkh] ftlds os dsoy funs'Z kd FksA fd'kksj lkgw us 1950 ds i'pkr vusd izklafxd vkSj iz;ksxoknh fQYeksa dk fuekZ.k fd;kA blesa ^dkyh?kVk*] gseysV] e;wj ia[k] cM+s ljdkj] ?kj clk ds ns[kks] iwue dh jkr] gjs dkap dh pwfM+;k¡] èkq,a dh ydhj izeq[k gSaA fd'kksj lkgw dks 1958 esa nso vkuUn ds lkFk ^dkyk ikuh* vkSj 1960 esa ^dkyk cktkj* esa dke djus dk ;ksx cukA fd'kksj lkgw }kjk fuHkk, x, udkjkRed fdjnkjksa esa Hkh ,d vuwBk lEeksgu gqvk djrk FkkA mnkgj.k ds fy, ^xkbM* ls T;knk csgrj l'kDr] vkn'kZ vkSj izkekf.kd fQYe gks gh ugha ldrh gSA flusek&2005

59


ckn esa fd'kksj lkgw us viuh csVh u;uk lkgw dks Hkh ukf;dk cukus dk iz;kl fd;k] ysfdu oks py ugha ldhA mudh fQYe ^J)katfy* dk rks izhfe;j gqvk ysfdu fQYe vkfFkZd dfBukb;ksa ds dkj.k igys 'kks ds ckn mrkj nh x;hA os cM+s dykdkj Fks ysfdu O;kikjh ugha FksA

ds-,u-flag & pksj Hkh ftuls Mjrs Fks nsgjknwu ds izfl) odhy paMhizlkn ds ?kj 1 flrEcj] 1909 dks ds-,u- flag dk tUe gqvk FkkA firk lh-ih- flag us rc budk uke j[kk Fkk fujatu flagA rc muds xq# us dgk fd d`".k vk;k gS rks mudk uke j[kk x;k d`".k fujatu flag] tks fQYe txr esa vkxs pydj ds-,u-flag gks x;kA mudh Ldwyh i<+kbZ y[kuÅ vkSj nsgjknwu eas gqbZA firk mUgsa odhy cukuk pkgrs Fks] ysfdu >wB] Qjsc ds is'ks ls ds-,u-flag dks ?k`.kk FkhA blfy, mUgksua s ykgkSj esa fizfa Vax izls [kksyk ftlesa [kknh ij BIik yxk;k tkrk Fkk ij dke ugha tekA mudh ,d cgu dh 'kknh gqbZA mldk ifr dydRrk esa FkkA tc cgu dh rfc;r [kjkc gqbZ rks os mls ns[kus dydRrk esa x;sA dydRrk esa ds-,u-flag dks i`Fohjkt diwj dk ,d i= feyk fd gktjk jksM ij jgrk gawA eq>ls feyksA i`Fohjkt diwj ds cqvk ds yM+ds ls ds-,u-flag dh nksLrh Fkh] tks nsgjknwu esa jgrs FksA mlh us i`Fohjkt diwj dks ds-,u-flag ds dydRrk tkus dh [kcj nh FkhA ds-,u-flag i`Fohjkt ls feys rks muds ?kj iz[;kr fQYedkj nsodh cksl cSBs FksA i`Fohjkt diwj ls ckrphr djds ds-,u-flag mu nksuksa dks ueLrs djds pyus yxs rks nsodh cksl us muls dgk flag! rqe D;k djrs gks\ tc ds-,u-flag us dgk fd vHkh rks dqN ugha dj jgk gwa rks nsodh cksl us dgk fd rqe ,DVj cu tkvksA tc ds-,u-flag us dgk fd eq>s ,fDVax ugha ekywe gS rks nsodh cksl us dgk fd eSa fl[kkÅaxkA ml le; ckr vk;h x;h gks x;hA ds-,u-flag nwu pys x;sA nsodh cksl dh dgh ckrsa muds tsgu esa xgjs cSB x;h FkhA og fQj dydRrk py fn,A dydRrk tkdj ds-,u-flag us i`Fohjkt diwj ls fQj eqykdkr dhA nsodh cksl us 9 flrEcj] 1936 dks fQYe ^lqugjk lalkj* esa ds-,u-falag dks ,d MkWDVj dh Hkwfedk nhA bl rjg i`Fohjkt diwj ds lg;ksx 60

flus e k&2005

ls nsodh cksl tSls iz[;kr fQYedkj dh fQYe ls ds-,u-flag dk crkSj vfHkusrk fQYeh dSfj;j vkjEHk gqvkA

MkWDVj jktsUnz izlkn pfdr Fks ds-,uflag dh yksdfiz;rk ls Hkkjr ds izFke jk"Vªifr Mk-jktsUnz izlkn rd ds-,uflag dh yksdfiz;rk ls pfdr FksA ,d ckj MkW-jktsUnz izlkn ^ÝfUV;j esy* Vªus ls ;k=k dj jgs FksA ds-,u-falga Hkh mlh Vªus ls ;k=k dj jgs FksA gj LVs'ku ij jk"Vªifr MkW-jktsUnz izlkn ds n'kZu ds fy, yksxksa dh HkhM+ bdV~Bh gksus yxhA yksx mUgsa ns[kus ds fy, vkrqj FksA fQj ds-,u- flag ds daikVZesaV ds ckgj Hkh yksxksa dh HkhM+ bdV~Bh gksus yxhA yksx mUgsa ns[kus ds fy, vkrqj FksA yksx dgrs Fks fd vjs flag lkgc [kM+s gks tkvks ukA ckgj rks vkvksA ds-,u-flag [kM+s gks tkrs Fks rks yksx muds vfHku; dh rkjhQ djrs Fks fd okgA vkius cgqr vPNk dke fd;k rc MkWDVj jktsUnz izlkn us vius lfpo ls dgk fd ns[kks rks dkSu gS\ ftlds fy, gj LVs'ku ij HkhM+ bdV~Bk gks tkrh gS rc ds,u-flag us yksxksa ls iwNk fd vki yksxksa dks dSls irk yxk fd eSa bl Vªsu ls vk jgk gwaA rc yksxksa us crk;k fd fiNys LVs'ku ls Qksu vkrk gS fd ds-,u-flag tk jgs gSAa mudk NBk daikVZeVas gSA og lsds.M Dykl esa gSaA MkW-jktsUnz ckcw ds lfpo us mUgsa bl ckr dh tkudkjh nh rks jktsUnz cksys] ^ds-,u-flag gSaA vPNk!!*

tc ds-,u-flag pksj cktkj x;s fQYedkj 'kfDr lkear us viuh fQYe esa ds-,uflag dks foDVksfj;k ¼rkaxk½ pykus okys dh Hkwfedk nhA ds-,ufalag us ml Hkwfedk dks lgh rjg ls vatke nsus ds fy, ,d foDVksfj;k Bhd fd;kA ml ij cSB x;s vkSj fdaXt ldZy ls nknj rd pkj pDdj ?kwe vk,A mldk è;ku rkaxk pykus okys ij Fkk fd og fdl rjg ckrsa djrk gS] dSlk fn[krk gS] dSls diM+s igurk gS] iSls dgk j[krk gS] fdl rjg rkaxk pykrk gSA fdl rjg mBrk&cSBrk gS vkfn&vkfnA rkaxk pykus dh gj xfrfofèk ls rks os okfQd gks x, ij mldh Mªls dks ysdj ijs'kku gks x;s fd oSlh iqjkuh Mªls dgka feysxh\ mUgksua s vius ,d nksLr ls iwNk rks irk pyk fd fHkaMh cktkj esa ,d xyh esa pksj cktkj gSA ogha fey ldrh gS rkaxk pykus okys dh iqjkuh Mªls A ds-,uflag igqap x;s pksj cktkj vkSj mUgksaus ogka ls vius fy, rkaxk


pykus okys dh iqjkuh Mªls [kjhn yhA vaèksjh fLFkr eksgu LVwfM;ks esa 'kfDr lkear viuh bl fQYe dh 'kwfVax dj jgs FksA ds-,uflag rkaxk pykus okys Mªsl igu dj 'kfDr lkear ds Bhd ihNs [kM+s gks x;s rks 'kfDr lkear le>s fd dksbZ rkaxk pykus okyk ihNs [kM+k gSA og mls MkaVus ds fy, ihNs eqM+s vkSj tksj ls cksys fd rkaxs okys] rqe ;gka D;k dj jgs gks\ tc mudh utj ml 'k[r ds psgjs ij iM+h rks cqjh rjg pkSd a iM+s vkSj ds-,u- flag ls cksys ^vjs vady ek; xkMA ;w yqd , rkaxkokykA* rc ds,u-flag us muls dgk fd 'kfDrA vk; Mu ek; odZA ukm jsLV bt ;kslZA*

yksx ds-,u-flag ls Mjus yxs Fks [kyuk;dh dks ds-,u-flag us ,d u;k vk;ke fn;kA muds vfHku; esa ,slh thoarrk Fkh fd yksx okLrfod thou esa muls Mjus yxs FksA ,d ckj dkj ls og vius ,d nksLr ds lkFk ukfld tk jgs FksA muds nksLr us jkLrs esa ,d txg xkM+h #dokbZ vkSj og y?kq'kadk ds fy, FkksM+h nwj pyk x;kA ds-,u-flag dkj esa vdsys cSBs FksA nks yM+ds bèkj ls xqtj jgs FksA mUgksaus ns[kk fd dkj esa ,d vkneh vdsyk cSBk gqvk gSA mls ywVus ds bjkns ls os nksuksa MaMk ysdj dkj dh rjQ c<+sA muds bjkns dks Hkkai dj ds-,u-flag us dkj dh LVh;fjax ,d gkFk esa dldj idM+ yh vkSj nwljs gkFk ls njokts ds gSaMy dks idM+ fy;k rkfd og vkØe.kdkfj;ksa dks njokts ls èkdsy ldsAa tc nksuksa yM+ds vkSj dkj dh nwjh pkj&ikap QqV jg x;h rks mu nksuksa us dkj ds Hkhrj cSBs 'k[l dk psgjk ns[kk vkSj os fpYyk iM+s ds-,u- flag ds,u-flagA fQj os Hkkx [kM+s gq,A

vfHkus=h ';kek dh dgkuh mudh tckuh ';kek dgrh gS fd eSa eqEcbZ esa 57 o"kksZa ls dk;Zjr gwaA rdjhcu 175 fQYeksa esa dke dj pqdh gwaA eSaus cpiu ls ysdj cq<+kis rd gj fdLe rFkk gj 'ksM ds jksy fd;s gSaA ,slk Hkh oDr Fkk tc eSa 20 fQYeksa esa ,d lkFk dke djrh FkhA jkr

dh 'kwfVax ds nkSjku uhan ls vka[ksa cUn gksus yxrh FkhA ml oDr ryr egewn esjs psgjs ij cjQ Qsjrs rkfd uhan mM+ tk;sA eq>s ;kn gS fd ,d ckj 'kqØokj dks esjh N% fQYesa ,d lkFk yxh FkhA bu fQYeksa esa eksrhyky ds lkFk ^[kwclwjr* fQYe Hkh FkhA vkt gkyr ;g gS fd eSa cM+h gh eqf'dy ls vius usfi;u lh jksM okys vius ?kj ls ckgj fudyrh gwAa tc eSa flQZ 8 ;k 9 o"kZ dh Fkh rc 'kkSdr gqlSu fjtoh dh ^thur* ¼1945½ dh 'kwfVax ns[kus x;h FkhaA lkFk esa esjh dqN lgsfy;ka Hkh FkhA bl fQYe esa 'kkSdr gqlSu fjtoh dh iRuh uwjtgka eq[; Hkwfedk esa Fkh vkSj lkFk esa 'kf'kdyk Hkh FkhA ;wfuV ds ,d lkgc us dgk] ^vjs yM+fd;ka dOokyh esa dke djksxh D;k\* cl eSa dksjl esa vk x;hA esjk viuk uke [kq'khZn v[rj FkkA blfy, eSaus viuk fQYeh uke ';kek j[kkA 'kq:vkrh nkSj esa ujfxl esjh iFk izn'kZd gqvk djrh FkhA lu~ 1952 esa fufeZr fQfYeLrku dh ^Jherh th* ls eq>s turk us ghjksbu ds :i esa Lohdkjuk 'kq: fd;kA xq:nRr ds lkFk ^vkjikj* esa eSaus jksekafVd jksy vnk fd;kA eSa viuk esdvi [kqn gh dkj esa dj fy;k djrh FkhA fQYeksa esa 'kknh'kqnk vfHkusf=;ksa dks Lohdkj u djus dh n'kZdksa dh vknr FkhA blfy, eSaus viuh 'kknh dks xksiuh; j[kkA iwjs nl o"kZ rd fdlh dks irk ugha pyk fd eSa 'kknh'kqnk gwAa Nk;kdkj Qyh feL=h vkSj ge nksuksa dh nksLrh gqbZ] izsekadqj tkxk vkSj geus 'kknh dj yhA ;g ml oDr dh ckr gS tc ^ltk* fQYe cu jgh FkhA geus viuh 'kknh dk jgL;ksn?~ kkVu rc fd;k tc nl o"kZ ckn esjh igyh larku Qk#[k gqbZA eSaus viuh ftUnxh esa cgqr&lh rCnhfy;ka ns[kh gSaA Hkk;[kyk ls nknj] nknj ls ekghe vkSj ckn esa [kkj esa ,d vkyh'kku caxys esa jghA fQj usfi;u lh jksM! eqEcbZ us eq>s cgqr dqN fn;kA dHkh fdlh pht ls rjlh ughaA

*** Hkkjrh; flusek ds 'kq:vkrh nkSj esa izR;sd LVwfM;ks ds ekfyd }kjk viuh [kqn dh fQYe if=dk fudkyh tkrh Fkh] ftlesa ml LVwfM;ks eas fQYek;h tkus okyh fQYeksa ls lacafèkr iwjh tkudkjh gqvk djrh FkhA flusek&2005

61


budk Hkh tekuk Fkk tku dkol ^Ms;j Msfoy* ds uke ls tkus tkus okys tku dkol vkSj ukfM;k dh tksM+h rhljs n'kd esa cgqr izfl) FkhA budh igyh pfpZr fQYe ^gaVjokyh dh csVh* FkhA i`Fohjkt diwj vius ;qx ds lQy vkSj yksdfiz; vfHkusrk i`Fohjkt diwj us viuk fQYe thou ewd fQYeksa ls izkjEHk fd;k vkSj dkQh le; rd fFk;sVj ds lkFk tqM+s jgsA igyh pfpZr fQYe ^lhrk* FkhA dq U nuyky lgxy Vkbi jkbVj lsYl eSu ls fQYeh xk;u rFkk vfHku; rd lgxy us u, dhfrZeku LFkkfir fd, gaS tks vkt Hkh mnkgj.k gSaA igyh pfpZr fQYe ^nsonkl* FkhA jatu pUnzy[s kk ls viuk fQYe thou 'kq: djus okys jatu ryokjckth ds vfHku; esa cgqr fuiq.k FksA dbZ pfpZr LVaV fQYeksa esa mUgksaus dke fd;kA lqjsUnz lqjsUnz ukFk ch-,-] ,y-,y-ch- ds uke ls izfl) bl xk;d vfHkusrk dh vkokt vkt Hkh n'kZdksa dks Hkko&foHkksj dj nsrh gSA Lo- egcwc [kku ds fiz; vfHkusrkvksa esa ls os FksA ^vueksy ?kM+h* tSlh pfpZr fQYeksa esa mUgksaus vfHku; fd;kA

budk Hkh tekuk Fkk vfHku; lezkV eksrhyky jktoa'kh us viuk fQYeh lQj lkxj ewohVksu dh fQYe ^'kgj dk tknw* ls izkjEHk fd;kA eksrhyky vius ;qx ds ,sls vfHkusrk Fks] ftUgsa viuh fQYeksa esa ysus dks fuekZrk bZ'oj ls nqvk ekaxrs FksA ^feLVj lEir* mudh pfpZr fQYe FkhA ekLVj fulkj xk;d vfHkusrk ekLVj fulkj fFk;sVj ls ewd fQYeksa esa x,A ogka ls cksyrh fQYeksa esa vk, vkSj vius vfHku; dh Nki n'kZdksa ij NksM+hA vius tekus ds lqij LVkj dgykrs FksA ^ySyk etuw* pfpZr fQYe FkhA 62

flus e k&2005

fgeka ' kq jk; dsoy nks fgUnh fQYeksa esa vfHku; fd;kA vfHku; dh Nki vkt Hkh rktk gSA pfpZr fQYe laLFkk ckEcs Vkdht dh LFkkiuk dh Fkh] ftlus mPp dksfV ds lkekftd fp=ksa dk fuekZ.k fd;kA Hkkjr Hkw " k.k fQYeh thou ^HkDr dchj* ls izkjEHk ftlds funs'Z kd vkj-'kekZ FksA iqjkuh ^fp=ys[kk* esa 'osrkad dk pfpZr vfHku; fd;k vkSj ^cStw ckcjk* vfHku; dh pje lhek FkhA cyjkt lkguh is'ks ls vè;kid cyjkt lkguh us ^gypy* fQYe ls fQYeh vfHku; esa dne j[kk vkSj ^xeZ gok* rd vfHku; ds Ldwy ds :i esa tkus tkus yxsA ^nks ch?kk tehu* budh pfpZr fQYe FkhA nqxkZ [kksVs ewd fQYeksa ls viuk fQYeh lQj 'kq: djus okyh nqxkZ [kksVs us nsodh cksl dh fQYe ^lhrk* esa Hkwfedk dh ftls fons'kksa esa dbZ iqjLdkj feysA budh pfpZr fQYeksa esa ^Hkjr feyki*] ^i`Foh oYyHk*] ^xhrk* vkfn ds uke fxuk, tk ldrs gSAa nsodh jkuh ^Dohu vkQ flYoj LØhu* ds uke ls tkus tkus okyh nsfodk jkuh us dekZ] tokuh dh gok] vNwr dU;k vkSj opu tSlh fQYeksa esa vfHku; fd;kA yhyk uk;Mw dsoy nks fQYeksa ^vuqjkèkk* vkSj ^;s jkLrs gSa I;kj ds* esa dke fd;kA vuqjkèkk dks jk"Vªh; iqjLdkj feykA t;Jh ejkBh fQYeksa ls fgUnh fQYeksa esa dne j[kkA fgUnh esa pfpZr fQYe ^'kdqUryk*] MkW- dksVuhl dh ^vej dgkuh* tSlh pfpZr fQYeksa esa dke fd;kA lqfe=k nsoh ^?kqa?k:* e;wj ia[k dh ukf;dk ds :i esa tkuh tkrh gSA


dkuu nsoh ^U;w fFk;sVj* dh nsu dkuu nsoh us dbZ pfpZr fQYeksa ^fo|kifr] lisjk vkfn esa dke fd;kA vfHku; ds lkFk xk;u esa Hkh bUgksaus izflf) ik;h gSA ufyuh t;oar bUgksaus ^jkfèkdk* fQYe ls dSfj;j 'kq: fd;kA egcwc dh ^esjh cgu* rFkk laxkz e] lekfèk ukt dh pfpZr ukf;dk jghaA dq D dw ;s vius le; dh izfl) urZdh ekuh tkrh FkhaA dbZ n'kZd dsoy u`R; ns[kus gh flusek gky esa tkrs FksA fMfLVªC;wVj Hkh fuekZrkvksa ls buds fcdus okys uke dh flQkfj'k fd;k djrs FksA tq c S n k ;s igyh lokd ^vkye vkjk* dh ukf;dk jghA blls igys ewd fQYeksa esa Hkh bUgksaus vfHku; fd;kA dbZ pfpZr fQYe buds uke gSaA Lusg izHkk izèkku ckEcs Vkdht dh fQYe ^iquflZyu* ls fQYeksa esa vkus okyh bl ukf;dk us iqjkuh ^I;klk*] ^f[kykSuh* vkfn fQYeksa esa vfHku; fd;kA ia<jh ckbZ ^HkkHkh*] ^lalkj* tSlh dqN lQy fQYeksa dh ukf;dk FkhaA lq j S ; k vius ;qx dh pfpZr vfHkus=h vkSj xkf;dk lqjS;k vius thoar vfHku; ds dkj.k vkt Hkh tkuh tkrh gSaA vkt Hkh muds vfHku; rFkk xk;u dh felky nh tkrh gSA ehukdq e kjh igys cky dykdkj csch ekèkqjh ds uke ls vfHku; fd;kA dbZ lQy fQYesa ftuesa ^ikdhtk* ;knxkj fQYe FkhA fQYe ^jru* rFkk ^vueksy ?kM+h* nks ,slh pfpZr fQYesa gSa] ftUgksaus vius xhr laxhr }kjk rygdk epk fn;k FkkA vktknh ls igys dh bu fQYeksa dks buds xkuksa ds ekè;e ls fVdV f[kM+dh ij vikj lQyrk feyhA ^vueksy ?kM+h* dh fo'ks"krk ;g Fkh fd blds rhuksa izeq[k ik= lqjsUnz] uwjtgak] lqjS;k vius tekus ds izfl) xk;d&xkf;dk Hkh FksA

dkyt;h fQYe % jkejkT; jkek;.k dh fiNys vkB n'kd dh jtriV ;k=k dk voyksdu fd;k tk;s rks fuekZrk funsZ'kd fot; HkV~V }kjk fufeZr fQYe ^jkejkT;* ¼1943½ dks mldk ,d fof'k"V iM+ko ekuk tk ldrk gSA <sj lkjh LVUV fQYeksa ds fuekZrk ds :i esa uke dek pqds fot; HkV~V us 1942 esa ikSjkf.kd fQYe ^Hkjr feyki* dk fuekZ.k fd;k vkSj fQj bldh tksjnkj dke;kch ls mRlkfgr gksdj mUgksua s vxys gh o"kZ jkejkT; tSlh vfoLej.kh; flus d`fr n'kZdksa dks HksaV dhA ^jkejkT;* dks fgUnh dh vc rd dh Js"B ikSjkf.kd fQYeksa esa fxuk tkrk gSA ^jkejkT;* vius tekus ds Js"B ejkBh ukVddkj fo".kqiar vksaèksdj dh ys[kuh dk peRdkj FkhA muds lkFk gh fot; HkV~V dh funs'Z ku 'ksyh] jes'k xqIrk ds xhrksa vkSj 'kadjjko OI;kl ds laxhr us jkejkT; dks ,d dkyt;h fQYe cukus esa viuk iwjk ;ksxnku fd;kA bl fQYe ds ^Hkkjr dh bd lUukjh dh ge dFkk lqukrs gSa---* oh.kk eèkqj eèkqj dqN cksy*] ^xkvks jh lqgkxu ukjh eaxy xkvks js*] ^py rw nwj uxfj;k rsjh*] ^vtc fofèk dk ys[k fdlh ls i<+k ugha tk,*] ^R;kxe;h rw x;h rsjh vej Hkkouk jgh* vkfn xhr rc ns'k ds ?kj&?kj eas xk, xquxquk, tkrs FksA izfl) ik'oZxk;d eUukMs us igyh ckj blh fQYe ds fy, xhr xk;k FkkA ^jkr lhrk y{e.k ds :i esa ^jktjkT;* ds dykdkj izse vnhc] 'kksHkuk leFkZ vkSj mekdkar ns'k ds tu&tu esa Nk x,A cnzhizlkn ¼ckYehfd½] vehjckbZ dukZV ¼jkeh èkkscu½ rFkk ;'koUr eèkqlwnu ¼yodq'k½ us Hkh fQYe esa egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk,a vnk dhaA bu fnuksa xkao&xkao eas ^jkejkT;* ds iksLVjksa ls lth xkM+h ?kqek dj foKkiu fd;k tkrk FkkA yksx jke dh Hkwfedk esa izse vnhc vkSj lhrk dh Hkwfedk esa 'kksHkuk leFkZ ds fp=ksa ls lts iksLVjksa dh iwtk fd;k djrs FksA mu ij iSls Hkh p<+krs FksA bl rjg xkM+h okys dh jkst dqN dekbZ gks tkrh FkhA blds vykok vusd eafnjks]a ?kjksa vkSj mRloksa esa izes vnhc vkSj 'kksHkuk leFkZ dh rLohjksa dh iwtk&vpZuk dh tkrh FkhA

'kadj HkV~V fot; HkV~V lkSjk"Vª ds nf{k.k Hkkx esa ikfyrk.kk uke dk ,d 'kgj gSA blh 'kgj ls nks czkã.k ;qod vkthfodk dh [kkst esa eqEcbZ vk;s FksA ;gka vkus ij mUgksaus ukSdjh dj yhA NksVs HkkbZ fot; flusek&2005

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HkV~V us bysfDVªdy bathfu;jh dh fMxzh yh vkSj os ch-bZ-,lVh- esa HkrhZ gks x;sA bathfu;j gksus ds ckotwn mudk ukV~; ys[ku esa #>ku FkkA mUgksaus ,d ukVd fy[kk vkSj mldk 'kh"kZd j[kk ^yk[kksa Qqyk.kh vus ohj èkoy*A viuk ukVd ysdj fot; HkV~V ewd fQYeksa ds fuekZrk vknZf'kj bZjkuh ds ikl vk;sA vknZf'kj bZjkuh us dgk % fQYeksa eas blls dke ugha pysxk vkSj bl ukVd dh flusfj;ks fy[kksA fot; HkV~V bl foèkk ls ifjfpr ugha FksA mUgksaus viuh vleFkZrk trk;h rks bZjkuh us mUgsa gkFk idM+ dj flusfj;ks fy[kuk crk;kA fot; HkV~V dh dgkfu;ksa ij rhu&pkj fQYesa cuhaA blls muesa fgEer vk x;h vkSj mUgksaus vius HkkbZ 'kadjyky HkV~V ds lkFk Hkkxhnkjh esa ^jk;y fQYe daiuh* dh 'kq#vkr dhA vyx&vyx Mk;jsDVjksa dks ysdj ewd fQYesa cukus yxsA ;g rks lHkh tkurs gSa bu nksuksa Hkkb;ksa us fQYe m|ksx dks fdruh yktokc fQYesa nhaA

izHkkr j.kthr U;w fFk;sVj blh o"kZ esa jathr ewohVksu us vNwrksa dh leL;k ij ^vNwr* fQYe izLrqr dhA bl fQYe ds fy, ys[ku dk;Z panyw ky 'kkg us fd;k vkSj ogh ml fQYe ds funs'Z kd Hkh cusA bl fQYe ds iznf'kZr gksrs gh fel tkSgj rFkk etgj [kku dh tksM+h fgV gks x;hA ckEcs Vkdht dh xfrfofèk;ksa esa Hkh rsth vk;hA v'kksd dqekj vkSj yhyk fpV.khl dh jksekafVd tksMh lqij fgV gks x;hA mldh lqij fgV Fkh ^ukStoku* bl fQYe ds ;s xkus ^py py js ukStoku*] ^#duk rsjk dke ugha c<+uk rsjh 'kku*] ^pus tksj xje ckcw yk;k etsnkj pus tksj xje* ^dSls fNiksxh vks ckadh latfu;k euHkkou yks lkouA* mUgha fnuksa vpkud fgeka'kq jk; dk nsgkar gks x;k vkSj teZu rduhf'k;u ykSV x;sA ,l- eq[kthZ vc izkMs D'ku dk Hkkj

laHkkyus yxsA bUgha fnuksa ckEcs Vkdht dh ,d laons u'khy fQYe ^iqufeZyu* iznf'kZr gqbZA og Hkh [kwc fgV gqbZA ckEcs Vkdht 1947&48 rd èkweèkke ls pyrh jgh tc rd fd nsfodk jkuh us vius 'ks;lZ csp ugha fn;sA U;w fFk;sVlZ dh bl o"kZ izeq[k fQYesa Fkha c#vk ds funsZ'ku esa cuh ^ftnaxh* ;g izcksèk dqekj lkU;ky ds fo[;kr caxkyh miU;kl fiz;k ckaèkoh ij vkèkkfjr FkhA bl fQYe esa dqanuyky lgxy vkSj tequk dh tksM+h FkhA iadt efyd }kjk Lojc) xhr&[kks tk jktdqekjh lks tk] eSa D;k tkuw D;k tknw gS rsjs nks uSuu] esa dkQh fgV gks x;s FksA U;w fFk;sVlZ dh ,d vkSj vU; egRoiw.kZ fQYe Fkh ^urZdh* ftldk dq'ky la;kstu vkSj funs'Z ku nsodh cksl us fd;k FkkA laxhr funsZ'kd Fks iadt efyd ftUgksaus bl fQYe esa laxhr nsus ds lkFk&lkFk dfo dh ,d NksVh ,oa HkkoHkhuh Hkwfedk dk fuokZg Hkh fd;k FkkA urZdh fQYe ds ghjks Fks ute vkSj muds lkFk ukf;dk Fkh yhyk nslkbZA ;g ukf;dk izèkku fQYe FkhA blh fQYe fuekZ.k laLFkk dh vU; egRoiw.kZ fQYeksa esa ^gkjthr* ftlesa dkuu ckyk vkSj igkM+h lkU;ky us ghjksbu ,oa ghjks dh egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk,a dh FkhaA bl fQYe ds funsZ'kd Fks vej efydA ;g fQYe ckDl vkfQl ds fjdkMZ ugha rksM+ ik;hA 1940 dh Js"Bre egRoiw.kZ fQYeksa esa mYys[kuh; fQYe Fkh egcwc ds funsZ'ku esa cuh ^vkSjr*A ;g fo'o fo[;kr fQYe xqM vFkZ dh izsj.kk ls cuk;h x;h FkhA lksgjkc eksnh us yhd ls gVdj ^Hkjkslk* fQYe cuk;hA ml fQYe dh dFkk nks nksLrksa dh dgkuh ij vkèkkfjr FkhA ,d O;fDr vius ,d nksLr ij Hkjkslk dj viuh iRuh dks mlds ikl NksM+ tkrk gSA og nksLr csoQkbZ djrk gS ftlls nksLr dh iRuh xHkZorh cu tkrh gS] ysfdu ckn esa mUgha ds cPps ,d nwljs dks I;kj djus yxrs gSaA mUgsa ;g irk Hkh ugha pyrk fd os nksuksa HkkbZ cgu gSaA

*** 1947 esa iznf'kZr fQYe ^tqxuw* ls xk;d eks- jQh vkSj vfHkusrk fnyhi dqekj dh rdnhj pedh FkhA bl fQYe ls igys eks- jQh dks bDdk&nqDdk fQYeksa esa gh xkus dk ekSdk feyk FkkA mlh rjg fnyhi dqekj dh ^TokjHkkVk*]^feyu*] ^izfrHkk* vkfn fQYeksa dks Hkh vlQyrk feyh Fkh] ysfdu fQYe ^tqxuw* dh lQyrk ls mu nksuksa dk dSfj;j l¡oj x;kA 64

flus e k&2005


'kf'k diwj % ftUgsa cM+s HkkbZ jkt diwj VSDlh dgk djrs Fks

7 flrEcj] le; lk<+s vkB lqcg] tsfuQj ds firk tYnh&tYnh rS;kj gks jgs Fks viuh csVh ds ikl tkus ds fy,A vkt mldk tUe fnu Fkk vkSj os pkgrs Fks fd tsfuQj mUgsa tYnh ls tYnh fo'k dj lds ij mUgsa rS;kj ns[kdj 'kf'k] dq.kky] latuk] dj.k lHkh vokd Fks fd os ;g dg ugha ik jgs Fks fd ftl csVh ls os feyus tk jgs gSa oks rks ,d ?kaVs igys gh lcdks NksM+ dj ges'kk ds fy, tk pqdh gSA 'kf'k diwj dks ;g dHkh [;ky ugha vk;k fd ftruh ntZuksa fQYesa esa os ys jgs gSa mudks dkSu ls tue esa iwjh djsxa As ifj.kke ;g gqvk fd dbZ fuekZrk Mwc x;sA mudh vafre dgh tkus okyh fQYe Fkh ^vtwck*A og mudh gkse izkMs D'ku dh fQYe FkhA bls mUgksaus vferkHk cPpu vkSj _f"k diwj dks ysdj cuk;h FkhA ;g ,d Qarklh fQYe FkhA iz;ksx ds rkSj ij bls 'kf'k diwj us cuk;k FkkA ;g fQYe dkQh cM+s ctV dh Fkh ij ckDl vkfQl ij cqjh rjg vlQy gks x;hA bl fQYe dh vlyrk us 'kf'k dks dkQh uqdlku igqapk;kA os dtZ esa Mwc x;sA

rw vius ?kj dc tk,xh tc jkt diwj dh 'kknh gqbZ rks 'kf'k diwj dh mez vkB cjl FkhA ?kj esa lqUnj lh HkkHkh ikdj os cM+s [kq'k FksA [kq'kh dk ,d dkj.k ;g Hkh Fkk fd u;h uosyh HkkHkh dk mu yksxksa ds lkFk eu [kwc yxrk FkkA eghus nks eghus rd cnyko ds fy;s mUgsa ;g fLFkfr vPNh yxrh jgh ij ?kj esa ,d esgeku dk ges'kk cus jguk muds uUgsa eu esa èkhjs&èkhjs my>u c<+kus yxkA os lkspus yxs Bhd gS fd ;gka ;s vk;ha brus fnuksa rd ge lc us ets Hkh fd;s ij vc rks mUgsa vius ?kj tkuk pkfg, vkSj ,d fnu dg gh fn;k ^rw vius ?kj dc tk,xh\ lqudj d`".kk jksus yxhA ckr ekrk&firk rd igqaphA 'kf'k diwj cqyk, x,A [kwc MkaV iM+hA fQj eka us le>k;k ^vc ;s blh ?kj dh csVh gSA C;kg dj ge bls ;gha ds fy, yk, gSaA vc ;s ges'kk ge yksxksa ds gh lkFk jgsaxhA fQj HkkHkh ls ekQh ekaxus ds fy, dgkA ckr uUgsa diwj dh le> esa vk x;h rqjar Hkkxs x, HkkHkh ds ikl vkSj ekQh ekaxhA bl ?kVuk ds ckn os viuh d`".kk HkkHkh ds vkSj djhc gks x,A d`".kk HkkHkh us mUgsa ges'kk vius cM+s csVk dk ntkZ fn;kA

60 & 70 dk n'kd ukf;dk ds ihNs uk;d dh nkSM+èkwi vkSj mNy&dwn dh fQYesa Hkh 60&70 ds n'kd esa vk;haA buesa :ekfu;r ds vykok ns'k esa lg f'k{kk ds foLrkj] efgykvksa }kjk lHkh ukSdfj;ksa esa izos'k tSls ifjorZu Hkh fn[ksA iRuh] cgu] HkkHkh ds vykok insZ ij Hkwfedk Lo:i Hkh mHkjkA

lu~ 1965 esa vk;h ^oDr* us fgUnh fQYeksa dks xgjs :i esa izHkkfor fd;k MªkbZ ÝwV foØsrk ykyk dsnkjukFk us dkQh rjDdh dj yh gSA viuh choh vkSj vius rhu csVksa ds lkFk u;h le`f) dk vkuan mBk jgs gSaA mUgksaus u;h nqdku [kksyh gS ftl ij ykyk dsnkjukFk ,.M lal dk cM+k cksMZ yxk gqvk gSA ykyk dsnkjukFk dk ekuuk gS fd euq"; esgur ls viuk HkkX; cuk ldrk gS exj oDr dks og eatwj gS fd ugha] ;g dkSu crk ldrk gSA ykyk dsnkjukFk u;h nqdku ds t'u esa e'kxwy gSAa rHkh le; djoV ysrk gS vkSj mudh lEifRr èkjk'kk;h gks tkrh gSA iwjk ifjokj fc[kj tkrk gSA blds igys brus lkjs LVkjksa dks ysdj dksbZ fQYe ugha vk;h FkhA blesa cyjkt lkguh] lquhy nRr] jktdqekj] 'kf'k diwj] lkèkuk] 'kfeZyk VSxksj vkSj eksrhyky ds lkFk jgeku] 'kf'kdyk] vpyk vkSj enuiqjh Hkh FksA fQYe ds vkjaHk esa tSls HkwdEi ls èoLr eycs dks fn[kkrs gq, VkbVy pyrs gSaA laokn ys[kd v[rj my ,ek us jktdqekj dks ,sls laokn fn;s tks ckn esa eqgkojk cu x;sA vkt Hkh ;s laokn fdlh u fdlh :i esa lekt esa izpfyr gSA Hkyk bu laoknksa dks dkSu Hkwy ldrk gS % ^fpuk; lsB flusek&2005

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ftuds ?kj 'kh'ks ds cus gksa oks nwljksa ds ?kjksa ij iRFkj ugha Qsadk djrsA* laokn vnk;xh dh ;g 'kSyh muds vfHku; dh [kkfl;r cu x;hA oDr us 'kSyh vkSj dFkk ds fuokZg ls Hkfo"; dh fgUnh fQYeksa dks izHkkfor fd;kA fQYe ls diM+ksa] twrksa vkSj ckyksa ds u, QS'ku Hkh pysA [kkldj lkèkuk us pwMh+ nkj dqrkZ dk rks QS'ku gh pyk fn;k FkkA blh le; iznhi th ds xhr us èkwe epk nhA iznhi th ds fy[ks bl xhr us viuh vfeV Nki NksM+h&& ^Fkh [kwu ls yFkiFk dk;k fQj Hkh canwd mBk;hA nl nl dks ,d us ekjk] fQj Hkh lks x;s gks'k xaok dsA vc var le; vk;k rks] dg x;s fd ge pyrs gSa [kq'k jguk ns'k ds I;kjks] vc ge rks lQj djrs gSaA vc-----ge----rks - ---lQj djrs gS a A t; fgUn----t; fgUn----ft; fgUnA* bl xhr ds fy, dgk tk ldrk gS fd blds xhr ugha fy[ks x;s cfYd blds 'kCn vJqèkkjk ds :i esa Vids FksA bl xhr esa ,d&,d 'kCn ux dh rjg tM+s gSaA ;g ,slk xhr gS ftlds fcuk dksbZ jk"Vªh; R;kSgkj lEiUu ugha gks ldrkA bl xhr us iznhi th dks vej dj fn;kA bl xhr ds ekè;e ls ns'k ds fnoaxr] fnysj] tkackt] tku dqjcku djus okys liwrksa dks J)katfy nsus dk iz;Ru fd;k x;k FkkA bl xhr dks lqudj izèkkuea=h tokgjyky usg: jks iM+s FksA bl xhr us lkfcr fd;k fd 'kCnksa esa lkeF;Z fdruh gksrh gSA lekukarj fQYedkj cklq pVthZ dh vkichrh cklq pVthZ dk vtesj esa tUe gqvkA eFkqjk esa iys&c<+s vkSj 1941 esa eqEcbZ vk;sA blls T;knk ,d ckr tkuh tkrh gS muds ckjs esa fd 'kSyUs nz muds cky l[kk Fks] 'kSyUs nz muls nks njts vkxs FksA eqEcbZ vkuk ,d la;ksx FkkA bUgha fnuksa mUgsa izfl) vaxtsz h nSfud ^Ýh izls tuZy* esa dkVwfZ uLV dh gSfl;r ls izo's k feykA ;g lu~ 1950 dk lky Fkk ;k dqN ckn dk le;A ml le; fycVhZ flusek gky esa ^ckbZ flfoy FkhQ* fQYe yxh FkhA eSaus ns[kh rks pfdr jg x;kA flusekbZ O;kdj.k dh 'kq)rk vkSj rduhdh ifjiw.kZrk ls ;qDr ;g fQYe igyh ,slh fQYe Fkh] ftlus eq>s og vuqHkwfr nh fd gka] fQYe dqN&dqN ,slh gksuh pkfg,A ;g Hkh yxk fd ,slh fQYesa vkt rd ugha ns[khaA blds ckn 'kq: gqbZ cklq pVthZ dh fQYe dks ysdj xaHkhj gksus o izk<S r+ k 66

flus e k&2005

vftZr djus dh dksf'k'ksAa blds ckn rks fQYe lacèa kh lkfgR; ij os VwV iM+sA nks o"kZ ckn mUgksaus ^ikFksj ikapkyh* ns[khA blls Hkh os vkYgkfnr gq,A ;g fQYe ml fQYe ls fufoZokn :i ls Js"B Fkh] fdUrq ftl pht us mUgsa cgqr T;knk lkaRouk nh] og Fkh blds jpf;rk dk Hkkjrh; gksukA muesa ;g vkRefo'okl iSnk gqvk] vPNh fQYe ge yksx Hkh u flQZ cuk ldrs gaS cfYd cukrs Hkh gSaA fQj cky l[kk 'kSysUnz gh dke vk;sA 'kSysUnz dh fQYe ^cjlkr* iznf'kZr gks pqdh FkhA os ckdk;nk xhrdkj gks pqds FksA izfl) Hkh FksA muls eSaus bPNk O;Dr dh fd eSa fQYe lacaèkh O;kogkfjd Kku ikuk pkgrk gwaA mUgksaus tku eq[kthZ ls ,d flQkfj'k dh vkSj eSa mudk lgk;d cu x;k ij vQlksl tku ckcw dk fuèku gks x;kA flyflyk #d x;kA 'kSysUnz us gh 'kk;n 1953 dk lky Fkk] gsesu xqIrk ls esjk ftØ fd;kA gsesunk us eq>s j[k rks fy;k] ij lgk;d ds rkSj ij ugha] izpkjkfèkdkjh cukdjA ixkj oxkj u rks eq>s feyrh Fkh u eSaus ekaxhA eSa bl {ks= dks vUnj vkSj ckgj ls ns[kuk pkgrk Fkk vkSj blesa ekStwn jgus ds fy, dksbZ Hkh dke dj ldrk FkkA esjh ,d LVsafMax Hkh FkhA ^fCyV~t* ds dkVwZfuLV pVthZ dks vDlj yksx tkurs FksA gseus nk tks fQYe cuk jgs Fks mldk uke Fkk ^jktdey* iznhi dqekj vkSj eèkqckyk eq[; flrkjs FksA fQYe curs&curs #d x;hA bl rjg ;g nwljk iz;Ru Hkh vupkgs vèkwjk jg x;kA eq>s dkVwuZ cukdj thfodk ds fy, cgqr Bhd Bkd jde fey tkrh FkhA eSaus bu reke cjlksa esa dHkh Hkh viuh lsokvksa ds fy, èku dh vis{kk ugha dhA ^rhljh dle* esa eq>s lh[kus dk cM+k tcnZLr volj feykA 'kSyUs nz tSlk fe= vkSj eeZK fuekZrk FkkA lqcrz fe= tSlk Nk;kdkj] jktdiwj vkSj oghnk jgeku tSls dykdkj] D;k dgus\ frl ij ,fMfVax dh 'ksluksa ij cSBus dk volj feykA esjk ;g er gS fd ,fMfVax ls cM+k dksbZ xq: ugha gSA blesa vki tks pkgs lh[k ysa vkSj eSa tc bl xq: dh lsok esa gksrk] iw.kZ Lora= Hkh gksrkA vFkkZr eq>s viuh cqf) dk iz;ksx djus dh btktr FkhA ;g ?kwV vDlj lgk;dksa dks ugha nh tkrhA fQj eSua s fQYe Qksje 'kq: dj fn;k vkSj Qksje py fudyk vkSj ;gka ns[kh fQYeksa us esjs esa rktk izkS<+rk mRiUu dj nh vkSj eSa funsZ'kd cu x;kA

lR;ftr jk; us gesa vUrjkZ"Vªh; Lrj ij igpku fnyk;h Hkkjrh; flusek dh 'kq:vkr 7 tqykbZ] 1896 dks eqEcbZ esa gqbZ FkhA ml le; Ýkal ds yqfe;j Hkkb;ksa us okVlu


gksVy ds ,d dejs esa pyrh&fQjrh fQYe dh rLohj fn[kk;h FkhA yqfe;j Hkkb;ksa dh gh e'khu dh enn ls ^gfj'kpUnz l[kkjke HkkroM+sdj us ,d fQYe cuk;hA blds ckn 1912 esa vkj-thVksuksZ vkSj ,u-oh-fp=s us ^iqaMyhd* fQYe cuk;hA ij igyh Hkkjrh; fQYe gqbZ ^jktk gfj'kpUnz*A ;g fQYe 3 ebZ] 1913 dks eqEcbZ esa iznf'kZr gqbZA bldk fuekZ.k nknk lkgc Qkyds us fd;k FkkA blds ckn mUgksua s dbZ èkkfeZd fQYeksa dk fuekZ.k fd;kA nknk lkgc Qkyds gekjs igys fQYedkj gh ugha] Hkkjrh; flusek ds fl)kardkj Hkh gq,A mUgksua s flusek esa dbZ ,sls ekinaM LFkkfir fd;s] ftUgsa ckn ds fQYedkjksa us Hkh viuk;kA Hkkjrh; flusek dks ftl O;fDr us varjkZ"Vªh; Lrj ij ,d u;h igpku nh] ftuds egRoiw.kZ ;ksxnku dks Hkqyk;k ugha tk ldrk] os gSa lR;ftr jk;A bUgksaus ,slh dgkfu;ksa dks lSY;wykbM ij mrkjk ftuesa vke vkneh dh ihM+k eglwl gksrh FkhA fQYe fuekZ.k vkSj funs'Z ku esa mUgksua s ,d bfrgkl jpk vkSj mudh 'kSyh Hkh nwljs dykdkjksa ls vyx FkhA vfHku;] laxhr] n`';] la;kstu] u`R; vkSj rduhd lHkh {ks=ksa esa mUgsa egkjFk gkfly FkhA mUgksua s u;s&u;s iz;ksx dj vius flusek ls nqfu;k ds fnXxtksa dks vk'p;Zpfdr dj fn;kA mudks vkLdj iqjLdkj Hkh feykA

v'kksd dqekj vkSj lR;ftr jk; 1990 esa v'kksd dqekj dks jk"Vªh; iqjLdkj gsrq twjh dk ps;jeSu cuk;k x;kA mu ij vyx&vyx LFkkuksa ls ncko Mkys x;sA lR;ftr jk; dks tc irk pyk fd ps;jeSu nknk eqfu gS]a rks viuh fQYe ^vkxUrqd* okil ys yhA mUgsa cgqr le>k;k] ysfdu os ugha ekusA mUgsa ekywe Fkk fd v'kksd dqekj dh vkVZ fQYeksa ds ckjs esa D;k jk; gSA mudh jk; esa tks fQYe cksfj;r dh gn rd èkheh pys] og vkVZ fQYe gSA vc rd iqjLdkj vkVZ fQYe ;k vkWQ chV fQYeksa dks gh fn;s tkrs jgs FksA ml o"kZ dkef'kZ;y fQYe ^?kk;y* dks iqjLdkj feykA O;kolkf;d fQYeksa ds fQYedkjksa us dHkh lR;ftr jk; dks viuk ge lQj ugha ekuk] ysfdu mUgksua s vdsys gh ns'k dh lhek ikj dj [kwc [;kfr ik;h vkSj Hkkjrh; flusek dks fons'kksa esa lEekfur djk;kA dsoy ,d fgUnh fQYe mUgksaus ^'krjat ds f[kykM+h* cukbZ] tks miU;kl lezkV izsepUn dh dgkuh ij cuh FkhA

vUrjkZ"Vªh; O;fDrRo okys 7 QhV yEcs lR;ftr jk; brus fouez gSa fd fufru nk eq>s lkFk ysdj muls feyus x;s rks mUgksua s >qddj Hkkjrh; ijEijk ds vuqlkj fufru nk dks naMor fd;kA fQj dgus yxs] ^vkidh fQYeksa vkSj okpuky; ls cgqr dqN lh[kk gSA ckgj rd NksM+us vk;sA os ,EcslsMj gksVy] ppZxsV ij Bgjs gq, FksA mUgksaus VsyhQksu uEcj ys fy;k vkSj cksys vkidks le; gksxk rc Qksu djds eSa [kqn vk tkÅaxkA vkidks rdyhQ ugha djuk pkfg;s FkhA eSa ns[krk gh jg x;k mudh uezrk dksA fQj os esjh rjQ ns[kdj cksys nknk ds lkFk gSa vki! nknk rks ,d baLVhV~;wV gSaA vkidks cgqr lh[kus dks feysxkA rc fufru nk esjs fe= eqdqUn f=osnh dh fQYe ^urZdh* dk fnXn'kZu dj jgs FksA eq>s CyMizs'kj dgdj cqykrs FksA

^rhljh dle* ds rhu nk ,d lkFk % ch-vkj- b'kkjk] cklq pVthZ ] cklq HkV~ V kpk;Z % ,d fuekZrk nks lgk;d ckcw nk % ,d fnu og lriky likuh ds lkFk eqEcbZ ds fdlh jsyos LVs'ku ij mrjk vkSj fdlh gksVy esa QVdk ekjus] IysVs èkksus ds dke esa tqV x;kA fQj fdlh vkfQl esa pijklh cuk] fQj fdlh rjg vflr lsu ds laidZ esa vk;k vkSj muds ?kj dk lsod cudj ifjokj dk lnL; cu x;kA mls lQyrk feyh] yksx mls ckcw nk dgus yxsA ckcw nk igkM+h iafMr gS vkSj èkM+kds ls iatkch cksyrs gSaA caxkyh Hkh cksy ysrs gSaA Ldwy&dkWyst dh fMxzh ugha gS muds ikl ysfdu ys[kd gSaA b'kkjk 'kq: ls fdlh u fdlh ds lgk;d jgs Fks vkSj tgka dgha jgs] fQYe ds fy, dqN u dqN t:j fy[krs jgsA rhljh dle ds ckn os nyky xqgk ds lgk;d cu x;s vkSj mudh fQYeksa ds laokn Hkh fy[krs jgsA rhljh dle ds Hkh dqN n`'; mUgksaus fy[ks FksA ^dgha ,slk u gks ghjk ckbZ fd dksbZ ns[kus okyk jg tk;s u pkgus okykA* ;g laokn b'kkjk us fy[kk FkkA muds lkFkh mUgsa Vªkyh ekLVj dgrs vkSj Vªkyh ekLVj dgykus esa Hkh mUgsa [kq'kh gksrhA fQYe dh 'kwfVax esa tc Vªkyh pyk;h tkrh gS] rc dkQh ,gfr;kr cjruk iM+rk gSA bl ckr dk è;ku j[kuk gksrk gS fd dgha èkheh ;k T;knk rst u py tk;sA os Vªkyh [khaprs vkSj [kq'k utj vkrs ysfdu Vªkyh ekLVj esa yxu

flusek&2005

67


FkhA mUgksaus nks&rhu iVdFkk,a fy[k Mkyh FkhaA tgka dgha vk'kk dh fdj.k fn[k tkrh] os viuh iVdFkk lquk Mkyrs ysfdu funsZ'ku dk volj gkFk ugha vkrk FkkA ^psruk* QkewZyk fQYeksa ls gVdj Fkh vkSj mlus ,dne u;s flrkjksa dks ysdj u;h jaxhu fQYe ^rhl fnu* dh 'kwfVax esa cuk MkyhA bl ckr ij è;ku fn;k x;k fd fQYe fuekZ.k esa ykxr de ls de vk;sA rhl fnu esa fQYe cukuk] u;s dykdkjksa dks volj nsuk vkSj vkxs mlls Hkh vkxs c<+rs tkuk ckcw dh vknr cu x;hA os [kqn ys[kd Fks] blfy;s tks Hkh fopkj eu esa vk;k] ml ij iVdFkk fy[k nh vkSj dke djrs pys x;sA nks o"kZ ds vUnj gh vUnj ckcw us nl&iUnzg fQYesa cuk MkyhaA t:jr] feyki] ,d utj] u;h nqfu;k u;s yksx] fny dh jkgsa] izse 'kkL= vkfn fQYesaA ;g ,d rjg dh fQYe fuekZ.k dh nkSM+ cu x;hA ;fn fQYe pyrh jgs rks forjd fuekZrk dks ?ksjs jgrs gSaA u pys rks fuekZrk vdsyk jg tkrk gSA ckcw nk vius dke esa dkQh le; rd cdk;nk tqVs jgs vkSj bèkj muds fuekZrk èkhjs&èkhjs vdsys gksrs x;sA fQj ,d fnu ckcw nk us ns[kk os [kqn vdsys jgs x;s gSaA oSls ckcw nk vdsys u FksA muds lkFk muds lg;ksxh vkSj rduhf'k;u lHkh FksA lks ckcw nk Lo;a fuekZrk cu x;sA mUgksua s ,d fQYe cuk MkyhA ml fQYe dk uke Fkk ^dkxt dh uko* ] ^cktkj can djks* vkSj bl fQYe ds ckn ckcw nk dk cktkj [kqy x;k ysfdu vc mudh fcØh efn~ne FkhA ckcw esa mrkoykiu gS] tks'k gS vkSj ckcw us QkewZyk fQYeksa dh ijEijk rksM+h ysfdu os [kqn gh vius QkewZys dk f'kdkj gks x;s D;ksafd os [kqn gh dgkuh] laokn lc dqN fy[krs jgs vkSj cM+h rsth ls fy[krs jgsA blfy, mudh ,d ls nwljh esa vfèkd QdZ ugha jgkA dksbZ u;kiu ugha jgkA fQj vk;h ^jkgq dsrq* vkSj ^iy nks iy dk lkFk* ftlesa mUgksaus 'kckuk dh flQkfj'k ls 'ks[kj diwj dks czsd fn;k tks vkt dgka gS\a lkFk esa u;h rkfjdk ';keyh Fkh] tks vkxs ugha pyhA fQj ^yksx D;k dgsxa \s * dks mUgksua s lPph ?kVuk ij cuk;hA 'kckuk blesa igyh ckj [kyukf;dk FkhaA og izseh ds lkFk cPps dks ekj Mkyrh gSA ;g ,d pfpZr fQYe FkhA fQj mUgksaus igyh ckj ,d èkkfeZd fQYe ^t; ckck vejukFk* dk funsZ'ku fd;kA ckrksa gh ckrksa esa mUgksaus ;g fQYe esjs vkfQl esa Lohdkj dh

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FkhA mUgksaus 16000 QhV dh ÅapkbZ ij ckck vejukFk dh yksds'ku 'kwfVax dh tks vkt rd fdlh us ugha dh FkhA os cM+h fgEer ls iwjh ;wfuV ds lkFk ogka x;s vkSj o"kkZ esa uaxs iSj 'kwfVax dhA bl fQYe esa ys[kd iafMr fiz;n'khZ] xhrdkj iafMr iznhi] laxhrdkj m"kk [kUuk muds fy, lc u;s FksA vktdy os èkkjkokfgd fy[k jgs gSAa ?kj Hkh gks x;k gS D;ksfa d jsgkuk lqYrkuk ls 'kknh dj yh gS] ,d fQYe vHkh vHkh cuk yh gSA uke gS% ^lc dqN* fQj Hkh vHkh mUgsa cgqr dqN djuk gSA mUgksaus vfèkdka'k fQYesa pfj= dks ysdj cuk;h gSAa viuh fQYe ^pfj=* Hkh fØdsV f[kykM+h lyhe nqjkZuh dks ysdj cuk;hA fcuk xkuksa dh fQYeA ijohu ckch tks 'kwfVax ns[kus vk;h Fkha] rHkh mlls dg fn;k Fkk fd rqe esjh ,d fQYe dh ukf;dk gksA fQj mls gh ^pfj=* esa fy;kA ^psruk* vkSj ^t:jr* tSlh fQYeksa us tgk¡ n'kZdksa dks >>dksjk ogha cM+s fuekZrkvksa dks Hkh fgyk fn;k] D;ksafd ckcw dh fQYesa cgqr NksVs ctV vkSj u;s dykdkjksa okyh gksrs gq, Hkh lQy jghA eqdkcys esa cM+h lkjh 'kku&'kkSdr rFkk cM+h ^izksMD'ku oSY;w* èkjh jg x;hA blfy, lsalj vkSj uXurk dh vkM+ ysdj muds f[kykQ ,d vfHk;ku 'kq: gks x;k FkkA pkj fQYesa % ;g lp gS] gkFkh ds nkar rFkk u;h nqfu;k u;s yksx ij lsalj cksMZ us vkifRr;ka mBk;haA ^cktkj cUn djks* rks bruh lkFkZd fQYe Fkh] os';k m)kj dh] ftls ^;w* lfVZfQdsV fey x;k FkkA dykdkj lc u;s Fks ysfdu laxhr cIih ygjh dk FkkA vk'kk ikfj[k dks fQYe bruh ilan vk;h fd mUgksaus mlds nks lfdZV eqEcbZ vkSj fnYyh] ;wih [kjhn fy;s ysfdu oks ukflj gqluS dks ilan ugha Fkh] blfy, ,d lfdZV esa fQYe iznf'kZr gh ugha gqbAZ

b'kkjk dh [kkst

ijohu ckch] vfuy èkou] 'k=qèu flUgk] jkt fdju] MSuh] vjksjk] jhuk jk;] lyhe nqjkZuh] ';keyh vkSj 'ks[kj diwj tSls flrkjksa dks ckcw jke b'kkjk us czsd fn;kA os vius dke esa vc Hkh Hkwr dh rjg yxs jgrs gSAa dHkh Hkh le; feyrk gS rks os esjs ;gka vkrs gSaA flQZ fcuk nwèk dh pk; vkSj 555 mudh ilan gSA fdruk Hkh le>kvks ugha ekursA


flusek ds vxznrw vCnqy vyh ;wlQq vyh % LFkk;h flusek ds ekfyd

lwjr esa 22 Qjojh] 1884 dks tUes vCnqy vyh ;wlqQ vyh us fQYe izn'kZu {ks= esa egRoiw.kZ ;ksxnku fn;k gSA vius vk;kr&fu;kZr ds iq'rSuh èkaèks ds flyflys esa tc os flaxkiqj x, rks ogka mUgksaus igyh ckj pyrh&fQjrh fQYesa ns[kh vkSj rRdky vius firk dk èkaèkk NksM+ ogha 1901 esa ,d Vwfjax flusek daiuh [kksy yhA vCnqy vyh us 1901 ls 1907 rd ns'k&ns'k ?kwedj racw esa vius ck;ksLdksi ls yksxksa dks fQYesa fn[kykbZaA Hkkjr ykSVdj 1908 ls 1914 rd mUgksaus Hkh ;gh dke fd;kA ftu fnuksa mudk racw eqEcbZ esa ruk gqvk Fkk] os vknZf'kj bZjkuh ds laidZ esa vk;s vkSj nksuksa us 1914 esa ogka viuk LFkk;h flusek?kj ^,ysDtsUMj* LFkkfir fd;k tks fd ek= fVu dk VIij FkkA ^eStsfLVd* flusek 1918 esa cuk rFkk ogka iznf'kZr gksus okyh Hkkjrh; fQYe Fkh nknk Qkyds dh ^d`".k tUe*A lu~ 1926 esa mUgksaus fQYe fuekZ.k ds {ks= esa Hkh dne j[kk vkSj vknZf'kj ds lkFk ^baihfj;y* fQYe daiuh dh LFkkiuk dhA blh daiuh dks Hkkjr dh igyh cksyrh fQYe ^vkyevkjk* cukus vkSj iznf'kZr djus dk Js; izkIr gqvk gSA cxSj vCnqy vyh dh nwjn`f"V ds cksyrh fQYe cukuk laHko ugha Fkk] D;ksafd ,slh fQYe ds fy, mUgksaus eStsfLVd dks Vkdh fFk;sVj ds :i esa lfTtr fd;kA igyh ejkBh lokd fQYe ^v;ksè;k tk jktk* Hkh eStsfLVd ds ijns ij gh fn[kykbZ x;hA vCnqy vyh ;wlqQ vyh us 1933 esa bZjku esa Hkh viuk ,d n¶rj [kksyk vkSj ogka Hkkjr esa cuh Qkjlh Hkk"kk dh ^Q[rj&,&ywj* vkSj ^'khjh Qjgkn* iznf'kZr dhA

lcls vfèkd flusek?kjksa ds ekfyd % te'ksnth enku Hkkjr esa lcls cM+h fFk;sVj J`a[kyk eknu fFk;sVlZ dh FkhA mudk dkjksckj Hkkjr ds vykok cekZ vkSj lhyksu rd FkkA ns'k ds ,d frgkbZ flusek?kj mUgha ds FksA dydRrk esa ,d NksM+dj ckdh lHkh flusek?kj mUgha ds FksA te'ksn enku ¼1856&1923½ ewyr% eqEcbZ ds fuoklh FksA os lu~ 1902 esa dydRrk vk,A ;gka mUgksaus ukVd] fQYe izn'kZu ds lkFk nokvksa dk Hkh O;kikj fd;kA viuh ukVd daiuh esa mUgksaus dbZ izfl) O;fDr;ksa dks dke ij j[kkA mUgksaus igyh caxyk Qhpj fQYe ^foYo eaxys* ¼1919½ esa cukbZA dydRrk esa mudh igyh fQYe Fkh ^lR;oknh jktk gfj'kpUnz* ¼1917½A ;s nksuksa fQYesa [kwc pyh FkhaA mUgksaus cafdepUnz ds miU;klksa dks fQYek;kA flusek esa vkokt vkus dh [kcj lqurs gh enku us ,d [kphZyh fQYe ^'khjh Qjgkn* ¼1931½ cukbZ] tks ^vkyevkjk* ds lkeus fVd ugha ldhA caxyk dh igyh cksyrh fQYe ^tekbZ "kf"V* ¼1931½ cukus dk Js; enku dks tkrk gSA lcls T;knk 69 xkuksa okyh fQYe ^bUnzlHkk* ¼1931½ enku fFk;sVlZ dh gh fQYe gSA

ch-,y- [ksedk % dbZ Hkk"kk dh fQYeksa ds fuekZrk jrux<+] jktLFkku esa 25 flrEcj] 1906 esa tUesa ctjaxyky [ksedk viuh f'k{kk iwjh dj 1923 esa dydRrk vk;sA 'kadj vkSj eksVjdkj ds {ks= esa dkjksckj 'kq: fd;k] ysfdu ck;Ldksi ds peRdkj ls vkdf"kZr gks os ges'kk ds fy, blh {ks= esa tqM+ x;sA mUgksaus igys flusek midj.kksa dk èkaèkk 'kq: fd;kA exj ,d o"kZ ds Hkhrj gh 1931 esa mUgksaus viuh bZLV bafM;k fQYe daiuh dh LFkkiuk dj Vkyhxat esa viuk LVwfM;ks dk;e dj fy;kA mudh igyh fQYe ^y{eh* rks ewd Fkh fdUrq rc rd Vkdh flusek&2005

69


fQYeksa dk Hkkjr esa vkxeu gks pqdk FkkA [ksedk us 1932 ^jkek;.k* ¼rfey½] tks fd rfey dh igyh fQYe gS] cuk MkyhA mudh bZLV bafM;k daiuh esa ns'k ds lHkh fgLlksa ls vk;h izfrHkkvksa us fgUnh] caxyk] rfey] rsyqxw] ey;kye Hkk"kk dh fQYesa cuk;hA bruk gh ugha bZjku la;qDr miØe ds rgr mUgksaus 1936 esa Qkjlh Hkk"kk dh fQYe ^ySyk etuw* dk fuekZ.k Hkh fd;kA mUgha ds }kjk ^eqerkt csxe ¼1931½ rFkk ^HkDr ds psyk ¼rfey 1936½ esa Øe'k % csxe v[rj vkSj ,l- lqCcky{eh us ukf;dkvksa dh Hkwfedk,a dhaA lu~ 1931 ls 38 ds chp [ksedk us 75 lokd fQYesa cuk;ha] ftuesa varjkZ"Vªh; [;kfr izkIr i`Fohjkt] nqxkZ [kksVs vfHkuhr ^lhrk* Hkh FkhA bldk funs'Z ku nsodh cksl us fd;k FkkA lu~ 1938 esa [ksedk us csgrj fQYeksa dh c<+rh ekax dks iwjk djus ds fy, esVªksiksfyVu fiDplZ uke dh ,d vkSj daiuh LFkkfir dhA f}rh; fo'o;q) ds nkSjku Hkh mUgksua s dbZ mYys[kuh; fgUnh vkSj caxyk fQYesa cukbZa] muesa dsnkj 'kekZ dh ^fp=ys[kk* Hkh 'kkfey FkhA 11 fnlEcj] 1973 rd vius fuèku rd os cjkcj fQYesa cukrs jgsA

ckcwyky pkS[kkuh % caxyk fQYeksa ds fo'ks"k Qk;usUlj fiNyh lnh ds vafre o"kZ 27 flrEcj dks dydRrk esa tUesa ckcwyky pkS[kkuh dh x.kuk caxyk flusek ds vxznwr fuekZrkvksa esa dh tkrh gSA firk dh e`R;q muds tUe ds dqN gh jkst ckn gks tkus ds dkj.k mUgsa vius ckY;dky esa gh Hk;kud la?k"kZ djuk iM+k vkSj os vkSipkfjd f'k{kk ls oafpr jg x,A os 1932 esa enu fFk;sVj ls tqM+ x,A enu fFk;sVj mu fnuksa caxky dk vxz.kh fQYe fuekZ.k laLFkku FkkA ch-,ypkS[kkuh dh Lo;a dh daiuh dk uke Hkkjr y{eh Fkk vkSj mldh igyh nks fQYe ^N= odkoyh* ¼mnwZ½ rFkk ^ifr HkfDr* ¼fgUnh½A 1931&32 esa cuh] ysfdu mUgsa fFk;sVj izksMD'ku ds lkFk iznf'kZr fd;k x;kA bu nksuksa dh ukf;dk fel dTtu FkhA uk;d Øe'k% ekLVj fulkj rFkk ekLVj eksgu Fks] ysfdu blds ckn gh pkS[kkuh us viuh Lora= fuekZ.k laLFkk rFkk Jh Hkkjr y{eh LVwfM;ks dh LFkkiuk dh rFkk muds }kjk fufeZr igyh fQYe ^pkan lkSnkxj* ¼funsZ'kd izQqYy jk;½ 1934 esa iznf'kZr gqbZA 70

flus e k&2005

mudh vxyh fQYe ^jkek;.k* ¼fgUnh½ ds funs'Z kd rks izQYq y jk; gh Fks] ysfdu mls fy[kk iafMr lqn'kZu us FkkA y{eh LVwfM;ks us Hkkjr dh lHkh izeq[k Hkk"kkvksa esa yxHkx vkB fQYeksa dk fuekZ.k fd;kA pkS[kkuh dh [kkl utj caxkyh n'kZdksa ij gh Fkh vkSj caxky esa mUgsa caxkyh fQYeksa ds fuekZrk ds :i esa gh lEekuiwoZd ;kn fd;k tkrk gSA vkids cSuj rys Nfo fo'okl] lkèkuk cksl] eUeukFk jk;] fgeka'kq nRr] ,l Mh ceZu ¼laxhrdkj½ tSls fdanoarh iq#"k ,d= gq,A

lksgjkc eksnh % feuokZ ds 'ksj lksgjkc eksnh ukVdksa ds tkus&ekus fuekZrk ekus tkrs FksA os fFk;sfVªdy daiuh pyk;k djrs FksA vkxk gJ tSls ukVddkj ds ukVd [ksyus ds fy, os fgUnqLrku ds yxHkx lHkh cM+s 'kgjksa esa viuh ukVd daiuh ds lkFk ?kwers jgrs FksA ckn esa mUgksaus feuokZ ewohVksu uke dh fQYe daiuh dh LFkkiuk dhA mUgksua s viuh fQYe ^oklarh* esa vkt dh izfl) ghjksbu lk;jkckuks dh eka ulhe ckuks dks [kkst dj lkbu fd;k FkkA ulhe ckuks xtc dh [kwclwjr FkhA exj lksgjkc eksnh esgrkc dh vnkdkjh ij fQnk gks x;s] ;g 1943 dh ckr gSA mUgksaus esgrkc ds lkeus viuh fQYe esa dke djus dk vkWQj fn;kA ckr iDdh gks x;h] ysfdu lksgjkc eksnh esgrkc dh vnk ds dk;y gks x;sA lksgjkc eksnh dks feuokZ dk 'ksj dgk tkrk FkkA mUgksaus i`Fohjkt diwj tSls dykdkj dks ,d ckj MkaV fn;k FkkA lksgjkc eksnh esgrkc dks nwljh gh utj ls ns[kus yxs FksA mUgksua s esgrkc ds lkFk viuh igyh fQYe ^ij[k* iwjh dh] ysfdu fny gh fny esa os esgrkc ls I;kj djus yxs Fks] ysfdu :i dh jkuh ds lkeus os vius eu dh ckr ugha dg ikrs FksA fQj mUgksua s ^,d fnu dk lqyrku* uked fQYe dh 'kq:vkr dhA bl fQYe dh ukf;dk Hkh esgrkc gh FkhA bldk funsZ'ku djrs&djrs eksnh lkgc BaMh lkals Hkjk djrs FksA ij vius eu dh ckr mlls dgus dh fgEer ugha dj ikrs FksA bl rjg nks lky fudy x;sA blds ckn mUgksaus esgrkc dks ysdj rhljh fQYe ^>kalh dh jkuh* cukuh 'kq: dhA ;g VsDuhdy fQYe FkhA bl fQYe ds fuekZ.k ds iwoZ mUgksaus vius eu dh ckr esgrkc ds lkeus j[k nhA mUgksua s dgk] ^^eksgrjek eSa vkils 'kknh djuk


pkgrk gwaA** esgrkc eqLdjkbZ vkSj cksyh] ^^vkidh gjdrsa ns[kdj eSa le> x;h Fkh fd ,d fnu ;s ukScr Hkh vk tk;sxh lkgc! fQj lksgjkc eksnh ls 'kknh djds esgrkc ckuks cu x;h vkSj nwljh ckj viuh 'kknh djds viuh ftUnxh dh 'kq:vkr dh] ysfdu ^>kalh dh jkuh* dh vlQyrk ds ckn og grk'k gks x;hA fQYe ykbu NksM+dj lkekftd thou esa je x;haA feuokZ ewohVksu lksgjkc eksnh dh fQYe fuekZ.k daiuh dk uke FkkA tc flusek cksyus yxk rks mls ewohVksu dgus yxsA feuZokZ dk eksuksxzke Fkk 'ksjA lksgjkc eksnh dks yxrk Fkk fd eSa 'ksj gwa vkSj esjh vkokt 'ksj dh vkokt gS] vkSj okLro esa fiDpj flQZ lksgjkc eksnh ds uke ls fcdrh FkhaA fldUnj] iqdkj] i`Foh oYyHk] tsyj] ikjlh fFk;sVj dk iwjk&iwjk vlj fn[kk;h nsrk gS lc ijA lksgjkc eksnh dh vkokt esa cqyUnh FkhA yxrk Fkk tSls lpeqp esa 'ksj ngkM+ jgk gSA viuh fQYe [kqn Mk;jsDV djuk vkSj [kqn dks vgfe;r nsuk ;gh lksgjkc eksnh dk eq[; è;s; FkkA ;g QkewyZ k tc rd pyk rc rd ,sfrgkfld vkSj dkLV~;ew MªkesfVd fQYesa py fudyhA exj dc rdA fgUnqLrku dh igyh jaxhu VsDuhdyj fQYe ^>kalh dh jkuh* cukus dk Js; eksnh dks tkrk gSA [kqn dk pfj= ^jktxq#* ^>kalh dh jkuh* ls Hkh egRoiw.kZ cukdj [kqn dks izLrqr fd;kA urhtk ;g gqvk fd fQYe ugha pyh vkSj feuokZ dks cspus rd dh ukScr vk x;hA og 'ksj cw<+k gksdj viuh iqjkuh rLohjsa ns[kdj ,d fnu lks x;kA lksgjkc eksnh dks dykdkj ij ugha dsoy vius cSuj ij Hkjkslk FkkA VkbEl vkQ bafM;k easa mUgksaus viuh fQYe ^iqdkj* dk ,d iwjs i`"B dk foKkiu fn;k FkkA feuokZ dh bl d`fr ^iqdkj* dks nsf[k,A blesa ulhe tSlh vfHkus=h dk ukeksfu'kku Hkh ugha FkkA bruk fo'okl mUgsa vius cSuj ij Fkk vkSj n'kZd Hkh ngkM+rs 'ksj dks ns[kdj fQYe ns[kus tkrs FksA vfUre le; rd os fQYe cukrs jgsA xkao&xkao tkdj ukVd Hkh djrsA isV ij cM+k csYV ckaèkdj rhu eafty

ds muds vkfQl esa igqaprsA mUgsa rc vius ckjs esa dksbZ xyrQgeh ugha FkhA fQYe ^ohj N=lky* esa Fks osA tc fy¶V [kjkc gksus ij ikapoha eafty ij p<+ dj vk tkrs FksA viuh fQYe ^le; cM+k cyoku* esa mUgksaus vius le; dh iwjh gdhdr c;ku dj nh FkhA lksgjkc eksnh xtc ds 'ksj Fks vkSj vUr rd vkokt esa 'ksj gh jgsA

ljnkj pUnwyky 'kkg % yk[kksa dek;s vkSj xaok;s vUr esa cl dh ykbu esa [kM+s Fks dkyk dywV] lQsn cky] ,d fQYe fuxsfVo tSlk&exj ges'kk 'kkUr] xaHkhj] fuMj] vfopfyr ^^fQYe bafM;k** ds lEiknd ckcwjko iVsy us mUgsa ^^ljnkj** dgk vkSj og lpeqp lcds ^^ljnkj** cu x;sA ljnkj us viuh igyh fQYe 1925 esa cuk;hA dbZ fQYesa nwljksa ds fy;s cukbZaA fQj mUgksaus viuh j.kthr ewohVksu xkSgjtku ds lkFk LFkkfir dhA rkulsu] tksxu] QqVikFk] geyksx tSlh dbZ e'kgwj fQYeksa ds vykok djhc 150 fQYesa cukbZaA ljnkj us yk[kksa #i;s dek;sa #i;ksa esa [ksy]s #i;s gkjs exj muds BkB&ckV esa dksbZ deh ugha vk;hA LoHkko Hkh ,d gh FkkA ml tekus esa oh.kk dks yk[k #i;k eghuk nsus okys] eksrhyky ds tq, esa gkjs gtkjksa #i;s ,d >Vds esa pqdkus okys] cstksM+ Fks] os fo}ku Fks] xq.k xzkgd FksA lV~Vs esa y[kifr cus lV~Vs esa gh fHk[kkjhA 46 o"kksZa rd ljnkj fcuk 'kknh ds xkSgjtku ds ,d fu"V ifr jgsA ,slh felky fQYeh nqfu;k esa dgha ughaA ujfxl dks Hkh jktdiwj esa ljnkj utj ugha vk;sA

fQYeksa ds lkFk jsldkslZ vkSj ?kksM+s okf.kT; Lukrd panwyky 'kkg LVkd ,Dlpsat ds n¶rj esa cSBdj yk[kksa ds U;kjs djus ds lkFk gh fQYe dh dgkfu;ak Hkh fy[krs FksA muds rhu 'kkSd Fks % fQYe] LVkd ,Dlpsat vkSj jsldkslZA os ?kksM+s pquus esa ftrus fuiq.k Fks] mruh gh prqjkbZ ls izfrHkkvksa dks igpkurs FksA 'ks;j ds baMDs l dh rjg mudh dgkfu;ksa esa ukVdh; eksM+ vkrs FksA bu rhuksa gh 'kkSd dks lV~Vk dgk tkrk gS] ijUrq pUnwyky 'kkg dh foy{k.k izfrHkk ;g Fkh fd mUgksua s gj dke O;kolkf;d dq'kyrk vkSj viwoZ laxBukRed ;ksX;rk ls fd,] ftlds dkj.k 35 o"kksaZ esa 200 ls vfèkd fQYesa flusek&2005

71


cukbZaA j.kthr ewohVksu ds fy, gh 15 o"kZ esa 100 fQYeksa dk fuekZ.k fd;kA flrkjk xkSgj ckbZ lnSo gh mudh izsj.kk vkSj ikVZuj jghA pUnwyky 'kkg us fQYe m|ksx dks vfèkdre flrkjs fn,] ftuesa dqN uke gSa] jktdiwj] fnyhi dqekj] ujfxl] nso vkuUn] fd'kksj dqekj] eksrhyky] ds-,y- lgxy] vkxk] lTtu] eèkqckyk] xhrk ckyh] ehuk dqekjh] lqjS;k] m"kk fdj.kA ml tekus esa yksx dgrs Fks fd vkdk'k esa ftrus rkjs gSa] mrus pUnwyky 'kkg ds ikl flrkjs gSaA mudk nwljk egku ;ksxnku ;g gS fd bafM;k eks'ku fiDpj izksM~;wlj ,lksfl,'ku tSlh vusd laLFkkvksa ds laLFkkid lnL;ksa esa os vxz.kh FksA bUgha dkj.kksa ls mUgsa ljnkj dgk tkrk FkkA pUnwyky 'kkg us lHkh izdkj dh fQYe cuk;h gSAa ge yksx] QqVikFk vkSj tksxu tSlh dykRed fQYesa ml nkSj esa cukbZ gSAa tc rFkkdfFkr dyk fQYe us fdlh vkUnksyu dh 'kDy ugha yh FkhA nwljh vksj rwQku esy vkSj rwQku dh okilh Hkh cuk;h gSA pUnwyky 'kkg usrk oYyHk HkkbZ iVsy ds fe= Fks vkSj mudh lgk;rk ls mUgksaus lsUlj cksMZ dks O;ofLFkr fd;kA igys lsalj dh izfØ;k cgqr gh yach vkSj tfVy FkhA pUnwyky 'kkg us fQYe m|ksx dh xfjek c<+kus ds fy, dbZ dk;Z fd,A pUnwyky 'kkg dk tUe 13 vizyS ] 1898 dks tkeuxj ¼xqtjkr½ esa ,d tSu ifjokj esa gqvk FkkA 1964 esa os fQYe fuekZ.k ls eqDr gq, vkSj 1975 esa mudk fuèku gqvkA

^^jktdiwj** ftudk fiz; fo"k; Fkk ^izse* ,d nqcyk&iryk yack ukStoku ghjks cuk ml tekus ds nLrwj ls Mk;ykx cksyrk exj ,d vyx Nki NksM+rkA uhydey esa eèkqckyk vkSj ckcjs u;u esa xhrkckyh ds lkeus te x;kA ckcjs u;u ls izflf) feyh exj èkhjs ls yksx dgrs gSa i`Fohjkt dk yM+dk gSA vkSj tc jkt us ^^vkx** cukbZ ,d èkwe ep xbZA cM+s cM+s funs'Z kd pDdj [kk x;sA dgha dqN Fkk tks ckj&ckj dg jgk FkkA ns[kks ;s ^^jktdiwj** gSAa mlds ckn ^vkokjk** esa tc ufxZl ds lkFk tksM+h cukbZ rks yksxksa dks vkx okyh ufxZl ls ,dne vyx utj vkbZ tks flQZ jkt dh [kksy yxrh FkhA nksuksa us 72

flus e k&2005

feydj ,d bfrgkl jpkA jktdiwj ckWyhoqM ds lcls cM+k 'kks eSu cu x;sA jkt ds tekus esa fnyhi vkSj nso vkuUn dk Hkh tekuk FkkA exj vkj-ds- dh fQYe dk jkSc -------- vyx FkkA mldh vnk] mldh eLrh] lkQxksbZ vkSj fny dks Nw tkus okyh iVdFkkA jkt ds ckn ml [kkyh txg dks dksbZ ugha Hkj ldkA jksekal dk u;k vkye tks vkt ge ns[krs gSa] HkkSaMs ukp&xkuksa esa Hkh tks ckr funsZ'kd ugha dg ikrk] jkt dh ,d NksVh&lh fprou] ,d >Vdk ;k laokn gh iwjh dj nsrkA vc jkt tSlk 'kkgdkj ugha gks ldrkA jkt viuh fQYe esa tks dguk pkgrk Fkk] fny dh ckr lquk tkrk] lp lp dg Mkyrs Fks dksbZ vkt\ gj fny esa vkl gksrh gS] exj oks jkt gksrh gSA ;g t:jh ugha gj dksbZ rktegy cuk;s] exj gj fny esa ,d eqerkt gksrh gSA jaxeap vkSj fQYeksa ds tud i`Fohjkt diwj ds cM+s csVs jkt diwj mQZ jkt diwj 14 fnlEcj] 1924 dks is'kkoj esa tUes FksA i`Fohjkt mUgsa QkSt esa HkrhZ djuk pkgrs Fks ij mudk cpiu ls dyk dh vksj :>ku FkkA blfy, dydRkk ds ,d Ldwy esa i<+ jgs jkt diwj fdlh rjg nloha Dykl rd i<+ ik, vkSj ckn esa mUgksua s viuk #[k dyk dh nqfu;k dh rjQ fd;kA i`Fohjkt diwj tSlh gLrh ds csVs gksrs gq, Hkh jkt diwj us vius cy ij fQYeksa esa viuh vyx igpku vksj txg cukbZA jkt diwj ds lcls djhch nksLr izseukFk Fks] tks ckn esa muds lkys Hkh cu x,A bl rjg tc vkx cukbZ xbZ Fkh rc jkt diwj us vius cy ij fQYeksa esa viuh vyx igpku vkSj txg cukbZA rc jkt diwj 'kknh'kqnk FksA ij fQj Hkh og izFke izs;lh dkSu Fkh] ftlus jkt diwj dh izsj.kk cudj mUgsa vuNqbZ cqyfa n;ksa rd igqpa k;k gS\ og dksbZ ugha tkurk] jktdiwj dh gj fQYe esa ml vO;Dr izs;lh dh ryk'k pyrh jghA ^izse* jktdiwj dk fiz; fo"k; FkkA viuh fQYeksa ds ekè;e ls mUgksaus [kwc izse efgek xkbZA os ,d laosnu'khy dfo ân;] egku laxhrK ,oa ifjiw.kZ dyk ikj[kh dykdkj FksA mUgksaus viuh lkekftd Hkwfedk dks Hkh vPNh rjg igpkuk FkkA jkt diwj ftl fQYe esa igyh ckj ijns ij vk,A fQYe dk uke Fkk vk¶Vj n vFkZDosd 1935 esa U;w fFk;sVlZ }kjk fufeZr bl fQYe ds funs'Z kd Fks nsodh cksl vkSj laxhrdkj


ckj-lh cksjky] ukf;dk nqxkZ [kksVs] uk;d i`Fohjkt diwj vkSj ds-lh-Ms bl fQYe esa i`Fohjkt vius nl cjl ds uhyh vka[kksa okys csVs jktdiwj dks igyh ckj cky dykdkj ds :i esa ijns ij yk,A jkt diwj ^Vkdh* fQYe ds 'kq:vkrh nkSj esa gh ijns ij vk x;sA 1943 esa jkt ikik i`Foh ds lkFk dsnkj 'kekZ funsZf'kr ^xkSjh* esa utj vk,A 1947 esa xtkuu tkxhjnkj funsZf'kr ^tsy;k=k* esa dkfeuh dkS'ky ds lkFk vkSj dsnkj 'kekZ funsZf'kr ^uhydey* esa eèkqckyk ds lkFk jktdiwj us crkSj uk;d dh 'kq:vkr dhA blh lky jkt us vkSj nks fQYesa dh eksgu flUgk dh ^fpRrkSM+ fot;* vkSj ^fny dh jkuh*] ftldh lgukf;dk Fkh eèkqckykA dqy feykdj ^uhydey* vkSj ^fny dh jkuh* jktdiwj dh igyh pfpZr fQYesa dgh tk ldrh gSaA jkt diwj uke dh gLrh dks ge vki tkurs gSAa mudh 'kq:vkr 1948 esa ^vkx* esa gqbAZ vkj-ds- fQYe dh LFkkiuk ds lkFk jkt diwj funsZ'kd cusA vkj-ds- cSuj ds varxZr jkt diwj us vius fnXn'kZu ds vykok vU; funs'Z kd dks viuh fQYeksa dks funsfZ 'kr djus dk volj fn;kA ^cwV ikfy'k*] ^fnYyh nwj ugha* rFkk ^tkxrs jgks*] ^ckch* ¼1973½] lR;e~ f'koe~ lqUnje~ ¼1974½] izse jksx ¼1982½] jke rsjh xaxk eSyh] dks Lo;a jkt diwj us fnXnf'kZr fd;kA lHkh esa ubZ ukf;dk Fkh ysfdu mudh gj ukf;dk lQsn lkM+h esa gksrh FkhA 'kk;n ujfxl dh ilan dh lkM+h mudh ;kn esa gh bldk pquko djrs gksaA Loj lkezkKh yrk dks Hkh mUgksaus igyh ckj lQsn lkMh esa ns[kk FkkA tc rd fjdkfMZxa pyrh jgh os mUgsa ukf;dk cukus dh lksprs jgs] ysfdu tc os ckgj fudyh rks muds [okcksa dh ukf;dk ij ekuks fdlh us rstkc MkykA og viuh fQYeksa esa Mwc tkrs Fks vkSj fny ds t[eksa dks [kwu jax ls Hkjrs FksA lu~ 1935 ls ysdj 1988 rd ds fQYeh lQj esa jkt diwj dks vusd iqjLdkjksa ls uoktk x;k] ftlesa tkxrs jgks dh dkyksZ ckojh fQYeksRlo eas rFkk ^cwV ikfy'k* dks dku fQYeksRlo esa iqjLd`r fd;k x;kA vukM+h o ftl ns'k esa xaxk cgrh gS ds fy, loZJ"s B vfHkusrk dk fQYe Qs;j iqjLdkj rFkk ^laxe* o ^esjk uke tksdj* ds fy, loZJs"B funsZ'kd dk iqjLdkj jkt diwj dks fn;k x;kA 2 ebZ] 1988 dks jkt diwj dks fQYe nqfu;k dk loksPZ p iqjLdkj nknklkgc Qkyds fn;k x;kA fu%lansg jkt diwj us vius ltho] uSlfxZd] eklwe

o vR;ar lgt vfHku; rFkk viuh l`tu {kerk o izfrHkk ls Hkkjrh; fQYe txr dks ubZ Åapkb;ka nha] 2 twu] 1988 dks ;g uhyh vka[kksa okyk elhgk fpjfunzk esa yhu gks x;k] ijUrq viuh vej jpukvksa esa og Lo;a vej gks x;kA

es g cw c [kku& ,d Hkkoq d funs Z ' kd ftldh fQYesa cksyrh Fkha ßeqn~nbZ yk[k cqjk pkgs rks D;k gksrk gS] ogh gksrk gS tks eatwjs [kqnk gksrk gSAÞ esgcwc [kku ds fo"k; esa ;g fo[;kr gS fd le; us mUgsa Bqdjk;k ij mUgksaus le; dks ck¡èkdj j[kkA ;fn os le; ds FkisM+ksa ls gkj tkrs rks thou esa fujk'k gksdj os okil vius xkao fcyheksjk ¼xqtjkr½ ykSV tkrs] tgka ls Hkkxdj ghjks cuus eqacbZ vk, Fks vkSj og Hkh dsoy rhu #i;s tsc esa MkydjA gka] lQsn iSVa deht iguh Fkh] ;g lkspdj fd LVwfM;ks okys mudks ns[krs gh Hkhrj cqyk ysaxsA ;g ?kVuk vDVwcj] 1927 dh gS vkSj ml oDr mudh mez jgh gksxh yxHkx l=g lkyA viuh yTtrnkj ckrksa ls izHkkfor djus esa n{k esgcwc [kku us jsyos ds ,d xkMZ ls nksLrh dj vius fy;s lksus dh txg cuk yh vkSj jsyos ds ,d vU; eqykfte gsM fVdV dysDVj ds ekQZr baihfj;y fQYe daiuh esa izos'k dj NksVh&NksVh Hkwfedk,a djus yxsA ,DLVªk ds crkSj esgcwc [kku us igyh ckj vyhckck pkyhl pksj esa dke fd;kA esgcwc [kku vius dksey O;ogkj ls lcdks [kq'k djrs gq;s baihfj;y daiuh ls lkxj ewohVksu daiuh esa vk x;sA ;gka vkdj os dqN egRoiw.kZ jksy djus yxsA ohj vfHkeU;q esa mUgksaus vtqZu dh Hkwfedk dh] ij pwafd os ,DLVªkvksa dh HkhM+ esa [kM+s gks pqds Fks] blfy;s muds ghjks cuus dh lkjh laHkkoukvksa ij ikuh fQj x;kA bruk gh ugha] dbZ ckj mudh uSlfxZd izfrHkk dks ns[krs gq, vkSj mudh vfHku; {kerk ns[krs gq, mUgsa ghjksa ds :i esa pqu fy;k x;k vkSj ,slk yxrk fd vc mUgsa ghjks cuus ls dksbZ jksd ugha ldrkA ij tc os Mªsl igudj dSejs ds lkeus tkus dks rS;kj gksrs rks jgL;e;h QqlQqlkgV ds chp mudh ghjks dh Mªls mrjok yh tkrhA ,slk volj ,d ckj ugha dbZ ckj vk;kA ;fn ,slk ugha gksrk rks Hkkjr dh izFke lokd fQYe vkyevkjk esa ekLVj foV~By ds cnys os gh ghjks gksrsA 'kgj dk tknw esa esgcwc [kku ghjks gksrsA flusek&2005

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mUgksaus viuh LVksjh vkbfM;k ij ml tekus ds fo[;kr fluseksVksxzkQj Qjnwu bZjkuh ls dgkuh fy[kok yh] ftldk uke j[kk vyfgykyA mUgksua s vius nksLr ;kdwc dh enn ls ,d Qk;usUlj idM+ dj pkyhl gtkj #- esa ,d 'kkunkj fQYe cuk yh] ftlds dykdkj Fks&;kdwc] urZdh flrkjk] dqekj] bafnjk nsoh vkfnA mldh iVdFkk lkxj ljgnh us fy[kh FkhA bl lQy fQYe us lkxj ewohVksu esa gypy epk nhA dksbZ ;g lksp Hkh ugha ldrk fd vui<+ egcwc fQYe dh vfHkO;fDr esa i<+s&fy[ks fuekZrk funsZ'kd dh HkhM+ esa ns[krs&ns[krs rsth ls vkxs c<+ tk;saxsA fQYe dh lQyrk ds ckn esgcwc [kku us lkxj ewohVksu esa ok;fyu Dohu] eueksgu] tkxhjnkj] oDr] ge rqe vkSj og vkSj ,d gh jkLrk cukbZA ,d gh jkLrk esa ns'kHkfDr ds Hkko dwV&dwV dj Hkjs Fks] ftl ij vaxtsz h gqdew r ds vkØks'k esa vkdj ,d 'kks ds ckn mlds izn'kZu ij ikcanh yxk nhA dqN fnuksa ckn os us'kuy LVwfM;ks ls lacafèkr gksdj LFkk;h fuekZrk funsZ'kd cu x;sA mUgksaus vusd egRoiw.kZ fQYeksa dk fuekZ.k fd;k] ftuesa mYys[kuh; gS&a jksVh] esjh cgu] rdnhj] gqek;wa] vueksy ?kM+h] ,syku] vuks[kh vnk] vankt] vku vkSj enj bafM;k vkfnA lu~ 1940 esa mUgksaus fQYe jksVh esa loZgkjk oxZ ds 'kks"k.k dh ekfeZd dFkk dk fp=.k fd;k FkkA rc ls ysdj mUgksua s var le; rd loZgkjk oxZ dh dfBukb;ksa] mudh foo'krkvksa] muds neu dh d#.kke; O;Fkkvksa dks viuh l'kDr dFkkvksa ds ekè;e ls fQYeksa esa fpf=r fd;kA mudh 'kSyh esa nnZ Hkjh ,slh vfHkO;fDr jgrh Fkh fd yksx mUgsa dE;qfuLV dgus yxsA os rks iwjs vui<+ FksA mUgksaus rks vius thou esa dHkh ekDlZokn dh iqLrdksa dks ugha i<+kA ij gka] mudh vka[kksa us xkaoksa esa 'kks"k.k dh O;Fkk dks ns[kk rks os mudh d#.kke; Le`fr;ksa dks ugha Hkwyk ldsA mudh vyhckck Hkh euksjatd fQYe gksrs gq;s Hkh lkear'kkgh 'kks"k.k ds f[kykQ lw{e lans'k nsus okyh fQYe FkhA esgcwc [kku us viuh vka[kksa ls ukjh 'kks"k.k dks ns[kk Fkk vkSjr dh foo'krk Hkjh ftUnxh dk vkrZukn muds dkuksa esa tc ls xwta jgk Fkk] tc os viuk xkao NksM+dj fQYeksa esa vk, FksA vyhckck vkSj ml fQYe dh ukf;dk ljnkj v[rj FkhA os mu fQYeksa ds fuekZ.k ds nkSjku gh fudV vk x,] lu~ 1942 esa os 74

flus e k&2005

nksuksa thoulkFkh cu x,A egcwc [kku dks bl ckr dk Hkh Js; gS fd mUgksaus Hkkjr dh igyh VsfDudyj fQYe vku dk fuekZ.k fd;kA bl fQYe esa dke djus ds fy;s mUgksaus ukfnjk dks >ksiM+iV~Vh ls ykdj vius ikl j[kkA mls jktdqekjh dk jksy djuk FkkA mls gdhdr esa jktdqekjh dh Hkkouk iSnk djus ds fy;s csxe v[rj us ?kaVksa mls jktegy esa mBus] cSBus] [kkus&ihus vkSj lksus ds laLdkj fl[kk,A ifj.kkeLo:i ,d gh eghus esa ukfnjk lpeqp jktdqekjh cu xbZA vkSjr dk jhesd mUgksaus enj bafM;k ds uke ls fd;k tks iwoZorhZ fQYe ls dbZ xquk Js"B cudj Hkkjrh; fQYeksa ds bfrgkl dh ,d cstksM+ fQYe cu xbZA bl fQYe esa jktdqekj] ujfxl vkSj lquhynRr us vius vfHku; thou dh lcls vfèkd l'kDr ,oa izHkko'kkyh Hkwfedk,a dhaA fQYe ds lkFk mudk vfHku; vej gks x;kA egcwc [kku iwjs èkkfeZd ,oa deZoknh FksA os fu;e ls uekt i<+rs FksA jkstk Hkh j[krs FksA fdlh Hkh fQYe ds Jhx.ks'k ij vkSj mlds fjyht ds volj ij vtesj dh njxkg ij tkdj ekFkk Vsdrs Fks vkSj ?kaVk Hkj jksrs jgrs FksA os cM+s Hkkoqd FksA mUgksaus vusd ihfM+r dykdkjksa dh le;&le; ij vkfFkZd lgk;rk dh ij mldh ppkZ djuk Hkh equkflc ugha ekurs FksA lu~ 1964 dh 27 ebZ dks tc iafMr usg: dk nsgkar gqvk rks os ml lnesa dks cnkZ'r ugha dj ik;sA [kcj lquus ds ckn gh ân;xfr #d tkus ij fQYeh nqfu;k ls vyfonk gks x;sA

pkcqd okyh fuHkZ; ukfM;k ml tekus esa ijh lh ulhe&'kjkch vka[kksa okyh ouekyk eksgd gkL; okyh eèkqckyk] fo'kky diky okyh nsfodk jkuh vkSj :ch lqykspuk Fkh] ij mudk lkSUn;Z ukjh lkSUn;Z dh pkS[kV ls ckgj dk ,d vuks[kk lkSUn;Z FkkA mudh ohjrk vkSj 'kkS;Z dh Nfo lkeus vkrh gSA muds ,D'ku esa lkSUn;Z lek x;k FkkA igys os LVsuks cuh&fQj u`R; lh[kk vkSj jf'k;u ldZl esa izos'k feykA Hkkjr esa vkdj gaVjokyh cu xbZA vaxzst firk gjcVZ bokUl vkSj xzhd ekxZjsV dh iq=h ukfM;k dk tUe 8 tuojh 1908 dks iFkZ ¼vkLVªsfy;k½ esa gqvk FkkA ukfM;k dk okLrfod uke esjh bokUl FkkA vkSlr


dn] ysfdu etcwr dkBh okyh ,d r#.kh Fkh esjh bokUl] dkSu tkurk Fkk fd bl dkseykaxh dks thou dk cgqr cM+k Hkkx 'ksjksa ds lkFk yM+rs gq,] dkfry [kyuk;dksa ds lkFk ryokj ds nks&nks gkFk djrs gq,] taxyksa ds csrkt ckn'kkg VktZu dh iz;s lh ds :i esa [kwa[kkj taxyh tkuojksa ds >qMa esa vB[ksfy;ka djrs gq, chrsxkA 1935 esa cuh ^gaVjokyh* ls os viuh best cnydj tSdsV ?kqVuksa rd Åaps cwV] ekLd vkfn igudj ,d LVaV ghjksbu cu xbZAa bl fQYe esa muds gSjrvaxts dkjukes ns[kdj cPps] toku] cw<+s lHkh nkarksa rys maxfy;ka nckus dks etcwj gks x,A ^^gaVjokyh** bruh lqijfgV gqbZ fd ukfM;k u flQZ jkrkas jkr LVkj cu xbZ] cfYd os ^Qh;jysl ukfM;k* ds uke ls Hkh yksdfiz; gks xbZA bl fQYe ds ckn mudh yxkrkj fQYesa vkrh jgha vkSj fgV gksrh jghaA 1935 esa 1955 ds mUgksaus [kwc èkwe epkbZA vius rhu n'kd ds fQYeh dSfj;j esa ukfM;k us dqy 41 fQYeksa esa dke fd;kA bu fQYeksa esa igkM+h dU;k] fel ÝafV;j esy ¼1936½] gjhdsu] galk ¼1937½] Mk;eaM Dohu ¼1941½] taxy fizla ls ¼1942½] gaVjokyh dh csVh ¼1943½] ¶ykbax fizla ¼1945½] rwQku Dohu] ysMh jkfcugqM ¼1946½] pkcqd lokj] LVaV Dohu ¼1947½] fgEerokyh] taxy xkMsl ¼1948½] Vkbxzls fnYyh ,Dlizsl ¼1949½] ek;k egy ¼ 1950½] dkfuZoy Dohu ¼1955½] QkbfVax Dohu ¼1956½] ldZl Dohu ¼ 1956½] ldZl Dohu ¼1956½ vkfn mYys[kuh; fQYesa gSaA ukfM;k ds djhc lHkh fQYeksa esa LVaV n`';ksa dh Hkjekj gSA ukfM;k dh lcls cM+h fo'ks"krk ;g Fkh fd os cgknqjh vkSj tksf[ke Hkjs n`'; Lo;a djrh FkhA bu [krjukd n`';ksa ds nkSjku mUgksaus dHkh vius MqIyhdsV dks bLrseky ugha fd;kA ukfM;k dh ^LVaV Dohu* dh best n'kZdksa esa bruh xgjh cSB xbZ Fkh fd tc mUgksaus lkekftd fQYe ^ekSt* ¼1943½ esa ,d jksus&èkksus okyh ukf;dk dh Hkwfedk vfHkuhr dh rks n'kZdksa us ml fQYe dks vLohdkj dj fn;kA njvly mUgsa bl :i esa ns[kdj n'kZdksa dks fo'okl gh ugha gqvkA mudk rks ekuuk Fkk fd ukfM;k ,sls jks gh ugha ldrhA ukfM;k dk O;fDrRo] mudh uhyh vka[ksa] mudk lkgl vius vki esa ,d vyx igpku j[krs FksA tku dkol] ckseu JkQ vkSj ljnkj ealwj tSls ukeh ghjks mudh fQYeksa esa muds lg dykdkj gqvk djrs FksA buds vykok iatkc dk csVk

uked ,d ?kksM+k vkSj eksrh uked ,d dqRrk Hkh muds izeq[k lkFkh dykdkj gqvk djrk FkkA fQYe thou ds izkjaHk ls gh ukfM;k dks fuekZrk& funsZ'kd gkseh ukfM;k dk Hkjiwj lg;ksx feyrk jgkA dkQh yacs vjls rd lg;ksxh cus jgus ds ckn 1961 esa nksuksa fookg lw= esa caèk x;sA fookg ds ckn ukfM;k us fQYeksa ls laU;kl ys fy;kA os fuR; O;k;ke djrh FkhA muds tekus esa MqIyhdsV Fks gh ughaA vkmVMksj ds uke ij nwj ls nwj [kaMkyk dh okfn;ksa esa jksekal izse dk iz'u gh ugha FkkA vfèkd gqvk rks dHkh fdlh ls vka[ksa feyk yhaA os QkLV Vªsu esa cSBdj ryokj pykrh vkSj nkSM+rs ?kksM+s ij mNy dj cSBrh vkSj n'kZd rkyh ctkrsA mUgsa jsl dk cgqr 'kkSd FkkA cM+s&cM+s di mUgksaus jsl esa thrs vkSj mudk ,d ?kksM+k Hkh FkkA eqacbZ mudks lkjh nqfu;k ls vPNh yxrh FkhA os vkbZa tc eqacbZ dh vkcknh 15 yk[k FkhA ykgkSj esa ikjlh fFk;sVj easa dke djrh Fkh rc mUgsa jhxy fFk;sVj ds tujy eSuts j Jh dkek us eqca bZ esa ykdj okfM;k caèkq ls 1934 esa feyok;k vkSj mUgksaus 150 #i;s ekfld esa ukSdjh yh fQYesa fgV gks xbZ rks osru 2000 #i;s gks x;kA mUgsa fgUnh cgqr vkrh Fkh Mk;ykx jkseu esa fy[kdj jV~Vk yxkrh FkhA fgUnh lh[kus ds fy, ,d vè;kid Hkh j[kk FkkA rhu n'kd rd fQYeksa esa ncax] lkglh LVaV ghjksbu tks okdbZ cgknqjh vkSj 'kfDr ,oa U;k; dk izrhd FkhA mudk ekuuk Fkk fd tc Hkh ,DlhMsaV gks ?kcjkuk ugha fdlh Hkh gkyr esa mlh dke dks fQj djuk pkfg, ftlls Mj Hkkx tkrk gSA iatkc esy fQYe dh 'kwfVax esa ?kksM+s ij cSBdj HkkxhA ?kksM+k muds iSj ij fxj x;kA Mj ds ekjs ilhuk&ilhuk ysfdu muds jf'k;u xq# us QkSju nwljs ?kksM+s ij fcBkdj pkcqd ekj fn;kA 'kkV [kRe gksus ds ckn vLirky tkus fn;kA nwljh ckj ,d xkM+h isM+ ls fHkM+k nhA pksV rks de vkbZ ysfdu mlh le; mUgsa nwljh xkM+h ysdj ykax Mªkbo ij Hkst fn;kA vkt ds dykdkjksa ds fy, vkSj tks LVaV vkSj ekjkekjh dh fQYesa cuk jgs gSAa muds fy, rks ukfM;k ,d Ldwy gSaA rc fQYe dh ;wfuV ,d ifjokj gksrk FkkA 2 idksM+s vkSj ,d dsyk mudk yap gksrk FkkA lHkh mlh eas fidfud dk lk vkuan ysrs FksA 60 o"kZ dh mez ds ckn os ?kjsyw thou chrk jgh FkhA e`R;q ds dqN o"kZ iwoZ muds ifr lgkjk nsdj lkFk ys tkrs FksA os viax&lh gks xbZ FkhA mez dh flusek&2005

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88 o"kZ dh vk;q esa mudk fuèku gks x;kA

chrs fnuks a dh iz f l) vfHkus = h % tksgjk ykgkSj ls eqEcbZ vkSj okil ykgkS j tksgjk rhu cgusa Fkh % tksgjk] eq'rjh vkSj [kq'khZnA rhuksa ykgkSj dh lSj ds fy, fudyh FkhaA la;ksx ls mlh le; dqN yksx xkfM+;ksa esa lokj gksdj lM+d ij ?kwe jgs FksA xkfM+;ka #drh vkSj gkFk ls pyus okyh ,d e'khu ds lkeus enZ vkSj vkSjrsa vthc gjdrsa djus yxrsA tksgjk ds vCck fe;k ekSykc['k us crk;k fd ;s yksx ,DVj gSa vkSj fQYesa cuk jgs gSaA fQYeksa ds ckjs esa tksgjk dk igyk vuqHko FkkA vCnqy j'khn dkjnkj us ,d NksVk&lk LVwfM;ks cuk j[kk FkkA blh LVwfM;ks dh ;wfuV okys Fks ;s yksx] tks xkfM+;ksa esa cSBdj ykgkSj dh lM+dksa ij ?kwe jgs FksA mUgsa ftl txg dk lhu ysuk gksrk] ogka ;s mrj tkrs vkSj dSejk pkyw dj nsrs FksA ,d le; ,slk vk;k tc bUgha fe;k dkjnkj dh tksgjk vkSj mldh NksVh cgu eq'rjh ij utj fVd x;hA mlds vCck rfc;r ls l[r FksA blfy, bl fo"k; esa dkjnkj th dks muls ckr djus dh fgEer ugha gksrh FkhA Mj Fkk fd dgha vCck ls mUgsa MkaV u [kkuh iM+ tk,A fQj Hkh dkjnkj tksgjk ds ?kj vk;sA cksy]s ^fe;ka thA fQYe dksbZ cqjh pht ughaA vxj vki btktr nsa ] rks eSa vkidh yM+fd;ksa dks fQYe esa pkUl nwaA** mUgksaus budkj dj fn;kA dkjnkj th fujk'k ykSV x;sA ,d ckj dh ckr gS tksgjk ds vCck O;kikj ds flyflys esa eqEcbZ tk jgs Fks] rks tksgjk us Hkh muds lkFk eqEcbZ tkus dh ftn dhA os cksys] ^^vPNk rks viuh eka dks Hkh lkFk ys ds pyuk iM+sxkA** fQj D;k Fkk tksgjk ds ifjokj okys Qwys ugha lek;sA eqEcbZ igqpa dj vCck us ckyds'oj jksM ij igkM+h ds uhps ,d [kwclwjr caxyk fdjk;s ij ys fy;kA xkf;dk uhye y[kuÅ ls tksgjk ds vCck ls ifjfpr Fkh vkSj mu fnuksa og Hkh eqEcbZ gh jg jgh FkhA ,d fnu vCck ls dqN iwN dj og tksgjk vkSj eq'rjh dks bEihfj;y flusek esa fQYe fn[kkus ys x;hA cgusa ckDl esa cSBus ds fy, lhf<+;ksa ls Åij tk jgh Fkha] bUgha lhf<+;ksa ij flusek ds n¶rj dk jks'kunku 76

flus e k&2005

[kqyrk FkkA vkfQl esa cSB dqN yksxksa dh fuxkg mu ij iM+hA ckDl esa cSBs gh Fks fd vkneh vkdj uhye ls dgus yxk fd mls lsB th vnZ'khj bZjkuh cqyk jgs gSAa uhye tksgjk vkSj eq'rjh dks ogha fcBkdj mlds lkFk pyh x;hA okil vk;h] rks cksyh fd lsB rqe yksxksa dks ghjksbu ds :i esa ysuk pkgrs gaSA tksgjk us mUgsa vius vCck ls feykus dks dg fn;kA uhye vkSj vnZ'khj dh vkil esa cM+h csrdqYyQh FkhA tksgjk ds vCck ls Hkh mldh nksLrh FkhA blfy, uhye lsB dks ,d fnu tksgjk ds vCck ds ikl ys vk;hA tksgjk ds vCck us mudk cM+k vkfrF; lRdkj fd;k ij tc os tksgjk ds ckjs esa ckrsa djus yxs rks mUgksua s badkj dj fn;kA mUgksua s tksgjk vkSj eq'rjh dks ikap&ikap lkS #i;s ekgokj osru nsus dh is'kd'k dhA mu fnuksa gtkj #i;s dh cgqr dher FkhA ykyp cqjh cyk gS tksgjk ds vCck jkth gks x;sA tksgjk dh igyh fQYe Fkh ^uwjkuh ekSlh*A blesa tksgjk ds lkFk i`Fohjkt ghjks FksA tksgjk vkSj eq'rjh othj dh csVh cuh FkhA fQYe fgV gks x;hA vnZ'khj bZjkuh muds iz'kald gks x;sA tksgjk vkSj eq'rjh ds baihfj;y esa vkus vkSj ^uwjkuh eksrh* ds fgV gksus ls ;gka ds dykdkjksa dh ekuksa NqVV~ h gks x;h] D;ksafd bu dykdkjksa eas vfèkdrj xqtjkrh ;k ejkBh Hkk"kh dykdkj FksA ewd fQYeksa dk tekuk chr pqdk Fkk vkSj cksyrh fQYeksa esa os mnwZ lgh rjhds ls cksy ugha ldrs FksA mnwZ budh cgqr vPNh FkhA ^uwjkuh eksrh* ds ckn ^èkjrh ekrk* vkSj fQj ^ykgkSj dh csVh* cuhaA buesa i`Fohjkt tksgjk ds ghjks FksA bl rjg ,d lky esa rhu fQYesa cuh vkSj rhuksa fgV gks x;haA vnZ'khj lsB ds lkFk tksgjk dk ,d lky dk ,xzhesaV FkkA os tksgjk vkSj eq'rjh dks ikap&ikap lkS #i;s ekgokj nsrs FksA lky [kRe gksus dks vk;k rks nwljh txg mUgsa <kbZ gtkj ekgokj dh is'kd'k vk;hA tksgjk us bEihfj;y NksMu+ s dk QSlyk dj fn;k] ysfdu eq'rjh ;gka ls tkus dks jkth ugha gqbZA lkxj ewohVksu ds lsB pheuyky dh tksgjk us ,d fQYe dhA nwljh txg ls ikap gtkj #i;s ekgokj dk vkQj vk;kA bl rjg tksgjk dks tks T;knk iSls nsrk og mlh ds ikl pyh tkrhA tksgjk dh ekax blfy, Hkh T;knk Fkh fd og mnwZ vPNh tkurh FkhA ,d fnu vthc ?kVuk ?kV x;hA tksgjk t;ar LVwfM;ks esa ^tokuh nhokuh* dh 'kwfVax dj jgh FkhA Mªk;oj dks tksgjk us


[kkuk ykus ds fy, Hkstk FkkA ij og cgqr nsj rd okil u vk;kA Hkw[k ds ekjs tksgjk dk cqjk gky FkkA ij tc og cgqr nsj rd okil u vk;k] rks mls xqLlk Hkh vk jgk FkkA tksgjk us Mk;jsDVj ls dgk ] ^^Ms<+ cts yap gksrk gSA vc <kbZ ct jgs gSaA eSa tk jgh gwaA** funsZ'kd cksyk] ^^ns[kks ckbZ] ;g 'kkV nsrh tkvksA fQj tkukA** ^^bls rks vki vkèks ?kaVs ls vkjaHk dj jgs gSaA ;g vkils gks ugha ldrkA eSa okil vkdj bls d:axhA** tksgjk xqLls esa cksyhA Mk;jsDVj cM+k cnreht FkkA cksyk] ^^nsf[k, ckbZ ;g ukSdjh gS] dksbZ etkd ughaA** tksgjk xqLls dh cgqr cqjh Fkh mlus iSj ls pIiy fudkyh vkSj [khap dj rM+kd ls mlds eqag ij tM+ nhA fQYe rks lsB pheuyky ¼lkxj ewohVksu okys ugha½ us ml Mk;jsDVj dks gh cny fn;kA eqEcbZ esa rkfgj vkSj bnjhl nks HkkbZ FksA mudk ,d Hkkutk Fkk fy;kdrA bu yksxksa us ,d fyfeVsM fQYe daiuh cuk;h vkSj ^dkjokus gqLu* uked fQYe cukus dk ,syku dj fn;kA tksgjk ds ifr jQhd xtuoh dh dgkuh Fkh vkSj ogh mldk Mk;jsDVj Hkh FkkA ^dkjokus gqLu* dh dgkuh ;ksa rks tksgjk ij fy[kh x;h Fkh] ij fQYe ds ekfydksa dks tkus D;ksa u;h ghjksbu ysus dh >d lokj gqbZA mUgsa ghjksbu rks u feyh] ij dydRrs esa ekfydksa vkSj jQhd xtuoh esa >xM+k gks x;kA >xM+s dh tM+ Fkh y[kuÅ dh rok;Q uokc iqryh] tks ekfydksa dh dqN yxrh FkhA og jQhd xtuoh ij esgjcku gks x;hA ekfydksa us jQhd dks gVkdj nsodh cksl dks Mk;jsDVj ys fy;k vkSj tksgjk ls dke djus ds fy, dgus yxsA jQhd tksgjk dks bl fQYe esa dke djus ds fy, jksdus yxkA u ekuus ij rykd dh èkedh nsus yxkA tksgjk us Hkh mls [kjh&[kjh lquk nh fd tc og u;h ghjksbu dh ryk'k djus x;k Fkk] rks tksgjk us mls rykd dh èkedh ugha nh FkhA ij tc rkfgj vkSj vnjhl u;h ghjksbu dh ryk'k okyh ckr ij tksgjk ls ekQh ekaxus yxs rks mlus fQYe esa dke djus dh gkeh Hkj nhA jQhd dks bl ckr dk irk pyk rks mlus ?kj eas gaxkek epk fn;kA og tksgjk ij rjg&rjg ds rksger yxkus yxkA tksgjk ds eqdkcys esa foV~By] t;jkt vkSj pUnzeksgu

gh ghjks vkrs jgsA lcls T;knk tksgjk dks pUnzeksgu us izHkkfor fd;kA os cgqr vPNs dykdkj FksA jQhd xtuoh tksgjk dh ftUnxh dk ,d egRoiw.kZ O;fDr FkkA ykgkSj esa dkjnkj us ;wukbZVsM Iys;lZ dkjiksjs'ku cuk;h rks jQhd Hkh mlesa vk x;kA ykgkSj esa og igyh cksryh fQYe ^ghj jka>k* esa vuojh ds lkFk ghjks FkkA ogha mlds lkFk mldh 'kknh gks x;hA ckn esa og eqEcbZ pyk x;kA tksgjk dks Hkh eqEcbZ x;s FkksM+k gh vjlk gqvk FkkA jQhd dM+ds fdLe dk vkneh Fkk vkSj fdlh gksVy esa jgrk FkkA tksgjk us mls ¶ysV fnyk;k vkSj E;wftd Mk;jsDVj Hkh cuok;kA yksxksa us cgqr le>k;k ij gkyr ,sls gks x;s fd tksgjk dks 'kknh djuh gh iM+hA jQhd xtuoh cgqr [kwclwjr Fkk ij mldh vknrsa vPNh ugha FkhaA mlus ftl vkSjr dks ns[kk mlh ij yV~Vw gks x;kA blh pht us mls cjckn dj fn;kA mlus iangz cjl dh x`gLFkh ds ckn tksgjk ls vyxko viuk fy;k vkSj tksgjk dh NksVh vkSj lxh cgu ls 'kknh dj yhA dqN fnuksa esa mls NksM+k rks fdlh nwljs ls C;kg jpk fy;kA og xSj fQYeh efgyk Fkh vkSj mldh cfPp;ka Hkh gqbZaA eqEcbZ esa tksgjk us cgqr mRd"kZ ns[kkA ogka mlus vusd fQYeksa esa dke fd;kA mldh vkf[kjh fQYe ^'kdqUryk* FkhA ij ikfdLrku cuus dh 'kq:vkr gks tkus ds ckn nax&s Qlkn gksus ds dkj.k tksgjk ykgkSj pyh x;hA dkjnkj o lksgjkc eksnh us mls eqEcbZ ykus ds fy, vkneh Hkh Hksts ij gkykr vfo'oluh; gks pqds Fks blfy, og ugha vk;hA ogka ykgkSj esa tksgjk dh csVh 'kghuk fQYe ^csyh* esa ghjksbu cuhA blesa larks"k ghjks FksA blh nkSjku 'kkghuk dh rLohj fdlh if=dk esa ns[kh rks eqEcbZ ds fQfYeLrku okyksa us tksgjk dks i= fy[kk fd tksgjk viuh yM+dh dks ysdj eqEcbZ pyh vk;sA os bls ghjksbu ysdj ^ghj jka>k* fQYe cukus pkgrs FkssA tksgjk rhu eghus ds chtk ij eqEcbZ vk;hA os ,d lky dk folk ysus ij ,xzhesUV dh ckr djus yxsA folk dh >a>V FkhA blh nkSjku ih-,u-vjksM+k ls ckr gqbZA mUgksaus 'kkghuk dks viuh vxyh fQYe ^gwjs vjc* dh ghjksbu ?kksf"kr dj fn;kA fQj rks gkykr ;g gks x, fd gj jkst dksbZ u dksbZ ,xzhesUV djus igqpa us yxkA bl rjg tksgjk ds ikl nl ,xzhesUV gks x;sA tksgjk dks yksxksa us le>k;k fd bl rjg lkS #i;s ysdj ,xzhesUV er djks ojuk Qal tkvksxhA i`Fohjkt us eqEcbZ ds rRdkyhu eq[;ea=h eksjkjth flusek&2005

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nslkbZ ls mlds fy, ,d lky dk ijfeV cuok yk;sA mlh jkr txnh'k lsBh mlds ikl vk;s vkSj dgus yxs] ^^ikfdLrku esa ,thVs'ku dh otg ls ;gka Hkh jkr dks ,d ehfVax gqbZ] ftlesa os Hkh ekStwn FksA fQYe okyksa us ;g r; fd;k fd tks ikfdLrkuh LVkjksa dks ysxk] mlds LVwfM;ks esa vkx yxk nh tk;sxhA tksgjk ds rks gks'k mM+ x;sA tksgjk dk vBkjg&chl gtkj #i;k [kpZ gks pqdk FkkA tksgjk 'kkghuk ds lkFk Msykekj gksVy esa Bgjh FkhA mlh fnu 'kwfVax gksus okyh Fkh] ysfdu dkQh nsj rd ih-,uvjksM+k dh xkM+h u vk;h] rks tksgjk us mUgsa Qksu fd;kA cksys] ^^HkkHkh 'kke dks vkdj vki ls ckr djsaxsA** 'kke dks mUgksaus Hkh tksgjk ls txnh'k lsBh okyh ckr crk;hA

okil ikfdLrku ij tksgjk dk fny [kV~Vk gks pqdk FkkA t k s g j k ikfdLrku vk x;hA vkrs gh 'kkghuk dks ysdj vuoj deky ik'kk us ^bardke* cukuh 'kq: dhA blesa mls crkSj [kyukf;dk fy;k x;kA Hkwfedk cgqr vPNh FkhA 'kkghuk vkSj Hkh fQYeksa esa dkLV gksus yxhA tksgjk dks Hkh cgqr vkQj vk;s] ysfdu tksgjk

dh utj esa ;gka dksbZ tapk gh ughaA D;kasfd ftu yksxksa ds lkFk esa dke djuk Fkk mls ilan ugha FkkA ;gka ftu yksxksa ds gkFk esa fQYe ykbu Fkh muesa ls dksbZ rsyh Fkk rks dksbZ gtker cukus okykA tksgjk dk fetkt cgqr cqyUn FkkA mUgsa ns[kdj gh tksgjk dks xqLlk vkrk FkkA eqEcbZ esa mlus cgqr mRd"kZ ns[kk FkkA vxj tksgjk pkgrh rks ;gka dbZ fQYeksa dh ukf;d cu tkrh] ysfdu ,sls yksxksa ds lkFk dke djus dk mldk th ugha pkgkA tksgjk us mUgsa lkQ&lkQ lquk nsrh] ftls lqudj os yksx dgrs fd bl vkSjr dk fnekx cgqr [kjkc gSA èkhjs&èkhjs mlds ckjs esa e'kgwj gks x;k fd og cM+h ex:j vkSjr gS vkSj muds lkFk dke djus okyh ugha gSA ij tksgjk dks ekywe Fkk fd ikfdLrku fQYe esa fdl rjg ds yksx x;s gSaA ,sls yksx tks lkbfdyksa ij fVfQu ys tk;k djrs Fks vkSj n¶rjksa esa [kkus dk fMCck lIykbZ fd;k djrs FksA ,sls yksxksa dks og ,DVj Mk;jsDVj curs gq, ns[k jgh FkhA ;g muds lkFk dSls dke dj ldrh Fkh\ vkSj mlus ugha fd;kA og ,d LokfHkekuh efgyk FkhA

*** ikfdLrkuh xkf;dk uwjtgak us 1957 esa vius ifr fuekZrk&funsZ'kd lS;n 'kkSdr gqlSu ls rykd ysdj vnkdkj ,tkt nqjkZuh ds lkFk 'kknh dj yhA nwljh vksj muds ifr 'kkSdr us Hkh uwjtgak dh lgsyh ;kLehu ls 'kknh dhA fcey ckaXyk Mkyh fQYe

*** jk; }kjk fufeZr&funsZf'kr fQYe ^eèkqerh* dh dgkuh varjkZ"Vªh; [;kfr izkIr fQYe funsZ'kd _fRod ?kVd us dydRrk ls eqacbZ vkrs le; Vªsu esa gh fy[k Fkh vkSj deky dh ckr ;g gS fd fo'kq) izse dgkuh gksus ds ckotwn mDr dks jk"Vªifr }kjk jtr ind dk lEeku feyk FkkA

*** fuekZrk funsZ'kd dsnkj 'kekZ ds funsZ'ku esa cuh fQYe ^tksxu* esa jktsUnz dqekj us fnyhi dqekj ds nksLr dh NksVh&lh Hkwfedk fuHkk;h FkhA *** fQYe laxhr esa lewg xku dk lcls igyk iz;ksx laxhrdkj ukS'kkn }kjk fQYe ^cStw ckojk* esa fd;k x;k FkkA

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egkRek rqeus tUe fy;k ij dSlk ekSr lax C;kg jpk;k\ Lora=rk iwoZ ds Hkkjrh; bfrgkl esa xkaèkh th dk mn; fQYe fuekZ.k dk izkjEHk izk;% ,d lkFk gqvkA lu~ 1921 esa xkaèkh th us Hkh ;gka dh jktuhfr dh ckxMksj gkFk esa ysdj viuk igyk lR;kxzg vkUnksyu pyk;kA fQj lu~ 1930 esa tc xkaèkh th us vius nwljs vkUnksyu dh 'kq:vkr dh] rc ;gka lokd fQYeksa dk izknqHkkZo gqvkA bl rjg ge ns[krs gSa fd Hkkjr esa xkaèkh th vkSj fQYe m|ksx ds fodkl dk bfrgkl lkFk&lkFk pykA nksuksa ds bfrgkl&Øe esa bruk lkE; gksus ds ckotwn xkaèkh th us flusek ds i{k esa dHkh dqN ugha dgkA ns'k ds fQYe m|ksx ij xkaèkh th dk izHkko iM+k] blls budkj ugha fd;k tk ldrk fd Hkkjr dh jktuhfr esa tSls&tSls xkaèkh th dk opZLo c<+k] oSls&oSls fQYeksa dh dFkk oLrq esa Hkh ifjorZu gksrs x,A fQYeksa esa lkekftd psruk dk izknqHkkZo xkaèkh th dh izsj.kk ls gh gqvkA jktuhfrd vkSj lkekftd fo"k;ksa dks ysdj tu lkèkkj.k ds n`f"Vdks.k eas Hkh tks rCnhfy;ka vkb±] mudk iwjk vlj gekjs fQYe m|ksx ij gqvkA ml dky esa fufeZr ^jke jghe* rFkk ^[kqnk dh 'kku* tSls fp=ksa esa ge ekuork lacaèkh xkaèkh th ds vkn'kksZa dk gh izfriknu ikrs gSaA xkaèkhoknh ls mRizfs jr vPNs fp=ksa dk fuekZ.k lu~ 1935 ls izkjEHk gksrk gSA tc iq.ks fLFkr izHkkr LVwfM;ks ds fy;s ^egkRek* ds uke ls oh-'kkarkjke th us ,d dFkk fp= cuk;k] mUgha fnuksa xkaèkh th us vLi`';rk ds fojksèk esa viuh vkokt mBk;h Fkh vkSj bl fQYe dk fuekZ.k mlh ds vkèkkj ij fd;k x;k FkkA egkjk"Vª ds lUr ds :i esa xkaèkh th ls feyrk&tqyrk ,d ,slk pfj= mlesa izLrqr fd;k x;k Fkk] ftlus Li"V 'kCnksa esa vLi`';rk dks ;qx dk lcls cM+k vfHk'kki ?kksf"kr fd;k Fkk] ysfdu ml fp= ds uke dks rRdkyhu fczfV'k ljdkj lgu ugha dj ik;h vkSj mldk uke ^egkRek* ds LFkku ij ^èkekZRek* dj fn;k x;kA blds ckn ^vNwr* vkSj ^vNwr dU;k* vkfn ,sls cgqr ls fp= blh fo"k; dks vkèkkj cukdj fufeZr fd;s x,] ftudh x.kuk vkt Hkh Hkkjr esa cus Js"Bre fp=ksa ds vUrxZr dh tkrh gSA ^fey* vkSj ^ve`r eaFku* vU; fp= FksA ^fey* esa vfgalkRed mik;ksa ls vius vfèkdkj izkIr djus ij tksj fn;k x;k Fkk vkSj ^ve`r eaFku* esa cfy izFkk ds fojksèk esa vkokt mBkbZ x;h FkhA blh vofèk esa xkaèkh th ds ^xkao okil pyks* ukjs ds vkèkkj ij Hkh dbZ fQYesa cuk;h x;haA bu fQYeksa dks i;kZIr yksdfiz;rk feyhA 'kjkccUnh vkanksyu ds lacaèk esa Hkh dbZ fp=ksa dk fuekZ.k gqvk] ftlesa vfHkus=h uUnk ds firk ekLVj fouk;d d`r ^czkaMh dh cksry* vkSj lksgjkc eksnh dh ^ehBk tgj* mYys[kuh; gSA bu lc fp=ksa esa xkaèkhokn vkSj xkaèkh th }kjk izpkfjr vkUnksyuksa dh Li"V Nki FkhA blds ckn vk;k fgUnw&eqfLye ,drk c<+kus ds lEcUèk esa xkaèkh th ds iz;Ruksa dk ;qx vkSj gekjs fQYe m|ksx us bl fn'kk esa Hkh mldk iwjk lkFk fn;kA ^iM+kslh*] ^ge ,d gSa*] ^nksLr*] ^lans'k* vkSj ^HkDr dchj* lHkh ,sls fp= Fks] ftuesa nksuksa lEiznk;ksa ds vkilh esytksy ij cy fn;k x;k FkkA 1942 ds vkUnksyu ds ckn Hkh bl lEcUèk esa dbZ fQYeksa dk fuekZ.k fd;k x;k] ftlesa ^xqykeh* vkSj ^viuk ?kj* mYys[kuh; gSA bu lc fQYeksa dk vkèkkj xkaèkh th dk Hkkjr NksM+ks izLrko FkkA dbZ ckj rks lsalj cksMZ us fQYeksa esa xkaèkh th ds fp=ksa dks dkyk djus ds fy, fuekZrkvksa dks foo'k dj fn;k FkkA bruh dM+h fuxjkuh ds ckotwn ljdkj fQYeksa ij xkaèkh th ds fujUrj c<+rs gq, izHkko dks jksd ugha ik;hA bruk vo'; gqvk fd mlds dkj.k Li"Vr% xkaèkh fopkjèkkjk dk fp=.k u djds ?kqek&fQjk dj mls izLrqr djus dh dksf'k'k dh tkus yxh] ftudh dFkk oLrq rks ikSjkf.kd gksrh Fkh] ysfdu buds vkn'kZ dV~Vj xkaèkhoknh gqvk djrs FksA ^lezkV pUnzxIq r*] ^egkRek fonqj* vkSj ^tehu* vkfn fp= ewyr% xkaèkhokn ls gh mRizsfjr Fks vkSj muds vkn'kksZa dks è;ku esa j[krs gq, mudk fuekZ.k fd;k x;k FkkA xkaèkhoknh fQYeksa esa ^vkf[kjh iSxke* vkSj ^d'ehj gekjk gS* mYys[kuh; ekuh tk,axhA bu lHkh fQYeksa esa vfgalk dh fgalk ij] lR; dh vlR; ij fot; fn[kykbZ x;h FkhA og ,slk le; Fkk tc flusek dk izR;sd gky ijns ij xkaèkh th dk fp= vkrs gh n'kZdksa dh rkfy;ksa ls xwat mBrk Fkk vkSj og :igys ijns ds os lokZfèkd tkToY;eku flrkjs cu x, FksA flusek&2005

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dqN Hkwy x;s & dqN ;kn jgk

vius tekus ds csgn e'kgwj dykdkj ekLVj fulkj ekLVj fulkj vius tekus ds csgn e'kgwj vkfVZLVksa esa ls FksA yksx mudh xk;dh ij fQnk FksA ekLVj fulkj us cgqr de mez ls gh bruh nkSyr gkfly dh] ftruh de gh yksxksa dks ulhc gksrh gSA ukSdj pkdj] ,s'kks vkjke dh gj pht ekStwn Fkh muds ikl] exj os bl nkSyr dks lEHkky u lds vkSj ,d fnu daxky gks cSBsA gkykr us mUgsa nj&nj dh Bksdjsa [kkus ij etcwj dj fn;kA ekLVj fulkj fnYyh ds jgus okys FksA ,slk ugha Fkk fd mUgsa xkuk ctkuk lh[kuk iM+k gksA cfYd mUgsa xkuk fojklr esa feykA os xkus esa ekfgj FksA os vPNs [kwclwjr ukStoku FksA os jkstxkj dh ryk'k esa fnYyh ls dydrk igqaps Fks oks tekuk Fkk tc dydRrk esa fFk;sVjksa dk cksyckyk FkkA ogka jktLFkku ds dbZ jaxhu fetkt] 'kkSdhu fetkt yksx gqvk djrs FksA mUgsa ukp&xkuksa dk cM+k 'kkSd FkkA muds ikl fFk;sVj vkSj fQYe daifu;ka FkhaA enu fFk;sVj mUgha esa ls ,d FkkA bl fFk;sVj esa muds dykdkj dke fd;k djrs FksA ftlesa L=h vkSj iq#"k nksuksa gh gqvk djrs FksA vkidks tkudj gSjr gksxh fd ejgwe vnkdkjk ehukdqekjh dh eka bdcky csxe Hkh bl fFk;sVj esa dke djrh FkhaA og ogka ij MkUlj FkhaA exj ml tekus esa dydRrk dh lcls cM+h LVkj Fkh] tgkavkjk dTtu tks csgn [kwclwjr FkhaA ekLVj fulkj us Hkh fFk;sVjksa ls gh flusek esa dne j[kkA ml tekus esa fFk;sVj ds nks e'kgwj ys[kd FksA iafMr csrkc vkSj vkxk gJ d'ehjhA mUgha ds Mªkeksa dks dydRrk esa [ksyk tkrk FkkA ekLVj fulkj bUgha vkxk gJ ls Vdjk;s vkSj mUgksua s ekLVj fulkj dh dkfcfy;r dks igpku dj vius Mªkeksa esa mUgsa dke nsuk 'kq: dj fn;kA tgkavkjk dTtu Hkh fFk;sVjksa esa Fkha vkSj ml flyflys esa ekLVj fulkj ds djhc vk;haA ekLVj fulkj us tgkavkjk dTtu ds lkFk ^ySyk etuw vkSj ^'khjh Qjgkn* tSls dbZ Mªkeksa esa dke djds [kwc 'kksgjr gkfly dhA ;wa rks ekLVj fnYyh ls 'kknh'kqnk gh vk;s Fks vkSj viuh choh dks dydRrk esa lkFk j[krs FksA ckn esa mudk jksekal dTtu ls jgkA 80

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ekLVj fulkj us fny [kksydj tgkavkjk dTtu ij iSlk yqVk;kA blds ckotwn oks muds dCts ls ckgj fudy x;hA v[kckj Ýh izsl tuZy ds ekfyd Fks Jh djukuh lkgcA dydRrk esa mudk Hkh bUnzizLFk uke dk viuk LVwfM;ks FkkA Jh djukuh 'kkSdhu fetkt ds vkneh FksA ekLVj fulkj us igys ^ySyk etuw* vkSj ^'khjh Qjgkn* tSls Mªkeksa ds tfj;s 'kksgjr gkfly dj nh FkhA ckn esa mUgsa fQYeksa esa fy;k tkus yxkA eknu fFk;sVj us ^ySyk etuw* vkSj ^'khjh Qjgkn* uked fQYesa cuk;haA bu fQYeksa esa Hkh ekLVj fulkj dks fy;k x;kA bu fFk;sVjksa ds ekfydksa esa ls ,d Jh djukuh FksA ekLVj fulkj dh dkfcfy;r ns[kdj eqEcbZ ds Jh ukuwHkkbZ mUgsa eqEcbZ ykus ds fy;s dydRrk tk igqpa As Jh ukuwHkkbZ dh eqEcbZ esa ljkst ewohVksu uke dh fQYe daiuh FkhA dydRrk ls ekLVj fulkj dks eqEcbZ ykdj vius cSuj rys igyh fQYe ^bZn dk nfj;k* cukbZA ml fQYe esa ekLVj fulkj dh ghjksbu Fkh ljnkj v[rjA blds ckn ekLVj fulkj Hkoukuh ewohVksu esa vk x;sA mlds ekfyd Fks ,e- HkoukuhA ekLVj fulkj dks ysdj mUgksaus viuh fQYe 'kq: dh ^'kgj ifjLrku* bl fQYe esa ekLVj fulkj ds lkFk ghjksbu Fkh fcOcks vkSj foyu t;jktA fcOcks fnYyh dh jgus okyh Fkh vkSj cM+h rst&rjkZj yM+dh FkhA og cksypky esa cM+s cM+ksa ds dku dkV nsrh FkhA ekLVj fulkj Hkh fnYyh ds jgus okys Fks vkSj fcOcks HkhA ,d rks ,d gh 'kgj ds jgus okys vkSj nwljh tokuh dh mezA ekLVj fulkj vkSj fcOcks fQYe ds nkSjku ,d nwljs ds dkQh djhc vkrs x;s vkSj ;s utnhfd;ka b'd esa cny x;ha vkSj ekLVj fulkj ,d ckj fQj b'd ds pDdj esa Qal dj fcOcks ij ikuh dh rjg iSlk cgkus yxsA fcOcks vkSj ekLVj fulkj dk b'd dkQh fnuksa rd pyrk jgkA exj 'kk;n ekLVj fulkj dh fdLer esa b'd dk lgh yqRQ mBkuk ugha FkkA igys tgkavkjk dTtu us Bqdjk fn;k FkkA blh nkSjku ekLVj fulkj us nwljh 'kknh dj yhA ;s 'kknh ufxZl ds HkkbZ v[rj gqluS dh lkyh lbZnk ls gks x;h vkSj mlls cPps Hkh gq,A


ekLVj fulkj us cgqr&lh fQYeksa esa dke fd;k vkSj iSlk Hkh [kwc dek;kA fdlh tekus esa ekLVj fulkj dh edcwfy;r dh bErgka ;s Fkh fd yksx mUgsa ns[kus ds fy, LVwfM;ks ds xsV ij [kM+s jgk djrs FksA ml oDr og ckyds'oj jksM ij ,d vkyh'kkg egy esa jgk djrs FksA blh fcfYMax esa ml oDr ds lHkh VkWi ds vkfVZLV tSls tn~nu ckbZ] ulhe ckuks] :i jkuh jgk djrs FksA muds [kq'kgkyh ds fnuksa esa ekLVj fulkj ds ikl lcls egaxh xkM+h ^jksM ekLVj M~;wd* gqvk djrh FkhA blds vykok vkSj Hkh dbZ xkfM+;ka muds ikl FkhaA mudh v;~;k'kh vkSj tsc[kpZ bl gn rd Fks fd lkjk iSlk mUgksua s ikuh dh rjg cgk fn;kA ftldk urhtk ;g gqvk fd mUgsa ckyds'oj dk viuk edku NksM+dj eqEcbZ lsUVªy fLFkr nks dejksa dk edku ysus ij etcwj gksuk iM+kA csrqds [kpZ dh bl vknr us mUgsa daxky ls fHk[kkjh ds eqdke ij yk fn;k vkSj tc muds ikl dqN Hkh ckdh ugha jgk] rks muds nksLr fcjknjh ds ,d&,d djds mudk lkFk NksM+ dj Hkkx [kM+s gks x;sA fQj rks mUgsa ;s edku Hkh NksMu+ k iM+k vkSj dekBhiqjk tSlh cnuke cLrh dh ,d [kksyh esa viuh ftUnxh ds ckdh fnu xqtkjuk iM+kA vc ftl ekLVj fulkj ds ;gka nl ikap yksx ;wa gh [kkrs&ihrs vkSj ,s'k djrs Fks] vc mlh ekLVj fulkj dks [kqn nkus&nkus ds fy, eksgrkt gks tkuk iM+kA jke vkSjxa kckn us vius ,d laLej.k esa fy[kk gS fd ,d fnu ekLVj fulkj jetku ds iwoZ laè;k ¼;kus bZn ds ,d fnu igys½ vthcksxjhc gkyr esa fn[ksA mUgsa ns[kdj jke vkSjaxkckn dh vka[kksa esa vkalw vk x;sA ekLVj fulkj tkuh okdj ds ?kj jetku dk ^fQrjk* ekaxus vk;sA tkuh HkkbZ us mUgsa ,d fyQkQk ns fn;kA irk pyk fd gj ckj dh rjg ekLVj fulkj bl ckj Hkh viuk fyQkQk ekaxus vk;s FksA tkuh HkkbZ us fyQkQk is'k fd;k rks mUgsa bl rjg >qddj mls fy;k fd ekuksa mUgksaus cgqr cM+k ,glku fd;k gksA tks vkneh jkg pyrs&pyrs igys mM+k nsrk Fkk gtkjksa #i;s mldk ;g gJ FkkA tc os pys x;s rks tkuh HkkbZ us crk;k fd gj lky bZn ds ekSds ij os vkrs gSa vkSj fcuk dqN dgs oks mUgsa fyQkQk Fkek nsrs FksA tn~nu ckbZ Hkh ekLVj fulkj dh dkQh enn djrh FkhA dbZ erZck rks mUgsa ,DLVªk dk jksy Hkh fnyok nsrh FkhA bruk gh ugha vkf[kjh fnuksa esa ekLVj fulkj dks tgka ls Hkh tks feyk

og ysdj mUgksua s viuk isV HkjkA fQYe vkfVZLV ,lksfl,'ku ds QaM ls pUnz'ks[kj th dh rjQ ls mUgsa gj eghus ekgokj dqN iSls feyk djrs FksA ftl ekLVj fulkj us ,s'kks vkjke ls viuh fiNyh ftUnxh xqtkjh Fkh] ml ekLVj fulkj us fry fry dj thrs gq, ,d fnu dekBhiqjk dh viuh vaèksjh [kksyh esa ne rksM+ fn;kA lc yksxksa us mudk lkFk t:j NksM+k] ysfdu ml gkyr esa Hkh tks muds dke vk;h Fkh oks mudh fnYyh okyh igyh choh FkhA mlus ftUnxh ds vkf[kjh fnuksa rd mudk lkFk fn;kA muds tukts esa dksbZ tkus okyk ugha Fkk] muds vafre laLdkj esa flQZ jke vkSjaxkckn dj] pUnz'ks[kj] muds lk<wHkkbZ v[rj gqlSu vkSj muds lkys lkgc gh mifLFkr FksA

yhyk fpVuhl dk fQYeksa esa vkdfLed izos'k yhyk fpVuhl eqEcbZ ds izFke Js.kh ds lsUV tsfo;lZ dkyst dh Nk=k gqvk djrh FkhaA os dkyst esa ges'kk lkaLd`frd dk;ZØeksa] okf"kZd xsnfjax] dUlVZl bR;kfn esa ckdk;nk fgLlk fy;k djrh FkhaA vkxs pydj mUgksaus ukVdksa esa fgLlk ysuk 'kq: dj fn;kA bl {ks= esa mudk uke Hkh gksus yxkA ,sls gh ,d fnu yhyk fpVuhl ds ifr MkDVj fpVuhl ds fe= ckcwHkkbZ feL=h muds ?kj vk;s FksA ckcwHkkbZ feL=h cgqr cM+s m|ksxifr ds csVs FksA ckrphr ds nkSjku ckcwHkkbZ feL=h us yhyk ls dgk] yhyk pyksA yhyk us dgk] dgka\ D;k ukSdjh oxSjg nsuh gS\ ckcwHkkbZ feL=h us dgk ^vkSj ugha rks D;k\* yhyk cu Bu dj ckcw HkkbZ ds lkFk lkxj LVwfM;ks igqaphA lkxj LVwfM;ks esa lkxj ds ekfyd pheuHkkbZ ls mudh eqykdkr gqbZA ckcwHkkbZ feL=h us vius vkus dk iz;kstu pheu HkkbZ dks crk;kA ckcwHkkbZ us dgk] ^yhyk esjs fe= dh iRuh gSA vfHku; dyk ls okfdQ gSA vxj vki yhyk dks fQYeksa esa dke nsa] rks ;g cgqr vPNk gksxkA* pheuHkkbZ izfrfnu LVwfM;ks vkdj vkSj dykdkjksa dks dke djrs ns[kus dks dgk vkSj gj ekg Ms<+ lkS osru r; dj fn;kA yhyk gj jkst lkxj LVwfM;ks tk;k djrha vkSj LVwfM;ks dk eqvk;uk fd;k djrh FkhaA blh nkSjku yhyk dks ^eUoarj* ukVd eaMyh dk flusek&2005

81


vkea=.k feykA yhyk eUoarj ls tqM+ x;hA og u;s okrkoj.k esa je x;haA eUoarj ds Hkkjr esa dk;ZØe gksrs jgsA bUgha ukVdksa ds flyflys esa mudk iM+ko ukxiqj esa gqvkA ukxiqj ds eqdke esa MkDVj ¼yhyk ds ifr½ vkSj Jh feJk th o lsB xksfoUn nkl ls igpku gqbZ vkSj vkxs pydj buls ?kfu"Vrk c<+ x;hA ;s nksuksa LVst 'kks ij vkus yxsA ,d fnu feJk th us yhyk] MkDVj fpV.khl vkSj lsB xkfoUn nkl dks vius ?kj [kkus dh nkor nhA Jh feJk th vkSj xksfoUnnkl tSls ys[kd vkSj jktuhfr esa Mwcs izfrf"Br O;fDr;ksa dks fQYe fuekZ.k dk Hkh 'kkSd gksxk] ;g fdlh ds Hkh ekuus tSls ckr ugha Fkh] ysfdu ml fnu Hkkstu ds ckn mUgksaus bl fQYe ds fo"k; ij ckr pyk;hA feJk th vkSj dksbZ ugha jktuhfr ds pk.kD; ds uke ls fo[;kr iafMr }kfjdk izlkn feJ Fks vkSj lsB xksfoUnnkl o"kksZa ls yksdlHkk lnL; jgsA }kfjdk izlkn feJ vkSj lsB xkfoUnnkl us dgk] ^gesa fQYe {ks= esa ØkfUr ykuk gSA geus viuh fp=iV fuekZ.k laLFkk LFkkfir dh vkSj mldk cdk;nk jftLVªs'ku Hkh djk fy;k gS] ^vkn'kZ fp=* uke gS fQYe fuekZ.k laLFkk dkA MkDVj fpV.khl dqN dgus gh okys Fks fd xksfoUnnkl th us dgk] ^ge yhyk th dk Mªkek ns[kk djrs gSa vkSj gesa mudh vnkdkjh cgqr ilan gS]

vius ^vkn'kZ fp=* esa ge flQZ vPNs ?kj ds dykdkjksa dks gh] ysus dh lksp jgs gSaA yhyk ftl ukVd laLFkk eUoarj ls tqM+h gqbZ Fkha] og laLFkk Hkh vkfFkZd n`f"V ls mrkj ij FkhA bu lc ckrksa dk fopkj djds mUgksaus fQYeksa esa dke djus dk fu.kZ; ys fy;k x;kA vkn'kZ fp= ds fy, fQYe ^èkqvkèkkaj* ds fy, djkj fd;k x;kA fjgZly 'kq: gks x;hA bl fQYe dh 'kwfVax dSusMh iqy ds djhc fLFkr T;ksfr LVwfM;ks esa 'kq: gqbZA fQYe cu dj rS;kj gqbZ vkSj ^d`".kk* tks vkt MªheySaM gS fFk;sVj esa izhfe;j gqvkA fQYe rks ckDl vkfQl ij dksbZ djrc ugah fn[kk ldh] ysfdu bl fQYe ls yhyk fpV.khl dk fQYeksa esa Jhx.ks'k gks x;kA ;g fQYe izfl) jktusrk lsB xksfoUnnkl vkSj pk.kD; ds uke ls izfl) e-iz- ds iwoZ eq[;ea=h feJk th dh FkhA ckEcs VkWdht dh daxu&cUèku&>wyk tSlh fQYeksa ds vfrfjDr 100 fQYeksa esa mUgksaus dke fd;k& ml tekus esa v'kksd dqekj muds uk;d FksA ckn esa mUgksaus lHkh rjg dh Hkwfedk,a dhaA ifjokj ds fy, Hkh cgqr dqN fd;kA csVs dks uk;d cukus ds fy, Hkh ,d fQYe Hkh cukbZ ysfdu mudh vafre voLFkk esa dksbZ dke ugha vk;kA 15 tqykbZ dks os vesfjdk esa vlgk; voLFkk esa ijyksd flèkkj xbZA

*** Hkkjrh; flusek ds 'kq:vkrh nkSj esa izR;sd LVwfM;ks ds ekfyd fQYe if=dk fudkyh tkrh Fkh] ftlesa ml LVwfM;ks eas fQYek;h lacafèkr iwjh tkudkjh gqvk djrh FkhA *** cgu ugha uke rks fQYeksa ls vk;k vfHkus=h dkfeuh dkS'ky dk uke flQZ dkfeuh Fkk] ij mUgksaus tksM+dj viuk fQYeh uke j[k fy;kA *** laxhrdkj ukS'kkn us jktsUnz dqekj&oghnk jgeku vfHkuhr fQYe laxhr fn;k Fkk] cfYd bldh dgkuh Hkh ukS'kkn us gh fy[kh *** ^lku vkSj vkokt* esa Hkh os ys[kd vkSj laxhrdkj FksA 82

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}kjk viuh [kqn dh tkus okyh fQYeksa ls

viuh cgu dk uke ^ikydh* dk u dsoy FkhA


pqEcdh; O;fDrRo dk èkuh panzeksgu

lokd fQYeksa ds vkjaHk esa uk;dksa dh tks igyh cgkj vk;h mlesa uhyh vka[kksa okys izfrHkk laiUu dykdkj panzeksgu FksA 'kkarkjke dh fQYe ^ve`r eaFku* tks 1934 esa cuh Fkh mlesa pUnzeksgu us vka[kksa ls gh vfHku; fd;kA fQYe 29 lIrkg pyh Fkh&;g ,d fjdkMZ FkkA Hkjk&iwjk 'kjhj] Åaph dndkBh] pedrh uhyh vka[ksa vkSj vHkwriwoZ vkd"kZ.k Fkk muesaA rdnhj ¼1943½ vkSj ^'kghn* 1948 esa os Øe'k% eksrhyky vkSj fnyhi dqekj ds firk dh Hkwfedkvksa esa FksA 1939 esa lksgjkc eksnh dh fQYe ^iqdkj* esa mUgksaus tgkaxhj dh U;k;fiz;rk dh Hkwfedk dks lkdkj fd;k FkkA vfHku; esa lgtrk vkSj LokHkkfodrk mudh fo'ks"krk FkhA egcwc [kka dh ^jksVh* esa muds 'kks"kd iwathifr ds fdjnkj dks yksx vkt Hkh ugha HkwysA mudk jksfcyk psgjk vkSj nenkj vkokt ls yxrk Fkk&tSls dksbZ lsukifr cksy jgk gSA jsl ds ?kksM+s mudh fiz; gkWch Fkh&'kjkc vkSj ikfVZ;ksa esa bUgsa tks Hkh feyk mM+k fn;kA jkeck.k] >adkj] iUuknkbZ] xhrk] QS'ku] ml ikj] cM+s uokc lkgc esa Hkh mudh fo'ks"k Hkwfedk FkhA d'ehj fLFkr ujflagiqj ds czkã.k ifjokj esa panzeksgu ^ve`r ds jkt xq#*] vej T;ksfr ds yaxM+s] ^'kdqaryk* esa nq";ar] iqdkj esa tgkaxhj dh ;knxkj Hkwfedk esa jkrksajkr LVkjMe rd igqap x;s FksA var mudk cgqr nq[kn jgk&cM+h eqlhcr vkSj xjhch esa os cgqr NksVh mez esa pys x;sA vafre le; esa eksrhyky muds vfHkUu fe= FksA os muls feyus x;s rc os Ldkp dh cksVy ysdj cSBs Fks&cksys rqEgkjh fQYeksa esa cki Fkk&csVs vk tk eSa vdsyk ugha ihrk ysfdu bl Ldkp dh cksVy esa ns'kh BjkZ Hkjk gSA rqe ugha ih ldksxsA dgrs gSa&blh voLFkk esa dsoy 45 o"kZ dh vk;q esa 1949 esa os py clsA

ekèko dkys % tks xqeukeh esa pys x;s rc fQYeksa esa vPNs [kkunku vkSj i<+s&fy[ks ifjokj ds yM+ds&yM+fd;ksa dk vfHku; {ks= esa vkuk vksNh ckr ekuk tkrk FkkA blh tekus esa nqxkZ [kksVs] ufyuh rj[kM+] ,ukKh jkekjko] ts-ds-uank] txnh'k lsBh vkSj ekèko dkys tSls yksxksa us bl ifjfèk dks rksM+dj fQYeksa esa izos'k fd;k FkkA ukfld 'kgj] tgka nknk lkgc Qkyds us viuh 'kq:vkrh ftUnxh dh 'kq:vkr dh Fkh] ogha ds ,d vPNs ?kjkus esa ekèko dkys dk tUe gqvk FkkA ekèko dkys vPNs dn dkBh ds vkSj le>nkj ukStoku FksA os iwuk ds MsDdu dkyst ls xzsT;q,V FksA mUgksaus fQYeksa esa viuk dSfj;j cukus dk ladYi fd;kA ekèko vius Ldwy&dkyst ds tekus ls gh ukVdksa esa c<+&p<+ dj fgLlk fy;k djrs FksA mUgksua s vfHku; esa vusd VªkfQ;ka thrh FkhaA ml tekus esa iz[;kr ukVddkj ekek ojsjdj us ekèko dkys dks fQYeksa esa izso'k fnyk;k Fkk] ysfdu muds ekrk&firk blds fy, jkth ugha FksA mUgsa vius ekrk&firk dks le>kus esa nks o"kZ yxs FksA mRlkgh ekèko dkys us iwf.kZek fiDplZ Tokbu fd;kA vkxs pydj mUgsa fQYe ^,t vkQ LisMl~ * esa ml tekus dh e'kgwj ghjksbu ekèkqjh ds lkFk eq[; uk;d dh Hkwfedk feyhA bl fQYe dks banqyky ;kfKd us cuk;k FkkA os Lora= Hkkjr ds Hkh cM+s usrk FksA ^cSxkcksUM yoj* esa ekèko dkys dh Hkwfedk cgqr ilan dh x;hA muds lkFk ,d u;h ghjksbu dks is'k fd;k x;k FkkA mldk uke Fkk eqerktA flusek&2005

83


tc lss fQYeksa us cksyuk 'kq: fd;k] ekèko dkys dks vius ukVd vkSj Mªkeksa dk igys dk vuqHko dke vk;kA mUgsa ewd ls cksyrh fQYeksa esa dke djus esa dksbZ fnDdr ugha vk;hA mUgksua s viuh fgUnh mnwZ ds mPpkj.k dks lkQ djus ds fy, dkQh esgur dhA mudh igyh cksyrh fQYe Fkh ^lar rqdkjke*A bl fQYe esa mUgksaus f'kokth dh Hkwfedk dh FkhA izHkkr us Hkh 1937 esa ^lar rqdkjke* uke dh ,d fQYe cuk;h FkhA ekèko us ,sfrgkfld] èkkfeZd vkSj QSUVslh fQYeksa esa dke fd;kA bu fQYeksa dks 'kkjnk vkSj ljkst ewohVksu us cuk;h FkhA 'kkjnk dh cuk;h gqbZ vusd fQYeksa esa mudh ukf;dk xkSgj dukZVdh Fkh] ftUgksaus vkxs pydj cky xaèkoZ ls 'kknh dj yh FkhA ljkst ewohVksu dh ^ekyrh ekèko* laLd`r ukVd ij vkèkkfjr FkhA mUgksaus vU; fQYeksa esa ljnkj v[rj ds lkFk Hkwfedk,a dhaA ;gh ljnkj v[rj vkxs pydj Jherh egcwc cuhA ekèko dkys dh loksZRd`"V fQYe ^nqfu;k D;k gS* FkhA bl fQYe esa yfyrk iokj dk mRd`"V vfHku; FkkA 1936 esa ekèko us ljLorh flusVksu dh ejkBh fQYe ^lkfo=h* esa yhyk ds lkFk vfHku; fd;k FkkA fgUnh vkSj ejkBh fQYeksa esa ghjks ds :i esa dke djus ds ckn 1943 esa ekèko us viuh fQYesa cukus dk dk;Z 'kq: fd;kA mUgksaus viuh igyh fQYe ^lPpk liuk* cukbZA mlesa Lo;a ,d vge Hkwfedk fuHkk;h Fkh] ysfdu ;g fQYe cqjh rjg fiV x;hA blds ckn ekèko dkys dks ,DLVªk ds jksy esa dke djuk iM+kA dqN o"kZ igys ekèko vius oru ukfld esa xqeukeh esa bl nqfu;k dks NksM+ x;sA

mek 'kf'k dk vkxeu mek [kwclwjr MhyMkSy okyh] u'khyh vka[kksa rFkk lsc tSls xkyksa okyh Hkjh&Hkjh vfHkus=h FkhA og vius Hkkoksa ls ,d ?kjsyw vkSj xq.kksa dk vackj yxrh Fkh] ysfdu mek 'kf'k Hkh dydRrs dh lksukxkNh ,fj;k dh xkus&ukpus okyh ckbZ dh csVh FkhA U;w fFk;sVlZ fQYe daiuh ds funsZ'kd Q.kh etwenkj ds vuqlkj mek 'kf'k dh eka viuh o`)koLFkk esa gkFk esa eathjs ysdj xfy;ksa esa Hktu xk;k djrh FkhA mek 'kf'k ek= rsjg&pkSng o"kZ dh Fkh] rHkh ls og 84

flus e k&2005

flusek ds LVst ij ukpus dk dke djus yxh Fkh] ;gka rd fd fQYe n'kZdksa dk eè;kUrj esa euksjta u ds fy, cqyk;h tkrh FkhA iqjkus tekus esa ewd fQYeksa ds tekus esa tc ijns ij fQYesa fn[kk;h tkrh Fkha] rks izkstsDVj e'khu ,d gh gqvk djrh FkhA blfy, iwjh fQYe ds izn'kZu esa nks ;k rhu ckj bUVjoy gqvk djrs Fks A bUVjoy ds le; n'kZdksa ds fy, bl rjg dh ukpus okyh yM+fd;ksa dh vko';drk gqvk djrh FkhA dydRrk esa mek 'kf'k dk Hkh bu ukpus okfy;ksa ds :i esa fQYeksa esa izos'k gqvk FkkA mek 'kf'k dh [kwclwjrh ls izHkkfor gksdj caxky dh igyh lkekftd fQYe ^baXySM fjVuZ* ds funsZ'kd èkhjsu xkaxqyh mls ewd fQYeksa dh ghjksbu ds :i esa LVst ls fQYeh ijns ij ys vk;s Fks] ijUrq mek 'kf'k e'kgwj gqb± 1932&33 esa cuh fQYe ^paMhnkl* lsA og fQYe [kwc pyhA bl fQYe esa og ds-,ylgxy ds lkFk ghjksbu FkhaA fQj rks mek 'kf'k us viuh lQyrk ds >aMs xkM+ fn;sA bl fQYe esa mek 'kf'k dk xk;k gqvk ^izse uxj esa cukÅaxh ?kj eSa rt ds lc lalkj* cgqr ilan fd;k x;kA ml le; izseh ;qxy ;gh xhr xk;k djrs FksA

fel dTtu fQYeksa esa dSls vk;ha

fel dTtu vius tekus esa ,d vQykrwu ukf;dk FkhaA vly esa rks iVuk 'kgj ds ,d uokc dh j[kSy dh csVh Fkha] ijUrq mudh eka csVh ds toku gks tkus ij iq=h dks ysdj dydRrk 'kgj Hkkx vk;hA blds ckn dydRrk dh cnuke cLrh esa ukp xkus vkSj eqtjs dh 'kq:vkr gqbZA la;ksx ls ,d jkr lsB lq[kyky fel dTtu dh Nkouh esa tk igqpa As djukuh lsB igyh gh utj esa tgkavkjk ij fQnk gks x;s vkSj mls vius ;gka mBk yk;sA eka csVh muds lkFk jgus yxhaA mls ysdj mUgksaus ,d ukVd cuk;k uke Fkk ^fnytyh cSjkxu* A ukVd [kwc pyk vkSj tgkavkjk dTtu yksxksa ds fnyksfnekx ij Nk x;haA ftlls izHkkfor gksdj lsB lq[kyky djukuh us fQYe ykbu esa izos'k fd;kA muds ukVdksa ds ghjks ekLVj fulkj FksA ekLVj fulkj vPNs xk;d Hkh FksA os dTtu ds lkFk fQYeh ijns ij ghjks cusA djukuh lsB us viuh bZLV bafM;k fQYe daiuh ds


cSuj rys ,d ds ckn ,d dbZ fQYesa cuk;haA blesa ls ^xjhc dh yM+dh] lkSrsyh eka] ySyk etuw] 'khjh Qjgkn rFkk xqys cdkoyh vkfn eq[; gSaA bu fQYeksa ls fel dTtu vkSj ekLVj fulkj [kwc pedsA exj blh chp U;w fFk;sVlZ ds vkxeu ls dksfdydaBh dkuuckyk rFkk mek'kf'k tSlh vfHkusf=;ksa ds lkeus dTtu dh dksbZ dher u jg x;hA vkf[kjdj mls djukuh lsB vkSj mudh fQYe daiuh dks NksMd + j eqEcbZ Hkkx tkuk iM+kA djukeh lsB us fel dUtu dks uksVksa dh lkM+h igukbZ Fkh& 1945 esa dsoy 45 o"kksaZ dh mez esa mudk fuèku gks x;kA 30&40 ds n'kd esa dsoy vkfQl esa dke djus okyh dU;k gh vkfQl ls LVwfM;ks igqpa rh FkhA

fQYeksa dh [kwclwjr ukf;dk t;Jh vxj fdlh us iwNk fd Hkkjr esa fQYe txr esa [kwclwjr vfHkus=h dkSu gS] rks vkidks tokc feysxk t;JhA t;Jh vius ekrk&firk ds lkFk eqEcbZ esa jgk djrh FkhA cpiu ls gh mls vfHku; vkSj laxhr esa #fp jgh gS] ;g lksus esa lqgkxk lkfcr gqvkA t;Jh ek= nl o"kZ dh Fkh rks mlds firk us mls iq.ks fLFkr izHkkr ys x;s] ysfdu ogka 'kkarkjke ckiw us igyh utj esa ns[krs gh mls ^fjtsDV* dj fn;kA blds dkj.k mldh lkjh vk'kkvksa vkdka{kkvksa ij ikuh fQj x;k] ysfdu mlds firk us t;Jh dks fujk'k ugha gksus fn;kA og ukVdksa esa dke djus yxh vkSj dyk izsfe;ksa dk è;ku vkdf"kZr djus yxh] yksdfiz; cuus yxhA firk ds LoxZokl gksus ds ckn og vius HkkbZ&cguksa ds lkFk vius dkdk ds ?kj jgus yxhA t;Jh vius firk ds ,d ije fe= ckcwjko ekyisdj dh enn ls ^;ax bafM;k* esa fjdkfMZxa ds fy, tkus yxhA mlds xkuksa ds fjdkMZ vkSj dSlsV fudyus yxsA ,sls gh ,d fjdkfMZax ds oDr fljkt vyh gdhe ogka ièkkjsA os fuekZrk FksA os viuh vkxkeh fQYe ^pUnzjko eksjs* ds fy, dykdkjksa dks [kkst jgs FksA t;Jh dk psgjk eksgjk ns[kdj vkSj mldh vkokt lqudj mUgksaus mls fQYe ds ,d jksy ds fy, pqu fy;kA ^pUnzjko eksjs* fQYe py x;h vkSj t;Jh dks vfHku; dk ekSdk fey x;k] og py iM+hA t;Jh dks vkSj ,d daiuh dk cqykok vk;kA ;g fQYe Fkh ds'kojko ?kk;cj dh

^uUndqekj*A ;g fQYe fgUnh vkSj ejkBh nksuksa Hkk"kkvksa esa FkhA vfHku; dk ekSdk feyk vkSj blds ckn mlus ljLorh flusVksu dh ^ek>;h ykM+dh* esa izeq[k Hkwfedk fuHkk;hA ;g fQYe cgqr e'kgwj gqbAZ t;Jh dh bl izxfr dks ns[kdj 'kkUrkjke us viuh fQYe ^'kstkjh* ds fy, mls vuqcfa èkr dj fy;kA fQYe ^'kstkjh* esa dke djrs gq, t;Jh vkSj 'kkarkjke ,d nwljs ds djhc vk;s vkSj os nksuksa fookg lw= esa caèk x;sA blds ckn 'kkarkjke us izHkkr NksM+ nh vkSj t;Jh dks ysdj eqEcbZ vk x;sA jktdey eafnj dh LFkkiuk gqbZ vkSj ^egkdfo dkfynkl* ds ik= 'kkdqarye ij vkèkkfjr ^'kdqaryk* dh ?kks"k.kk dhA ^'kdqaryk* esa t;Jh us vYgM+ r#.kh ] drZO;ijk;.kk iRuh] Lusfgy ekrk tSlh frgjh Hkwfedk fuHkk;h FkhA mlus bl fQYe ls [kwc iz'kalk cVksjhA blds ckn ^MkW-dksVful* vkSj ^ijNkbZ* esa Hkwfedk,a fuHkk;haA gkykafd t;Jh us cgqr de fQYeksa esa dke fd;k] ysfdu og izflf) ds f'k[kj ij igqap x;hA t;Jh 'kq:vkrh nkSj esa vius xkus [kqn xk;k djrh Fkha] ysfdu ^ijNkbZ* ls mlus ^mèkkj* dk Loj viuk;kA muds nks yM+fd;ka vkSj ,d csVk gSA csVh jktJh Hkh izfl) ukf;dk cudj ,d vejhdh ls 'kknh jpkdj vejhdk pyh x;hA csVk vktdy jktdey laHekyrk gS vkSj Lo- 'kkarkjke dk izfr"Bku& fdj.k 'kkarkjke eqacbZ ds FksA

equOoj lqyrkuk % fny tyrk gS rks tyus nks lgxy dh [kkst dks fny Fkkedj ,d xhr 1945 esa cgqr vfèkd edcwy gqvk FkkA vfuy nk ds funs'Z ku esa eqd's k us xk;k ^fny tyrk gS rks tyus nks* vkalw u cgk] Qfj;kn u dj fQYe igyh utjA eksrhyky ,oa ch.kk Fks uk;d&ukf;dk vkSj blh esa equOoj lqyrkuk Hkh FkhaA nnZ esa lqjS;k vkSj ckcqy esa ujfxl ds lkFk lgukf;dkA os ukf;dk Hkh cuhaA izfl) ghjks ';ke ds lkFk etcwj] nknk] duht] jkr dh jkuh] lqjUs nz ds lkFk ,syku vkSj esjh dgkuh] etgj [kku ds lkFk uS;k vkSj lksuk rFkk ;kdwc ds lkFk fuLcr fQYeksa esa os vk;haA yxHkx 30 fQYeksa dh ppkZ Hkh mUgsa pfpZr drkj esa u j[k ldhA flusek&2005

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pUnwyky 'kkg dh thou lafxuh % xkSgj D;k tekuk Fkk mudk] fdruk uke Fkk mudkA xkSgj igyh ckj ^cSfjLVj dh choh* esa fQYeh ijns ij vk;haA bl fQYe esa mUgksua s lcdh vka[kksa dks pdkpkSaèk dj fn;kA xkSgj us ewd fQYeksa ls viuh vfHku; ;k=k dh 'kq:vkr dhA cksyrh fQYeksa esa Hkh muds dke dh [kwc rkjhQ gqbAZ pUnwyky 'kkg ls feyus ds ckn xkSgj us txnh'k fQYe daiuh dh 'kq:vkr dhA ckn esa j.kthr fQYe daiuh dh LFkkiuk dhA ;g laLFkk ,d daiuh dh rjg Fkh vkSj gj eghus ,d fQYe cuk;k djrh FkhA fel xkSgj dk uke blfy, Hkh yksxksa dh tcku ij jgrk gS D;ksafd mUgksaus txnh'k fQYe daiuh dh fQYe ^fo'o eksfguh* esa rhu&rhu jksy ,d lkFk fd;s FksA igyh ckj fdlh vfHkus=h us fdlh fQYe esa rhu Hkwfedk,a dh FkhaA

csxe ikjk % ykbQ eSxthu esa ftudh rLohj Nkih Fkh dksfj;u ;q) dk tekuk FkkA ^ykbQ* eSxthu us ,f'k;k fo"k; dks ysdj ,d [kkl vad fudkyk FkkA Hkkjr dk izfrfufèkRo fd;k Fkk eqEcbZ dh jgus okyh fQYe dykdkj csxe ikjk usA csxe ikjk viuh [kwclwjrh rFkk xqnkt cnu ds fy, e'kgwj FkhA og vyhx<+ fo'ofo|ky; ls Lukrd FkhaA la;ksxo'k bl ys[kd us oks QksVks] tks ykbQ eSxthu us vius fo'ks"k vad esa Nkik Fkk] ns[kk FkkA Ldwy ds fnuksa esa vytsczk dh iqLrd esa eSaus csxe lkfgck dk QksVks j[kk FkkA ihfj;M 'kq: gqvkA f'k{kd d{kk esa vk;s vkSj fdrkc ekaxhA eSaus fdrkc ns nhA Vhpj us fdrkc [kksyh rks mUgsa ikjk ds n'kZu gq,A mUgksua s dgk] cgqr [kwc] cgqr [kwcA vytsckz tSls fo"k; ds fy, ;s pVuh dk dke djsaxhA eSa rks 'keZ ls ikuh&ikuh gks x;kA ;s NksVh&lh ?kVuk esjs laLej.k dk ,d vge fgLlk cu x;h gSA eSa tc Hkh csxe ikjk dk QksVks ns[krk gwa ;k mlds ckjs esa i<+rk gwa rks ;g ?kVuk ;kn gks vkrh gSA csxe ikjk ds firk lkeUrh fetkt ds O;fDr FksA mUgksaus dHkh ;s ugha lkspk Fkk fd mudh dksbZ lUrku fQYe ls tqM+sxhA csxe ikjk us [kqn Hkh dHkh fQYeksa ds ckjs esa ugha lkspk FkkA og vyhx<+ esa jgrh Fkha fQYesa ns[k fy;k djrh FkhA 86

flus e k&2005

eksrhyky muds ilanhnk dykdkj FksA gj g¶rs fcuk ukxk mUgsa i= fy[kk djrh FkhaA bl nkSjku csxe ikjk ds HkkbZ dydRrk x;s vkSj ml oDr dh izfl) vfHkus=h ,oa funsfZ 'kdk izfrek nklxqIrk ls C;kg jpk;kA NqfV~V;ksa esa eqEcbZ vkrha rks izfrek mls vius lkFk LVwfM;ks ys tkrhaA bl rjg os fQYeksa esa vk;haA mudh igyh fQYe ^izHkkr ¼iq.ks½ dh ^pkan* FkhA og fQYe ml tekus ¼1945½ esa lqij fgV fQYe lkfcr gqbAZ ^pkan* dk laxhr iafMr vejukFk ds nks NksVs Hkkb;ksa us] gqLuyky vkSj Hkxrjke us fn;k FkkA blh fQYe ls laxhrdkj tksMh+ dk flyflyk 'kq: gqvkA blh fQYe esa fQYe ^jru* dh lkbM ghjksbu eatw tks Jherh dj.k nhoku Hkh Fkh] ds NksVs HkkbZ ckydjke us Hkh ,d Hkwfedk dh FkhA ^nks fnyksa dks ;s nqfu;k thus Hkh ugha nsrh* fgV xhr xk;k FkkA 1945&1955 ds n'kd esa mlus ^'kgukbZ] vkxks'k] gaxkek] vaxkjs] uxhuk] uktuhu] nk;jk vkfn fQYeksa ds ghjks ulhj [kku ls C;kg fd;kA ikjk dgrh gSa tc og eqEcbZ vk;h vkSj fØdsV Dyc vkQ bafM;k esa eksrhyky ls feyh rks og mUgsa ns[krs gh jg x;hA vkxs pydj nksuksa vPNs fe= cu x;sA 1974 esa mUgksaus fQj fQYe m|ksx esa vkdj fdLer vktekus ds fy, fQYe dk fuekZ.k fd;kA nksuksa vkmVMksj ds fy, ve`rlj x;sA ogha ulhj dks gkVZvVSd vk;k vkSj mudk bUrdky gks x;kA fnyhi dqekj us HkkbZ dh vkfFkZd lgk;rk djus ds fy, ^xaxk teuk* dk fuekZrk mUgsa cuk;k FkkA

eSa fQYeksa esa dSls vk;h% ufyuh t;oUr ufyuh t;oUr nl lky dh mez esa vius fucaèk esa fy[k x;h Fkh fd og fQYeksa esa dke djuk pkgrh FkhA fy[k rks og x;h vkSj rkTtqc dh ckr fd nks lky ckn gh mls fQYe esa dke djus dk ekSdk feykA cjlksa igys ufyuh us tc fQYe txr esa dne j[kk Fkk ml le; lekt esa yM+fd;ksa dk fQYeksa esa dke djuk Bhd ugha le>k tkrk FkkA i<+us esa mldk eu ugha yxrk FkkA gka iguus&vks<+us dk mls cgqr gh 'kkSd FkkA og xqfM+;k dh rjg


brjkrh jgk djrh FkhA xkus dk 'kkSd FkkA ejkBh ukV~; laxhr dk cM+k pko FkkA ufyuh 'kksHkuk leFkZ ls ckjg&rsjg o"kZ NksVh FkhA 'kksHkuk leFkZ ;kuh ljkstrkbZ ufyuh t;oUr dh QqQsjh cgu gqvk djrh FkhA ufyuh t;oUr vkt dy ds MªheySaM flusek?kj ds ihNs f=Hkqou jksM ij fo|kFkhZ x`g esa jgk djrh FkhA ogka fo|kFkhZ fdjk;s ij dejs ysdj jgk djrs Fks blfy, bls fo|kFkhZ Hkou dgk tkrk FkkA vklikl cgqr lkjs flusek?kj FksA ufyuh vkSj mlds NksVs HkkbZ dks fQYesa ns[kus dk pLdk yxkA flusekgky ds Mksjdhijksa ls nksLrh dj yh vkSj eq¶r esa fQYesa ns[kus yxhA mu fnuksa us'kuy LVwfM;ks uke dh u;h fQYe daiuh 'kq: gqbZ FkhA mudh fQYe esa nsonklh dh Hkwfedk ds fy, ,d NksVh yM+dh dh t:jr FkhA bl rjg 1941 esa ufyuh us fQYe ^jkfèkdk* esa ukf;dk dh Hkwfedk fuHkk;hA LokfLrd flusek?kj ds ckDl esa cSBdj mlus og izhfe;j 'kks ns[kkA ljkstuh uk;Mw us mls xksn esa fcBkdj [kwc ljkgkA vius Hkk"k.k eas mUgksaus dgk fd vc laHkzkUr ?kjksa dh yM+fd;ka vfHku; ds {ks= esa dne j[k jgh gaSA bl ?kVuk dk Lokxr gSA blds ckn mldh ^vka[k fepkSyh*] ^vknkc vtZ* fQYesa vk;haA vBkjg lky dh mez esa mlus ^jkfèkdk* ds funs'Z kd ohjsUnz nslkbZ ls 'kknh dj yhA dPph mez esa FkhA viuh mez ls dkQh cM+h mez ds ohjsUnz nslkbZ ls 'kknh djds cgqr cM+h xyrh mlus dhA ckn esa rykd ys fy;k] ysfdu fQYeh nqfu;k mlus ugha NksM+hA ohjsUnz nslkbZ us fQfYeLrku esa nks o"kZ rd bUrtkj fd;k ysfdu ,l- eqdthZ us mudks fQYe ugha nhA fQj mUgksaus ,d dgkuh misUnzukFk v'd ls fy[kokbZ fQj Hkh ufyuh dks dke ugha feykA dke dh dfBu 'krZ ;gh Fkh fd fnXn'kZu feys rks ukf;dk ufyuh gks] ysfdu nksuksa gh 2 o"kZ rd bUrtkj djrs jgsA ckn esa mUgksaus equh jkth vkSj dkyk ikuh esa dke fd;kA

';ke vkSj lvknr glu eaVks dh fe=rk % eaVks dh Le`fr esa tc os ikxy[kkus esa Fks tc eSaus ;g [kcj i<+h rks lkFk okys dejs ds ikxy ls dgk] ^tkurs gks] esjk ,d cgqr gh utnhdh vtht nksLr ej x;k gS\

^^mlus iwNk] ^dkSu\* eSaus cqyUn vkokt esa dgka] ^^';ke!** ^^dgka\ ;gka ikxy[kkus esa\** eSaus dksbZ mRrj u fn;kA uhps Åij dbZ fp= esjs foOgy fnekx esa mHkjs] ftuesa ';ke FkkA eqLdjkrk ';ke] galrk ';ke vkSj 'kksj epkrk ';keA thou ls Hkjiwj ';ke] e`R;q vkSj mldh Hk;adjrk ls fcydqy vufHkK vifjfpr ';keA eSaus lkspk tks dqN eSaus i<+k gS fcydqy xyr gS % v[kckj us >wB fy[kk gksxkA èkhjs&èkhjs fof{kIrrk dh èkqaèk fnekx ls gVus yxh vkSj eSa chrh gqbZ ?kVukvksa dks muds okLrfod :i ls ns[kus yxk] fdUrq ;g Øe bruk èkhek Fkk fd tc eSa ';ke dh ekSr ds nq?kZVukiw.kZ lekpkj ls ifjfpr gqvk rks eq>s tcjnLr èkDdk u yxkA cl eyck jg x;k Fkk] vkfgLrk&vkfgLrk ftldh eSa [kqnkbZ dj jgk FkkA VwVh&QwVh bZaVksa ds <sj esa dgha ';ke dh eqLdqjkgV nch gqbZ fey tkrh FkhA dgha mldk ckadk BgkdkA eSa vkSj esjk ân;] tks dsoy blfy, 'kksd ls larIr gSa fd og mlds egkizk.k ds fljgkus ukjk cqyUn u dj ldk% ';ke ftUnkckn! eq>s fo'okl gS] ekSr ds gkaBs ksa dks cM+s izes ls pwers gq, mlus vius fo'ks"k vankt esa dgk gksxk] eaVks! [kqnk dh dle~! bu gksBksa dk etk dqN vkSj gh gSA ';ke vkf'kd vkSj izseh Fkk % b'd is'kk ugha FkkA og gj [kwclwjr vkSj lqUnj pht ij ejrk FkkA esjh èkkj.kk gS fd ekSr vo'; [kwclwjr gksxh ojuk og dHkh ugaha ejrkA ';ke flQZ cksry vkSj vkSjr dk jfl;k ugha FkkA thou esa ftruh fu;kersa] ftruh lqUnj oLrq,a miyCèk gSa] og mu lcdk vkf'kd FkkA vPNh iqLrd ls Hkh og mlh rjg I;kj djrk Fkk ftl izdkj ,d vPNh vkSjr ls djrk FkkA mldh eka mlds cpiu esa gh ej x;h Fkh] exj mldks viuh lkSrsyh eka ls Hkh oSlk gh izse Fkk tks okLrfod eka ls gks ldrk FkkA mlds NksVs&NksVs lkSrsys HkkbZ cgu FksA bu lcdks og viuh tku ls vfèkd fiz; le>rk FkkA bl le; rd og cM+h rUe;rk ds lkFk nkSyr vkSj 'kksgjr izkIr djus ds fy, gkFk&ikao ekjrk jgkA bl chp HkkX; us mls dbZ iyVs fn;sA exj og galrk jgk % I;kjhA ,d fnu ,slk vk;sxk fd rw esjh cxy esa gksxh vkSj dbZ cjlksa ds ckn flusek&2005

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og fnu vk gh x;k fd nkSyr vkSj 'kksgjr mldh tsc esa FkhA ekSr ls igys mldh vkenuh gtkjksa #i;s ekgokj FkhA eqEcbZ ds ckgj ,d [kwclwjr caxyk mldh lEifRr Fkh vkSj dHkh oks fnu Fks fd mlds ikl flj Nqikus dh txg ugha Fkh] fdUrq xjhch vkSj eqQfylh ds bu fnuksa esa Hkh og galrk gqvk izlUu ';ke FkkA nkSyr vkSj 'kksgjr vk;h rks mlus mldk ;ksa Lokxr u fd;k ftl rjg yksx fMIVh dfe'uj ;k fefuLVj dk djrs gSAa ;s nksuksa Jhefr;ka mlds ikl vk;ha rks mlus budks Hkh viuh yksgs dh pkjik;h ij fcBk fy;k vkSj xje&xje pqEcu fy;sA eSa vkSj og ,d Nr ds uhps jgrs FksA rks nksuksa dh gkyr iryh FkhA fQYe baMLVªh ns'k dh jktuhfr dh rjg ,d cM+s gh uktqd nkSj ls xqtj jgh FkhA eSa eqEcbZ VkWdht esa eqykfte FkkA mldk ogka ,d fiDpj dk dkaVªDs V FkkA nl gtkj #i;s esAa dkQh fnuksa dh csdkjh ds ckn mldks ;g dke feyk Fkk] ysfdu le; ij iSls ugha feyrs FksA ';ke vkSj eq>s dHkh eglwl rd u gqvk fd geesa ls dkSu [kpZ dj jgk gS vkSj fdruk dj jgk gSA ,d fnu mls cM+h dksf'k'kksa ds ckn ,d eksVh&lh jde feyh ¼'kk;n ikap lkS #i;s½A esjh tsc [kkyh FkhA ge eykM ls ?kj tk jgs FksA g¶rs esa ';ke dk ;g izksxzke cu x;k fd og ppZxsV ds fdlh nksLr ls feyus tk;sxkA esjk LVs'ku vk;k rks mlus tsc ls nl&nl #i;s ds uksVksa dh xM~Mh fudkyhA vka[k ewna dj mlds nks fgLls fd;s vkSj eq>ls dgk ^^tYnh djksA ekaVks] buesa ls ,d ys yksA eSaus xM~Mh dk ,d fgLlk idM+dj tsc esa Mky fy;k vkSj IysVQkeZ ij mrj x;kA eSa ;gka ykgkSj esa fQYe m|ksx dh lkspuh; n'kk vkSj viuh dgkuh ^BaMk xks'r* ds eqdnes ds dkj.k cgqr ijs'kku FkkA vnkyr us eq>s vijkèkh Bgjk dj rhu eghus ds dBksj dkjkokl vkSj lkS #i;s tqekZus dh ltk nh FkhA esjk fny bl dnj [kV~Vk gks x;k Fkk fd th pkgrk Fkk fd viuh leLr lkfgfR;d d`fr;ksa dks vkx esa >kSad nwa vkSj dksbZ èkaèkk 'kq: dj nwa] ftldk uSfrdrk ls dksbZ lacaèk u gksA ftl ij dkuwu ds nkosnkj] 'kfDr vkSj O;oLFkk ds Bsdsnkj dksbZ izgkj u dj ldsaA vkfFkZd fLFkfr dqN igys gh detksj FkhA vklikl ds okrkoj.k us tc fudEek vkSj fuf"Ø; dj fn;k rks vkenuh ds 88

flus e k&2005

lhfer lkèku vkSj Hkh ladqfpr gks x;sA ,d fnu eq>s fdlh vkSj ds ?kj ds irs ij ,d [kr feykA fy[kk Fkk fd eSa QkSju feywa eqEcbZ esa mUgsa esjs ckjs esa dksbZ fgnk;r izkIr gqbZ gSA eqEcbZ ls mUgsa ';ke ds ,d ds ckn ,d rkj feys fd eq>s <wa<+ dj ikap lkS #i;s ns fn;s tk,aA eSa tc n¶rj igqapk rks og ';ke ds rkts rkdhnh rkj dk tokc fy[k jgs Fks fd dkQh <wa<+ [kkst djus ds ckotwn mUgsa eaVks ugha fey ldk gSA eSaus #i;s ys fy;s vkSj esjh vka[kksa esa vkalw vk x;sA ns'k foHkktu ij fgUnw&eqlyekuksa esa [kwuh tax tkjh Fkh vkSj nksuksa vksj ds gtkjksa vkneh jkstkuk ej jgs gSaA ';ke vkSj eSa jkoyfiaMh ls Hkkxs gq, ,d fl[k ifjokj ds ikl cSBs FksA og O;fDr vius rktk t[eksa dh dgkuh lquk jgs Fks tks cgqr gh nnZukd FkhA ge ogka ls fonk gq, rks eSaus ';ke ls dgk] eSa eqlyeku gwa D;k rqEgkjk th ugha pkgrk fd esjh gR;k dj nks\ eqEcbZ esa lkEiznkf;d ruko fnu&izfrfnu c<+rk tk jgk FkkA --------- xqeuke i= izkIr gksus yxs ftlesa LVwfM;ks dks vkx yxkus vkSj ejus ekjus dh èkefd;ka gksrh FkhaA v'kksd vkSj okpk nksuksa dks bu èkefd;ksa dh dksbZ ijokg ugha FkhA mudks jk; nh x;h fd os eq>s ckEcs Vkdht ls vyx dj nsa] D;ksafd fgUnw ;g le>rs Fks fd dsoy esjs dkj.k eqlyeku ogka LFkku ik jgs gSaA exj mUgksaus dgk fd esjk fnekx [kjkc gSA tc esjs jokuk gksus dk le; vk;k rks mlus vkyekjh ls czkUMh dh cksry fudkyhA nks iSx cuk;s vkSj ,d eq>s fn;kA ';ke us Bgkdk yxkrs gq, eq>s vius pkSM+s lhus ls lkFk Hkhap fy;kA ^^lqvj dgha ds!** eSaus vius vkalw jksdsA ';ke us izseiwoZd ukjk cqyUn fd;k % ^^ftUnkckn ikfdLrkuA** ^^ftUnkckn fgUnqLrkuA** vkSj eSa uhps pyk x;k tgka Vªd okyk esjh izrh{kk dj jgk FkkA

'kkUrk gqcyhdj % tks Hkwr Hkh cuh Fkh og csyxkao dh jgus okyh FkhA muds iM+ksl esa ckck lkgc csgsjs jgk djrs FksA ,d fnu ckck lkgc vius cPpksa ds lkFk fQYe ns[kus x;s FksA lkFk esa 'kkark gqcyhdj Hkh FkhA ;g fQYe Fkh ljLorh flusVksu dh Jh nknk lkgsc rksj.ks dh cuk;h


gqbZ ^HkDr izgykn*A fQYe ns[kus ds ckn 'kkUrk gqcyhdj ds fnekx esa Hkh [kqn fQYeksa esa dke djus dh bPNk tkxhA 'kkark us ckck ls dgk] ^^ckck D;k eq>s Hkh fQYeksa esa dke fey ldsxk\ ckck us tokc fn;k] ^^ns[ksaxs!** ckr vk;h x;h gks x;hA ,d fnu 'kkUrk xkuk xk jgh FkhA ogka ij oklqnos jko f'kUns Hkh ekStwn FksA os dksYgkiqj ds estj fuackydj dh iRuh dks gkjeksfu;e fl[kk jgs FksA os dksYgkiqj flusVksu ds O;oLFkkid Hkh FksA ckck us oklqnso f'kUns ls dgk] ^^;g ¼'kkUrk gqcyhdj½ flusek esa dke djuk pkgrh gSA D;k bls dke fey ldrk gS\** oklqnso us ckck ls dgk] ^^vki bls dksYgkiqj ys vkb,A eSa vkidh fuEckydj ls eqykdkr djok nwaxkA fey tk;sxk dkeA** bl rjg 'kkUrk gqcyhdj] ckck lkgsc csgsjs ds lkFk dksYgkiqj vk x;hA fQYe ^HkDr izgykn* ds ckn nknk lkgsc rksj.ks viuh vkus okyh fQYe ^Bdlsu* dj jgs FksA mUgsa dqN yM+fd;ksa dh t:jr FkhA rksj.ks ds ,d lkgc 'kkUrk dks ysus vk;sA 'kkUrk rksj.ks ls feyh] ysfdu de ixkj ds ekeys dks ysdj ckr vkxs u c<+ ldhA ,d fnu fuEckydj us 'kkUrk gqcyhdj dk xkuk lquus dh bPNk tkfgj dhA oklqnso jko 'kkUrk ls nks xkuksa dh rS;kjh dj] fuEckydj ds ?kj igqapsA nknk fuEckydj dks xkus cgqr ilUn vk;sA mUgksaus 'kkUrk vkSj oklqnso jko dks ckcwjko is<a kjdj ls feyus dks dgkA is<a kjdj dksYgkiqj flusVksu esa dyk foHkkx ds eSustj FksA 'kkUrk] oklqnso jko vkSj ckck] isa<+kjdj ls feysA ckcwjko isa<kjdj us baVjO;w fy;kA xkus lqus vkSj mUgksaus 'kkark gqcyhdj dks 65 #i;s ekgokj ij nks lky ds fy, dkaVªsDV ij j[k fy;kA dksYgkiqj flusVksu esa Hkkyth is<a kjdj ^dkfy;k enZu* cuk jgs FksA ml fQYe esa 'kkUrk gqcyhdj us NksVs&eksVs jksy fd;sA blds ckn mudh ^xaxkorj.k* dh 'kq:vkr gqbAZ bl fQYe esa 'kkUrk dks xaxk dh eka dh Hkwfedk feyhA bl fQYe esa 'kkUrk us vkSj ,d fdjnkj fuHkk;k tks Hkwr dk FkkA lkFk gh lkFk xkus dk Hkh ekSdk feykA

bl izxfr dks ns[krs gq, 'kkUrk dks u;h fQYe daiuh 'kkfyuh flusVksu dh ^lark dkUgksik=k* esa ,d vge Hkwfedk feyh vkSj bl rjg 'kkUrk gqcyhdj dk dSfj;j py fudykA

Lusg izHkk % fQYeksa esa izos'k dSls gqvk\ Lusg izHkk izèkku cpiu ls gh MkDVj cuus dk liuk ns[kk djrh FkhaA Ldwy dh i<+kbZ ds ckn LusgizHkk izèkku xzkUM esfMdy dkyst esa nkf[ky gqb± os vk'oLr Fkh fd pkj o"kZ ds ckn MkDVj cudj ;gka ls fudysaxhA Ldwy vkSj dkyst ds fnuksa esa Hkh mUgsa NksVs&NksVs ,dkadh] LVst Hkk"k.k rFkk okdiVqrk vkfn esa fgLlk ysuk cgqr ilUn FkkA bl dkj.k os dkyst esa cgqr pfpZr gks x;h FkhaA flusek okys ml le; vkfVZLVksa dh rkd esa jgk djrs FksA dgha dksbZ feyk ugha fd mls fQYeksa esa dke djus dk izLrko ns fn;k djrs FksA fQYe okyksa dks LusgizHkk izèkku ds ckjs esa tkudkjh feyhA fQj D;k FkkA vusd yksx muls feyus ds fy, VwV iM+sA muesa Fks [kkldj eqjyh ewohVksu] j.kthr ewohVksu] fgUnqLrku ewohVksu] ckEcs Vkdht ds ekfydx.kA os rks gkFk esa dkaVªDs V ysdj lkbu djus dks rS;kj FksA cl LusgizHkk dk bjknk fQYe esa dke djus dk fdlh rjg gks tkrk blh ckr dk bartkj Fkk] ysfdu LusgizHkk dks dsoy MkWDVj cuus dk tquuw lokj FkkA blfy, mls flusek esa tkus dk dHkh [;ky gh ugha vk;kA ,d ckj ,sls gh dkyst dh yM+fd;ka lkxj flusVksu esa 'kwfVax ns[kus x;h FkhaA pwafd LusgizHkk dh 'kksgjr lkxj flusVksu ds ekfyd Jh fpeuHkkbZ nslkbZ rd igqap pqdh Fkh blfy, yM+fd;ksa dks ogka nkf[ky gksus esa vklkuh gks x;hA bruk gh ugha] Lo;a fpeuHkkbZ us mu yM+fd;ksa dk Lokxr fd;kA ml oDr LVwfM;ks esa ,d fQYe dh 'kwfVax py jgh FkhA bl fQYe esa lfork vkSj eksrhyky dke dj jgs FksA lforknsoh dks 'kwfVax ns[kus okyksa ls ,ythZ Fkh blfy, fpeuHkkbZ mUgsa vkfQl esa ys x;sA mUgksaus LusgizHkk ls dgk] ^^vki fQYeksa esa D;ksa ugha vkrhaA eSaus vkids cgq vk;keh O;fDrRo ds ckjs esa cgqr dqN lqu j[kk gSA vki esjh daiuh esa vk tkb,A vkidks ,d gtkj #i;s izfrekg feysxkA** ij bu ckrksa dk LusgizHkk ij dksbZ vlj ugha gqvkA lforknsoh dh 'kwfVax ds ckn lqjsUnz dSejk ds lkeus vk;sA rc yM+fd;ksa dks 'kwfVax ns[kus dks feyhA lqjsUnz vius flusek&2005

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tekus esa xk;d ghjksa dh gSfl;r ls cgqr e'kgwj FksA 'kwfVax esa lqjsUnz ds lkFk fcOcks Hkh FkhA fcOcks dk vlyh uke b'kjr ckuks Fkk vkSj os laxhrdkj Hkh FkhaA 'kwfVax [kRe gksus ij lqjUs nz us mUgsa ,d&nks xkus lquk;s vkSj LusgizHkk us Hkh ,d xkuk xk;k] ftl ij lqjsUnz cgqr [kq'k gq,A lqjsUnz us fpeuHkkbZ ls vkxzg fd;k fd os LusgizHkk dks fQYeksa esa t:j ys vk;saA fpeuHkkbZ cksys] ^^eSa rks cgqr dg jgk gwa] ysfdu ;s rks fopkj djus dks Hkh rS;kj ugha gSA** mUgksaus LusgizHkk izèkku ls dgk] ^^fel izèkku ;fn vkius bjknk cny fn;k rks esjs ikl t:j vkb,xkA** yM+fd;ka LVwfM;ks ls ckgj fudyrs gh [kqlqj&Qqlqj djus yxhaA mUgksaus LusgizHkk izèkku ls dgk] ^^vjs HkbZ! gtkj #i;s 'kq: esa fey jgs gSa] t:j tkvksA** LusgizHkk cksyh] ^^ugha] eq>s flusek Tokbu ugha djuk gSA eq>s rks cl MkWDVj gh cuuk gSA** yM+fd;ksa dks cgqr rkTtqc gqvkA la;ksx dqN ,slk gqvk fd dkyst ds fnuksa esa LusgizHkk dh eka dks lafèkokr dh chekjh gks x;hA firkth rks igys py cls FksA vkfFkZd fLFkfr MkaokMksy gks x;hA fQj Hkh LusgizHkk izèkku fujk'k u gqb±A mUgksaus viuh ijs'kkuh esfMdy dkyst ds vuksVkseh ds izkQs ls j MkW- nLrwj ls dghA MkW- nLrwj us dgk] ^^vki flusek esa t:j tk,aA** mUgksua s vk'khokZn nsrs gq, dgk] ^^vkidk ogka mTToy Hkfo"; gSA** fQj D;k FkkA mlh fnu LusgizHkk izèkku us lkxj LVwfM;ks tkdj Jh fpeuHkkbZ nslkbZ ds lkFk ,xzhesaV ij nLr[kr fd;kA bl rjg MkWDVj cuus ds lius ns[kus okyh fel izèkku flus dykdkj cu x;hA LusgizHkk izèkku ogh gS ftUgksaus ckn esa fd'kksj lkgw ls fookg Hkh jpk;k vkSj dksVZ esa rykd dk ekeyk vk;k rks tt lkgc us iwNk fd vkids rykd nsus dk dkj.k D;k gS\ LusgizHkk us cM+s Hkksysiu ls dgk] ^^fd'kksj lkgw ukenZ gSaA** exj fd'kksj lkgw us ckn esa 'kknh dh vkSj lUrku dk eqag Hkh ns[kk vkSj LusgizHkk izèkku dh fQj ,d ukeh MkWDVj ls lEcUèk gks x;k ftls dsoy ,d lkFk jguk ;k vUrjvkRek dk I;kj dgrs gSAa os MkWDVj rks ugaha cu ldha] ysfdu Jherh MkWDVj 90

flus e k&2005

Hkh ugha cu ldhaA LusgizHkk dks tkuojksa ls cgqr I;kj FkkA iq#"kksa us mUgsa cgqr Bxk] ysfdu mudks viuk dqRrk bruk I;kjk Fkk fd tc mUgksaus lkr Qsjs fy;s Fks rc og dqRrk Hkh lkr Qsjs ys jgk FkkA ukeh 'kY; fpfdRld MkW- f'kjksM+dj dh Hkh dqN fnu ckn e`R;q gks xbZA

eghiky % uojax ds dfo eghiky cpiu ls gh xhrdkj FksA eap ij dfork ikB fd;k djrs FksA jktLFkku ds izfrf"Br ,oa le`) ifjokj esa tUes eghiky us fQYeksa dh nqfu;k eas 50 o"kZ 'kku ls fcrk, gS]a ysfdu fQYeksa eas vkuk ek= ,d bRrQkd FkkA muds ,d fe= Fks dSyk'k f'koiqjhA mUgha ds vkxzg ls tksèkiqj esa viuh fQYe daiuh ds lkFk vk,A vkuUnhyky iksn~nkj ls eqEcbZ esa feysA fgUnh ,oa jktLFkkuh Hkk"kk esa cuus okyh fQYe ^utjkuk* ds fy, vfHkusrk pqu fy;s x;sA izkjEHk esa eghiky us fQYe ^vkidh lsok esa* tks xhr fy[kk Fkk og mudk igyk xhr Fkk fQYeksa ds fy, vkSj yrk eaxs'kdj dh igyh fQYe FkhA eghiky oh-'kkarkjke dh fQYe ^uojax* esa njckjh jkt dfo dh Hkwfedk esa vfoLej.kh; jgsA ^d.k&d.k esa Hkxoku*] ^lEiw.kZ jkek;.k*] ^x.ks'k efgek*] ^ikjlef.k*] ^ckck jkenso*] ^t; ckck vejukFk* mudh egRoiw.kZ fQYesa jghaA mUgksaus ntZuksa LVUV fQYeksa esa Hkh dke fd;kA LVUV fQYeksa esa n'kZdksa us mUgsa ?kksMk+ nkSMk+ rs gq, ns[kk gS] ysfdu os dHkh ?kksMs+ ij ugha cSBAs mudh ,d fo'ks"krk gS fd os 'kwfVax esa dHkh [kkuk ugha [kkrs gSAa eghiky LoHkko ls dfo gSaA mUgksaus dbZ fQYeksa esa xhr Hkh fy[ksA 1992 esa izdkf'kr ^Qwy vkids fy,* muds dfork laxzg dks QsMjs'ku vkWQ bafM;u ifCy'klZ* dk Js"B ,okMZ feyk gSA la;ksx dh ckr gS fd efgiky dk fy[kk igyk xhr yrk dk xk;k igyk xhr FkkA

lgt] lqUnj vfHku; dh èkuh % 'kkUrk vkIVs&os Økafrdkjh Hkh Fkha viuh eèkqj vkokt vkSj eksgd vfHku; ls tks Hkh vfHkusf=;ka :igys ijns ij viuk uke mtkxj dj ik;h gSa muesa 'kkark vkIVs dkQh cqyUn eqdke ij FkhaA mudh gj fQYe esa n'kZdksa us fny [kksydj nkn nhA 'kkark vkIVs xkf;dk Hkh FkhaA xzkeksQksu fjdkM~lZ vkSj jsfM;ks ij Hkh og NkbZ jghaA os NksVs&cM+kas esa ,d&lh yksdfiz; jghaA lqUnj] lqxfBr] lkS"Bo] lqUnj vo;o vkSj lgt


lqUnj vfHku; ds cy ij mUgksaus fQYeksa esa izos'k fd;kA ml tekus esa vfHkusf=;ksa dks xkuk vkuk cgqr t:jh FkkA nqXèk 'kdZjk ;ksx ds lkFk mUgsa eèkqj vkokt esa uoktkA mudk tUe lksykiqj ds djhc ,d NksVs xkao esa ,d eè;e oxhZ; czkã.k ifjokj esa gqvkA vkIVs [kkunku cgqr gh lukruh Fkk] D;ksfa d muds firkth ^Hktu eaMyh* ls tqMs+ gq, FksA ?kj esa Hktu&dhrZu dk ekgkSy Fkk vkSj blesa vk'p;Z ugha fd 'kkark blls ifjfpr u jgh gksaA 'kkark vkIVs us vius xkus dk Jhx.ks'k vius firk ds lkFk fd;k vkSj lkFk gh u`R; Hkh lh[kuk ilan fd;kA 'kkark dq'kkxz cqf) dh ekfyd FkhaA blh nkSjku 'kkark ds cM+s HkkbZ ckcwjko us NksVs yM+d&s yM+fd;ksa dk ,d xziq cuk;k] ftlesa 'kkark us dke fd;kA vius u`R; laxhr dyk dk mUgksaus lkjs egkjk"Vª dks ykHk djk;kA xq.k xzkgd egkjk"Vª us mudk cM+s pko ls Lokxr fd;kA blh nkSjku ljLorh ewohVksu ds ekfyd cksyrh fQYe cukus ds fQjkd esa Fks mUgsa jkèkk ds jksy ds fy, ,d [kqn xkus okyh pqycqyh yM+dh dh t:jrh FkhA blfy, mUgksaus 'kksèk 'kq: fd;kA 'kkark ds ulhc ls nknk lkgsc rksj.ks us 'kkark vkIVs dk vfHku; ns[kk vkSj eu gh eu QSlyk dj fy;k fd 'kkark gh jkèkk cusxhA ^';ke lqUnj* esa mUgksaus 'kkgw eksMd ds lkFk dke fd;kA ';ke lqUnj lkjs Hkkjr esa e'kgwj gks x;hA 'kkark Hkh jkrksa&jkr izfl) gks x;hA muds uke dh èkwe ep x;hA bl nkSjku 'kkark us laxhr lkèkuk ij dkQh esgur dhA 1934 esa izHkkr ¼iq.ks½ uss ^ve`r eaFku* esa mUgsa is'k fd;kA n'kZdksa us fQj ,d ckj mUgsa lj vka[kksa ij fcBk;kA bl fQYe esa mUgksaus cki dh e`R;q vkSj HkkbZ dh fxj¶rkjh ds dkj.k ^ikxy* cuh r#.kh dh Hkwfedk fuHkk;h FkhA muds LokHkkfod vfHku; dks n'kZdksa us [kwc ilan fd;kA blds ckn 'kkark us ^vej T;ksfr*] ^nqfu;k u ekus*] ^xksiky d`".k* bR;kfn fQYeksa esa dke fd;kA ^nqfu;k u ekus* esa mudh ehjk dh Hkwfedk vkt rd n'kZd Hkwy ugaha ik;s gSaA izHkkr NksM+us ds ckn os enzkl eas ,d rfey fQYe ^lkfo=h* esa dke djus x;haA ogka mUgksaus viuk izHkqRo LFkkfir fd;kA mlds ckn os dqN fnuksa rd foJke djus ds ckn ^viuk ?kj* esa iz{s kdksa ds lkeus vk;hA blds ckn os ykgkSj fLFkr iapksyh vkV~lZ dh ^tehankj* fQYe esa lyokj deht tSls iatkch iks'kkd

esa cgqr lqUnj utj vk;haA fQYe mUgksaus ^Lo;afl)k* tSls dqN caxyk fQYeksa esa dke fd;kA muds 'kq) caxyk mPpkj.k vkSj gkoHkko ds fy, caxky i=dkj ,lksfl,'ku us mudk lRdkj fd;kA mUgsa ?kksM+ksa dh jsl] rSjuk] Vsful [ksyuk vkfn [ksyksa dk 'kkSd FkkA mUgsa dbZ Hkk"kk ij vfèkdkj FkkA os fu;fer O;k;ke vkSj laxhr dk fj;kt djrh FkhaA 'kkark vkIVs 'kq: ls vkf[kj rd ,d ;'kLoh vfHkus=h ds :i esa tkuh tkrh jghaA 'kkark vkIVs cgqr ncax ,oa LokfHkekuh FkhA i=dkj ckcwjko iVsy dks lkeus tkdj mUgksua s pkaVk ekjdj xqLlk mrkjk FkkA ckcwjko us muds f[kykQ dqN fy[k fn;k Fkk&mUgksaus jktdey ds xsV ij èkjuk Hkh fn;k Fkk] D;ksafd vuqcUèk FkkA mUgsa ------ fy;k vkSj dke ugha fn;k Fkk vkSj dke ekaxus ij tokc feyrk Fkk fd ixkj fey jgh gS ukA

gkseh okfM;k % èkkfeZd fQYeksa ds fo'kkjn fuekZ r k gkseh okfM;k ,sls fuekZrk Fks tks yEcs vjls rd ,d lQy fuekZrk ds :i esa tkus tkrs jgsA fo'o esa ,slk dksbZ Hkh fuekZrk vkt rd ugha gqvk gSA tgka rd i<+kbZ dk loky gS eSfVªdyq 's ku djus ds ckn mUgksua s dsoy ,d lky gh dkyst dk eqga ns[kk FkkA mUgksua s vius cM+s HkkbZ ds lkFk dke djus dk fu'p; dj fy;kA muds cM+s HkkbZ ts-ch-,p- okfM;k fQYe m|ksx esa tkus&ekus fuekZrk FksA mUgksua s lcls igys foosdkuUn fQYe yscksjVs jh esa dke djuk 'kq: fd;kA blds ekfyd Fks Jh mMokfM;kA bUgha mMokfM;k dh ewd fQYe rokaxj dh ryokj Jh ts-ch-,p- okfM;k us [kjhnh FkhA blh ds ekè;e ls gkseh okfM;k dk izos'k flusek esa gks x;kA ,d lky ckn gkseh okfM;k vius HkkbZ ds lkFk dke djus yxsA os xtkuu nkoMs dh fQYe yscksjVs jh esa fgLlsnkj cus x;s FksA ;gka ij gkseh okfM;k us iw.kZdkfyd dk;ZdrkZ ds :i esa lHkh foHkkxksa esa dke fd;kA blls mUgsa fQYe fuekZ.k dk lkjk vuqHko gks x;kA ogka mUgsa gj rjg ds foHkkxksa esa yksxksa dks dke djrs gq, ns[kus dk ekSdk feykA mUgksua s ml tekus esa ,d gtkj #i;s bdV~Bs fd;s vkSj ,d dSejk [kjhnkA flusek&2005

91


muds ,d nksLr Fks ckseh :eokyk] os iSls okys FksA mUgksua s gkseh okfM;k dks 2000 #i;s fn;sA gkseh okfM;k us viuh igyh fQYe cukus dh 'kq:vkr dhA mUgksaus ;'koar nos uke ds ,d lqUnj ;qod dks viuh fQYe esa dke djus ds fy, dgkA mUgksaus dgk os bl le; rks mls dqN iSls ugha ns ik;saxs] ysfdu ml yM+ds us mudk izLrko Lohdkj dj fy;k vkSj fcuk iSls ds dke djus yxkA ,d ,DLVªk Fkh eqerkt mldks mUgksaus ghjksbu ds :i esa ys fy;kA fQj mUgksaus vius HkkbZ ts-ch-,p- okfM;k ls lykg yhA mu fnuksa dykdkjksa dh Qhl cgqr de gqvk djrh FkhA ,DLVªk dks dsoy ,d #i;k izfrfnu ds fglkc ls nsuk gksrk FkkA vfèkdka'k lhu ,D'ku okys FksA ryokj ckth] ?kksM+s ij p<+uk] ?kksM+s ij p<+dj ihNk djuk A os Vªke esa LVwfM;ks vk;k djrs FksA dsoy ,d fnu dh 'kwfVax ds fy, mUgsa LVwfM;ks fdjk;s ij ysuk iM+k FkkA ml ,d fnu dh 'kwfVax ds fy, okfM;k dks dsoy 100 #i;s nsuk iM+k FkkA fQYe dh yackbZ 700 fQV dh FkhA bl 'kwfVax esa dqy pkj ekg yxs FksA ,d Fks ,e-ch- fcfyeksfj;kA os vaxzsth lhfj;yksa dk forj.k fd;k djrs FksA mUgksua s bl fQYe dks 5000 #i;s esa [kjhnus dk vk'oklu fn;kA okfM;k cznlZ us 1933 esa viuk LVwfM;ks LFkkfir fd;kA vkt ogka jktdey dyk eafnj gS ogha okfM;k dk ;g LVwfM;ks FkkA bldk uke Fkk ykSth dSlyA ckn esa mUgksua s bls oh'kkarkjke dks csp fn;k vkSj gkseh okfM;k psEcwj esa vk x;s vkSj ogka ij mUgksua s olar LVwfM;ks dh LFkkiuk dh vkSj ckn esa olUr fFk;sVj cuk;kA okfM;k ewohVksu ds cSuj rys lu~ 1933 ls 1973 rd dqy 43 fQYesa cuhaA ftl fQYe dks gkseh okfM;k us funsZf'kr fd;k mls vikj lQyrk feyhA clUr fiDplZ u;s&u;s dykdkjksa dks [kkst fudkyus ds fy, e'kgwj FkkA ;gka ls fudys gq, ehukdqekjh] 'kEeh diwj] fQjkst [kku] latho dqekj vkSj lfpu tSls dykdkjksa dk lekos'k gSA 1981 esa gkseh okfM;k us vius dk;Z ls laU;kl ys fy;k vkSj viuk LVwfM;ks csp fn;k] ysfdu vkt Hkh os lfØ; gSa mudh iRuh ukfM;k ds pys tkus ls nq[kh vkSj vdsys gks x;s gSAa

euksjek % dkdh dh Hkwfedk esa mLrkn ,d dkWesfM;u rFkk [kyukf;dk] dqfVy pkph] HkkHkh 92

flus e k&2005

vFkok galus galkus dk orZeku nkSj esa jksy vnk djus okyh xksy&eVksy euksjek fdlh oDr esa fQYeksa esa ukf;dk ds fdjnkj Hkh cM+h [kwch ds lkFk vatke ns pqdh gSAa 1945 esa ijns ij vkbZ paik esa cchrk ds firk gfj f'konklkuh euksjek ds uk;d FksA cnukeh esa etuw] [kkeks'k fuxkgsa esa vyukflj] pqufj;k eas okLrh dks ghjksa ds :i esa dcwy djrh euksjek us jktu gDlj ls fookg jpk fy;kA iaNh] 'kqfØ;k] jsgkuk] pkan flrkjs] I;kj dh thr] lqgkfxu] pdksjh] lPpk I;kj] ljrkt] eka dk I;kj euksjek ds fQYesa gSa ftueas os ukf;dk ;k lgukf;dk ds :i esa ijns ij vk;haA pfj= Hkwfedkvksa vkSj fofHkUu pfj=ksa dks thrs thrs mUgsa tekuk gks x;k gS vkSj reke fQYesa muds uke ij ntZ gSAa

vkrk gS ;kn eq>s xqtjk gqvk tekuk tc eSa toku Fkh % eqerkt 'kkfUr dh Mk;jh dk iUuk vkt pkan ugha fudysxkA vkt dh jkr dkyh jgsxhA pkan ds fcuk ;s rkjs Hkh csxkus ls yxrs gSaA ;s Hkh jks'kuh ugha nsrs] ysfdu fdruh vthc ckr gS] fgUnqLrku ds yksx vkt dh jkr dks pkan ls Hkh vfèkd jks'kuh nsaxs vkSj dgsaxs vkt fnokyh gSA eSaus Hkh cgqr&lh ,slh gh dkyh jkrksa dks nhidksa dh jks'kuh ls jks'ku gksrs ns[kk gS] ijarq vkt eSa pqipki vdsyh Nr ij ysVh dkyh jkr dh xgjh dkfyek esa vius eu dks Mqcksus dh O;FkZ dksf'k'k dj jgh gwAa pkgrh gwa bl vaèkjs esa eu ds ihNs xqtjs fnu u ns[k ikÅa] ysfdu bl dec[r cqM~<s ls D;k dgwa tks esjk iM+kslh gS vkSj tks ns[kk djrk gS fd og fdlh le; esjk ÝsaM jgk gSA bls Hkh irk ugha D;k lw>rh gS eq>s [kq'k djus ds ;k ukjkt djus ds fy, vius xzkeksQksu ij ogh fjdkMZ yxkrk gS ftUgsa eSaus vius izfl) fp=ksa ds vanj xk;k gSA vHkh rd eq>s ;g cgqr ugha [kyk ysfdu vkt tc og----?kj&?kj esa nhokyh gS esjs ?kj esa vaèksjk---- ^fdLer* ds izfl) xhr dk fjdkMZ ctk jgk gS] rks eq>s jg&jg dj xqLlk vk jgk gSS] ysfdu FkksM+h nsj esa cqM~<s dk [;ky fny] fnekx ls mrj tkrk gS vkSj esjk eu vrhr ds >wys esa >wyus yxrk gSA ^fdLer*] gka fdLer fp= us gh esjh fdLer dk njoktk [kksyk FkkA blds iwoZ nks&rhu fp=ksa esa dke dj pqdh Fkh] ysfdu dksbZ uke 'kksgjr ugha feyh FkhA


eSa tc X;kjg o"kZ dh Fkh rc vius pkpk ds lkFk ykgkSj laxhr dh f'k{kk izkIr djus vkbZA esjs pkpkth dk [;ky Fkk fd eSa u`R; dyk esa ikjaxr gksdj ns'k&fons'k esa uke dekÅaA eq>s ml le; uke dekuk D;k gksrk gS] bl ckr dh reht rks ugha Fkh] gka xqM~Ms xqfM+;ksa dk [ksy ilan FkkA eSa tc Hkh Qqjlr ikrh viuh xqfM+;ksa esa my> tkrhA xqfM+;ksa xqMM~ ksa dk C;kg jpkrhA lgsfy;ksa dks cqykrh] nkor gksrh vkSj vius vki lksprh ,d fnu esjh 'kknh gksxhA eq>s viuh 'kknh dk cM+k 'kkSd FkkA eksgYys ds lHkh cPps eq>ls fgys FksA ;g Hkkjrh; fQYe m|ksx dk 'kS'kodky FkkA lu~ 31 esa lokd fp=ksa dk izkjaHk gqvk Fkk vkSj ;g Fkk lu~ 37&38A dydRrs esa lQy funsZ'kd oyh lkgc ls HksaV gqbZA mUgksaus eq>s fQYeksa esa dke djus ds ;ksX; le>k vkSj ^lksuh dqEgkju* uked fp= esa dke fd;kA mlds ckn eSaus rhu fp=ksa esa dke fd;k] ysfdu fdLer fp= us esjh fdLer pedkbZA bl le; eSa 17 o"kZ dh gks xbZ FkhA nqfu;knkjh le> esa vkus yxh FkhA ubZ meax]s ubZ rjaxs] eu esa fgyksjs ysus yxh FkhaA eSa eqEcbZ vk pqdh FkhA ;gka ckEcs Vkdht ds uohu fp= fdLer esa eq>s ukf;dk dh Hkwfedk feyhA eq>s irk pyk v'kksddqekj bl fp= ds uk;d gSAa v'kksd dk dke eq>s I;kjk FkkA eq>s muds Åij J)k FkhA og fnu eSa dHkh ugha Hkwywaxh tc igyh ckj v'kksd dqekj ds lkFk dSejs ds lkeus [kM+h gqbAZ ,d yo lhu fQYek;k tkuk FkkA eq>s v'kksd dh rjQ ns[krs gq, ,d I;kj Hkjk laokn cksyuk FkkA funsZ'kd egksn; us lhu fy;s tkus ds igys eq>s le>kuk 'kq: fd;kA rqe vius eu esa ;g eglwl djks rqe v'kksd dks cgqr I;kj djrh gks] ml ij tku dqckZu djrh gks] ysfdu dHkh mlds lkeus vius tTckr is'k ugha dj ikrh gks] ysfdu vkt rqEgsa tks dqN Hkh dguk gS dgds jgksxhA ,sls le; esa rqe viuh vka[kksa esa eqgCcr dk leqUnj Hkj yks] psgjs ij I;kj dh pkanuh fNVdk yks vkSj Hkjs xys ls viuh ckr blds lkeus j[k nksA funZs'kd us esjk fjglZy fy;k rks mUgsa esjs vfHku; ls larks"k gks x;k ysfdu ckr ;gha [kRe rks gksrh ugha FkhA eq>s v'kksd ds lkeus ;g lc djuk FkkA v'kksd lkeus [kM+k FkkA eSua s viuh Hkko&Hkafxek funs'Z kd ds vuqlkj cuk yh ysfdu tc laokn cksyus dk volj vk;k rks eSa xwaxh gks xbZA cl ,d Vd v'kksd dks fugkjrh jg xbZA dV dh vkokt ds lkFk dSejs us

viuk dke can dj fn;kA funsZ'kd us gkSlyk fn;kA dke fQj 'kq: gqvkA Hkko&Hkafxek fQj Bhd jgh ysfdu laokn chp esa gh Hkwy xbZA dguk ugha gksxk ml fnu ukbV 'kwfVax dh lkjh jkr esa og lhu fQYek;k tk ldkA v'kksd ,d le>nkj uo;qod Fkk vkSj eSa le>rh gw]a vkt Hkh gS D;ksfa d og vius lkeus nwljs uo;qodksa dks Bgjus ugha nsrkA gka] rks nwljs fnu gh v'kksd dqekj us eq>ls ?kfu"Brk c<+k yh vkSj lkFk gh lkFk esjh f>>d Hkh nwj gks xbZA jtr iV dh pedhyh nqfu;k vc eq>ls cgqr nwj gS] ysfdu mldh ;knsa esjs cgqr vfèkd utnhd gSaA cxy okys o`) egk'k; us fjdkMZ cny fn;kA muds ikl 'kk;n esjs lHkh fQYeksa ds fjdkMZ gSa rHkh rks vc mUgksaus clar fp= ds izfl) xhr ctkuk 'kq: dj fn;k gS ^gedks gS I;kjh gekjh xfy;ka*A lpeqp vc gesa gekjh xfy;ka I;kjh gaSA D;k d:a fdlh Hkh rjg iqjkuh ;knksa esa gh vkt lq[k feyrk gSA clar fp= esa eèkqckyk us ,d cPph dk lqUnj vfHku; fd;k Fkk] eq>s ml cPph ls I;kj FkkA blds lkFk vrhr lkeus [kM+k gks tkrk gSA ¼foHkktu ds ckn os ikfdLrku pyh xbZa vkSj vc dsoy ;knsa gh 'ks"k gaSA½

LoxhZ; Q.kh etwenkj dh uhan xhrk esa Hkxoku d`".k us vtquZ dks uhan ij fot; ikFkZ dgdj lEcksèku fd;k Fkk] ysfdu bl dy;qx esa Hkh Lo- Qf.k etwenkj dks uhan ij iw.kZ fot; izkIr FkhA os uiw fFk;sVlZ esa funsZ'kd c#vk ds LVsuks FksA os fo}ku rks Fks gh ØkfUrdkjh Hkh FksA ikVhZ ds lans'kksa dks nwj&nwj rd igqapkus dk mudk fo'ks"k foHkkx FkkA U;w fFk;sVlZ esa vkus ds ckn mUgsa dbZ iVdFkk Vkbi djuh gksrh FkhA dke djrs&djrs os dq'ky iVdFkk ys[kd cu x;s FksA eqEcbZ vkus ij mUgksaus dbZ fQYeksa dh iVdFkk fy[kh vkSj ^vkjrh*] ^vkdk'knhi* tSls fQYeksa dk funsZ'ku Hkh fd;kA os jkr dks 12 cts 'kkar okrkoj.k esa iVdFkk dgkuh fy[krs gh ugha oju fcuk fy[ks gh Vkbi djuk 'kq: dj nsrs FksA izkr% 6 cts rd Vkbi djrs jgrs FksA fQj 2 ?kaVs ds fy, lks tkrs vkSj 8 cts mBdj cSB tkrsA tSls ?kM+h dk vykeZ yxk gksA Q.kh etwenkj ds fQYe m|ksx esa dbZ f'k"; gSAa 'kfDr lkeUr] jktdqekj cM+tkR;k] v'kksd jk; tSls yksx muds gh f'k"; gSaA Q.kh nk dk cM+k lEeku FkkA U;w fFk;sVlZ esa Hkh mUgksaus flusek&2005

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fQYeksa dk funsZ'ku fd;k FkkA ^LVªhV flaxj*] ^cxky dqaMyk* pfpZr fQYesa FkhaA Q.kh nk cgqr Hkkoqd FksA frCcr esa tc c#vk dh 'kwfVax py jgh Fkh rks eksfudk nslkbZ dk Hk;adj ,DlhMsUV gks x;kA mUgsa xaHkhj pksVsa vkb± vkSj os Lej.k 'kfDr [kks cSBhaA ml le; mudks I;kj djus okys ukS nks X;kjg gks x;s] ysfdu mUgsa ekufld 'kkafr nsus ds fy, Q.kh nk us mlh voLFkk esa cV o`{k ds uhps vfXu dks lk{kh ysdj 'kknh dj yh vkSj vfUre le; rd mUgsa fuHkkrs jgsA gj 'kke nknk th dqN ysdj vkrs rc eksfudk th muds lkFk Hkkstu djrhA ,d ckj os dydRrk ls eqEcbZ vk jgs FksA mudh nwljh lhV ij ,d ekSykuk cSBs FksA gokbZ tgkt esa ,syku fd;k x;k fd dej cUn ckaèk fy;k tk;sA dqN [krjk utj vk jgk gS vkSj vius&vius b"Vnso dks ;kn fd;k tk,A ,dne lUukVk gks x;kA jke&jke] vYyk gksa vdcj dk tki gksus yxkA Q.kh nk us csYV ckaèk vka[ksa cUn dj yhaA dqN gh le; esa os uhan esa [kjkZVsa Hkjus yxsA lc ;k=h Hktu&dhrZu esa exu FksA lHkh dks yx jgk Fkk fd vc ejs rc ejsA djhc chl feuV ckn ?kks"k.kk gqbZ fd vc vki lqjf{kr gSaA [krjk Vy x;k gS vkSj 10 feuV esa lkarkØwt gokbZ vM~Ms ij igqapus okys gSaA Q.kh nk mBdj lhèks cSB x;s] vka[ksa eyrs gq,A ikl esa cSBs ekSykuk lkgc us muds iSj idM+ fy;sA cksys] rw rks [kqnk dk cUnk gSA gekjh rks tku ds ykys iM+ x;s Fks vkSj rw rks [kjkZVs Hkj jgk Fkk xgjh uhan esaA Q.kh nk cksys ] ^^ekSyoh lkgc uhan esa ekSr vk tk;s] blls vPNk D;k gks ldrk gSA tUur esa tk jgs gSa ;k udZ esa eglwl gh ugha gks** vkSj vUr esa fgUnqtk vLirky esa os eè; jkf= esa uhan gh esa LoxZ flèkkj x;sA

fdrus n;kyq Fks dqUnuyky lgxy fQYeksa esa vkus ls iwoZ dqUnuyky lgxy VkbijkbVj ds lsYleSu gqvk djrs FksA cps gq, le; esa os dkVu dh lkfM+;ka cspk djrs Fks] blls mudh vkenuh esa dqN c<+ksrjh gks tk;k djrh FkhA lgxy lkfM+;ksa dk xV~Bj ysdj dydRrs dh xjhc cfLr;ksa esa ?kwek djrs vkSj viuk eky csprs FksA ,slh gh ,d xjhc cLrh esa utek uke dh ,d yM+dh jgk djrh Fkh vkSj lgxy tgka Hkh viuh lkfM+;kasa dk xV~Bj 94

flus e k&2005

[kksydj fn[kk;k djrs Fks utek ogka vk tk;k djrh FkhA og bu lkfM+;ksa esa gjs jax dh ,d lkM+h dk Hkko iwNrhA lgxy vkSj Hkh dbZ lkfM+;ka mls fn[kkrs ysfdu mlds fnyks fnekx esa og gjs jax dh lkM+h cl x;h FkhA ml lkM+h dh dher nl #i;s FkhA ysfdu utek vukFk FkhA mlds ekrk&firk py cls FksA cM+k HkkbZ FkkA tks bèkj&mèkj ls dqN dek ysrk FkkA utek us lgxy lkgc ls dgk] esjs HkkbZ dks 'kqØokj dks lIrkg Hkj dk esgurkuk feysxkA d`ik djds ;s gjh lkM+h u cspsaA lgxy vkxkeh 'kqØokj dks og gjh lkM+h ysdj utek dh cLrh esa x;s] rkfd og lkM+h utek dks csp ldsaA ysfdu og yM+dh lgxy dks utj ugha vk;hA ogka utek dk HkkbZ QQd&QQd dj jks jgk FkkA mlus crk;k fd fiNyh jkr utek ds lhus esa nnZ mBk vkSj og vYykg dks I;kjh gks xbZA eSua s MkWDVj dks 15 #i;s nok ds fy, fn;sA vc esjs ikl utek ds dQu ds Hkh iSls ugha gSaA bl ij lgxy us bj'kkn ls dgk&esjs ikl gjh lkM+h gS] tks utek dks csgn ilan FkhA bj'kkn dks Hkh viuh cgu ds fy, gjh lkM+h [kjhnuh FkhA utek gjh lkM+h igudj varghu lQj dks cxSj lyke fd;s pyh x;hA lgxy us mlh fnu lkfM+;ksa dk O;olk; cUn dj fn;kA tn~nuckbZ ds ;gka jg dj Hkh os mudh dekbZ dk iSlk vius fy, ysuk ugha pkgrs FksA blfy, [kqn dqN jkstxkj djds viuk [kpZ pykrs FksA n;kyq lgxy us bj'kkn dks lkM+h Hkh ns nh vkSj tsc esa tks iSls Fks og Hkh mldh vafre ;k=k ds fy, ns fn;sA

dUgS;kyky % xaxk&teuk ds dYyw dkdk vkSj enj bf.M;k ds lq[khyky dks dksbZ Hkwy ugha ldrk lu~ 1939 esa dUgS;kyky us lcls igys ^lkèkuk* fQYe ls viuk fQYeh dSfj;j dh 'kq:vkr dh FkhA os dHkh gkL; dykdkj] dHkh [kyuk;d rks dHkh pfj= vfHkusrk ds :i esa n'kZdksa ds lkeus fofHkUu Hkwfedkvksa esa vkrs jgsA os ukflj gqlSu] eueksgu] d`".k] f'kojkt] ukuk iylhdj] fofiu xqIrk] fujatu 'kekZ] MsfoM tSlh pfj= Hkwfedk,a fuHkk;k djrs FksA


egcwc [kku dh ^vkSjr* esa lq[khyky uked dqfVy lkgwdkj dUgS;kyky gh FksA ;g lu~ 1940 dh ckr gSA 17 o"kZ ds ckn egcwc us ;gh fQYe ^eanj bafM;k* ds uke ls cuk;hA ml fQYe esa Hkh lq[khyky dUgS;kyky gh FksA xaxk teuk dk dYyw dkdk] viuk ns'k esa dkykcktkj okyk] ge ikap esa dusD'kuokyk 'kdquhekek vfoLej.kh; FkkA ^nkx*] ^nsonkl*] ^èkjrh dgs iqdkj ds* vkfn fQYeksa esa dUgS;kyky us ;knxkj Hkwfedk,a fuHkk;h FkhaA os vius fdLe ds vuks[ks dykdkj FksA dUgS;kyky lkfgR; izes h Fks vkSj tc Hkh dgha dfo lEesyu gksrk dUgS;kyky mlesa t:j igqaprsA

yfyrk iokj ds psgjs ij bfrgkl fy[kk Fkk egkjk"Vª dh ljdkj us ejkBh fQYeksa ds iqjLdkj forj.k lekjksg esa thou Hkj dh lsokvksa ds fy, fn, tkus okyk 'kkarkjke iqjLdkj vfHkus=h yfyrk iokj dks fn;kA yfyrk th èkU;okn Hkk"k.k Hkh ugha ns ik;ha] D;ksafd os vLoLFk Fkha] ijUrq n'kZdksa dh ekax ij mUgksaus fQYe vukM+h ds dqN laokn vfHku; lfgr izLrqr fd,A vfHku; ds uke ls gh muds 'kjhj esa bruh ÅtkZ dk lapkj gqvk fd yEcs n`'; mUgksaus tl dk rl izLrqr dj fn;kA iSarhl o"kZ igys cuh fQYe mUgsa ;kn jgh] D;skafd flusek ds izfr os lefiZr jgh FkhaA èkU;okn Hkk"k.k fdlh iVdFkk dk fgLlk ugha FkkA yfyrk iokj dks dqfVy lkl ds :i esa cgqr [;kfr feyh] ijUrq mudh vfHku; ;k=k ukf;dk ds :i esa izkjEHk gqbZ FkhA ,d fQYe dh 'kwfVax ds le; uk;d us mUgsa bruk tksjnkj FkIiM+ ekjk fd os Hksaxh gks x;haA mUgksaus bl gknls dks Hkh vius thou esa ojnku cuk fy;kA Hksaxh vka[k ds dkj.k Øwjre lkl dh Hkwfedk muds fy, lgt gks x;hA ^lqu;uk* uked fQYe esa ?kksM+s ls fxjus ds dkj.k jkes'ojh dh vka[k vkSj dSfj;j u"V gks x;k Fkk] D;ksafd mlds ikl yfyrk iokj ds bjkns vkSj gkSlys ugha FksA yfyrk ml le; flusek ls tqMh+ Fkh] tc Hkys ?kj dh yM+fd;ksa dks l[r ,srjkt FkkA ml tekus esa dqN ukf;dk,a cnuke xyh ls vk;h Fkha] ijUrq fQYeksa esa vkrs gh mudk pky pyu Bhd gks x;kA vktknh ds ckn QS'ku dh ekjh Hkys ?kj dh

yM+fd;ka flusek esa vkb± vkSj mudk O;ogkj jafM;ks ls Hkh x;k xqtjk gks x;kA flusek fdlh ds fy, ikjl gks x;k rks fdlh ds fy, iRFkj fl) gks x;kA njvly ikjl rks Hkze gS] Nwus okys dh J)k vkSj rklhj dk vlj lksuk iSnk djrk gSA muds lkFk dke djus okys nks igyoku HkkbZ Fks & pUnqjko vkSj gfj'kpUnz dne&,d HkkbZ dk vHkh rd pkanhoyh eqEcbZ esa LVwfM;ks gSA yfyrk iokj us ddZ'k lkl dh Hkwfedkvksa ds lkFk gh vPNs fdjnkj Hkh fuHkk;sA elyu jktdiwj dh Jh 420 esa dsys okyh nhnh dh Hkwfedk dks] ftl dkj.k _f"kds'k eq[kthZ us mUgsa vukM+h esa felst Mhlk dk vej ik= fn;kA Åij ls l[r vkSj Hkhrj ls dksey fØf'p;u efgykA viuh yEch ikjh esa yfyrk iokj us ukf;dk ls [kyukf;dk rd dk lQj lQyrk ls r; fd;kA muds psgjs ij mHkjh gqbZ >qfjZ;ksa esa flus bfrgkl dh bckjr i<+h tk ldrhA ^ifjorZu* fQYe esa fnXn'kZd th-ih- iokj] ukf;dk Fkh [kwclwjr yfyrkA Mk;jsDVj ukf;dk ij fQnk gks x;s vkSj 'kknh dj yh] ysfdu 'kknh vfèkd fnu ugha pyhA ysfdu yfyrk iokj dk uke ftUnxh Hkj pyrk jgkA vfUre voLFkk nq%[kn jghA iwus esa vius gh ?kj esa mudk fuèku gks x;kA iM+kfs l;ksa dks nqxZUèk vkbZ rc iqfyl dks cqyk;kA ;g gkyr gqbZ i`Fohjkt ds lkFk cuh fQYe ^lhrk* dh ukf;dk dhA

thou % ukjk;.k&ukjk;.k ukjneqfu dh Hkwfedk tSls thou ds fy, gh cuh FkhA os etkfd;k [kyuk;d dh Hkwfedk fd;k djrs FksA 'kcue ls ysdj dksfguwj rd etkfd;k dykdkj vkSj nq"V [kyuk;d nksuksa gh :iksa esa yksdfiz; gq,A thou us viuh Hkwfedkvksa esa tku Mkydj lPps [kyuk;d dks ijns ij lkdkj fd;kA ^ukS nks X;kjg*] ^tkuh esjk uke*] ^u;k nkSj* esa mudh vyx gh Hkwfedk,a FkhaA djoV] vQlkuk] pkanuh pkSd] 'kksys] ,d gh jkLrk] u;k nkSj] dkuwu] Qwy vkSj iRFkj vkfn fQYeksa esa mudh vnkdkjh vkSj laokn vnk;xh yksxksa dks lnk ;kn jgsxhA izdk'k fiDplZ dh fQYe ^HkDr èkzqo* esa mUgsa ukjn dh Hkwfedk lcls igys feyh FkhaA ftlds ckn rks os lHkh ikSjkf.kd fp=ksa esa LFkk;h ukjn gks x;sA vkt rd mudh uk;d cus ukjn dk LFkku dksbZ ugha ys ldkA

flusek&2005

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xksi % vc eSa Åij tk jgk gwa vkSj pys vQlkuk] lezkV v'kksd vkfn fQYeksa dh oh.kk ukf;dk FkhaA ,sfrgkfld fQYeksa dk tekuk vkus ij oh.kk dk Hkko x;s xksi dk iwjk uke xksi fd'kunkl deykuh FkkA os flaèkh Fks vkSj mudk tUe 1913 esa flaèk fLFkr gSnjkckn esa gqvk FkkA rSra hl lky esa ds-,l- n;kZuh us xksi dks ^bUlku ;k 'kSrku* fQYe esa igyh ckj fQYeh ijns ij is'k fd;k FkkA èkhjs&èkhjs os QkeZ esa vk;sA ^nqfu;k ,d rek'kk*] ^vaèksj uxjh pkSiV jktk* o ^eD[khpwl* vkfn fQYeksa esa ';ke] vejukFk] eghiky ¼o eksrh lkxj½ vkfn ds lkFk vk;sA buesa xksi dh egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk,a FkhaA ^rjkuk* esa os [kyuk;d FksA xksi us viuk izksMD'ku Hkh 'kq: fd;kA HkkbZ jke deykuh ds lkFk mUgksaus ^xksi izksMD'ku* fQYe fuekZ.k laLFkk cuk;hA mUgksaus ^ekyfdu* vkSj ^gaxkek* uke ds nks fp= cuk;sA iraxk] lxkbZ] ekyfdu] gaxkek vkSj esgjckuh vkfn ikap fQYeksa esa xksi ;kdwc dh tksM+h [kwc yksdfiz; gqbZA ^ge rks tkuh I;kj djsxk* dqedqe ds lkFk ;g MkW;ykx ¼ckfj'k es½a cksyus okys xksi gh FksA ^esjs fi;k x;s jaxwu* ¼iraxk½ esa fuxkj lqyrkuk ds fi;k xksi FksA ^nwljh 'kknh esa* fy[k , Hkafx;ksa dh jkuh xhr mUgksaus ijns ij jrudqekjh ds lkFk xk;k FkkA mUgksaus laxhrdkj vfuy fo'okl dh izFke iRuh vk'kkyrk ds lkFk Hkh dke fd;k FkkA yfrdk ds lkFk fookg fd;k FkkA lRrkou o"kZ dh mez esa ^rhljh xyh* ds fQYekadu ds nkSjku ';ke ds lkFk lhu djrs gq, ân; dh èkM+du can gks tkus ls mudh e`R;q gks x;h FkhA e`R;q ds iwoZ os laokn cksy jgs Fks ^^vc eSa Åij tk jgk gwa** vkSj xksi lp esa Åij pys x;sA

oh.kk % ftUgsa eksukfylk dgk tkrk Fkk etgj [kku fufeZr funsZf'kr ^;kn* oh.kk dh igyh fQYe FkhA ,sfrgkfld fQYeksa esa] dkLV~;we okyh fQYeksa esa oh.kk dk egRoiw.kZ LFkku FkkA mldk :i ns[krs gh curk FkkA ;fn okrkoj.k eqfLye gks rks fQj iwNuk gh D;k\ egcwc [kku ds fiDpj ^utek* esa mldk :i ns[kus yk;d FkkA ^^gqek;aw** esa ^^eSa rks vks<w xqykch pqufj;k** xkuk oh.kk us gh xk;k FkkA ^'kh'ks dh nhokj* fQYe esa mlds uk;d Fks izk.kA ^Nhu ys vktknh* esa ehukdqekjh dh cgu ds ifr vYrkQ oh.kk ds uk;d FksA ljdkj] d'ehj] eka&cki] jktiqrkuh] igyh utj] 96

flus e k&2005

c<+ x;kA larku] dkxt ds Qwy] vk'khokZn vkfn fQYeksa dk fuekZ.k ekuksa oh.kk dks è;ku esa j[kdj fd;k x;k FkkA vy ulhj us dbZ 'kkfn;ka dh Fkha ysfdu vfUre ckj oh.kk ls mlus 'kknh dh Fkh vkSj og 'kknh fVdkÅ jghA oh.kk dk HkkbZ ,d le; lqjS;k ls 'kknh djus dh ftn djus yxk Fkk] ysfdu oh.kk us vius cPpksa dks fQYeksa esa QVdus ugha fn;kA mldh dher dk irk blh ls pyrk gS fd ljnkj pUnwyky 'kkg us mls ,d fQYe ds fy, ,d yk[k #i;s fn;s FksA oh.kk dks eksukfylk dgk tkrk FkkA fuekZrk&fnXn'kZd lR;ftr jk; us Hkh oh.kk dks gh viuh fQYe ^'krjat ds f[kykM+h* esa okftn vyh 'kkg dh eka dh Hkwfedk nh FkhA

ehuk 'kkSjh % ,d&nks&rhu ehuk 'kkSjh dk ehuk uke ijns ds fy, FkkA 'kkSjh dk miuke mlds pkSFks ifr dk ljuse FkkA mldk okLrfod uke [kq'khZn FkkA ^?kVk ?ku?kksj ?kksj* o ^cjlks js* okyh xkf;dk ukf;dk [kq'khZn ml le; cgqr yksdfiz; Fkh vr% mudk fQYeh uke ehuk iM+kA ^i`Foh oYyHk] iRFkjksa dk lkSnkxj] nqf[k;kjh] ,DVªsl] dkys ckny vkfn vusd fQYeksa esa ehuk us dke fd;kA ,d Fkh yM+dh ls ehuk 'kkSjh 1949 esa fQYeksa esa vk;haA og tekuk jsgkuk] csxe ikjk] jeksyk] eèkqckyk vkfn lkSUn;Z'kkyh vfHkusf=;ksa dk FkkA lqjS;k [kwc tkjksa ij FkhA ufxZl] ufyuh t;oar] xhrk ckyh] dkfeuh dkS'ky vkfn vfHkusf=;ka n'kZdksa ds fnekx ij p<+h gqbZ FkhaA izfr;ksfxrk dfBu FkhA vius rhuksa vfHkusrk ifr;ksa jktk ehj] tgwj jktk o vy ulhj ls mls dksbZ fo'ks"k Qk;nk ugha igqapkA pkSFks ifr fuekZrk funsZ'kd :i ds 'kkSjh ls Qk;nk feykA ,d Fkh yM+dh ds ckn yk, yIik xyZ ds :i esa mldh igpku cuhA laxhrdkj fouksn ds nks xhrksa ^vkt dy ds tsVa yeSu] jgrs gSa gjne cspSu] [kkyh tsc eVdrs uSu] dke djs uk dkt] fQj Hkh vdM+ fn[kk;s* ls rFkk ^vktdy dh ukfj;ka gSa eq¶r dh chekfj;ka* ls og pedhaA ,d nks rhu] vkx dk nfj;k] uxn ukjk;.k esa ehuk us gYdh&QqYdh Hkwfedk,a dhaA fQj mlus 'kkSjh ls lEcUèk foPNsn dj fy;k vkSj ikfdLrku pyh x;hA ckn esa ikfdLrku esa mldh


cgqr cqjh gkyr gqbZA ckn esa mls diM+s lhdj viuk isV Hkjuk iM+kA

^fp=ys[kk* dh yksdfiz; vfHkus=h % esgrkc esgrkc dk ewy uke utek 'ks[k gSA os 20 vizSy 1918 esa eqEcbZ esa iSnk gqbZ FkhaA 1929 esa viuh eka dh fQYe daiuh ds ekè;e ls fQYeksa esa inkiZ.k fd;k FkkA mUgksaus vius Hkksys vfHku; ls yksxksa dk fny thr fy;kA mUgksaus ewd fQYe ^deky&,&'ke'khj* esa Hkh dke fd;k FkkA ohj d`.kky] Hkksyk f'kdkj] ijnslh] fiz;re] Dohu] ,d gh Hkwy vkSj iqjtnsa oru ml nkSj dh mudh dqN fQYesa FkhaA esgrkc dks okLrfod lQyrk vkSj yksdfiz;rk dsnkj 'kekZ dh fQYe ^fp=ys[kk* ls feyhA ^fp=ys[kk* esa esgrkc dk Luku n`'; fQYek;k x;k FkkA bl okd~;s us mu fnuksa rgydk epk fn;k FkkA blds ckn fQYe ^eklwe* vkSj ^HkDr dchj* esa Hkh mudk vfHku; [kwc ilan fd;k x;kA esgrkc us vius le; ds ,sfrgkfld fQYe fuekZrk funsZ'kd lksgjkc eksnh ls 'kknh dhA ukf;dk ds :i esa mudh vafre fQYe ^>kalh dh jkuh* FkhA og fQYe VsDuhdyj esa FkhA esgrkc dks dHkh viuh mez dh fpUrk ugha gqbZA ,d ckj dh ckr gS tc eSa muds dQ ijsM ij ?kj tkdj feyk fcydqy ugha yxrk Fkk Jherh lksgjkc eksnh ls fey jgk gwaA igqaprs gh Lokxr d{k esa nl fefuV rd cSBk;k x;kA dktw fiLrk ls Hkjh IysV lkeus vk;h vkSj dksd---- FkksM+h nsj ds i'pkr eSMe r'kjhQ yk;haA cqtqxZ le>dj eSa [kM+k gks x;k vkSj ^eSMe ueLdkj* dgkA os cksyh ^feLVj tks'kh* eSa esgrkc gwAa vki eq>s esgrkc dfg;sA eSa vc Hkh toku gwAa vius ne ij ftUnk gwaA ,d 'kkunkj C;wVh ikyZj [kksy j[kk gSA dke esa D;k 'keZ\ yUnu ls iwjk dkslZ djds vk;h gwAa vki tks Hkh dqN iwNuk pkgsaxs eSa [kqn vUnkt yxk ldrh gwaA eksnh lkgc us 3 o"kZ rd esjs vkxs&ihNs pDdj yxk;sA rc ,d fnu eSa mudh fQYe ds izhfe;j esa x;hA tc os esjs ikl cSBs rks eq>s dguk iM+k fd feLVj vkius viuh fQYe ns[kus eq>s cqyk;k gSA vkius vius ikl fcBkus ds fy, ugha cqyk;k gSA eSua s ;g Hkh crk fn;k Fkk fd eSa 'kknh'kqnk gw]a ,d cPpk Hkh gSA bl ij mudks dksbZ ,srjkt ugha

gqvkA ,d fnu ,slk la;ksx gqvk fd os eq>s ?kj NksM+us vk;s vkSj fujk'k okil tk jgs FksA os fo'k djrs ikl vk;s rks geus ikfVZax fdl ys fy;kA cl eSaus dgk fd dy gh gokbZ tgkt ls d'ehj pysaxs vkSj ogka tkdj 'kknh dk ,syku djsaxsA fQj D;k Fkk v[kckjksa esa gekjh [kcj vkx dh rjg QSy x;hA rc le>ks ge ifr iRuh gks x;sA vkxs dks esjh dgkuh vki fQYeksa esa gks] lc tkurs gksaxsA fQYe ^bafM;k* ds ckcw HkkbZ iVsy us Hkh eq>ls laidZ djds nksLrh djus dk iz;Ru fd;k] ysfdu eSaus ?kkl ugha MkyhA fQj os Hkhrj x;ha vkSj Mªsl cny dj vk;ha] vkrs gh [kq'kcw gh [kq'kcw vkus yxhA cksyh] feLVj eSa vkt Hkh fnu esa rhu ckj Mªls cnyrh gwaA brj yxkus dk rks iwNks erA ftèkj ls fudyrh Fkh [kq'kcw muds ihNs&ihNs pyrh FkhA LVwfM;ks esa irk py tkrk Fkk fd esgrkc vk x;h gSaA os vknrsa vHkh rd x;h ugha gSaA pyks vc dqN uk'rk gks tk;s vkSj fQj Hkhrj pyh x;haA ogka mUgksaus ,d cM+h iqLrd fudkyh ftlesa muds okfyn dk QksVks FkkA os lwjr ds ikl ,d NksVh&lh fj;klr ds ekfyd FksA mUgsa 11 rksi dh lykeh dk lEeku FkkA iqLrd ,MoMZ ds jkT;kfHk"ksd ds le; dh FkhA bl eqykdkr ds 3 eghus ckn mudk fuèku gks x;kA mudh fQYesa % eksrh dgkj] ohj dq.kky] lqHknzk gj.k] Hkksyk f'kdkj] laxfny vkSj ij[k gS& 1957 esa os >kalh dh jkuh cudj vkbZ FkhaA

fgUnh fQYeksa dh igyh C;wVh Dohu Fkh ulhe ckuks 60 ds n'kd esa fQYeksa esa lkSUn;Z dk ,d u;k iSekuk LFkkfir djus okyh lk;jk ckuks dh eka ulhe ckuks fgUnh fQYeksa dh igyh C;wVh Dohu FkhA 1935 esa izfl) fQYedkj lksgjkc eksnh us ^[kwu dk [kwu* esa ulhe ckuks dks igyh ckj ukf;dk ds :i esa is'k fd;kA ulhe ckuks dh csfelky [kwclwjrh ds dkj.k mUgsa ^C;wVh Dohu* ds f[krkc ls uoktk x;kA vxys dqN lkyksa rd ;kfu 1941 rd ulhe ckuks lksgjkc eksnh dh fQYeksa esa O;Lr jghaA bl nkSjku mUgksaus ikap fQYeksa esa dke fd;kA lksgjkc eksnh ds cSuj rys cuh [kku cgknqj ¼1937½] MkbckslZ rFkk ehBk tgj ¼1938½] iqdkj flusek&2005

97


¼1939½ rFkk eSa ghjks ¼1940½ fQYeksa esa vfHku; dj ulhe ckuks us lcls viuk yksgk euok fy;kA iqdkj us eqEcbZ ds flusek?kjksa esa rgydk epk fn;kA bl fQYe dh lQyrk us ulhe ckuks dks fQYe m|ksx esa LVkj ds :i esa LFkkfir dj fn;kA vc os baMLVªh esa O;Lrre vfHkus=h cu x;h FkhaA lksgjkc eksnh ds cSuj ls ckgj dh ulhe ckuks dh igyh fQYe Fkh ^mtkyk*A ;g fQYe 1942 esa vk;hA blesa muds lkFk Fks i`Fohjkt diwjA bl fQYe dk fuekZ.k rktegy fiDplZ ds cSuj rys gqvk FkkA tc ,l- eqdthZ viuh Vhe dks ysdj ckEcs Vkdht ls vyx gq, rks mUgksaus iafMr iznhi ds yksdfiz; xhr ^py py js ukStoku* ij fQYe cuk;hA blh nkSjku fQYe fuekZ.k ds {ks= esa fQfYeLrku dEiuh dk izos'k gqvkA bl daiuh dh igyh fQYe Fkh ^py py js ukStoku*A fQYe ds uk;d Fks v'kksd dqekj vkSj ukf;dk Fkha ulhe ckuksA lksgjkc eksnh us ulhe ckuks dks ysdj ,d vkSj lQy fQYe cuk;hA ^'kh'k egy*A bl fQYe us ,d ckj fQYe ls ulhe ckuks ds uke dk Madk ctk fn;kA 1951 esa cuh ^'kchLrku* esa Hkh ulhe ckuks ukf;dk FkhaA fQYe fuekZ.k ds nkSjku gq, ,d gknls us ftlesa uk;d ';ke dk nsgkar gks x;k] fQYe dks vfèkd pfpZr cuk fn;kA lkB ds n'kd esa mudh csVh lk;jk ckuks us fQYeksa esa dke 'kq: fd;kA rks ulhe ckuks us Lo;a dks fQYeksa ls vyx dj fy;kA mudh csVh Hkh C;wVhDohu gks x;hA fQYe ^taxyh* 'kEehdiwj ds lkFk lk;jk dh igyh fgV fQYe FkhA 86 o"kZ dh mez esa 18 twu dks mudk fuèku gks x;kA

lkèkuk dV vkSj >qedk fxjk js dksbZ ugha Hkwyk % dksbZ vkMEcj ugha ikyrh vkj-ds- uS;j lkgc ,d cgqr vPNs funsZ'kd FksA mUgsa Hkh ihus dh vknr FkhA mudh fQYeksa ds Qk;usUlj dydRrs ds Jh nkl nkek.kh FksA ,d ckj ,d fe= forjd ds lkFk ge muds ikl igqapsA fQYe ds ckjs esa Hkh ppkZ djuh FkhA lkèkuk gh feyhaA Lo;a vkdj lkeus [kM+h gks x;haA oSls dksbZ ghjksbu bl rjg ckgj ugha fudyrhA Lo;a vkdj iwNk] vki D;k ysaxs\

98

flus e k&2005

laè;k dk le; FkkA ,d lTtu cksys dqN Hkh pysxkA oks cksyh ^^'kjekb;sxk ughaA eSa vkidks fc;j Hkh is'k dj ldrh gw]a tks eSa ihrh gwAa og esgeku dks Hkh fiyk ldrh gwaA uk;j lkgc gksrs rks vkidks daiuh Hkh nsrAs ** dgrh gqbZ os Hkhrj x;ha vkSj lc 'kq: gks x;kA lkFk gh ;g Hkh dg fn;k fd fQYe ds ckjs esa rks feLVj gh ckr djsaxsA eSa fctful ugha tkurhA ;g Fkh vius tekus dh XySejl ghjksbu lkèkuk ftuds ckyksa dk LVkby ml oDr yM+fd;ksa esa cgqr izpfyr Fkk vkSj vkt Hkh gSA ckrksa gh ckrksa esa mUgksaus cgqr dqN dg fn;k] dqN Hkh ugha fNik;kA ftUnxh thus dk yksxksa dk vankt vyx&vyx gksrk gSA dksbZ ftUnxh ds gj yEgs dks Hkjiwj thrk gS rks dksbZ jksrs gq, >syrk gSA lkèkuk ftUnxh ds gj yEgs dks Hkjiwj thus esa fo'okl djrh gSA os dgrh gSa] eq>s ges'kk ftUnxh cgqr [kwclwjr yxh gSA ,d ckr gS] eSa ftUnxh esa dHkh mnkl ugha gksrhA ,slk ugha gS fd esjh ftUnxh esa dksbZ deh u gksA gj rjg dh [kqf'k;ksa ds ckotwn ,d xe gS] tks eq>s ges'kk lkyrk jgk gSA gekjh dksbZ vkSykn ugha gqbAZ vkSykn dh cgqr deheglwl gqbZ gS] ysfdu fQj ;gh lksp dj fny dks rlYyh ns ysrh gwa dHkh fdlh dks eqdfEey tgka ugha feyrkA Hkxoku us ugha pkgkA gesa og Hkh eatwj gS--- ^^rsjs Qwyksa ls Hkh I;kj rsjs dkaVksa ls Hkh I;kjA Hkxoku dk 'kqfØ;k vnk djrs gq, ;gh dgrh gwa]** vkt dk fnu cgqr [kwclwjr jgkA eq>s vkSj D;k pkfg,A tks chr x;k og cM+k [kwclwjr Fkk] vkt Hkh lqUnj gSA dy D;k gksus okyk gS] eSa dHkh bldh ijokg ugha djrhA lkèkuk dgrh gSa] mudh ftUnxh esa gj yEgk cgqr glhu jgk gSA igyh ckj eSa f'keyk x;h--- eSa cgqr [kq'k FkhA eSaus dHkh igkM+ ugha ns[ks FksA tc esjh 'kwfVax ugha gksrh Fkh] rks eSa Åaph igkM+h ij tkdj cSB tkrh FkhA ogka ls eSnku vkSj igkM+ ns[kuk eq>s cgqr vPNk yxrk FkkA mu utkjksa esa [kks tkrh gwaA fQYeksa dh XySej Hkjh ftUnxh esa lkèkuk dks tjk Hkh ijokg ugha gSA os dgrh gSa] ^^XySej Hkjh nqfu;k esa vki dke djrs gS]a rks vkidks rjg&rjg dh ckrksa dks lquuk iM+rk gSA tSlk eSaus igys crk;k] tc ikfVZ;ksa esa tkrh Fkh rks yksx dgrs Fks fd


eq>s efgykvksa ls ckr djuk vPNk ugha yxrk FkkA ejnksa ls gh ckr djrh gwaA blh izdkj yksx ;g Hkh dgrs Fks] lkèkuk fOgLdh ihrh gSA fNik dj ihrh gSA fOgLdh ihrh gwa rks dksbZ xqukg rks ugha djrhA ij eSa dHkh fNik dj ugha ihrhA yksx lksMs esa ihrs gSa dksd ¼dksdkdksyk½ esa ihrs gS]a eSa ekax dj ihrh gw]a rks Hkyk Nqikuk dgka gqvk\ bruk gh ugha esjs ifjokj esa ftruh yM+fd;ka gSa lc 'kjkc ihrh gSa vkSj Leksd ¼èkweziku½ djrh gSaA eSaus igys crk;k fd lnhZ ds ekSle esa nok ds :i esa vDlj czkaMh gesa cpiu ls nh tkrh FkhA eSa rhu lky dh Fkh rHkh ls tc esjs MSMh 'kke dks fOgLdh dk iSx ysdj cSBrs rks eSa muls iwNrh] ^^,d fli ys ywa\** vkSj og Hkh euk ugha djrs FksA dgrs Fks] ^^ys yks**A blfy, dHkh ;g ugha lkspk fd og xyr gSA eq>s rks fOgLdh ihus dh vknr gSA xj ,d fnu ikVhZ esa fOgLdh ekax yh rks dkSulk igkM+ VwV iM+kA ,d ckj dh ?kVuk lqukrs gq, os dgrh gSa] ^^fnYyh esa ,d eq'kk;jk FkkA Jh ykycgknqj 'kkL=h ¼rc os izèkkuea=h Fks½ eq[; vfrfFk FksA 'kkL=h th vkèks ?kaVs ds fy, vkus okys FksA eSaus Hkh eq'kk;js esa ,d 'ksj i<+k FkkA 'kkL=h th vk,A tc eq'kk;jk [kRe gqvk rks vpkud eq>s lw>kA eSaus ?kks"k.kk dh fd lHkh yksx futh rkSj ij dqN u dqN nku nsaA tc futh ;ksxnku dh ckr gks rks tks dqN ml le; vkids ikl gS vki ogha nsxa As eSua s vius tsoj tks dqN igus gq, Fks mrkj dj viuh lkM+h ds iYyw esa MkysA mlds ckn ftrus Jksrk ogka cSBs Fks lcds ikl tkdj muls tks dqN muds ikl Fkk bdV~Bk djus yxhA bl lc esa eq>s yxHkx <kbZ ?kaVs yx x;sA ykycgknqj 'kkL=h th tks flQZ vkèks ?kaVs ds fy;s vk;s Fks mUgsa <kbZ ?kaVs rd #duk iM+kA eSa tc eap ij okil vk;h rks esjh >ksyh Hkjh gqbZ FkhA lc tkdj eSua s 'kkL=h th dks fn;kA os xnxn gks x;sA ckn esa 'kkL=h th eq>ls cksys ^^rqe esjs ?kj vk ldrh gksA esjs ifjokj ds yksx rqels feydj cgqr [kq'k gksaxsA** eSaus dgk] t:j vkÅaxhA vxys fnu eaS vkSj uS;j lkgc 'kkL=h th ds ?kj x,A

fo'othr % ^chl lky ckn* fgUnh fQYe m|ksx ds jksekafVd ghjks ds :i esa fo'othr ,d le; yk[kksa fQYe n'kZdksa ds ân; ds èkM+du cu

x;s FksA mUgksaus n'kZdksa dks viuh yktokc vnkdkjh ds cy ij [kwc izHkkfor fd;k FkkA fo'othr dh igyh fQYe Fkh ^chl lky ckn*A os bl fQYe ds uk;d Fks vkSj ;g fQYe lqij fgV lkfcr gqbZ FkhA blds ckn vizyS Qwy] b'd ij tksj ugha] ;s jkr fQj u vk;sxh] dksgjk] lxkbZ] nks dfy;ka vkfn fQYeksa esa mUgksaus viuh ,D'ku vkSj jksekapiw.kZ Hkwfedkvksa esa [kwc izHkkfor fd;kA mudh yxHkx lHkh fQYesa fgV jghaA vius dSfj;j ds ckjs esa os crk;k djrs Fks] ^^vfHku; dh izsj.kk eq>s viuh eka ls feyh FkhA mudh eka efgyk lfefr }kjk izLrqr fofHkUu fo"k;ksa ij ukVdksa dk eapu fd;k djrh Fkha vkSj muesa vfHku; Hkh fd;k djrh FkhaA os viuh eka ds lkFk ukVd ns[kus Hkh tk;k djrs FksA blfy, muesa cpiu ls gh vfHku; ds izfr #fp tkx`r gks x;h FkhA blds ckn mUgksaus osYywj esa Lokeh foosdkuUn dkyst esa ch, dh fMxzh izkIr djus ds ckn ,E;ksPpksj xzqi }kjk izLrqr fd;s tkus okys ukVdksa esa vfHku; 'kq: dj fn;kA blds ckn mUgsa caxyk fQYe ^Mkd gjdjk* esa ,d NksVh&lh Hkwfedk djus dk volj feykA oSls ns[kk tk, rks blh fQYe ds }kjk mudk fQYeksa esa izos'k gqvk FkkA izfl) flusek funsZ'kd foey ?kks"k us mudk vfHku; ns[kdj mUgsa viuh fQYe ^dal* esa Jhd`".k dh Hkwfedk djus dk volj fn;k] ;g fQYe [kwc pyhA bl fQYe ds ckn fo'othr dks ikSjkf.kd fQYeksa esa [kwc dke feyus yxkA ikSjkf.kd fQYeksa esa os jke vkSj d`".k dh Hkwfedk fd;k djrs FksA ,d rjg ls caxky esa ikSjkf.kd ghjks ds :i esa mudh èkkd te x;h Fkh] ysfdu foey th dks ;g ilan ugha FkkA mUgksua s fo'othr ls dgk fd blds ckn os fdlh Hkh fQYe esa ikSjkf.kd fdjnkj u fuHkk;sa D;ksafd os fo'othr dks vyx rjg dk uk;d cukuk pkgrs FksA ckn esa mUgksaus 1961 esa gsear dqekj dh ^chl lky ckn* fQYe esa mUgsa uk;d dh Hkwfedk ds :i esa vuqcafèkr fd;k vkSj os dydRrs ls eqEcbZ vk x;sA ^chl lky ckn* ,d tcjnLr fgV fQYe lkfcr gqbZA lLisal vkSj fo'othr ds yktokc vfHku; ds dkj.k bl fQYe us n'kZdksa ij [kwc izHkko MkykA bl fQYe ds ckn fo'othr dks okLrfod vFkksZa esa lgh czsd feykA blds ckn E;wftdy jksekal okyh fQYeksa dk ,d flusek&2005

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pyu 'kq: gks x;kA blds ckn fo'othr dh jksekafVd ghjks ds :i esa best cu x;hA fgUnh fQYe m|ksx esa vfèkdkfèkd izos'k fey tkus ds ckn fo'othr us fuekZ.k o funsZ'kd ds {ks= esa Hkh viuk ikao tekuk 'kq: dj fn;k] ysfdu mUgksaus viuh lhek caxyk fQYeksa rd gh dsfUnzr j[khA mUgksua s usrkth lqHkk"kpUnz cksl ds thou ij vkèkkfjr ^usrkth lqHkk"k* uke dk lhfj;y cuk;k tks yksxksa us [kwc ilan fd;kA fo'othr us vfHku; dh ijaijk dk;e dh gSA muds iq= izluthr us caxkyh fQYeksa esa dkQh uke vftZr fd;k gSA os ogka ds lqijLVkj ds :i esa tkus tkrs gSaA firk dh rjg os Hkh ,D'ku ghjksa ds :i esa tkus tkrs gSAa mudh iq=h izk;ek Hkh ukf;dk ds :i esa vkus okyh gSA bl fQYe dk fuekZ.k fo'othr us gh fd;k FkkA

dgka ls dgka rd igqaph jk[kh % viuh dgkuh viuh tq c kuh xqnxqns lksQs ij iSj j[k] e[keyh rfd;s dks ckgksa esa ncksps os Bgjs gq, yEcs gky dh lkeus okyh nhokj ds fdlh dksus dks ?kwjus yxh FkhaA ik'oZ esa fidklks dk rSyfp= yxk Fkk----eka dk Hk; la=kl esa nck&nck psgjk dsduqek fdlh pht ds le{k Nqjh fy;s gq, cPps ds gkFk! ^^eSaus pesyh dh fNrjh gqbZ Hkjh yrj dks >>dksj fn;k FkkA dkyhu <¡dh tehu ij lQsnh fcN x;hA vka[kksa dk Hkwjk vkleku lglk esjs psgjs ij fVd x;kA lkouh cknyksa dk lewg c<+k pyk tk jgk FkkA uUgh jk[kh! Ýkd igurs&igurs vius uUgsa daèkksa dks etcwrh nsus dk vglkl Fkk mls] tks ufn;ksa okys ml ns'k ls Nqik;s og fj¶;wth dSai ds vaèksjs o racqvksa esa ys vk;h FkhA ikcuk ftyk ¼vc ckaXykns'k½ ds NksVs ls xkao esa esgurh firk dk twV dk O;kikj FkkA ,d fnu vpkud os lc dqN NksMN+ kM+ dj xk;c gks x;sA xjhch] Hkq[kejh] vfuf'prrkvksa ds pØokr us bl NksVs ls ifjokj dks Mal fy;kA eka cPpksa dks jkst jkr vkus okys dy ds ckjs esa le>k le>k dj lqyk fn;k djrhA mu lcesa og lcls cM+h FkhA le>nkj Fkh] le> x;h] fdlh pht dh dksbZ ftn ughaA rht R;kSgkj Hkh vkdj fudy 100

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tkrsA mUgsa diM+s u feyrs] feBkbZ u feyrh] ysfdu eka dks vleFkZrk dk cksèk rd ugha gksus fn;kA ,d fnu cjlkr esa Mwc jgh vaèksjh jkr esa unh ikj dj firkth vk;s Fks vkSj nwljs fnu lcdks ysdj py fn;sA mUgsa ugha irk Fkk] os dgka tk jgs gSaA 'kk;n eka tkurh jgh gksaxh--- vkSj og--- Vªsu esa cSBh gqbZ ?kqVuksa esa eqag fNik;s ml NksVs ls dqRrs ds fy, fgpfd;ka Hkjrh jgaha] tks mlds ihNs&ihNs LVs'ku rd vk;k Fkk---- og mls csgn I;kj djrh FkhA ij lkFk ugha ys tk ldrh FkhA dydRrk os yksx fj¶;wth cudj vk;s FksA og dydRrk dkjiksjs'ku ds Ldwy esa tkus yxh Fkh] tgka i<+kbZ eq¶r FkhA ,d ekLVj th Fks] tks cM+s Lusgh FksA g¶rs esa rhu fnu fcuk iSls ds i<+krs FksA ckn esa vPNh Nk=k gksus dh otg ls Nk=o`fRr Hkh feyus yxh FkhA mu ekLVj th dks og Hkh ugha Hkwy ldrhA uke Fkk lqjsUnz dqanwA Hkw[k vkSj chekjh ds chp firkth dks Mcy fueksfu;k gks x;kA os FkksM+k Bhd gq, rks ,d fnu Ldwy esa [kcj vk;h] eka fxj x;h gSaA og HkkxhA eka dks lkroka eghuk py jgk FkkA ekFks ij xgjk t[e gks x;k FkkA mlh t[e dh otg ls fVVusl--- ?kj esa dqN Hkh ugha FkkA Qy vkSj lwi rks liuk FkkA nky dk ikuh cukdj fiykus ds fy, uUgsa gkFkksa esa dVksjh ysdj fudyhA dqN us mls ns[kdj njokts cUn dj fy;sA fj'rsnkjksa us mUgsa vkxkg dj fn;k Fkk] ,d ckj ns fn;k rks ;g gj le; njokts idM+s [kM+h jgsxh] fdarq fdlh us mls dVksjh Hkjh nky nhA ?kj ykdj mlus idk;kA fuLrst iM+h eka] NksVs cPpksa dks ns[kdj ihus ls budkj dj fn;kA uUgha jk[kh us rHkh ls lkspuk 'kq: dj fn;k FkkA mlds uUgsa daèkksa okys O;fDrRo esa n`<r+ k vkSj vkRefo'okl dh lkalas ?kqy x;h FkhaA yM+kbZ ls tw>us dk lkgl mlds uaxs iSj esa iSnk gks pqdk FkkA foèkok ukuh dh e`R;q dks og cPph ugha Hkwy ikrhA ijaijkxr pyh vk jgh :f<+;ksa ds izfr fonzksg ds chp vutkus mlh fnu jksfir gks pqdk FkkA ukuh! lQsn èkksrh ds flok dksbZ diM+k ughaA rkelh Hkkstu ls nwj] NqvkNwr dh dV~Vjrk vkSj--- ns[kdj uUgha jk[kh lge mBh FkhA ejus ls nks fnu iwoZ njokts dh vkM+ esa [kM+h ukuh eNyh [kk jgh FkhA [kfV;k ij iMh gqbZ vLQqV Lojksa esa fpYykrh


jghaA eq>s xgus iguk nksA jaxhu èkksrh iguk nks--- Vhdk yxk nksA ejus ls iwoZ nfer bPNk,a phRdkj dj jgh FkhA cPph lw[kh vka[ksa fy;s foew<+&lh ns[krh jgh Fkh vkSjrksa ds fy, ;g fu;e] ;g caèku D;ksa\ D;ksafd 'kkL= fy[kus okyk ,d iq#"k FkkA mlus vkSjr dks iq#"kksa dh n`f"V esa gh le> dj fuèkkZfjr fd;kA eq>s yxrk gS 'kkL= vxj fdlh vkSjr us fy[kk gksrk rks T;knfr;ksa dk ;g egklkxj viuh tkfr ds fy, og dnkfi u rS;kj djrhA** ^^ml {k.k eSa pkSd mBh FkhA lkouh cknyksa esa rSj jgh cPph ,dk,d cM+h cu x;hA ftUnxh esa gkj u ekuus okyh vkSjrA vius fy, iq#"k us dksbZ vkpkj lafgrk 'kkL= esa ugha nhA [kkunku] ijL=h Hkksx--- vkSjr dh T;knfr;ksa dks eSaus Hkksxk gS] fdUrq Lohdkjk ughaA ukuh vkSj eka dh ijEijk dh vPNkb;ka eSua s yh gSAa fdUrq mudh rjg viuh n`f"V] vkpkj] fopkj lrhRo ds pj.kksa esa lefiZr ugha dj fn;kA ckgksa esa fHkpk rfd;k mUgksua s cxy okys lksQs ij fVdk fn;kA iSj lksQs ds uhps ------- pqIi dj fVd x;s vkSj [kqys gq, ckyksa dks os NksVs ls twMs+ esa yisVus yxhaA tks dqN eSa lqu jgh Fkh cgqr larqfyr FkkA eSa Lora= gwaA vkt fdlh fu.kZ; ij nq%[k gksrk gS rks nks"k fdlh dks ugha nsrhA esjh miyfCèk;ka Hkh esjh viuh gSaA iVfj;ksa pyrs gq, tc fdlh èkM+èkM+krh pyh vk jgh Vªsu dk vkHkkl gksrk gS rks dqN nsj ds fy, mrj dj tehu ij tkrh gw]a ysfdu dqN gknls ftUnxh esa ,sls gq, gS]a ftUgksua s vle; jk[kh dks mldh mez ls ikap lky vkxs ykdj [kM+k dj fn;k gSA eSa nksuksa gkFkksa ds iats ,d nwljs esa Qalkrs gq, iqu% 'kwU; esa my> x;hA Hkhrj gh Hkhrj os viuh vleatlrk ls yM+ jgh Fkh] mcj ugha ik;h] rqe rks tkurh gksA fiNys oDr us edM+h ds tkys&lk eq>s js'ks js'ks my>k;k gSA bruk T;knk Øwj gS--- rqEgsa ugha crk ldrhA dHkh viuh ck;ksxzkQh fy[kh rks tkurh gks\ fQYeksa esa yM+fd;ka viuh mez fNikrh gSa] fdarq eq>s viuk izkS<+ vkSj izk<S + gksrs tkuk cM+k lq[kn vglkl yxrk gSA lp dgwAa eq>s bartkj gS ckyksa esa mHkjrh gqbZ ,d lQsn yV dk tks cgqr igys uUgha jk[kh ds ckyksa esa mHkj vkuk pkfg, FkkA os ekurh gSa XySej dh bl nqfu;k dh pkSafèk;kgV esa T;knkrj yksx vius psgjs cny ysrs gSAa viuh f'kuk[r cny ysrs

gSa] ysfdu dqN ,sls t:j gSa ftUgksaus vius ân; ij IykfLVd ltZjh ugha djok;h gSA bl ekeys esa os oghnk jgeku] èkesUZ nz dh iz'kafldk gSAa fQYe eas tks tksfM+;ksa dk VªsaM pyus yxrk gS] mls os egRoghu le>rh gSaA os dHkh fdlh fuekZrk funsZ'kd ij vius lkFk fdlh [kkl ghjks dks ysus dk vkxzg ugha djrhaA 'kq:&'kq: esa tc jk[kh fQYeksa esa vk;ha rks ,sls dbZ funsZ'kdksa ls ikyk iM+k tks viuk dke Lo;a Bhd <ax ls ugha tkurs Fks] ysfdu n[kyankth okyh vknr u rc Fkh] u vc gSA gj fdlh dks viuk&viuk dke djuk pkfg,A dqN funs'Z kd tSls xksYMh lkgc dh rks os iz'kafldk gSaA dykdkjksa dks le> ds os ik= dk vfHku;] Lo;a bruk thfor djds le>krs gSa fd yksx nkn fn;s fcuk ugha jg ikrsA cPph cksLdh ds ckjs esa mudk dksbZ liuk ugha gSA og tks Hkh cuuk pkgsxh eq>s mlh esa [kq'kh gksxh] clA og dgrh gS ftl fnu #d x;h] pqd tkÅaxh] fdUrq pqduk ugha gS u #dqaxhA*

vkse f'koiqjh dk fQYeksa esa vkuk % ;knsa Hkksiky esa rhu toku fo|kfFkZ;ksa us cSd a ywV fy;k vkSj Qjkj gks x;sA fo|kFkhZ Mkdw ugha FksA mUgksaus dHkh bl rjg dk dke ugha fd;k Fkk] ysfdu gksLVy esa rhu nksLr feydj ppkZ djrs Fks fd D;k j[kk gS bl rjg dh ftUnxh fcrkus esaA thou esa dqN luluh[kst ?kVuk gks] v[kckjksa esa ppkZ gksA yksx gSjku vkSj vk'p;Z gkas fd ;g dSls gks x;kA fQj D;k Fkk\ dgkuh cu x;hA 'kjn tks'kh izfl) O;aX;dkj FksA os dfo lEesyuksa esa Hkh O;aX; lqukrs FksA [kwc rkfy;ka feyrh FkhaA ukVdksa esa mudh vkSj mudh iRuh dh #fp FkhA os eqEcbZ vk;s gq, FksA eqykdkr gksus ij ckr iDdh gks x;h fd bl fo"k; ij fQYe cukuk pkfg,A uk;d dh [kkst 'kq: gqbAZ mUgksua s fnYyh jaxeap ds dykdkj vkse f'koiqjh dk uke crk;kA fQj ogha mudks tkdj feys vkSj 5 gtkj #i;s esa ghjks r; gks x;kA uke j[kk ^f{kfrt*A izse diwj funsZ'kd] Hkjr diwj vkSj tkfgjk ukf;dkA ckydfo cSjkxh ds xhrA fQYe dk uke gh ^f{kfrt* tks fQYe m|ksx dh le> esa ugha vk;kA mPpkj.k djus esa mUgsa cgqr rdyhQ gksrh Fkh] flusek&2005

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D;ksafd vaxzsth esa igyk v{kj ds FkkA dksbZ dgrk f{kfrt dksbZ dqN rks dksbZ dqNA gesa gksjkbtu dg dj le>kuk iM+k] D;ksafd eqEcbZ esa gksVy gksjkbtu FkkA mlh le; mudh yo eSfjt gqbZ FkhA vkt ds èkkjkokfgd ^D;kasfd lkl Hkh dHkh cgw Fkh* dh ^ck* lqèkk f'koiqjh lsA fQYe esa mudk fdjnkj lsB ?ku';ke nkl fcM+yk tSlk FkkA muds laokn vkSj vfHku; vPNs Fks] O;fDrRo Hkh 'kkunkj FkkA yEcs yEcs laokn mUgsa tYnh ;kn gks tkrs FksA ysfdu lc dqN gksrs gq, Hkh fQYe ¶yki gks x;hA vfHku; gh mudk thou Fkk] vfHku; ds fcuk 'kwU;A mUgsa jaxeap ls cgqr yxko FkkA os fQYeksa esa vkdj ekuus yxs Fks fd eSa ,d fcdkÅ oLrq gwa vkSj tks eq>s T;knk iSlk nsxk] mlds fy, fcdus dks rS;kj gwaA mudk funsZ'ku ds {ks= esa tkus dk cgqr eu Fkk] ysfdu volj ugha feykA mudh ;g vleFkZrk mUgsa thou i;ZUr lrkrh jgh vkSj la?k"kZ djrs gh ifjokj dks NksM+dj iaprRo esa yhu gks x;sA

js[kk % lhèkh ;k Vs<+h % vc _frd jks'ku dh eka Hkh js[kk gdhdr esa ,d ftUnk rwQku gSA bl rwQkuh Hkaoj esa cgqr lkjs yksx xdZ gks x;s] ysfdu js[kk fcankl jghaA mlus cgqr lkjs izse izdj.kksa dks tUe fn;k vkSj cgqr ls izse izdj.kksa dks ipk;kA ,slk fd Mdkjk Hkh ughaA tc mlus fQYeksa esa izo's k fd;k ml le; og cyk dh [kwclwjr ugha FkhA oSls og ,d vkSlr njts dh dkyh lkaoyh yM+dh FkhA nf{k.k Hkkjr dh fQYeksa ds e'kgwj vfHkusrk tsfeuh x.ks'k vkSj vfHkus=h iq"ikoYyh dh dU;k gS js[kkA mldk tUe 10 vDVwcj] 1954 dks psUubZ esa gqvkA fgUnh fQYeksa esa js[kk dk izos'k ^lkou Hkknks* ls gqvk] ysfdu ;g fQYe ,slh pyh fd dqN dguk ughaA js[kk pwafd d`".k o.kZ dh Fkh] blfy, ml oDr og [kkl ppkZ esa ugha Fkh] ysfdu oDr dk dfj'ek nsf[k, fd tSls tSls og toku gksrh x;h] mldk jax:i fu[kjrk gh x;k vkSj mlds vfHku; esa Hkh fu[kkj vk x;kA js[kk dks feyh u;s dk;kdYi ls iz'kalk ftldh og ik= gks x;hA fdj.k dqekj] fouksn dqekj] jktcCcj vkSj vferkHk cPpu ds lkFk js[kk ds tks ppsZ 'kq: gq, os dkQh pfpZr gq,A 102

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mlus vfHku; ds cycwrs ij ^Lo.kZ e;wj* tSlk ikfjrksf"kd gkfly fd;kA mlds vfHku; dh ppkZ gksus yxhA js[kk us ^mejko tku* vkSj ^mRlo* esa mRd`"V Hkwfedk,a dha ftlus vejRo izkIr djk fn;kA fnyhi dqekj dks NksM+dj dksbZ ,slk vfHkusrk ugha gS] tks js[kk ds tksM+ dk vfHku; djrk gksA js[kk tc 11 o"kZ dh Fkh rHkh ls og rfey vkSj rsyqxw fQYeksa esa dke djus yxh FkhA vkt js[kk dks fQYeksa esa vk;s 30 o"kZ ls T;knk le; gks pqdk gSA 1977 eas fQYeQs;j us mls ^bZeku èkje* ds fy, loksZRd`"V vfHkus=h dk iqjLdkj fn;kA [kwclwjr ¼1980½ vkSj ^[kwu Hkjh ekax* ¼1981½ ds fy, Hkh fQYeQs;j vokMZ mUgsa feykA vkt Hkh ^Hkwr* esa pfpZr gSA 1981 esa cuh ^mejko tku* ds vfHku; ds fy, mUgsa jk"Vªh; iqjLdkj ls lEekfur fd;k x;kA gal [ksydj js[kk dks fnu xqtkjuk vPNk yxrk gSA js[kk us cklq HkV~Vkpk;Z dh vafre fQYe vkLFkk esa cgqr cksYM vfHku; fd;k FkkA mlds lkeus 'kf'k diwj dh fQYe ^mRlo* esa dke'kkL= dk ikB i<+krh gqbZ js[kk dqN ugha gSA dqN Hkh gks] tks Hkh js[kk djrh gS n'kZd mls ilan djrs gSAa fQj og D;ksa ugha djsA _f"kds'k eq[kthZ dh fQYe ^>wBh* esa mUgksaus ;ksx dh f'k{kk Hkh nhA ;g fQYe n'kZdksa vkSj muds iz'kaldksa dks ilan vk;hA fQj D;ksa js[kk dks nqfu;k okys Vs<+h js[kk dgrs gSaA os rks dHkh vius ekxZ ls ugha HkVdhA ,dne lhèkh js[kk gSA

ekyk flUgk % ftl fQYe dk uk;d fnyhi dqekj gks rks eSa eq¶r dke d:axh ekyk flUgk usiky ls vk;h fØf'p;u ckyk FkhA mldh ÅapkbZ dsoy ikap QqV FkhA fQj Hkh mldh eknd us n'kZdksa ij tknw dj fn;k FkkA fQYeksa esa vkus ds igys og ckfydk dydRrk vky bafM;k jsfM;ks ls fu;fer xk;u is'k fd;k djrh FkhA ij fQYeksa esa mlus dksbZ xkuk ugha xk;kA ekyk us fQYeh ijns ij izos'k caxyk fQYe ^jks'kuvkjk* ls fd;k FkkA ekyk flUgk dh igyh fgUnh fQYe Fkh vfe; pØorhZ dh ^ckn'kkg*A mlds ckn ^,dkn'kh* uked ikSjkf.kd fQYe dh og ukf;dk cuhA ekyk flUgk dsoy fnyhi dqekj dks NksM+ lHkh Vki ds dykdkjksa dh ukf;dk cuhA og u;s dykdkjksa ds lkFk dke djus esa dHkh Hkh


fgpdrh ugha FkhA yo eSfjt] eSa u'ks esa gw]a ijofj'k] ek;k] èkwy dk Qwy] fgeky; dh xksn es]a Qwy cus vaxkjs] cgqjkuh] tgkavkjk esa mlds vfHku; dh [kwc ljkguk gqbZA cgqjkuh] lqgkxu] tgkavkjk] iw.kZ :i ls ekyk flUgk dh fQYesa FkhaA èkwy dk Qwy] xqejkg] èkeZiq=] vui<+] fgeky; dh xksn esa] gfj;kyh vkSj jkLrk] fQj dc feyksxs] ekyk flUgk ij vkèkkfjr fQYesa FkhaA mlus ges'kk viuh Hkwfedk ds lkFk U;k; fd;kA ^X;kjg gtkj yM+fd;k¡* esa mlus [kwclwjr ukf;dk dk vfHku; fd;kA vktdy csVh dks ukf;dk cukus esa yxh gSA os Hkkjr esa lcdh ppkZ esa FkhA tc muds ckFk:e ls vk;dj okyksa us Nkik ekjk FkkA

vejh'k iqjh % eksxEcks [kq'k gqvk vejh'k iqjh dh izfrHkk vkSj O;fDrRo dh igpku djkus okyh ;ksa rks vusd fof'k"Vrk,a gSa] exj feLVj bafM;k fQYe eas muds }kjk cksyk x;k laokn ^eksxEcks [kq'k gqvk] us mudks ftruk yksdfiz; n'kZdksa esa] [kkl dj cPpksa esa] dj fn;k] mldh cjkcjh 'kk;n gh dksbZ nwljh mudh igpku u cuk ik;sA vejh'k iqjh fgUnh fQYeksa ds lqifjfpr vfHkusrk peu iqjh vkSj e'kgwj [kyuk;d enu iqjh ds lcls NksVs HkkbZ gSaA mudh ijofj'k ,d vuq'kkflr ifjokj esa gqbZA dkyst dh i<+kbZ iwjh djus ds ckn vejh'k iqjh jkstxkj dh ryk'k esa HkVdus yxsA dbZ txg vftZ;ka nhaA blls igys fnYyh esa dkQh pIiysa pVdk pqds vejh'k iqjh dks ;gka Hkh mlh rjg dk ekgkSy yx jgk FkkA exj mUgksaus fgEer ugha gkjhA dbZ txg ukSdfj;ka dh vkSj NksM+ nhaA ukVdksa esa vkrs&vkrs dke djrs mudk ifjp; fxjh'k dukMZ ls gks x;k vkSj muls dqN bl rjg dh vkReh;rk gqbZ fd ifjp; vkSj Hkh xgjk gks x;kA fxjh'k dukZM us gh ,d fnu mudh eqykdkr 'kh"kZLFk jaxdehZ lR;nso nqcs ls djok;hA lR;nso nqcs ls vejh'k iqjh dh eqykdkr us mudh nqfu;k gh cny nhA vejh'k iqjh us nqcs th ds funsZ'ku esa èkeZohj Hkkjrh ds ukVd ^vaèkk ;qx* esa dke fd;kA lR;nso nqcs us vejh'k iqjh dh {kerkvksa dks bl rjg ij[kk fd vejh'k fQj muls ,d ,sls vknj vkSj lEeku ds caèku esa caèks fd os caèku vkt rd dk;e

gSaA vejh'k iqjh us nqcs th ds rdjhcu ipkl ukVdksa esa dke fd;k gSA jaxeap esa eqEcbZ eas yEcs vuqHkoksa ds ckn mudks fQYeh nqfu;k dh pdkpkSaFk ges'kk vkdf"kZr djrh jghA os pkgrs Fks fd os Hkh fQYeksa eas vfHku; djsAa muds HkS;k us muds fy, dkQh dqN fd;k exj ckr ugha cuhA NksVs&eksVs jksy mudks feyrs Fks] rks os lksp esa iM+ tkrs FksA mudks yxrk Fkk dgha mudh igpku vkxs ,DLVªk dykdkj ds :i esa rks cudj ugha jg tk,xhA exj os D;k djrsA igyk cM+k volj Hkh fxjh'k dukZM us gh fn;k viuh fQYe ^dkMq* esAa rHkh ';ke csuxs y dh utjksa esa os vk;s ftUgksua s mudks lcls igys ^eaFku* vkSj fQj ^fu'kkar* fQYeksa esa dke fn;kA ckn esa ';ke csusxy muls brus izHkkfor gq, fd vejh'k fQj mudh gj fQYe easa jgus yxsA fQj pkgs oks fotsrk gks ;k dy;qx] lwjt dk lkrok¡ ?kksMk+ gks ;k ljnkjh csxe ;k fQj tqcsSnkA vkxs pydj tc mUgksua s ^feLVj bafM;k* vkSj ^rgydk* tSlh fQYeksa esa ,d ,slk [kyuk;d izLrqr fd;k tks ifjokj esa ,d lkFk cSBdj fQYe ns[kus okys cPpksa dks Hkh yqHkk ys tkrk gS rks yksxksa dks rkTtqc gqvkA os fQYesa gh ,slh Fkha ftuesa dke djrs gq, vejh'k iqjh cPpksa ds Hkh fiz; cu x;sA [kyuk;dh djrs gq, mUgksaus lcls [kkl igy ;g dh fd viuk flj ?kqVok fn;kA vPNs O;fDr dh Hkwfedk okyh fQYeksa esa ge eqLdjkgV] ?kkrd] fny okys nqYgfu;k ys tk,axs] ijnsl] xfnZ'k] fojklr] rky vkfn dk ftØ dj ldrs gSAa [kyuk;d rks os viuh fdLe ds vts; jgs gh gaSA xr o"kZ mudk vkdfLed fuèku gks x;kA

feFkqu pØorhZ % vc gksVyksa ds ekfyd gSa feFkqu pØorhZ dks funsZ'kd e`.kky lsu dks èkU;okn nsuk pkfg, ftUgksua s muds thou dks cny fn;kA feFkqu ,d ,slk ;qod Fkk tks lM+dksa ij ;ksa gh ?kwek djrk Fkk vkSj ftlds vius thou&;kiu ds fy, Hkh ykys FksA ,d le; og iqfyl dh ^eksLV okaVsM* fyLV esa FkkA og uDlyokn ls lacfa èkr Fkk] ysfdu feFkqu dk dguk gS fd ;fn fny esa pkg gks rks vkSj ân; lkQ gks rks var esa fot; feydj jgrh gSA vkt og tkuk&ekuk dykdkj gSA ,d ekuk gqvk flusek&2005

103


lekt lsod gSA ,d ifjokj okyk vkneh gSA mlds pkj cPps gSAa iwuk fQYe baLVhV~;wV ls izf'kf{kr feFkqu pØorhZ dks ^e`x;k* esa mRd`"V vfHku; ds fy, jk"Vªh; iqjLdkj feykA blds vykok mls ^rgknsj dFkk* vkSj ^jked`".k ijegal* esa Hkh jk"Vªh; iqjLdkj feyk FkkA og dgrk gS mlus ;s rhuksa iqjLdkj vius csVksa dks lkSai fn;s gSaA mls vc pkSFks iqjLdkj dh mEehn gS tks og viuh csVh ueks'kh dks nsuk pkgrk gwaA ,d le; esa fMLdks MkUlj ds :i esa mHkjs feFkqu eas vfHku; {kerk Hkh gSA feFkqu dh caxyk fQYe ^frryh* esa mlds vfHku; {kerk dh fQj dkQh rkjhQ gqbZ gSA feFkqu dgrs gSa esjk igyk I;kj blfy, VwV x;k fd D;ksafd esjh iRuh us fdlh vU; ls 'kknh dj yhA frryh dh dgkuh esa Hkh blh rjg dh dgkuh gSA mlds pys tkus dk dkj.k ;g Fkk fd eSa LFkk;h ugha gks ik;k Fkk vkSj mls j[kus ds ;ksX; ugha FkkA vktdy os csaxykSj esa jgrs gSaA mudk ogka 'kkunkj gksVy gS tks fuekZrk mUgsa ysuk pkgrs gaS mudh vfèkdka'k 'kwfVax Hkh ogha gksrh gSA

tc fuekZrk iziksty ugha] fQYesa cukrs Fks fuekZrk funsZ'kd gkseh ohfM;ks fQYe m|ksx esa ,d vf}rh; O;fDr jgs gSaA mUgksaus dHkh fdlh dykdkj ds cy ij dksbZ fQYe ugha cuk;hA tc fQYe [kjhnus okys forjd viuh Qjekb'k crkrs Fks fd veqd dykdkj cgqr py jgk gS vki mls viuh fQYeksa esa D;ksa ugha ysrs rks mudk tokc gksrk fd eSa dykdkj ugha csprkA esjh dgkuh esa tks fdjnkj eq>s taprk gS mlh dks ysrk gwAa esjs fy, dksbZ Hkh dykdkj pyrk gSA esjs n'kZd esjh fQYe ns[krs gSAa mlds dykdkj ns[kus ugha vkrsA mudh dbZ fQYeksa esa eghiky uk;d Fks vkSj 'kf'kdyk ukf;dkA 'kkarkjke th ls eqdkcyk gkseh okfM;k ,D'ku QsaVslh vkSj fVªd QksVksxzkQh ds ekLVj FksA mUgksaus viuh ubZ fQYe ^gkfrerkbZ* esa Hkh efgiky dks fy;k ysfdu efgiky ,d nqfoèkk esa Qal x;sA 'kkarkjke tSls ukeh funs'Z kd us mUgsa viuh fQYe ^uojax* ds fy, ys fy;k vkSj efgiky ds fy, ;g lqugjk ekSdk Fkk D;ksafd os vHkh rd LVUV fQYesa dj jgs FksA muds fy, ;g [kq'kh dh ckr FkhA mUgksaus 'kkarkjke th dh lHkh 'krksZa dks eatwj dj fy;k vkSj lkFk esa ;g 104

flusek&2005

Hkh fd ^uojax* dks os ,d lkFk ,d ekg dk le; nsaxsA gkseh okfM;k us 'kwfVax dh rkjh[k fuf'pr dj yh vkSj efgiky us muls ekQh ekax yhA forjdksa dks yxk fd ukeh ghjks fQYeksa esa ugha vk jgk gS rks mUgksaus eqgwrZ ds fnu gh fQYe [kjhnus ls budkj dj fn;kA gkseh okfM;k us muls dgk fd vkius tks Hkh iSls fn;s gSa eq>]s eSa tks Hkh fQYe cukÅ¡xk] esjh ethZ ds dykdkj mlesa gksxa As vkt esjk eqgrw Z gSA vki ièkkjsa vkidk Lokxr gS vkSj eq>s dke djus nhft;sA vkidk iSlk esjs vkfQl esa tkdj ys yhft,A eSua s ogka vkidk fglkc djus dk vkMZj ns fn;k gSA LVwfM;ks esa gh mUgksaus ?kks"k.kk dj nh fd ^gkfrerkbZ* dh 'kwfVax dk iwjk lsV ,d lIrkg esa gesa rS;kj feyuk pkfg, vkSj 'kdhyk ds lkFk ghjks HkhA ;wfuV mudk LoHkko tkurh FkhA tks os dgrs gSa djrs gh gSAa ghjks dh ryk'k 'kq: gks x;hA t;jkt th ds ckjs esa lkspk x;k rks os vc fcydqy vkmV gks x;s FksA fQj Hkh dksf'k'k dh tk ldrh FkhA ?kj irk yxk;k rks irk yxk os enzkl esa 'kwfVax dj jgs gSaA cM+h eqf'dy ls jkr dks lEidZ gqvk rks irk pyk fd mudk jkr esa dke gSA nwljs fnu fdLer ls Qksu ij fey x;sA muls jru dqekj tks izkMs D'ku eSuts j Fks] muls ckr dh vkSj fdlh Hkh gkyr esa igyh ¶ykbV ls eqEcbZ igqapus dk vkxzg fd;k vkSj dgk x;k fd gokbZ vM~Ms ls gh mudks LVwfM;ks dh xkM+h feysxh tks mUgsa olUr LVwfM;ks igqpa k;sxhA jru dqekj us mUgsa le>k;k fd ;g vkidh nwljh fQYeh ftUnxh gksxhA vHkh rd tks vkius fd;k mlls fcYdqy foijhr gSA LVwfM;ks esa lsV rS;kj FkkA nl cts gkseh lsV ij igqpa x;sA ukS cts t;jkt th igqpa As mUgsa vkrs gh esdvi :e esa Hkst fn;k x;kA dSejkeSu ckcw HkkbZ feLrjh us lsV dk fujh{k.k fd;kA gkseh lsB us vkokt yxk;h ^jru dqekj*A ;wfuV ds yksxksa dks yxk fd jru dqekj dh vkt NqV~Vh gks tk;sxhA dgka ls yk;sxk efgiky dksA jrudqekj gkftj gq,A cksy]s ^th lj vkidk ghjks vk jgk gS* vkSj t;jkt th dks esdvi ds lkFk lsV ij ns[kdj gkseh okfM;k us mUgsa Nkrh ls yxk fy;kA cksys cgqr fnuksa esa ge fQj ,d lkFk gks x;sA ykbV vkWuA fQYe us jtr t;Urh eukbZA tks forjd Hkkx [kM+s gq, Fks os cgqr iNrk;sA tc ^gkfrerkbZ* gSnjkckn esa iznf'kZr gqbZ rks uokc futke Hkh fQYe ns[kus vk;sA tc fQYe dk xkuk ^ijoj fnxkjs vkye] vc rsjk gh lgkjk* xkuk [kRe gqvk rks mUgksaus gqDe fn;k ^bl xkus dks fQj ls


fn[kk;k tk;sA* fQYe Fkh yEchA dqy 18 jhy dh FkhA cM+h eqf'dy ls 'kks cUn djds muds gqDe dh rkehy dh x;h vkSj mUgsa blh xhr dks ckj&ckj lquk;k x;kA t;jkt Hkh gSnjkckn ds Fks tc os vknkc dj lkeus igqaps rks cgqr [kq'k gq,A

dy dh ekèkqjh Hkh ekèkqjh nhf{kr ls de ugha Fkh muds firk feLVj jseksl tks eqacbZ xouZj ds lsØsVjh gqvk djrs Fks] NqfV~V;ka eukus iwuk ys x;s FksA ml tekus esa xouZj dk iwjk LVkQ xouZj ds lkFk Vwj fd;k djrk FkkA ml oDr esjh Ldwy tkus dh mez FkhA e'kgwj vfHkus=h flrkjknsoh ^ykbV vkQ ,f'k;k* dh 'kwfVax ds flyflys esa ;gka vk;h gqb± FkhaA eSa 'kwfVax ns[k jgh FkhA Jh bUnqyky ;kfKd us eq>s ns[kk vkSj mUgksaus dgk fd mUgsa esjs firkth ls feyuk gSA fQj ;kfKd th esjs firkth ls feysA mUgksua s dgk fd os eq>s flusek esa dke djus dh Lohd`fr nsaA ekèkqjh ds firk us fcuk fdlh fgpd ds ;kfKd th ls dgk] ^^ugha ,slk ugha gks ldrkA** ysfdu esjh ekrkth us gka ;k uk dqN ugha fd;kA ;kfKd th us ekèkqjh dh eka dks vk'oLr djk;k fd esjs fQYeksa esa dke djus ls Ldwy dh i<+kbZ esa dksbZ ckèkk ugha vk;sxh vkSj bl rjg ls eSa fQYeksa esa vk x;hA ;g og le; Fkk] tc flusek esa vfHku; djuk] [kkldj yM+fd;ksa ds fy, cgqr cqjk ekuk tkrk FkkA eSaus 1931 ls fQYeksa esa dke djuk 'kq: fd;kA esjh igyh fQYe ^CySd ?kksLV* Fkh ftlesa esjs ghjks Fks bZekunkj vkSj bl rjg fQYe nj&fQYe esjk dSfj;j 'kq: gks x;kA Jh ukuwHkkbZ odhy us ^,t vkQ LisM~l* 'kq: dhA bl fQYe esa ukfld ds ekèko dkys ghjks FksA fQYesa feyrh xb±&ekèkqjh LVkj curh xbZaA blds ckn mUgksaus ^f'kjhu vkQ cxnkn* esa fnu'kk fcfyeksfj;k ds lkFk dke fd;kA j.kthr ewohVksu us ekèkqjh dks lk<+s lkr lkS #i;s ekgokj esa dkaVDªs V csfll ij j[k fy;kA ml le; lk<+s lkr lkS #i;s cgqr cM+h jde gqvk djrh FkhA blh njfe;ku nl cjl ds fy, os yanu pyh x;haA tc os okil vk;ha] ml oDr rd lekt esa dkQh ifjorZu vk x;k FkkA ml le; iatkch yM+fd;ka fQYeksa esa vkus yxh FkhaA muds vkus ls esjs dSfj;j dks dksbZ uqdlku ugha gqvk ysfdu f}rh; egk;q) dh cnkSyr fQYe bUMLVªh esa vkfFkZd leL;k,a mB [kM+h gqb± FkhaA

bldk ifj.kke ;g gqvk fd cgqr&lh fQYesa iSls ds vHkko esa vèkwjh jg x;haA cksyrh fQYe ^vkyevkjk* ds ckn vaxtsz h Hkk"kk&Hkk"kh ekèkqjh dks Hkk"kk dks ysdj dkQh ijs'kkuh gqbZA mUgsa vius laokn dh lQkbZ ls vnk;xh ds fy, fganh mnwZ dh V~;w'ku ysuh iM+hA j.kthr esa dke djus ds ckn ekèkqjh us Ýhykaflax dks izkFkfedrk nhA ekèkqjh us eglwl fd;k fd dqN funsZ'kd mudh izflf) dks vius dSfj;j dks vkxs c<+kus dh uh;r ls bLrseky djuk pkgrs gSaA j.kthr ds Jh pUnwyky 'kkg us mUgsa ckgj dh fQYesa djus ds fy, jksduk pkgkA mUgksaus dgk ekèkqjh rqEgsa ckgj dh fQYeksa esa vPNk iSlk feysxk] vPNk izpkj Hkh feysxk] ysfdu j.kthr tSlk lEeku ugha feysxkA dqN fnuksa ds ckn bEihfj;y ewohVksu ds vns'khj bZjkuh lkgc us mUgsa ,d jksy dk vkQj fn;kA rc j.kthr us NksM+ fn;kA blh nkSjku mudh nksLrh gkseh okfM;k vkSj fQ;jysl ukfM;k ls gqbZA mUgksaus 40 ds djhc cksyrh fQYeksa esa dke fd;kA ekèkqjh us ,-Mh- fcfyeksfj;k ds lkFk ^rwQku esy* esa dke fd;kA ;s fQYe lqij Mqij jghA ;g fQYe t;Ur nslkbZ us funsZf'kr dh FkhA ,d ckj eqacbZ fLFkr rkjnso bykds esa vkx yx x;h FkhA blesa vusd fQYeksa ds fuxsfVo tydj [kkd gks x;s FksA mudh ,d Hkh fQYe vkt miyCèk ugha gSA

csaxykSj esa eqykdkr & tc eSa muls csaxykSj esa feyk rks mUgksaus vius thou dh ,d ?kVuk lqukbZ& ,d ckj eq>s tsojkrksa ls yns dkLV~;we igudj ?kksM+s ij lokj gksdj lkeus okys O;fDr ij dkcw ikuk FkkA eSa ?kksM+s ij p<+hA Mk;jsDVj vkSj mlds vflLVsaV us dgk ?kksM+k cgqr 'kkar vkSj vPNk gSA esjs ,d gkFk esa yxke Fkh vkSj nwljs gkFk esa ryokj FkhA eSaus ?kksM+s dks I;kj ls iqpdkjkA mlls ckrsa dhaA cM+h ,gfr;kr ls ?kksM+s ij lokj gks x;h ysfdu ?kksM+k ?kkl [kk jgk Fkk vkSj esjs b'kkjs ij dke ugha dj jgk FkkA Mk;jsDVj us tksj ls dgk] ^^LVkVZ** ysfdu ?kksM+k viuh txg ls fgyus dks rS;kj ugha FkkA eSaus ?kcjkgV esa ryokj dh ukasd ?kksM+s ds isV esa pqHkks nhA ?kksM+k fcnd x;k vkSj Hkkxuk 'kq: dj fn;kA u mlus dSejk ns[kk u HkhM+A ?kksMs+ ij esjk daVªkys tkrk jgkA lc yksx fpYykus yxs] ^?kksM+s dks idM+ks--- ?kksM+s dks idM+ksA* lkeus ?kus isM+ FksA mldh Mkfy;ka cgqr uhps FkhaA esjk lj mudh Mkfy;ksa ls Vdjk;s fcuk ugha jg ldrk FkkA eSa Mj x;h ysfdu tkus dSls flusek&2005

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esjs fnekx esa ,d ckr vk;hA ?kksMk+ T;ksa gh Mkyh ds uhps ls Hkkxk fd eSaus Mkyh idM+ yh vkSj yVd x;hA ?kksM+k vkxs fudy x;k vkSj eSa cp x;hA vkt Hkh tc bl ?kVuk dh ;kn djrh gwa rks flgj mBrh gwAa vkt ekèkqjh fQYeksa dh ped&ned vkSj izflf) ls nwj gS vkSj fiNys 20 o"kksZa ls csaxykSj esa jg jgha gSa] ysfdu os viuh fQYeksa vkSj fQYeh ftUnxh dks dkQh ;kn djrh gSaA mUgsa ;kn vkrh gS fQYeksa ls tqM+s gq, vius fnuksa ds yksxksa dhA os vkt dh fQYeksa ls vius tekus dh fQYeksa dh rqyuk djrs gq, dgrh gSa] ^^ml le; ds fuekZrk&funsZ'kd yM+fd;ksa dh ekeys esa cgqr l[r gqvk djrs FksA ml tekus esa vfHkus=h ds Vkaxksa dk izn'kZu ugha ds cjkcj FkkA vktdy dh yM+fd;ksa dk tRFkk 'kksj'kjkcs okys laxhr ij cs'kehZ ls ukprk gSA vktdy dh yM+fd;ka fQYeksa esa viuk T;knk ls T;knk ftLe fn[kkus dh gksM+ yxk;s cSBh gSaA gekjs tekus ds laxhr dh ckr gh vkSj FkhA og laxhr ftaxtkax Vkbi okyk laxhr ugha cfYd d.kZfiz; laxhr gqvk djrk FkkA fQj Hkh eSa eqca bZ dh fQYeh nqfu;k dks cgqr fel djrh gwaA ekèkqjh dks D;k irk fd muds tekus ds n'kZd vkt Hkh mUgsa mlh rjg pkgrs vkSj I;kj djrs gSAa ekèkqjh dk vlyh uke csjhy jkeksl gSA os ,d ,aXyks bafM;u ls 'kknh djus ds ckn csjhy Mks;ys gks x;haA vc ekywe ugha dgka gkasxhA

f=yksd diwj % fQYeksa ds yksdfiz; egknso ikSjkf.kd èkkfeZd fQYeksa esa 'kadj Hkxoku ds :i esa f=yksd diwj tSlh izflf) fdlh vfHkusrk dks ugha feyh gSA mUgksaus 27 tuojh] 1933 dks dydRrk esa fQYeksa esa izos'k fd;kA Økafrdkjh gksus ls i`Fohjkt us mUgsa eqacbZ cqykdj fQYe ^pkj njos'k* esa dke fnyk;kA fu:ikjk; ds lkFk mudh tksM+h f'ko ikoZrh ds :i esa ?kj&?kj esa yksdfiz; gqbZA fQYe gj&gj egknso* ¼1950½ ds ckn cktkj mudh rLohjksa vkSj dSysaMj ls iV x;kA f=yksd diwj us viuh f'ko dh Nfo dks d`".kktquZ ;q) fQYe esa d`".k dk jksy dj cnyus dh dksf'k'k dh FkhA mudh izeq[k fQYesa gSa % lhrk] èkwiNkao] vNwr] fetkZ lkfgck] gj&gj egknso] pØèkkjh] f'kojkf=] t; egknso vkfnA

LojkT; dh dkeuk dh ih<+h Hkkjr dh cksyrh fQYeksa dh izFke ih<+h ds fQYedkjksa dk tUe 1895 ls 1910 ds eè; gqvk FkkA lu~ 1920&30 ds nkSjku tc ;g ih<+h toku gqbZ rks muesa vaxtsz ksa dh nklrk ds izfr 106

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Øksèk ds lkFk&lkFk Lohdkj dk Hkko Hkh FkkA os LojkT; dh dkeuk rks djrs Fks] ysfdu dgha ;g Hkh ekurs Fks fd Hkkjr ls vaxzstksa dk jkT; 'kh?kz lekIr ugha gksxkA fgeka'kq jk; vkSj ohjsUnzukFk ljdkj dh i<+kbZ fy[kkbZ baXySaM esa gh gqbZ FkhA

iz k s f rek nklxq I rk izksfrek ds firkth Hkkouxj LVsV esa jsyos esa tujy eSustj FksA eka f'k{kk ea=h FkhaA johUnzukFk VSxksj ds lkfUuè; esa f'kf{kr izkfs rek us xksjk miU;kl dh yksfyrk dks ,slk ltho fd;k fd os izlUu gks x,A eqacbZ jkT; ds x`gea=h eksjkjth HkkbZ us izksfrek dh fQYe ^>juk* dks cSu dj fn;k] rks mUgksaus fQYeksa ls laU;kl gh ys fy;kA cgqeq[kh izfrHkk dh èkuh izksfrek nklxqIrk ,d dq'ky vfHkus=h gksus ds vykok fuekZrk funsZ'kd ds :i esa Hkkjrh; fQYe m|ksx dh igyh efgyk Hkh FkhaA mudh cuk;h gqbZ funsfZ 'kr rFkk vfHku; okyh lHkh fQYesa fgV gqbA± flQZ ^>juk* gh viokn jghA izkfs rek dks fQYeksa esa vkus dk fojksèk gqvk Fkk ysfdu mUgksua s 'kkafr fudsru esa f'k{kk ds nkSjku johUnzukFk VSxksj ls oknk fd;k Fkk fd muds izfl) miU;kl ^xksjk* ij vkèkkfjr fQYe esa vfHku; djsxa hA varr% os ^xksjk* dh yksfyrk cuus esa lQy gqbA± mlds ckn izkfs rek us ^MkWDVj vkQ bafM;k* eas Hkh vfHku; fd;kA blds fy, mUgsa yanu esa LØhu VsLV nsuk iM+k FkkA thou ds izkjafHkd fnuksa esa mUgksua s caxyk fQYe ^iFk Hkwy*s esa Hkh dke fd;kA vU; Hkk"kkvksa dh fQYeksa esa dke djus dk ekSdk mUgsa fQYe fuekZrk ts-ch-,p- okfM;k rFkk funsZ'kd eèkq cksl dh fQYe ^jkt urZdh* esa feykA ;g fQYe fgUnh] vaxzsth vkSj caxyk esa cuk;h x;hA tkfgj Fkk fQYe dh ukf;dk funsZ'kd eèkq cksl dh iRuh lkèkuk cksl FkhA ,-vkj- dkjnkj dh ^ueLrs* esa Hkh izkfs rek us csgrjhu Hkwfedk dhA mUgksaus fd'kksj lkgw ds lkFk ,u-vkjvkpk;Z dh rhu fQYeksa ^dqaokjk cki*] ^jktk* vkSj ^'kjkjr* esa vfHku; fd;kA fQj mlus fQYe funs'Z ku 'kq: fd;kA viuh fj'rsnkj csxe ikjk dks ysdj mUgksaus ^Nfe;k* funsZf'kr dhA fQYe ds uk;d MsfoM FksA fQj gkL; fQYe ^ixys* dk funs'Z ku fd;kA fQj mUgksua s ^>juk* dk funs'Z ku fd;k ysfdu eksjkjth us tc bl ij cSu yxk fn;k rks grk'k izksfrek us fQYeksa ls laU;kl ys fy;kA os rduhf'k;uksa ds laxBu dh igyh efgyk vè;{k FkhaA


ukuk iylhdj ukxiqj ls dke dh ryk'k esa eqca bZ vk, ukuk iylhdj ds vkjafHkd nks o"kZ la?k"kZ Hkjs jgsA isV dh vkx cq>kus vkSj lksus ds fy, mUgksaus O;k;ke'kkyk dh 'kj.k yhA 1934 esa igyh ckj lsB xksfoUnnkl }kjk fyf[kr rFkk ia- }kjdkizlkn feJ }kjk fu;ksftr fQYe ^èkqavkèkkj* esa mUgsa lguk;d dk jksy feykA ukuk lQy jgsA cuoklh ¼'kkarkjke½] u;h fnYyh ¼eksgu lgxy½] dkuwu ¼ch-vkj- pksiM+k½ us mUgsa LFkkfir vfHkusrk cuk fn;kA nks ch?kk tehu] eqUuk] 'kgj vkSj liuk] izes ioZr tSlh rhu lkS ls vfèkd fQYeksa esa ukuk us thou ds fofHkUu jaxksa dks latks;kA

tequk nsoh tequk c#vk dk fQYe dSfj;j izeFks'k c#vk ds lkFk izkjaHk gqvkA muds lkFk gh var Hkh gqvkA ih-lh- c#vk dh igyh fQYe ^:iys[kk* ¼1934½ ls tequk dk fQYeh thou izkjaHk gqvkA ;g og fQYe Fkh] ftlesa lcls igys ¶yS'kcSd rduhd dh 'kq:vkr gqbZ FkhA mlh o"kZ tequk vkSj c#vk us 'kknh dj yhA c#vk dh fQYe ^nsonkl* ¼1936½ ls gh os crkSj ukf;dk dk jksy fuHkkus yxhaA ;g fQYe caxyk ds lkFk fganh esa Hkh cuh FkhA caxkyh fQYe esa muds lkFk muds ifr c#vk vkSj fgUnh laLdj.k esa ds-,y- lgxy uk;d FksA

yhyk feJk ,d tSlh Hkwfedk,a djrs&djrs gj dykdkj dh ijns ij ,d Nfc cu tkrh gSA blls og pkgrs gq, Hkh eqDr ugha gks ikrkA yhyk feJk dks n'kZd fQYeh ekSlh ds :i esa vPNh rjg tkurs gSaA muds thou dh blls cM+h =klnh vkSj D;k gksxh fd ckyiu esa fookg gksus ds dkj.k 14 o"kZ dh mez esa mUgsa ijns ij Hkh eka dh Hkwfedk djuh iM+hA xtkuu tkxhjnkj ds ^gksugkj* esa mUgsa 'kkgw eksMd dh eka dk jksy feykA ets dh ckr ;g fd csVk eka ls mez esa cM+k Fkk] ysfdu yhyk th lnSo eka ;k ekSlh gh ugha cuh jgha] HkkHkh] tsBkuh] nsojkuh ;k pkph dh Hkwfedk,a Hkh mUgsa feyrh jghaA oSls ukf;dk dh Hkwfedk ugha feyus ds fy, yhyk ekSlh Lo;a dks Hkh nks"kh ekurh FkhaA bldk fdLlk ,d ckj mUgksua s Lo;a lquk;k FkkA lu~ 1930 dh ckr gSA mUgsa ekLVj fouk;d

ds lkFk ^fHk[kkjh* fQYe esa ukf;dk dks jksy lkSia k x;k FkkA fQYe ds igys n`'; esa gh uk;d dh ckgksa esa Hkj dj mUgsa ;g laokn cksyuk Fkk % eSa rqEgkjs fcuk ftUnk ugha jg ldrhA n`'; fQYek;s tkrs oDr yhyk ucZl gks x;haA mUgsa cq[kkj vk x;kA ckn esa nwljs fnu 'kwfVax gqbZ rks fQj ogh gkyA vkf[kj yhyk us budkj dj fn;kA mUgksaus dgk eSa fookfgr gwa vkSj vius ifr ds vykok fdlh ijk, enZ ds vkxs eSa ;g y¶t ugha cksy ldrhA yhyk feJk dh igyh fQYe Fkh nknk lkgsc Qkyds }kjk fufeZr ^xaxkorj.k* tks 1935 esa jhfyt gqbZ FkhA 1935 ls 1940 ds chp yhykth dks dkQh HkkxeHkkx djuh iM+hA dHkh 'kwfVax ds fy, dksYgkiqj rks dHkh dydRrkA 1942 esa os eqacbZ vk x;ha vkSj fQj ;gha cl x;haA eqacbZ vkus ds ckn muds ikl vuqcaèkksa dh ck<+&lh vk x;hA mudh dqN mYys[kuh; fQYesa gSa % NksVh&NksVh ckrsa] ,d Fkh yM+dh] uocgkj] I;klk] latksx] nhokuk] vkokjk] vkf[kjh nkao] caèku] lcsjk] pkan] I;kj dk lkxj] f'kdLr] ftUnxh] ckcjs u;u] jke vkSj ';ke] ckfydk oèkw] xhr xkrk py] lkou dks vkus nks] dFkk] p'escn~nwj] esjk ?kj esjs cPpsA

,-Mh- fcfyeks f j;k % fQYeks a ds dkÅ ck; ,Mh fcfyeksfj;k dk tUe iq.ks ds ikl f[kM+dh esa lu~ 1900 esa gqvkA jsyos baftu esa QksjeSu cuus dh vkl fy;s os ,d flusek?kj esa xsVdhij cu x,A izkstsDVj pykuk lh[kkA NksVk HkkbZ nhu 'kk bEihfj;y daiuh esa ghjks FkkA mlls feyus ds cgkus vk;k djrs FksA ,d fnu funsZ'kd vkj-,lpkSèkjh us fQYe ^iatkc esy* esa jksy ns fn;kA Ms<+ lkS #i;s ekgokj ij ukSdj gks x;sA 1929 esa j.kthr fQYe daiuh Tokbu dj yhA 1940 ls pfj= vfHkusrk ds jksy djus yxsA fganh fQYeksa esa dkm ck; 'kSyh ds fy, bZ- fcfyeksfj;k tkus tkrs gSaA mudh izeq[k fQYesa gSa % dherh vkalw] fo'o eksfguh] rwQku esy] rwQkuh r#.kh] vki chrhA

tku dkol % lokZfèkd 'kfDr'kkyh iq#"k tku dkol dk 'kjhj enkZuxh ds ekinaM ij bruk [kjk mrjk Fkk fd 1932 esa eqacbZ esa laiUu vky bafM;k ckMhO;wVhQqy dkaVsLV esa Hkkjro"kZ ds lokZfèkd 'kfDr'kkyh iq#"k dh inoh feyh FkhA v[kkM+k lapkyd tku dkol dh eka dks jkth flusek&2005

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dj okfM;k ewohVksu ds ekfydksa us ^uwjs veu* fQYe esa mUgsa dke fn;kA mudh ukf;dk Fkh ukfn;kA ;g tksM+h vkxs pydj 25 fQYeksa esa fgV gqbAZ ipkl o"kZ ds fQYeh thou esa tku dkol us 80 fQYeksa esa dke fd;kA vius LVaV lhu os Lo;a djrs FksA eksVjdkj] jsyxkM+h] gokbZ tgkt] igkM+] 'ksj phrksa ls yM+rs gq, mudh gfM~M;ka dbZ ckj VwVhaA vjch] vaxzsth] rfey fQYeksa esa Hkh mUgksua s dke fd;k gSA mUgksua s iwjh ftanxh 'kjkc] flxjsV] iku ;gka rd fd lksMkokVj dks Hkh gkFk ugha yxk;kA tku dkol dh izeq[k fQYesa gSa % fel ÝafV;j esy ¼1936½] gfjdsu galk ¼1937½] iatkc esy] taxy Dohu ¼1939½] Mk;eaM Dohu ¼1940½] eqacbZ okyh ¼1941½] ldZl Dohu ¼1959½A

pUnz j ko dne yfyrk iokj ds lkFk LVaV fQYeksa esa vfHkusrk dh Hkwfedk djus okys igyoku dykdkj pUnzjko dne cksyrh fQYesa cuus ds i'pkr eqacbZ ds pkanhoyh esa tehu [kjhn dj LVwfM;ks ds ekfyd cu x;sA mUgksaus ;gka ij ,d [kqyk LVwfM;ks fufeZr fd;k ftlesa vkmVMksj 'kwfVax ds lsV yxk;k djrs FksA xksjsxkao esa fQYe LVwfM;ks rks ckn esa cuk ysfdu blds igys pUnzjko dne dk pkanhoyh LVwfM;ks viuh fdLe dk igyk vksiu ,;j LVwfM;ks cuk;k x;k Fkk tks vkt Hkh mlh rjg py jgk gSA

ijns dh lcls egaxh eka 1950 esa tc ^gj gj egknso* iznf'kZr gqbZ rks fQYeksa dh nqfu;k esa ,d u;k peRdkj gqvkA n'kZdksa us fQYe dh ukf;dk fu:ik jk; dks lk{kkr ikoZrh dk vorkj gh eku fy;kA fQYe dks iznf'kZr gq, nks lIrkg gh gq, Fks fd vkSjrksa ds >qaM fu:ik jk; ds ?kj ij vkus yxsA nsoh dh HkDr os fL=;ka fu:ik jk; dh iwtk djrha--- mUgsa Qwy&ekyk,a mrkjrha vkSj pj.k Li'kZ dj ^eka ikoZrh* dk vk'khokZn ysrhaA ^gj gj egknso* us lkjs ns'k esa lQyrk vkSj yksdfiz;rk ds >aMs Qgjk fn,A fu:ik] fu:ik ugha jghaA iwtuh; nsoh eka cu xb±A vkt dkyhdV rks dy dydRrkA vkt eqca bZ rks dy csxa ykSjA gj dgha fu:ik jk; dh vkjrh mrkjh tk jgh Fkh] iwtk dh tk jgh FkhA ßn'kZdksa ds bl vlhfer Lusg] fo'okl vkSj Hkkouk ds dkj.k eq>s Hkh rc èkkfeZdksa] laU;klh xq#vksa ls feyus dk volj feykA ,d ,slk okrkoj.k esjs pkjksa vksj fufeZr gks x;k 108

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Fkk fd gj vksj èkeZ vkSj èkkfeZd ckrksa ds flok dqN ugha FkkA ifj.kker% eSaus 40 ls vfèkd èkkfeZd fQYeksa esa vyx&vyx nsfo;ksa dh Hkwfedk,a dhaÞ& fu:ik jk; crkrh gSaA èkkfeZd fQYeksa esa dke djuk dksbZ ljy dke u FkkA dHkh uaxh&xeZ jsr ij pyuk iM+rk Fkk rks dHkh dfBu yksd's ku ij yM+kbZ ds n`'; djus iM+rs Fks& ^og tekuk ,slk Fkk] tc dykdkjksa dks vius lhu [kqn djus iM+rs FksA MqIyhdsV ugha gksrs FksA tksf[ke ds dke djrs le; pksVas Hkh yxrh Fkha*& fu:ik jk; flgjrs gq, cksyha&^vfèkdrj èkkfeZd fQYeksa esa eq>s lkaiksa ds lkFk Hkh dke djuk iM+rk FkkA ,d fQYe ^}kjdkèkh'k* esa rks eq>s lSdM+ksa lkaiksa ds lkFk dke djuk iM+kA ,d lhu ds fy, esjs gkFk&ikao ckaèkdj eq>s ,d dejs esa can dj fn;k x;k vkSj ,d xkM+h Hkj dj lkai esjs Åij Qsd a fn, x,A iwjs 'kjhj ij lkai gh lkai jsxa jgs FksA Mj ds ekjs esjs jksaxVs [kM+s gks x, FksA bl lhu esa eq>s xhr Hkh xkuk FkkA Mj yxs rks xkuk xkA ,slk gh gky Fkk dqNA lkai 'kjhj ij ljljk jgs Fks vkSj eSa dkai&dkai dj xkuk xk jgh FkhA xkuk xkrs&xkrs lkjs lkai Qwy cu tkrs gSa] ;gh lhu FkkA fdlh izdkj eSaus og lhu rks dj fy;k] ysfdu eSa dbZ jkrksa rd lks u ldhA tc Hkh fcLrj ij ysVdj lksus dh dksf'k'k djrh vkSj vka[ksa can djrh rks yxrk] lSdM+ksa lkai esjs 'kjhj vkSj fcLrj ij jsax jgs gSAa lu~ 1950 esa fganh fQYeksa esa viuh vfHku; ;k=k vkjaHk djus okyha fu:ik jk; us èkkfeZd fQYeksa ds lkFk&lkFk ,sfrgkfld] lkekftd vkSj LVaV fQYeksa esa Hkh dke fd;kA fu:ik jk; ds vuqlkj] ^t;jkt ml tekus ds ,d lQy vkSj ukephu vfHkusrk FksA ,sfrgkfld fQYeksa ds fy, vkn'kZ ekus tkrs FksA t;jkt LVkj ,DVj gksus ds ckotwn lkbfdy ij LVwfM;ks vkrs FksA eSaus t;jkt ds lkFk vej flag jkBkSM+] t; fpRrkSM+] ohj nqxkZnkl] ckthxj vkSj pkyckt tSlh fQYeksa esa dke fd;kA pkyckt ds fy, ?kqM+lokjh djrs le; eSa ?kksM+s ls fxj x;h FkhA ml le; rks xgjh pksV ls cp xbZ] ysfdu jktnjckj esa vfHkusrk jatu ds lkFk ryokj yM+krs le; jatu dh ryokj ls u cp ldhA ekFks ij xgjh pksV yxh vkSj eSa vpsr gks xbZA jktnjckj dh 'kwfVax ds nkSjku yxh ;g pksV o"kksZa rd esjs ekFks ij fu'kku ds :i esa cuh jghA NBosa n'kd esa fu:ik jk; ,d ikfjokfjd vfHkus=h ds lkaps esa <y pqdh FkhaA èkkfeZd vkSj ,sfrgkfld fQYeksa ls brj


og ,dne ikfjokfjd fQYesa dj jgha FkhaA cyjkt lkguh ds lkFk nks ch?kk tehu] ghjk eksrh vkSj ?kj&?kj dh dgkuh tSlh fQYesa dj jgh Fkha rks v'kksd dqekj ds lkFk x`gLFkh] dkjhxj] vkapy vkSj larku tSlh fQYesa dj jgha FkhaA v'kksd dqekj ds lkFk esjh igyh fQYe HkkbZ&HkkbZ FkhA ml le; rd v'kksd th cM+s LVkj cu pqds FksA eSaus lkekftd fQYeksa esa vHkh dne j[ks gh Fks& fu:ik jk; crkrh gSa] eSa v'kksd dqekj ds lkeus Bhd ls laokn ugha cksy ikrh FkhA tc Hkh laokn cksyrh rks nwljh vksj ns[kus yxrh A varr% v'kksd dqekj us vius dq'ky O;ogkj ls esjh f>>d nwj dhA 70 ds n'kd rd fu:ik jk; fQYeksa ds insZ ij ,d u;k :i èkkj.k dj pqdh FkhaA og eka cu pqdh Fkha vkSj gj cM+k vfHkusrk fu:ik jk; dks gh insZ ij viuh eka cukus dks vkrqj FkkA nhokj esa vferkHk cPpu ds lkFk eka dh Hkwfedk ls og uacj ou eka cu xb±A fu:ik jk; dk dguk gS& ^eka dh Hkwfedk esa fy, fuekZrk eq>s eqagekaxh dher nsus dks rRij jgrs FksA gka] ;g lp gS fd eSa fQYeksa ds insZ ij eka ds :i esa lcls egaxh vfHkus=h FkhA eSaus fQYe lalkj ds gj vfHkusrk dh eka dh Hkwfedk dh] ysfdu ,d le; ,slk Hkh vk;k] tc eSa eka dh Hkwfedk,a fuHkk&fuHkkdj cksj gks xbZA rc eSaus [kqn gh fQYeksa ls fdukjk dj fy;kA 'kkjhfjd :i ls Hkh dSejs ds lkeus dke djuk dfBu yxus yxk FkkA blhfy, ?kj ifjokj esa gh je xbZA vkt thou dh laè;k esa vius vrhr dh mu [kwclwjr ;knksa dks nksgjkrh gwa vkSj rc os iy Hkh esjs tgu esa mHkj vkrs gS]a tc insZ ij n'kZd eq>s nsoh ds :i esa ns[krs gh iSls vkSj iq"i Qsd a us yxrs FksA vkt oSls n'kZd dgka gSa\

fu:ik jk; dk tUe 4 tuojh] 1931 dks fQVj HkkxoksHkkbZ ds ?kj gqvk FkkA eè;eoxhZ; xqtjkrh yM+dh 1945 esa eqca bZ esa jk'kfuax foHkkx esa dke djus okys deZpkjh fd'kksjpUnz cylkjk dh iRuh cu x;hA fu:ik jk; dks xqtjkrh fQYe ^jud nsoh* esa dke djus dk igyk ekSdk feyk FkkA ,d lkS ipkl #i;s ekgokj ij dke djuk 'kq: fd;k exj ckn esa og Hkwfedk fdlh vU; dks ns nh x;hA fQj mls xqtjkrh fQYe ^xq.klqUnjh* esa Hkwfedk feyhA eq[; Hkwfedk esa mlus ,slk dke fd;k fd fQYe fgV gks x;h vkSj og LVkj cu x;hA fu:ik jk; dk fgUnh fQYeksa esa izos'k vks-ih- nRrk dh fQYe ^gekjh eafty* ls gqvkA uk;d izes vnho FksA blh o"kZ og t;jkt ds lkFk ^xjhch* esa Hkh vk x;h] ^mèkkj* esa mlus egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk dhA ^nsoh* ds :i esa fu:ik jk; dh igpku 1950 esa fufeZr ^gj&gj egknso* ls gqbZA og ikoZrh ds :i esa ljkgh x;haA fQj ^ohj Hkhelsu* esa nzkiS nh dh Hkwfedk dhA 1951 ls 1961 ds n'kd esa rks og fganh fQYeksa ds ijns ij Nk x;haA ^flUnokn&,&lsyj* esa fu:ik dks [kyukf;dk ds :i esa ns[kdj vthc yxkA ^nks ch?kk tehu* us mls vej cuk fn;kA 1957 esa mldh 15 fQYesa iznf'kZr gqbAaZ ^vej flag jkBkSj* tSlh ,sfrgkfld fQYe Hkh muesa ls ,d FkhA ,sfrgkfld fQYeksa esa mudh Hkwfedk ljkgh x;h vkSj t;jkt ds lkFk mldh tksM+h yksdfiz; gqbZA ^nhokj* esa eka ds :i esa vf}rh; vfHku; {kerk dk ifjp; fn;kA fQj rks cM+s uk;d fu:ik dks gh eka cukus dh ckr djus yxsA

gjgj egknso dh ikoZrh % fu:ik jk;

_f"kds'k eq[kthZ % lkQ&lqFkjh fQYeksa ds fuekZ r k

fu:ik jk; dks ifr uk;d cukuk pkgrs FksA blfy, mUgksaus iRuh dks fpV~Bh fy[kh fd og fQYe ns[kuk 'kq: djsaA igyh fQYe ns[kdj mlus fQYeksa dh ?kksj fuUnk dh vkSj uk;d ukf;dk ds [kqYye&[kqYyk I;kj djus] xkuk xkus dks cs'kehZ crk;kA fQYe esa izos'k dk baVjO;w nsus muds ifr x, Fks] exj pqu yh x;ha fu:ik jk;A fQYeksa esa dke djus ds dkj.k tkfr iapk;r us mudk cfg"dkj dj fn;k FkkA tc iapk;r ds lkeus ifrozrk èkeZ dk ikyu djus dh 'kiFk ysdj naM pqdk;k x;k] rc mls tkfr esa 'kjhd dj fQYeksa esa dke djus dh btktr feyhA

[kknh dk dqrkZ] [kknh dk ik;tkek] iSjksa esa pIiy] vk¡[kksa ij p'ek] cky fc[kjs gq,] 'krjat ds f[kykM+h dqRrksa vkSj fcfYy;ksa ij vVwV Lusg] VwVh&QwVh fganh cksyus okys vR;Ur O;Lr O;fDr gSa _f"knkA fuekZrk funsZ'kd _f"kds'k eq[kthZ mu fxus&pqus fQYedkjksa esa ls ,d gSa] ftUgksaus lkQ&lqFkjh fadarq euksjatd fQYesa cuk;haA ch,llh djus ds ckn _f"k nk us vè;kid dk is'kk viuk;k Fkk] ftl is'ks dks ml le; vkt ls dgha vfèkd ifo= ekuk tkrk Fkk] ysfdu muds nknkth dks ;g Lohdkj ugha Fkk fd mudk iksrk viuh gh mez dh yM+fd;ksa dks flusek&2005

109


i<+k;s D;ksafd mUgsa Mj yx jgk Fkk fd yM+fd;ksa dh lksgcr esa HkVd dj _f"k nk fcxM+ ldrs gSaA lks nknkth us mudh ukSdjh <wa<+us ds vFkd iz;kl fd, vkSj vUrr% igyh vizSy 1945 esa ^U;w fFk,VlZ* esa mudh ySc vflLVsaV dh gSfl;r ls ukSdjh yxok nhA gkykafd fQYeksa esa tkuk ml tekus esa vPNk dke ugha le>k tkrk Fkk] fdarq _f"k nk dks yM+fd;ksa dh laxr ls gVkus ds fy, nknk th dks vè;kid ds ctk; mUgsa ijns ds ihNs Hkstuk csgrj yxk FkkA blds ckn 1947&48 esa mUgsa ,d caxyk fQYe ^rFkkfi* dk Lora= :i ls laiknu djus dk volj feykA lu~ 51 esa foey nk ds lgk;d cudj os eqEcbZ vk igqapsA oLrqr% _f"k nk ds xq# foey nk gh Fks] ftuls mUgksaus laiknu vkSj funsZ'ku dh ckjhfd;ka lh[khaA tc lu~ 53 esa foey nk us ^nks ch?kk tehu* cukbZ rks laiknu djus ds vykok mldh iVdFkk Hkh _f"k nk us fy[kh FkhA funsZ'ku esa rks og muds lgk;d Fks ghA ^eèkqerh* rd _f"k nk mudh fQYeksa dk laiknu djrs jgsA bl rjg foey nk dh N= Nk;k esa _f"k nk ^Fkzh bu ou* ;kuh ,d dq'ky iVdFkkdkj] laiknd vkSj funsZ'kd cu x;sA 1957 esa mUgksaus Lora= :i ls ,d fQYe cuk;h ^eqlkfQj*A rhu y?kq dFkkvksa ij vkèkkfjr bl fQYe esa fnyhidqekj] lqfp=k lsu] fd'kksj dqekj] m"kk fdj.k] vfHk HkV~Vkpk;Z] fu:ik jk;] Msth bZjkuh vkSj uthj gqlSu FksA 50 ds n'kd dh ;g fQYe n'kZdksa dks [kwc ilUn vk;h] D;ksafd lkQ lqFkjh dgkuh vkSj eèkqj laxhr ds lkFk _f"k nk dk dq'ky funsZ'ku ^lksus is lqgkxk* tSlk FkkA bUgha [kwfc;ksa dh otg ls ^eqlkfQj* dks jk"Vªh; fQYe lekjksg esa lfVZfQdsV vkWQ esfjV* feyk FkkA lu~ 1951 esa _f"k nk dh fQYe vk;h vukM+hA blesa jkt diwj] uwru] eksrhyky us rks vPNk vfHku; fd;k gh Fkk] yfyrk iokj] vfHkuhr felst Mhlk dh Hkwfedk rks ;knxkj Hkwfedk cu x;h FkhA ^vukM+h* dk xhr&laxhr i{k Hkh cstksM+ Fkk] blfy, fQYe ds xhr ^lc dqN lh[kk geus u lh[kh gksf'k;kjh* ds fy, 'kSysUnz us o"kZ ds loZJs"B xhrdkj ds rkSj ij iqjLdkj gkfly fd;k FkkA ckn esa bls loZJs"B fganh fQYe dk jk"Vªh; iqjLdkj Hkh feykA _f"k nk dh 1960 esa iznf'kZr fQYe ^vuqjkèkk* dks jk"Vªifr dk Lo.kZ ind feyk FkkA cyjkt lkguh] yhyk uk;Mw] uthj gqluS vkSj vfHk HkV~Vkpk;Z dh eq[; Hkwfedkvksa 110

flusek&2005

okyh bl fQYe dk laxhr ia- jfo 'kadj us fn;k FkkA lkB ds n'kd esa _f"k nk us dbZ fQYesa cuk;haA Nk;k] ese nhnh] vkf'kd] vlyh udyh] nks fny] lka> vkSj losjk vkfnA ;|fi ;s lHkh QkewZyk fQYesa Fkha] ij lkFk&lkFk buesa LoLFk euksjatu Hkh FkkA gj oxZ] gj mez ds fy, O;kid lksp j[kus okys _f"k nk dh 1966 esa ,d egRoiw.kZ fQYe vk;h ^vuqiek* ftlus jtr ind thrkA bl fQYe ls _f"k nk dkQh izHkkfor gq,A blds QyLo:i mUgksua s eqEcbZ fLFkr vius edku dk uke Hkh vuqiek j[k fy;kA [kSj] blds ckn mudh choh vkSj edku] xcu] e>yh nhnh] vk'khokZn] lR;dke vkSj vkuUn uked fQYesa vkbZaA buesa ls vafre rhu fQYeksa dks Hkh jtr ind izkIr gq,A lu~ 1971 esa iznf'kZr xqM~Mh esa mUgksaus t;k HkknqM+h dks igyh ckj ,d vYgM+ vkSj Ldwyh Nk=k ds :i esa izLrqr fd;kA n'kZdksa dks xqM~Mh cuh t;k cgqr Hkk;hA vfHkeku esa mUgksua s fQj t;k dks fy;k] ysfdu bl ckj ,d u, :i esaA _f"k nk dh vU; mYys[kuh; fQYesa gS&a ued gjke] pqids pqids] xksyeky] ckophZ] feyh] [kwclwjrA [kwclwjr ds fy, rks js[kk dks loZJs"B vfHkus=h dk jk"Vªh; iqjLdkj feyk Fkk vkSj lgh ek;us esa dgk tk, rks blds ckn fdlh us js[kk ds vfHku; ij maxyh mBkus dh fgEer ugha fn[kkbZA vius brus yEcs fQYeh thou esa mUgksua s dqy 41 fQYesa cukbZAa buesa ls vfèkdka'kr% ;knxkj fQYeksa ds rkSj ij ekuh tkrh gSaA oSls 'ks"k fQYesa Hkh fdlh u fdlh :i esa pfpZr jghaA mUgksaus dqN vPNs èkkjkokfgd Hkh cuk,] ij cM+s dSuokl ds vknh jgs _f"k nk NksVs ijns ij T;knk ugha #dsA mudh lcls vfèkd fQYeksa ds uk;d vferkHk cPpu jgsA cPpu dh lokZfèkd fQYeksa dks vc rd mUgksua s gh funsfZ 'kr fd;k gSA vferkHk tc ,axzh ;axeSu gqvk djrs Fks rc Hkh _f"k nk us mUgsa viuh fQYeksa esa xSj peRdkfjd Hkwfedk ;kuh fd vke vkneh ds :i esa gh izLrqr fd;kA mUgksaus dHkh viuh&viuh fQYe ds uk;d dks rhljh nqfu;k dk vtwck ugha fn[kk;kA tc Hkh vferkHk ds ^vfHku;* okyh fQYeksa dk ftØ gksrk gS mlesa lcls T;knk _f"k nk funsZf'kr fQYesa gksrh gSaA _f"k nk viuh fQYeksa dks vius cPps ls Hkh T;knk I;kj djrs gSaA ftl fQYe dh 'kq:vkr djrs gSa mlds ckjs esa pkSchlksa ?kaVs lksprs jgrs gSa] viuh fQYe dk gj lhu ckj&ckj lqukrs gSaA _f"k nk ,d ,sls fQYe funs'Z kd gS]a ftUgksua s dbZ egRoiw.kZ fQYesa cukdj lkekftd


tkx`fr esa gkFk caVk;k gSA fganh fQYe n'kZd muds _.kh gSa fd mUgksaus mn~ns';iw.kZ euksjatd fQYesa cukdj fQYeksa dk Lrj mBk;k gSA mudh fQYe ^>wB cksys dkSvk dkVs* Hkh vfuy vkSj twgh dks ysdj cukbZ xbZ ysfdu 'kjhj vktdy mudk lkFk ugha ns jgk gS& iSjksa esa nnZ jgrk gS& fQYe dks fo'ks"k lQyrk ugha feyhA mUgsa Hkkjr ljdkj }kjk m|ksx ds loZJs"B iqjLdkj nknk lkgc Qkyds ,okMZ ls Hkh uoktk x;kA tc eqacbZ vk;s Fks rks mUgksaus ns[kk fdlh ds ikl ckr djus dk le; gh ugha FkkA lc rjQ yksx Hkkx jgs Fks& os HkkSpa Dds gks x;sA ,d dejk fy;k vkSj xqytkj oklq HkV~Vkpk;Z] lquhy nRr ds lkFk jkrsa dkVhA vc vdsys iRuh ds LoxZokl ds ckn os leqnz ds fdukjs vuqiek caxys esa NksVs nks I;kjs dqRrksa dks xksn esa f[kykrs fjVk;j gksus dh vxUrq dh lsok djrs jgrs gSaA

xhrk ckyh Hkksyh xaokj dh rLohj lkeus vk;h xhrk dks fQYe dk gj fdjnkj gj Hkwfedk] ftUnk j[kuk Fkh] ;gh edln dkQh FkkA mls ftUnk j[kus dh èkqu esa tks dqN xhrk cu ik;h] og vka[kksa dh dksf'k'kksa ls fny dk ,glkl cuk vkSj oks ,glkl] eqn~nrksa ,d [kwclwjr vlj dh 'kDy esa cjdjkj jgkA ^ckojs uSu* esa HkSla ksa dh ihB ij cSB]s xkrs epyrs gq, xhrk gwcgw eklwe vkSj Hkksyh xaokj yM+dh dh rLohj cuhA ^vycsyk* dh 'kksgjrean vnkdkjk ^ckjknjh* dh vutku ek'kwdk] tsyj dh csujw ;rhe yM+dh] vth cl 'kqfØ;k dh galk&galk dj nhokuk cuk nsus okyh vthe vnkdkjk ^lius lqgkus* dh iatkcu nsgkrh csVh] eksgj dh yktokc egcwck] cM+h cgu dh xqejkg deflu NksVh cgu nqykjh dh cgknqj lgsyh ykyVsu dh Nksjh oxSjg dbZ felkysa gSa tks xhrk ckyh dh 'kf[l;r&,&vkbZuk gSaA jktsUnzdeq kj igyh ckj eqEcbZ vk, rks dke dh ryk'k vkSj eu dh yxu dks iwjk djus ds fy, dbZ Bksdjsa [kk;haA muds ikl vxj dksbZ pht Fkh rks cl ,d fpV~Bh Fkh tks xhrdkj jktsUnzd"` .k ds uke FkhA jktsUnzd"` .k dh flQkfj'k ij jktsUnzdeq kj dks fQYe ds ijns ij rks dksbZ dke ugha fey ldk ysfdu ijns ds ihNs dk dke t:j feyk vkSj oks Fkk funs'Z kd ,p-,l- joSy ds lgk;d dk dkeA os og dke djrs jgs vkSj vkB nl fQYeksa esa os joSy lkgc ds lgk;d cudj jgsA

1952 esa jktsUnzdqekj us ,d NksVk&lk jksy fd;k vkSj [kqn dks vius pgsrs vnkdkj ds lkFk fQYe ds ijns ij ns[kkA ml fQYe ds ghjks fnyhidqekj Fks] ,sls esa vxys o"kZ gh nsosUnz xks;y us jktsUnz dks viuh fQYe ^opu* esa crkSj ghjks ys fy;kA fQYe ^opu* ls laxhrdkj jfo us Hkh crkSj laxhrdkj dke djuk 'kq: fd;k] blls igys jfo laxhrdkj gseUrdqekj ds lgk;d Fks vkSj jfo ds lkFk dY;k.kth Hkh gseUrdqekj ds lgk;d gh FksA

;kgw okys 'kEeh diwj % ,d ckr tks jktuhfrd] lkaLd`frd] lkekftd ekeyksa esa lVhd cSBrh gS] og euksjatu ekè;eksa ds ckjs esa Hkh dgh tk ldrh gSA tSls gj dky[kaM vius usrk ysdj vkrk gS] oSls gh gj dky[kaM vius vfHkusrk Hkh ysdj vkrk gSA vktknh ds ckn 'kEeh dk mn; dksbZ vugksuh ?kVuk ugha Fkh] gkykafd ml le; jktdiwj] fnyhidqekj] v'kksd dqekj] nso vkuan] cyjkt lkguh vkSj xq#nRr tSls izfrHkkoku vfHkusrk fganh fQYeksa esa vPNh rjg LFkkfir pys vk jgs gSaA 'kEehdiwj dh fQYe ^dLcksa esa vk;h ugha fd jkeyky uked ml ;qod dk lkjk O;ogkj gh cny tkrk FkkA lqcg mBdj igys og dljr djrk] fQj fdlh [kq'kcwnkj lkcqu ls [kwc cnu ey&ey dj ?kaVs Hkj rd ugkrk jgrkA blds ckn og 'kEeh ds LVkby dh 'kVZ igurk] xScMhZu dk iSVa Mkyrk] iSjksa esa 'kw gksr]s xys esa :eky caèkk gksrk] ,d gkFk esa eqjdh gksrh ¼egcwck ds 'kEeh diwj dh rjg½ nwljs esa b= dk Qkgk vkSj fQj iwjs dLcs esa ,syku djrk fFk;sVj dh vksj py nsrk % ^^vius 'kEeh dh Vkdh vk;h gS] ogh ns[kus tk jgk gwaA** NBsa n'kd dh 'kq:vkr esa 'kEeh dk ,d flrkjs ds :i esa mn; gqvk FkkA ;qok ih<+h us mUgsa viuk ghjks eku fy;k Fkk D;ksafd 'kEeh esa mUgsa og lc dqN lkdkj gksrk utj vk;k Fkk tks ekgkSy esa O;kIr FkkA ns'k dks u;h&u;h vktknh feyh FkhA usg: ;qx dh 'kq:vkr FkhA ns'k lius ns[k jgk FkkA Lora=rk vius lkFk mUeqDrrk vkSj mPN`a[kyrk Hkh yk;h FkhA vius ns'k esa vius <ax ls th ldus dk lfn;ksa ckn feyk volj vkSj 'kEeh diwj dks fQYesa Hkh ,slh fey jgh Fkha tks mUgsa lkjh :f<+;ksa] caèkuksa] otZukvksa dks rksM+us okys ^jscsy LVkj* ds :i esa LFkkfir flusek&2005

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dj jgh Fkha fQj pkgs og fQYe ySyk etuw jgh gks ;k fetkZ lkfgckA jsy dk fMCck jgh gks ;k Bksdj ;k fQj Ook; ÝsaM] rqe lk ugha ns[kk] ge lc pksj gS]a fny ns ds ns[kks] clar jktdqekj] pkj fny pkj jkgsa] dkyst xyZ] izksQslj] tkuoj] cnreht] taxyh OyQ ekLVj] ou bZofuax bu isfjl] tok--- eksgCcr vkfn--- usg: ;qx esa 'kEeh diwj dh ;kgw uqek gjdrsa ;qok ih<+h dh viuh gjdrsa cuh jghaA

vfurk xqgk % ijns dh nsoh ipkl vkSj lkB ds n'kd esa ehukdqekjh vkSj xhrk ckyh tSlh vfHkusf=;ksa ds lkFk vfurk xqgk dk uke Hkh vku cku ds lkFk fy;k tkrk gSA ehukdqekjh vkSj xhrk ckyh vxj VsªtMs h Dohu Fkha rks vfurk xqgk ijns dh nsoh ds :i esa e'kgwj FkhaA mUgksua s ,d ds ckn ,d dbZ èkkfeZd fQYeksa esa dHkh lhrk rks dHkh y{eh vkSj dHkh fdlh egkjFkh dh Hkwfedk,a fuHkk;haA mudh fQYe ^t; larks"kh eka* us dbZ fjdkMZ rksM+s FksA 1982 esa vfurk xqgk us vius vfHku; thou dh jtr t;arh iwjh dh vkSj blds ckn ukf;dk dh Hkwfedk NksM+ eka cgu vkSj HkkHkh tSls pfj= jksy djus yxhaA igyh ckj os eka dh Hkwfedk esa 'kfDr lkeark dh fQYe ^vkjkèkuk* esa vk;haA vfurk xqgk fQYeksa esa caxyk fQYe ^clSj dsyk* ls vk;h FkhaA 1952 esa mUgksaus ,d lkSan;Z izfr;ksfxrk esa Hkkx fy;k vkSj vOoy jghaA vfurk dh igyh fganh fQYe ^nqfu;k xksy gS* FkhA buds uk;d Fks ^dj.k nhoku*A og 'kh"kZ ij dHkh ugha igqap ik;haA mudh pfpZr fQYeksa esa VSDlh LVSaM] lacaèk] Nwearj] latksx rFkk rkaxs okyh vkfn ds uke mYys[kuh; gSaA mUgsa lkekftd fQYeksa dh cfuLcr èkkfeZd fQYeksa eas vfèkd lQyrk feyhA èkkfeZd fQYeksa esa mudh lQyrk ds Mads fot; HkV~V dh ^laiw.kZ jkek;.k* ds ckn ctus yxsA blesa mUgksaus lhrk dh Hkwfedk dh FkhA fQj rks ^iou iq= guqeku] vaxyq heky] egklrh vuqlw;k] d.k&d.k esa Hkxoku vkfn vusd èkkfeZd fQYeksa esa dke fd;kA ^t; larks"kh eka* us fQYe m|ksx ds lHkh fjdkMZ rksM+ fn;sA ;g fQYe ^'kksys* ds cjkcj pyh Fkh] mlls Hkh T;knkA mudh vU; pfpZr fQYesa gSa % vkuUn vkJe] vuqjkx] 'kehZyh] fQ¶Vh&fQ¶Vh] ukfxu] tkxhj] jks'kuh] uojkf= vkSj izk.k&izfr"BkA

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rcLlqe % cky dykdkj ls Qwy f[kys gSa xq y 'ku&xq y 'ku rcLlqe ,d yksdfiz; uke gSA cpiu ls ysdj vc rd vFkkZr <yrh mez esa Hkh os yksxksa dks vius uktks vUnkt ls vkdf"kZr djrh gSaA dksbZ Hkh dk;ZØe] pkgs og jsfM;ks ij gks] LVst ij ;k nwjn'kZu ij] ;fn rcLlqe ogka ekStwn gSa] rks mudh f[kyf[kykrh galh dk;ZØe esa pkj pkan yxk nsrh gSA fdlh O;fDr dh fo'ks"krkvksa dk o.kZu os bruh [kwclwjrh ls djrh gSa fd yksx [kq'k gks tkrs gSAa rcLlqe ds ekrk&firk nksuksa Lora=rk lsukuh FksA v#.kk vklQvyh] vcqy dyke vktkn] fQjkd xksj[kiqjh vkSj tks'k eyhgkoknh vDlj muds ;gka 'kke fcrkrs FksA funsZ'kd Mh-Mh- d';i us rcLlqe dks cky dykdkj dh Hkwfedk nh FkhA fQYe Fkh ^ujfxl* blesa os ujfxl dh NksVh cgu cuh FkhaA ,d fnu mUgsa cM+k iqjLdkj fey x;kA mudk uke fxuht cqd vkQ oYMZ fjdkMZ esa 'kkfey fd;k x;k D;ksafd cky dykdkj ds :i esa mUgksaus lokZfèkd fQYesa ¼150 ls vfèkd½ dh gSaA rcLlqe dk cpiu eqacbZ ds eki[kyk esa chrk tgka nknkvksa vkSj vyx&vyx xSaxksa dh HkhM+ jgrh gSA blfy, os Hkh cPpksa ds lkFk [ksyrs le; dgrha % ckgj fudyks] eSa rqEgsa ns[k ywaxhA lu~ 50 rd vkrs&vkrs os cky dykdkj ds :i esa vfHku; djus ds fglkc ls cM+h gks pqdh Fkha ijarq ghjksbu ds fglkc ls dkQh NksVh FkhA os vyhx<+ ls mnwZ lkfgR; esa ch-,] HkjrukV~;e vkSj dRFkd dh dq'ky u`R;kaxuk gSA mUgsa ghjks dh cgu vFkok ghjksbuksa dh lgsyh dh Hkwfedk ds izLrko feysA lu~ 62 esa ,d xqtjkrh fQYe ^ykjuk catkjks* esa ghjksbu dh Hkwfedk feyhA uk;d iznhidqekj FksA ^eSaus ds okns* xqtjkrh fQYe esa xqtjkr ljdkj dk loZJs"B ghjksbu dk vokMZ Hkh feykA blds ckn ^Vkjtu dh egcwck] lu vkQ jkfcu gqM] tknwxj vkSj yqVjs k] xksxkyk vkfn esa mUgksua s ghjksbu dh Hkwfedk,a dhaA os mEnk daisjj ds :i esa e'kgwj gSa ^Qwy f[kys gSa xqy'ku xqy'ku* ls mUgksaus n'kZdksa dks ,d vPNk dk;ZØe fn;kA mUgksaus ^rqe ij ge dqjcku* fQYe cuk;h Fkh ftlesa mudk csVk gks'kkax xksfoy ghjks FkkA esjs fe= eqdqUn f=osnh dh fQYe ^xksxkyk* dh Hkh os ukf;dk Fkh ftl fQYe esa fVªd


QksVksxzkQh dk deky Fkk& ejkBk eafnj&xsVos vkQ bf.M;k ikuh esa Mwc tkrs FksA cyoUr HkV~V fnXnf'kZr dk fnXn'kZu Fkk rc dbZ ckj rcLlqe ?kj vkrh FkhaA mudh eka Hkh lkfgR; vkSj laLdkjksa esa jph clh FkhaA fQj ^>adkj* fQYe esa vk'kk ikjh[k vkSj mRre dqekj ds lkFk mUgsa j[kk x;k Fkk ysfdu dqN vugksuh gks xbZA fQYe cUn gks xbZA

vkrk gS ;kn xqtjk gqvk tekuk okeiaFkh fopkjèkkjk tc fQYeksa esa vk;h rks jksVh dk iz'u izeq[k FkkA egcwc [kka us jksVh ugha feys rks Nhudj [kkvks dk lans'k fn;kA jktdiwj us ^vkokjk* esa dgk % D;k pqjk dj [kk;k tk;sA ^cwV ikfy'k* esa dgk % ekax dj [kk;h tk;sA ^Jh 420* esa dgk % bZeku fxjoh j[k dj [kk;h tk;sA ^ftl ns'k esa xaxk cgrh gS* esa dgk % jksVh Nhu dj [kk;h tk;sA eukstdqekj dks jksVh] diM+k] edku lc ,d lkFk feysA vkxs pydj jk"Vªh; psruk ds izrhd xhr 'kSysUnz th us fn;s % vkus okyh nqfu;k esa] lcds lj ij rkt gksxkA u nq%[k dh HkhM+ gksxh u lq[k dk jkt gksxkA okeiaFkh fopkjèkkjk esa 'kSysUnz Hkh ihNs ugha jgsA ^eryc ds fy, vaèks gksdj jksVh dks ugha iwtk geusA* ^eafty esjs ikl [kM+h gS ikaoksa esa ysfdu Vkax vM+krk gS nkSyr okyk ¼nkx½A iafMr Hkjr O;kl us ^nks vka[ksa ckjg gkFk* dh izkFkZuk lkjh nqfu;k esa igqapk nh % ^, ekfyd rsjs cUns ge] rw vekol dks dj ns iwueA* fQj vk;h thus dh etcwfj;kaA ukS'kkn ftUgksua s rhu Mk;e.M] vkB xksYMu tqcyh] NCchl flyoj tqcyh fQYesa dhaA ^enj bafM;k* esa mudh esgur jax yk;h nqfu;k esa ^ge vk, gSa] rks thuk gh iM+sxkA* vktknh ds ckn ns'k dh Lora=rk dks laokjus dk mRrjnkf;Ro vk;k FkkA mls rgsfny ls jktdiwj] 'kSyUs nz us LohdkjkA ,d la;ksx fd ftl fnu 'kSyUs nz dh iq.;frfFk 14 fnlacj Fkh mlh fnu 14 fnlacj dks jkt diwj dk tUe fnu FkkA ^fny dk gky lqus fnyokyk* ¼Jh 420½A ^eSa gwa fdlh xjhc dk csVk] eka ds vius ulhc dk csVkA Hkw[k us gS cM+s I;kj ls ikykA

,d Økafrdkjh ?kVuk ?kVh jktdiwj] fnyhidqekj rFkk nso vkuUn rhu uk;d ,d lkFk vorfjr gq,A rhuksa uk;dksa us viuh&viuh Vhe cuk yhA xexhu Hkwfedkvksa ds fy, ryr egewn dk Iys cSd pykA eqds'k] jktdiwj ds lkFk jgs vkSj fd'kksj dqekj nso vkuUn ds lkFkA fQj jQh] fnyhi ds lkFk gks x;sA fQj vk;s iafMr dfo iznhiA dfo ,slh rku lqukvksa ftlls mFky&iqFky ep tk;sA fQj D;k Fkk\ mUgksaus fy[kk ^bUgha dh dkyh djrwrksa ls gqvk ;s eqYd elkuA fdruk cny x;k balkuA ^fiatM+s ds iaNh js] rsjk nnZ u tkus dksbZA* iafMr iznhi ds xhrksa dk Lora= vfLrRo FkkA fQj oks Hkh dg dj pys x;s& ^lq[kh jguk ns'k ds I;kjks] vc ge rks lQj djrs gSAa * fQj eqd's k mUgha fnuksa vk;s tc lqjksa ds 'kga'kkg ds-,y- lgxy ds xhr yksdfiz;rk ds f'k[kj ij FksA izkjafHkd xhr mudh xkf;dh ls izHkkfor jgsA ^fny tyrk gS] rks tyus ns] vkalw u cgk Qfj;kn u djA* fQj lfpu nk vkSj 'kadj t;fd'ku u;s vkSj rkts mRlkg ds lkFk vk;sA mudh èkquksa esa ekndrk mHkjdj lkeus vk;hA ^iryh dej gS] frjNh utj gSA* fQj cjlkr vkSj vkokjk vk;hA blds ckn fQj Hkjr O;kl vk;sA ^uojax* esa ^vkèkk gS pUnzek jkr vkèkh] jg u tk, rsjh esjh ckr vkèkh*A muds xhrksa esa izlkn] fujkyk] iar dk ;qx èofur gksrk gSA ^fucZy ls yM+kbZ cyoku dhA ;s dgkuh gS nh;s dh vkSj rwQku dhA t;fd'ku ds jksekafVd xhr Hkh yktokc FksA ^rsjh I;kjh I;kjh lwjr dks fdlh dh utj u yxs ¼llqjky½A

;kgw dk cksyckyk % lc taxyh gks x;s 'kEeh diwj ds lkFk ;qok èkM+duksa ds lQj ds lkFk gh xhrdkj laxhrdkj xk;d&xkf;dkvksa dk vej utjkuk izkjaHk gqvkA Nfo x`gksa ds lkeus pDdk tke djus dk ;qx FkkA tokfu;ka eLr&eLr fcuk fi;s tykrh py jgh gS ¼rqelk ugha ns[kk½] ckj&ckj ns[kks gtkj ckj ns[kks] ns[kus dh pht gS] fudyk u djks ltèkt dj] Hkxoku dh uh;r Bhd ugha ¼jktdqekj½] blh le; vk;h ^vukM+h* ^lc dqN lh[kk geus u lh[kh gksf'k;kjh* lp gS nqfu;k okyksa fd ge gSa vukM+h] jktdiwj 'kadj] t;fd'ku] eqd's k us bls loZdkfyd cuk;kA xq#nRr cpiu ls vUreq[Z kh FksA iz;ksxèkehZ vkSj ^nsonkl* dh rtZ ij Lo;a dks vktekrs jgsA 10 vDVwcj dks mudk vlkef;d fuèku gks x;kA mudh ^I;klk* dh flusek&2005

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izLrqfr vn~Hkqr FkhA blus Hkkjrh; fQYe m|ksx dks >d>ksj dj j[k fn;kA xhrk nRr] oghnk jgeku] xq#nRr us HkO; f=dks.k cuk;k FkkA blh dh l`tukRed cspSuh ^I;klk* FkhA xhrk nRr] gseUr dqekj dh vkokt fny dh xgjkbZ ls fudyrh gSA ^dksbZ nwj ls vkokt ns] pys vkvks] u tkvks lS;ka NqMk+ ds cS;ka] dle rqEgkjh eSa jks iM+waxh ysfdu blls igys xq#nRr gh pys x;sA

vej xk;d lgxy dh vkokt esa bZ'oj dk ojnku >ydrk fn[krk Fkk ,d caxyk cus U;kjk] ckcqy eksjk uSgj NwVks tk;A ek= 16 o"kZ fQYeksa esa tqMs+ jgsA 1931 ls 1947 rd mudh ;knxkj fQYesa gSAa eksgCcr ds vkalw ¼31½] paMhnkl ¼41½] rkulsu ¼43½] 'kkgtgka ¼46½A fQj D;k FkkA fQj fny gh VwV x;k] ge th dj D;k djsaxsA 14 tuojh] 1947 dks os fonk gks x;sA tn~nu ckbZ Hkh pyh x;haA mudh csVh ujfxl Hkh MkDVj ugha cu ldhaA fQYeksa esa vk x;hA mudk fny VwV x;kA fQj vk x;s 1941 esa banhojA eqEcbZ esa vkSj tks'k esa vaxzstksa ls dg mBs& vjs fdjk;snkj dj ns edku [kkyh vkSj cnys esa ,d o"kZ ds fy, tsy Hkst fn;s x;sA 1950 esa ,d xhr fy[kk ^I;kj dh nqfu;k esa ;g igyk dne* vkSj fQj ^rky feys unh ds ty esa] unh feys lkxj esa] lkxj feys dkSu ls ty ls dksbZ tkus uk*A ';keyky mQZ banhoj c#vk lkxj ftyk Vhdex<+ ls viuh iRuh dks fcy[krh NksMd + j pys vk;s FksA ;g nnZ mUgsa ges'kk lkyrk jgkA fQj vk;s vkuUn c{khA os rks xhr fy[kus ugha dykdkj cuus vk;s Fks ysfdu os dgrs jgs eSa xhrdkj ugha gwaA lkfgR;dkj ugha gwa vkSj 4000 xhr fy[k x;sA 27 o"kZ dh mez ls fy[kuk 'kq: fd;kA lkou dk eghuk iou djs lksj] ft;kjk js >wes tSls cu esa ukps eksj] ls izfl) gks x;sA 72 o"kZ dh mez rd fy[krs jgs vkSj pys x;s ckbZikl ltZjh djk djA

ikik i` Fohjkt diwj ^vkye vkjk* Hkkjr dh igyh cksyrh fQYe esa os [kyuk;d FksA 1934 esa iznf'kZr ^lhrk* esa jke cus FksA lkFk gh ^lrh lqykspuk* esa os jko.k cus FksA fQj ^fldUnj* esa fldUnjA fQj mudh ^eqxys vkte* vdcj dks thoar fd;kA mudh vafre fQYe fuekZrk jrudqekj dh Fkh tks mudh e`R;q ds ckn LFkkuh; ukt flusek esa iznf'kZr dh x;hA 114

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izk.k [kyuk;d cudj tc vk;s rks ifRu;ksa us ifr dks izk.kukFk dguk cUn dj fn;kA fdlh firk us csVs dk uke izk.k] jko.k] dal ugha j[kkA 1940 esa os fQYeksa esa vk;sA ^tathj* ds 'ksj[kku us rks vktrd ds fjdkMZ rksM+ fn;sA os xqIr nku djrs jgrs gSaA dksbZ izpkj ugha djrsA [kyuk;d rks vfHku; ds fy, gSAa ;FkkFkZ esa ughaA xqytkj vk;sA foeyjk; ds lgk;d cu x;sA ^rhljh dle* cu jgh FkhA HkV~Vkpk;Z th ls foey jk; dk 36 dk vkadM+k gks x;kA mUgha ds ?kj esa cklq us mudh yM+dh ls b'd yM+k;k vkSj foey nk us xqLls esa ^rhljh dle* dh 'kwfVax eksgu LVwfM;ks esa can djok nhA lkFk gh 'kSysUnz dh fQYe ^rhljh dle* ds funsZ'kd dks ?kj ls fudky fn;k vkSj 'kSysUnz ls xhr ugha fy[kok;kA xqytkj ls fy[kok;sA mUgsa vdLekr cM+k cSuj fey x;k vkSj xqytkj us fy[kk % mudk igyk yksdfiz; xhr fQYe ^cUnuh* dk ^esjk xksjk jax ybZ ys] eksgs ';ke jax nbZ ns* fQj os dYiuk'khy xhrdkj lkFkZd iVdFkkdkj ds :i esa izfrf"Br gks x;sA ehukdqekjh Hkh mUgsa viuh jpuk ns x;hA mudh ^ysfdu* fQYe Hkh pfpZr FkhA ^ekfpl* vkSj ^gqrwrw* ds laokn Hkh cgqr ilan fd;s x;sA lkfgj tc vk;s fQYeksa essa rks vius lkFk LokfHkeku ysdj vk;s FksA mUgksaus ?kks"k.kk dj nh fd ftruh jde fuekZrk laxhrdkj dks nsrk gS] mruh gh xhrdkj dks Hkh nsuk gksxhA fcuk xhr ds laxhr dqN ugha gSA fQj rks lkfgj ds xhrksa ij fQYesa pyha vkSjr us tUe fn;k enksZa dks] enksZa us mls cktkj fn;k ¼lkèkuk½] tjk fgan ds jguqekvksa dks cqykvks] ;s xfy;ka ;s dwps mUgsa fn[kkvks] ftUgsa ukt gS fgan ij oks dgka gSa\] gVk nks feVk nks] tyk nks ;s nqfu;kA ;s nqfu;k vxj fey Hkh tk;s rks D;k gS\ fQj dk'kh cukjl ds laLdkj ysdj vk;s f=yksd tsVyhA èkqu ds iDdsA fQYe lalkj dks Js"B d`fr nsus dk ladYi ysdj--izes pUn th dh ^xksnku* lkFk esa jktdqekj tSlk uk;d vkSj fo'o izfl) laxhrdkj iafMr jfo'kadj dk laxhrA xhrdkj Fks vutkuA vkt ds Fkksd esa xhr fy[kus okys lehj ds firkJhA iqjok ds >ksdok esa vk;ks js lanslok fd py vkt ns'kok dh vksj] vks csnnhZ dkgs fj>k, uSu cku pyk, dsA bruh [kud bruh mnklh vkSj ekndrk cgqr gh de ns[kus dks feyrh gSA fQYe cuhA pyh ughaA ,okMZ feysA la?k"kZ esa fuekZrk dk toku csVk ijyksd flèkkj x;kA dksVZ&dpgjh dk pDdj dkVuk iM+kA jktdqekj us fQYe


Lo;a laikfnr dhA dksVZ ls LVs feykA jk"Vªh; fQYe dkjiksjs'ku chp esa vk;k ysfdu bZekunkj fuekZrk okil cukjl pys x;sA cspkjs dk dksbZ liuk lkdkj ugha gqvkA gka xhr [kwc pysA

nylq[k iapksyh tc eqacbZ vk;s dgrs gSa fQYeksa esa tc fdlh ds cqjs fnu vkrs gSa] rks lxs lacaèkh Hkh ikl ugha QVdrs gSaA fuekZrk nylq[k jk; iapksyh ykgkSj 'kgj ds djksM+ifr fuekZrk FksA mUgksaus [kkunku] [ktkaph] tehankj rFkk vusd iatkch lqij fgV fQYesa cuk;h FkhaA ykgkSj esa mudk LVwfM;ks FkkA fFk;sVj Fks vkSj viuk forj.k vkfQl Fkk ysfdu ns'k ds caVokjs ds ckn tc os viuh lkjh laifRr NksMd + j eqacbZ Hkkx dj vk;s] rks muds ikl dqN Hkh ugha cpk FkkA ;gka os [kkyh gkFk vk;s Fks vkSj jgus rd dh txg muds ikl ugha FkhA vk;s rks eksVj okyksa ds ,lksfl,'ku MCY;w-vkbZ-,-,ds n¶rj esa jgrs FksA dqN fnuksa ds ckn mUgksaus fQj fgEer dh vkSj ,d fQYe cukus dh ;kstuk cukbZA ikl esa iSlk rks ugha Fkk] ysfdu fgEer muesa xtc dh FkhA eqEcbZ ds rkM+nso fLFkr lsUVªy LVwfM;ks esa tc igyh ckj mUgsa ns[kk x;k Fkk rks muds gkFk esa flQZ ,d Qkby Fkh ftlesa mudh fQYe dh fLØIV FkhA bl fLØIV dk uke Fkk ehuk cktkjA mudh ghjksbu Fkh ujfxl vkSj ghjks Fks ';keA gqLuyky Hkxrjke laxhr ns jgs FksA mUgksaus ;g fQYe vius cy ij ugha] vius eqacbZ ds nksLrksa ds cy ij 'kq: dh Fkh vkSj lcdks ekywe gS fd nksLrksa us mudk fdruk lg;ksx fn;kA mUgksaus mudk ,slk lkFk fn;k fd ,d ckj fQj mUgksaus viuh ,d LVsV [kM+h dj yhA muds funsZ'kd Fks jfoUnz nos] ftUgsa fQYe ^uxhuk* ls u;k thou feykA ;g ckr lu~ 1950&51 dh gSA

jktdiw j % ^tkxrs jgks* dh ppkZ rc gqbZ tc 1957 esa dkjykschckjh esa bl fQYe dks loZJs"B iqjLdkj izkIr gqvkA iqjLdkj us leh{kdksa dks Hkh u, fljs ls lkspus ds fy, foo'k fd;kA os fQj ls leh{kk djus yxs vkSj tc fFk;sVjksa esa ;g fQYe nksckjk yxh] rks HkhM+ VwV iM+hA blh ds lkFk ,d lqij ¶ykQ fQYe lqijfgV gks x;h vkSj Dykfld fQYeksa esa viuk uke ntZ djk fy;kA vkyh'kku gosyhA mlds ihNs Mwc jgk lwjtA lM+dksa ij tyus yxrh gSa cfRr;kaA iqjkuk dksV igys csrjrh; nk<+h okyk

,d nsgkrh lM+d ij py jgk gSA dHkh mldk gkFk vius xys ij tkdj I;kj dh O;kdqyrk dks n'kkZrk gS rks dHkh gkFk ij gkFk j[kdj fuf'pr gksus dh rlYyh [kqn dks nsrk gSA lM+d ij [kM+h ,d Qk;j fczxMs ds ikbi ls ikuh ihus dh dksf'k'k ij ml nsgkrh dh fiVkbZ gks tkrh gSA og eqag ds cy fxjk gqvk gS vkSj gksBksa ls [kwu fudy jgk gSA mlds gkFk dkxt dh ,d iqfM+;k yxrh gSA mlesa pus ds dqN nkus gSaA og QqVikFk ij cSBdj mu nkuksa ls viuh Hkw[k dks 'kkar djuk pkgrk gSA mlh le; iwaN fgykrk ,d dqRrk vk tkrk gS] ftls og nsgkrh iqpdkjrk gSA dqRrs ls og [ksyus yx tkrk gS vkSj viuk nq%[k Hkwy tkrk gSA ;g pus ds lkjs nkus dqRrs ds lkeus Mky nsrk gSA fFk;sVj esa cSBs n'kZd ml nsgkrh dh vknfe;r dks ns[kdj eqXèk gks tkrs gSaA bu n`';ksa ds nkSjku vkokt vkrh gS ^tkxrs jgks*A vkokt vkrh jgrh gS ^tkxrs jgks*A ;g ^tkxrs jgks* fQYe dh 'kq:vkr gS vkSj jktdiwj ;gha ls vius fdjnkj dk vlj NksM+us yxrs gSaA ,d nsgkrh ds :i esa jktdiwj us ekSfyd vfHku; vkSj gkL;kLin fLFkfr;ksa ds ekè;e ls lekt ij Nk jgs uSfrd ladV dks ftl rjg vfHkHkkf"kr fd;k] mlds fy, rc dkjyksohoh okjh esa ^tkxrs jgks* dks loZJs"B fQYe dk iqjLdkj feyk FkkA jktdiwj ds ckjs esa dgk tkrk gS fd os ges'kk vPNh dgkuh dh [kkst esa jgrs Fks vkSj fey tkus ij cPpksa dh rjg pgd mBrs FksA bldh Hkh ijokg ugha djrs Fks fd ml fQYe esa tks fdjnkj fuHkkus tk jgs gSa] mlls mudh cuh cukbZ Nfc dks uqdlku gks Hkh ldrk gSA blfy, jktdiwj] jktdiwj cu x,] ftuds fcuk fganh fQYeksa ij ckr djuk vlaHko gSA ftruk iz;ksx jktdiwj us fd;k mruk 'kk;n gh fdlh us fd;k gksA 1956 esa cuh ^tkxrs jgks* fQYe jktdiwj ds mlh lkgfld iz;ksx dk ,d uewuk FkhA ;g fQYe fganh vkSj caxyk nksuksa Hkk"kkvksa esa cuhA fganh laLdj.k ckDl vkfQl ij vlQy jgk] tcfd ckaXyk laLdj.k us vPNk fctusl fd;kA jktdiwj ds iz;ksx dh ljkguk Hkh fdlh us ugha dhA bls jk"Vªh; Lrj dk dksbZ iqjLdkj Hkh gkfly ugha gqvkA fQYe Qs;j iqjLdkj feyk Hkh rks fnyhi dqekj dks ^nsonkl* ds fy,A ckaXyk esa ^,d fnus jkf=* uke ls cuh bl fQYe dks izknsf'kd fQYe iqjLdkj dh lwph esa nwljk LFkku feykA eqca bZ fQYe i=dkj la?k us jktdiwj dks nsgkrh vkneh dh Hkwfedk flusek&2005

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ds fy, iqjLd`r vo'; fd;k ysfdu ^tkxrs jgks* dh ppkZ rc gqbZ tc 1957 esa dkjyksohoh okjh dks loZJs"B fQYe dk iqjLdkj izkIr gqvkA iqjLdkj us leh{kdks]a vkykspdksa dks Hkh u, fljs ls lkspus ds fy, foo'k dj fn;kA os fQj ls leh{kk djus yxs vkSj tc fFk;sVjksa esa ;g fQYe nksckjk yxh rks HkhM+ VwV iM+hA fFk;sVj gkml Qqy jgus yxkA forjdksa dh cu vk;hA uqdlku dk jksuk jks jgs forjd ekykeky gks x,A jktdiwj ij vk;k ladV Hkh Vy x;kA ^tkxrs jgks* dh dgkuh igys [oktk vgen vOckl ds ikl vk;h Fkh os mu fnuksa jktdiwj dh ^Jh 420* cuk jgs FksA bl fQYe ds ys[kd [oktk vgen vOckl Hkh viuh ,d Lora= fQYe esa O;Lr Fks rHkh dksydkrk ls 'kaHkw fe= vkSj vfer fe= ^tkxrs jgks* dh dgkuh dks ysdj eqEcbZ vk,A ;g dgkuh caxyk esa Fkh vkSj uke Fkk ^,d fnus jkf=*A ;g dgkuh foey jk; dks Hkh lquk;h x;h Fkh] ysfdu ;gka ls dksbZ tokc feyrk fd mlds igys 'kaHkw fe= us ;g dgkuh vOckl dks lquk nhA vOckl dks ;g dgkuh bruh ilan vk;h fd os Hkkxs&Hkkxs jktdiwj ds ikl igqap x;sA jktdiwj ckaXyk Hkk"kk ls Hkh vPNh rjg ifjfpr FksA mUgsa ml dgkuh esa dqN xgjs rRo fn[kkbZ fn;s vkSj yxk fd ,d vPNk iz;ksx gks ldrk gSA mUgksua s ;g dgkuh [kjhn yh vkSj rHkh QSlyk gqvk fd bl ij fganh vkSj caxyk nksuksa Hkk"kkvksa esa fQYe cusxhA ^,d fnus jkf=* uke ls gh tkfgj Fkk fd ^tkxrs jgks* dsoy ,d jkr dh dgkuh gSA blfy, jktdiwj us bls ,d gh 'ksM~;wy esa cukus dk QSlyk lquk fn;k] ysfdu tSl&s tSls fQYe dk cuuk 'kq: gqvk] mldh HkO;rk c<+rh pyh x;h vkSj [kpZ esa Hkh btkQk gksrk pyk x;kA cM+s&cM+s flrkjksa ds p;u ds dkj.k Hkh ctV T;knk gks x;kA rhu eghus dk 'ksM;~ yw Ms<+ o"kZ rd igqpa x;kA bl fQYe esa mUgksua s u rks fdlh QkbusUlj dk lgkjk fy;k vkSj u ,slk Bksl forjd feyk] tks vksojlht [kjhn ldsA mUgksaus flQZ vfxze jkf'k ysdj fcuk fdlh 'krZ ds vius forjdksa dks vfèkdkj ns fn;kA lcls egRoiw.kZ ckr ;g Fkh fd jktdiwj us blesa tks jksy fd;k] og mudh jksekafVd Nfc ds foijhr FkkA igukok vkSj vks<+kok Hkh ,slk Fkk fd n'kZdksa dks [kVd x;k FkkA gkykafd jktdiwj us ^Jh 420* vkSj ^vkokjk* esa Hkh dqN vthc rjg ds diM+s igus Fks exj Hkwfedk jksekafVd FkhA n'kZdksa us mls jkt 116

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diwjkuk vankt dk uke fn;k Fkk] ysfdu ^tkxrs jgks* esa n'kZdksa dh vLohd`fr feyhA nwljh ,d vkSj cM+h ckr Fkh fd fQYe dk laxhr 'kadj t;fd'ku ls u fnykdj lyhy pkSèkjh ls fnyk;kA bu otgksa us feydj bl fQYe dks jktdiwj ds thou dh lcls vlQy fQYe djkj fn;k ysfdu dkjykschckjh esa iqjLdkj D;k fey x;k vpkud ;g fQYe lcdks Dykfld yxus yxhA

tequk % nf{k.k dh lR; Hkkek tequk tqyqjh yxHkx 30 cjlksa rd rsyqxw vkSj fganh fQYeksa esa dsUnzh; Hkwfedk,a fuHkkrh jghaA vki vkaèkzizns'k ls pqudj yksdlHkk esa dkaxlsz dh lnL;k Hkh jghaA og djhc nks lkS fQYeksa esa dke dj pqdh gSaA fganh fQYeksa esa fel esjh] gejkgh] csVh csVs] feyu] nqYgu] fj'rs ukrs] ,d jkt] ;knxkj] ukSdj choh dk vkSj jktfryd vkfn mudh lQy fQYesa gSaA tequk tc rsjg&pkSng cjl dh Fkha rc funs'Z kd jkt jko us mUgsa ns[kk vkSj mUgsa ukf;dk dk jksy fn;kA fganh fQYeksa esa tequk dks tqfiVj fQYe daiuh ds funsZ'kd nhf{kr us ^u;k vkneh* esa dke fn;kA ^gejkgh* esa os jktsUnzdqekj dh ukf;dk cuhaA ^feyu* ds fgV gksus ds ckn mUgsa dbZ fuekZrk funs'Z kdksa us eqca bZ esa gh clus dh lykg nh] ysfdu mUgksua s ,slk ugha fd;kA nf{k.k esa T;knkrj yksx mUgsa ^lR;Hkkek* ds :i esa tkurs gSAa ,uVh- jkekjko ds lkFk mUgksaus djhc ipkl fQYesa dh Fkha] ftuesa ;s pkj fQYeksa esa jkekjko d`".k vkSj og lR;Hkkek cuhA lR;Hkkek d`".k dh nwljh iRuh gSA lqUnj vkSj vkRefHkekuhA

csch ukt % QLVZ yo esa csch ugha csch ukt us ukS lky dh mez esa fQYe ^cwV ikfy'k* esa vfHku; dj dku varjkZ"Vªh; fQYe lekjksg esa iqjLdkj rks izkIr dj fy;k] ysfdu ^cgu* dk BIik ,slk yxk fd os pkgrs gq, Hkh ukf;dk ugha cu ldhaA bl ekeys esa jktdiwj Hkh mldh dksbZ enn ugha dj ldsA ukt Hkkjr dh igyh dykdkj gSa ftUgsa dku varjkZ"Vªh; fQYe lekjksg esa iqjLdkj izkIr gqvk FkkA ;g iqjLdkj mUgsa cky dykdkj ds :i esa ek= ukS o"kZ dh mez esa jktdiwj dh ^cwV ikfy'k* fQYe ds fy, feyk FkkA cky dykdkj ds :i esa muds uke ds lkFk ^csch* 'kCn dkQh yacs le; rd tqMk+ jgkA os cky dykdkj ds :i esa dke djrh jghaA mUgsa 'kq: esa ch Js.kh dh


fQYesa feyhaA dqN fnuksa ckn mUgsa dSls dgwa rFkk cgw csxe tSlh fQYeksa esa lg ukf;dk dh Hkwfedk,a feyhaA ^lPpk >wBk* esa jkts'k [kUuk dh cgu dh mudh Hkwfedk Hkh dkQh ljkgh x;hA ;gha mu ij cgu dk BIik yx x;kA lkFk&lkFk os cky dykdkj dh Hkwfedk,a Hkh djrh jghaA ftu fnuksa os ^QLVZ yo* esa ukf;dk dh Hkwfedk dj jgh Fkha mUgha fnuksa ^fny viuk vkSj izhfr ijkbZ* esa cky Hkwfedk Hkh dj jgh FkhaA nksuksa fQYeksa dh 'kwfVax ,d gh LVwfM;ks esa py jgh Fkh vkSj mUgsa cgqr gh FkksM+s le; esa cPps ls o;Ld vkSj o;Ld ls cPpk cu tkuk iM+rk FkkA mudh dqN fQYesa gSa & HkSjoh] dkyk vkneh] pDdj is pDdj] dfy;qx] jsr dh nhokj] esjk ?kj esjs cPps vkSj jkdsV xyZA

vfHkus r k lTtu us 50 o"kZ ckn fQj 'kknh jpkbZ lTtu xhrdkj cuus ds fy, eqca bZ vk;s FksA eqca bZ esa ,d vf[ky Hkkjrh; dfo lEesyu 1950 esa gqvk FkkA Loek[kuyky prqosZnh bl lEesyu ds vè;{k FksA rc lTtu us ljl dfork ikB fd;k FkkA fQj os i`Foh fFk;sVj ls tqM+ x;s vkSj vusd o"kksZa rd ukVdksa ls layXu jgsA dbZ fQYeksa esa Hkh mUgksaus dke fd;kA uk;d Hkh cusA ckUnjk esa viuk caxyk Hkh cuk;kA fQj ekykM esa jgus vk x;sA vafre le; esa mUgksaus viuh 'kknh dh 50oha o"kZxkaB cgqr èkweèke ls euk;h FkhA mlesa ifr iRuh us Qsjs fy;s vkSj eaMi yxk;kA mlh esa vius fe=ksa vkSj iz'kaldksa dks Hkkstu djk;kA jkekuUn lkxj ds pfpZr lhfj;y ^foØe csrky* esa Hkh os [kwc pedsA t;jkt dh rjg os Hkh lekjksg lapkyu esa Hkkx ysrs jgsA mudk ,d gh dykdkj dk LVst 'kks Hkh cgqr fnypLi FkkA

uUnk % j{kk cUèku ij ftUgsa dbZ euhvkMZj feyrs Fks] D;ksafd os NksVh cgu Fkha& Hkkjrh; fQYe m|ksx esa ,slh vusd ghjksbuksa us izos'k fd;k ftUgksaus cpiu ls gh dke djuk 'kq: dj fn;k FkkA vfHkus=h uUnk dk Hkh blh rjg fQYeksa esa izos'k gqvk FkkA vktdy uUnk lsokfuo`Rr thou th jgha gSAa mlus dbZ o"kksZa ls pfj= Hkwfedk,a Hkh djuh can dj nh gSa] ysfdu ,d tekus esa ehukdqekjh] uwru] ekyk flUgk] oSt;Urhekyk] ujfxl] lkèkuk tSlh vfHkusf=;ksa ds chp mls ,d vPNh vfHkus=h ds :i esa ekuk tkrk FkkA

lgk;d Hkwfedkvksa esa uank dk tokc ugha FkkA ^tc tc Qwy f[kys*] xqeuke] rhu nsfo;ka vkSj fn Vsªu tSlh vusd fQYeksa dh ghjksbu dh vis{kk lgk;d vfHkusf=;ksa dh Hkwfedk cgqr ljkgh x;h FkhaA ,d le; ;s lkjh fQYesa lqijfgV lkfcr gqbZ Fkha vkSj muesa eq[; vfHkus=h uank gh FkhA uUnk esa ,d vfHkus=h dh rjg dksbZ [kkl ckr ugha FkhA blfy, mls vusd fQYeksa esa cgu dh Hkwfedk gh feyrh FkhA og fganh ijns dh I;kjh NksVh cgu FkhA 1938 esa iSnk gqbZ uank cpiu ls csch uank ljhds dke djrh FkhA mlus yM+dh dh gh ugha cfYd yM+ds dh Hkh Hkwfedk fuHkk;h FkhA blds ckn canh fQYe esa og v'kksddqekj dh iq=h cuh FkhA blesa v'kksddqekj] fd'kksjdqekj vkSj vuwidqekj vkfn us dke fd;k FkkA ;g fQYe vPNh pyhA uank dh Hkwfedk dh [kwc ljkguk gqbZA ^tc&tc Qwy f[kys* dh lQyrk ds ckn mldh x.kuk ghjksbuksa esa gksus yxhA og ges'kk LokHkkfod vfHku; fd;k djrh FkhA ^dkyk cktkj* esa lcls igys fot; vkuUn us lg ukf;dk dh Hkwfedk nh FkhA blds ckn ch-vkj- pksiM+k us Hkh mls dkuwu fQYe esa Hkwfedk nhA lgk;d vfHkus=h dh Hkwfedk ds lkFk gh mls ukf;dk ds :i esa Hkh Hkwfedk,a feyk djrh FkhaA ^ge nksuksa* esa og nso vkuUn dh ghjksbu FkhA 1965 esa uank dh rhu&rhu lQy fQYesa vk;h FkhaA ;s fQYesa Fkha xqeuke] rhu nsfo;ka vkSj tc&tc Qwy f[kysA mlus fcuk xhrksa okyh fQYe bfRrQkd esa dke fd;kA blds uk;d Fks jkts'k [kUukA cky dykdkj ls 'kq: dj uank us vfHku; dk dhfrZeku LFkkfir fd;kA uank ds lkFk dHkh dksbZ ,Qs;j dh ckr ugha FkhA mudk nqHkkZX; gh dfg;s fd izfl) fuekZrk fnXn'kZd eueksgu nslkbZ ds lkFk mudh eaxuh r; gks xbZ vkSj dqN gh fnuksa ds ckn nslkbZ th dk fuèku gks x;kA mudh dqN fQYesa % 1960 esa dkyk cktkj] 1961 esa ge nksuksa] dkuwu&1960] 1965 esa tc&tc Qwy f[kys] 1972 esa 'kkSj] 1980 esa mEehnA

flusek vkSj lekt tkfr vkSj èkeZ lkyksa ls Hkkjrh; tuekul dh mFky&iqFky dk lcc curs jgs gSaA ;g ,d ,slh [kkbZ dh rjg gS ftls ikVk tk lduk ukeqefdu gSA dyk dh fofHkUu foèkkvksa esa 'kk;n lkfgR; ds vykok flusek gh gS ftlus bl [kkbZ dks ikVus dk lcls vfèkd iz;kl fd;k gSA chrs n'kdksa esa ,slh dbZ flusek&2005

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fQYesa vk;h gSa ftuesa tkrh; vkSj lkaiznkf;d fo}s"k dks le>us vkSj bldk gy ryk'kus dh bZekunkj dksf'k'ksa gqb± gSaA fgUnqLrku fofoèkrkvksa dk ns'k gS vkSj bldh ;gh [kkl ckr flus nqfu;k esa lkQ&lkQ izfrfcafcr gksrh jgh gSA ;fn Hkkjrh; lekt vkSj lH;rk ds ifjizs{; esa ns[ksa rks eq[;r% fganw&eqfLye ds curs fcxM+rs fj'rksa dks flusek esa lkdkj gksrs ns[kk tk ldrk gSA ckEcs ¼1994½ ef.k jRue }kjk funsZf'kr rhljh ,slh egRoiw.kZ fQYe gS tks etcwrh ls vkilh fj'rksa ds rkus&ckus ls caèkh gSA vkt lekt esa vk;s cnykoksa ds pyrs ;qok ih<+h dh t:jrksa vkSj vis{kkvksa dh vksj ;g u dsoy è;ku [khaprh gS] cfYd cgl ds fy, ,d èkjkry Hkh rS;kj djrh gSA iwjh fQYe esa fganw&eqfLye ds chp tkjh ruko vkSj Vdjko ds lkFk&lkFk ,d izes dgkuh dk lqUnj fp=.k gqvk gSA bl fQYe esa ,d fganw i=dkj eqfLye yM+dh ls izse djrk gS ij nksuksa ifjokjksa }kjk muds bl fj'rs dk fojksèk gksrk gSA rc etcwjho'k Hkkx dj ;g ;qxy ges'kk ds fy, ifj.k; lw= esa caèk tkrs gSaA fQj èkhjs&èkhjs gkykr dqN ,sls curs gSa fd nksuksa ds ifjokjtu mUgsa viuk ysrs gSAa bl rjg funs'Z kd us ckEcs 'kgj ds IysVQkeZ ij ,d [kwclwjr yo LVksjh dks dsUnz esa j[k izR;{k :i ls fganw eqfLye ds chp py jgh O;kid fgalk vkSj ywVikV dks vR;ar lkoèkkuh vkSj fu"i{krk ls mtkxj fd;k gSA flusek dh yksdfiz;rk ds dkj.k gekjk n'kZd oxZ blls lhèkk tqMk+ ftlls dqijaijkvksa ds izfr yksxksa ds Hkze nwj gq, vkSj tkx`fr ds fy, ifjos'k rS;kj gqvkA gekjs flusek esa bl fo"k; ij nks egRoiw.kZ fQYesa vk;h gSaA ,d ^vNwr dU;k* ¼1936½ vkSj nwljh ^lqtkrk* ¼1959½A buds lkFk gh tkrh; dqizFkkvksa ij izgkjksa dh 'kq:vkr gqbZA bu fQYeksa us ladh.kZrk ds nk;js esa fleVs lekt dh ekU;rkvksa dks cnyus ds fy, loZiFz ke iz;kl fd,A foey jk; us viuh fQYe ^lqtkrk* esa vLi`';rk vkSj tkrh; HksnHkko tSls lkekftd eqn~ns dks izse izlax vkSj viuh O;fDrxr pkgr ls tksM+dj ,d Dykfld fQYe dk :i fn;kA ,d ckr xkSjryc gS fd lqtkrk tSlh fQYeksa dh otg ls lkekftd vkSj vkfFkZd fodkl esa vkus okyh ckèkkvksa ds izfr yksxksa dh lksp esa èkhjs&èkhjs ijarq vljnkj ifjorZu vk;kA le; ds lkFk&lkFk ,slh fQYesa Hkh yxkrkj vkus yxha ftuesa lekt ds 118

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ncs&dqpys yksxksa ds izfr lgkuqHkwfr vkSj yxko dk iqV rks gS lkFk gh mPp oxZ ds fy, ,d rjg dk mxz vkØks'k Hkh Li"V fn[kk;h nsrk gSA lekt esa O;kIr bl rjg dh cqjkb;ksa ij flusek us dHkh yksdfiz; <ax ls rks dHkh detksj rjg ls izfrfØ;k,a nh gSAa blh ifjiz{s ; esa fganh ds egku miU;kldkj izes pUn dh y?kq rFkk ^ln~xfr* ij lR;thr jk; us Vsyhfotu ds fy, ,d fQYe rS;kj dh FkhA mPp oxZ ds yksxksa ds fy, ,d rjg dk vkØks'k Hkh mitrk gSA bl rjg dh iVdFkk,a lekt esa O;kIr dqjhfr;ksa dks rksM+us dh ekax Hkh cjkcj tkjh j[krh gSA blh rjg ^nsonkl* ppkZ esa jgh gSA bl fQYe dk ,d fcUnq Hkh tkrh; igyw dk Li'kZ djrk gS rks bl rjg lkFk ds cnyko dh vis{kk ls gekjs ;gka ds flusek esa gjsd Lrj ij fHkUu&fHkUu 'kSfy;ksa esa bl fo"k; dks ysdj fQYesa yxkrkj curh jgh gSaA loZèkeZ ln~Hkko dh fn'kk esa Hkkjrh; flusek ftlesa fganh ds vykok vU; {ks=h; Hkk"kkvksa dk flusek Hkh 'kkfey gS viuh viuh rjg ls lekt ds Hkhrj mitrh leL;kvksa dks viuk eq[; fo"k; cukdj izLrqr djrs gSAa

tkWuh okdj % cl esa fVdV dkVrs fQYeksa esa ^fcu fi;s eSa rks fxjk* eq[kM+k ckn esa cuk exj bldks tkWuh okdj us vius vfHku; ls cjlksa igys vej dj fn[kk;kA 'kjkch dk bruk thoar vfHku;] 'kjkc dks dHkh u Nwus okys dkA tkuh okdj csoM+k cudj fQYeh nqfu;k esa vk;k rks ,d u;k gh vk;ke ihus okyksa dk n'kZdksa dks utj vk;k vkSj ,d le; ,slk vk;k fd n'kZd 'kk;n fcuk tkuh okdj ds fQYe ns[kuk Hkh ilUn u djrsA tkWuh okdj ckDl vkfQl ij fgV gksus dh xkjaVh cu x;kA ,d ,slk gkL; dykdkj ftlus u 'kDy ik;h u lwjr] dkyk dywVk] nqcyk iryk] ghjks ij Hkh gkoh gksus yxk] lkjk ;'k tkuh okdj ywVus yxkA yksx tkuh okdj ds fy;s fiDpj ns[kus tkrs vkSj ,d fnu ;gh ,DLVªk ls ghjks cu x;kA ';kek ls mldh tksMh+ [kwc tehA nqfu;k jaxjaxhyh] Nwera j] [kksVk iSlk] u;k iSlk] tkuh okdj] fe- tku] fe- dkVwZu vkt Hkh ;knxkj fQYesa gSaA xq#nRr dh gj fQYe esa tkuh okdj us dke fd;k] vkt Hkh tkuh viuk tkuh gSA mldh izfrHkk ftldk n'kZdksa us iwjk eksy pqdk;k lj ij fcBk;k I;kj fn;kA ijns ij


galuk galkuk lcls eqf'dy dke gksrk gSA eqf'dy blfy, Hkh gksrk gS D;ksafd blesa n'kZd ds fny dh xgjkb;ksa rd xqnxqnkgV iSnk djus dh t:jr gksrh gSA flQZ ÅViVkax gko&Hkko fn[kkdj ;k myVs lhèks okD; cksy dj dkesMh ugha dh tk ldrhA Hkkjrh; fQYekdk'k esa eè;izns'k ds nks gkL; dykdkjksa us viuk vyx gh LFkku cuk fy;kA ;s dykdkj gSa tkuh okdj vkSj txnh'kA vkt ls dksbZ pkyhl iSarkfyl lky igys bankSj dh cM+okyh pkSdh ij fLFkr Ldwy esa ,d yM+dk i<+k djrk FkkA i<+us esa de vkSj rjg rjg dh udy mrkjus esa bl yM+ds dks T;knk etk vkrk FkkA ckn esa ;gh yM+dk fganh fQYeksa dk e'kgwj dkesfM;u tkuh okdj cu x;kA tkuh okdj dk vlyh uke cn#n~nhu dkth FkkA os bankSj ds jgus okys FksA tkuh okdj fQYeksa esa vkus ls igys eqca bZ VªkaliksVZ esa daMDVj dk dke djrs FksA oSls os bankSj ls viuh jksth jksVh ds fy, ukfld gksrs gq, eqacbZ igqapsA ukfld esa os vkblØhe cspdj ifjokj dk xqtkjk djrs Fks vkSj ckn esa VªkaliksVZ ds O;olk; esa os eLrh ls [kks;s FksA ,d fnu ml cl esa LoxhZ; cyjkt lkguh Hkh lQj dj jgs FksA cn#n~nhu dkth viuh ckrksa ls] vius gko&Hkko ls fVdV nsrs gq, ;kf=;ksa dk euksjatu dj jgs FksA cyjkt lkguh cn#n~nhu ls brus izHkkfor gq, fd mUgksua s xq#nRr ls feyok;kA xq#nRr us mUgsa pkal fn;kA cn#n~nhu us ^ckth* esa thoUr vfHku; dj dyk ds mikld xq#nRr dk fny thr fy;kA fQj D;k Fkk] xq#nRr us QSlyk fd;k fd mudh gj fQYe esa cn#n~nhu dks dke feysxkA ^ckth* ls gh cn#n~nhu tkuh okdj gks x;sA tkuh okdj vfHku; ls T;knk pfpZr gq,A mu ij fQYek;s x;s xhrksa lsA esjk ;kj cuk gS nwYgk ¼pkSngoha dk pkan½] paih ekfy'k ¼I;klk½] ge Hkh vxj cPps gksrs ¼nwj dh vkokt½ tSls xhr vkt Hkh lnkcgkj gSaA gkL; vfHkusrk ds :i esa tkuh okdj us djhc 250 ls T;knk fQYeksa esa dke fd;kA tkWuh okdj brus yksdfiz; gks x;s Fks fd muds uke dh osn enu funsZf'kr fQYe ^tkuh okdj* cuhA vfe; pØorhZ ds funs'Z ku esa cu jgh fQYe dBiqryh mudh e`R;q ds ckn fufru cksl us iwjh dhA enj bafM;k ls ufxZl] jktdiwj ls nwj gks x;ha vkSj lquhy nRr ls 'kknh dj yhA

ia<jh ckbZ HkkHkh fQYe ls fganh esa izfl) gqbZa vius le; dh e'kgwj ukf;dk pfj= vfHkus=h ia<jh ckbZ dk fiNys fnuksa 29 tuojh] 1903 esa fuèku gks x;kA os 74 o"kZ dh FkhaA ia<jh ckbZ us 1500 ds djhc fQYeksa esa viuk ;ksxnku fn;kA mUgksua s fganh lfgr lHkh nf{k.k Hkk"kkvksa dh fQYeksa esa dke fd;kA ia<jh ckbZ dks e'kgwj vfHkusrk f'kokth x.ks'ku ds lkFk fQYe ^ijk'kfDr* ¼1952½ esa fy;k x;k] rks mudh izflf) pje lhek ij igqap x;hA ^fFk:achikj* ¼1954½ uked ,d fQYe cuh FkhA ;g fQYe muds thou dh lQyre fQYe ekuh x;hA fganh fQYe ^HkkHkh* esa Hkh mUgksaus dke fd;k FkkA ;g fQYe [kwc pyhA cgkj ¼1951½] f'ko HkDr ¼1955½] HkkHkh ¼1957½] x`g y{eh ¼1959½] pkan ¼1959½] uUgk Qfj'rk ¼1969½] j[kokyk ¼1971½ rFkk xaxk rsjk ikuh ve`r ¼1971½ mudh vkSj Hkh fQYesa gSaA

MsfoM tku pkpk 'kkunkj f[kykM+h] dq'ky oDrk] [kklk igyoku] izoh.k jsQjhA MsfoM dk tUe 1909 esa 21 twu dks gqvk FkkA os fu;fer v[kkM+s esa tkdj naM isyrs FksA 75 #- ekfld esa ^tEcw* fQYe esa dke fd;kA fQj ckEcs Vkdht dh ^fdLer* ls mudh Hkh fdLer ped x;hA ^nzkiS nh* ftls ckcwjko iVsy us cuk;h Fkh] ml fQYe esa os 'kdqfu cusA fQj ^eqUuk* esa vk;sA vkt rd muls vPNh dkWesUVjh nsus okyk dksbZ ugha gqvkA fdlh Hkh lekjksg esa MsfoM dk gksuk t:jh FkkA

jgeku iq.ks dh izHkkr fQYe daiuh esa funsZ'kd ';ke okMsdj ds lgk;d cu x;s jgekuA lkS #i;s ekg osru vkSj jgus dks LVwfM;ks dh ,d NksVh&lh dksBjhA blesa jgeku ds vykok rhu vU; deZpkjh Hkh jgrs FksA ;s rhu vU; deZpkjh nso vkuUn] lizw vkSj xq#nRr FksA ;s rhuksa vkxs pydj fQYeksa dh nqfu;k esa ukephu dykdkj cusA jgeku xq#nRr vkSj lizw gj ekg ipkl&ipkl #i;s eSl esa nsrs vkSj nks le; dk Hkkstu izkIr djrs Fks] fdUrq nso vkuUn dks vius gkFkksa dk cuk Hkkstu gh ilan Fkk] blfy, nso vkuUn muds eSl esa 'kkfey ugha gq,A

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lgk;d funsZ'kd ds :i esa jgeku us izHkkr dEiuh dh fQYe ^yk[kk jkuh* iwjh dhA ^ge ,d gSa* esa psru vkuUn ds lkFk jgeku dks Hkh bl fQYe esa lekukarj uk;d dh Hkwfedk fey x;hA xq#nRr us viuk thou la?k"kZ jgeku ds lkFk gh mlh NksVh&lh dksBjh ls vkjaHk fd;k FkkA ftl ^izHkkr daiuh* esa jgeku lgk;d funsZ'kd vkSj uk;d ds :i esa dke dj jgs Fks ml daiuh esa xq#nRr ,d Mkalj vkSj Mkal ekLVj ds :i esa dk;Zjr Fks] D;ksafd og dksydkrk ls izfl) urZd mn;'kadj dh ukV~; laLFkk ls vk, Fks vkSj dq'ky Mkalj FksA xq#nRr] jgeku dks vDlj ,d dgkuh lquk;k djrs FksA tc os fuekZrk funsZ'kd cus rks mUgksaus mlh dgkuh dks ^I;klk* ds uke ls fQYek;kA xq#nRr us gh jgeku dks pfj= vfHkusrk cuk;k vkSj mUgksaus ^I;klk* esa mUgsa og Hkwfedk nh tks mUgksua s ^I;klk* esa dh gSA blds ckn os vius thou ds var rd pfj= Hkwfedk,a fuHkkrs jgsA pfj= vfHkusrk ds :i esa jgeku us lHkh lQy vfHkusrkvksa ds lkFk dke fd;kA

ukflj [kka dk fQYeh d`frRo fnyhidqekj ds HkkbZ ukflj [kka us ftu fQYeksa esa dke fd;k Fkk mudk ,d fooj.k %& LoxhZ; ukflj [kka fnyhi dqekj ds NksVs HkkbZ FksA ^etnwj* ¼1945½ fQYe ls mUgksaus vius vfHku; ds lQj dh 'kq:vkr dh FkhA 'kgukbZ ¼1947½] uktuhu] uxhuk] u[kjs] lkSnkxj ¼1951½] vkleku] gaxkek] yky dqaoj ¼1952½] nk;jk ¼1953½] vaxkjs ¼1954½] lkslk;Vh ¼1955½] dj Hkyk ¼1956½] vkneh ¼1957½] xaxk tequk ¼1961½ vkfn fQYeksa esa mUgksaus uk;d ds vge jksy fd;sA ftanxh ¼1972½] ;knksa dh ckjkr ¼1973½] cSjkx ¼1976½ tSlh dqN fQYeksa esa mUgksaus pfj= Hkwfedk,a Hkh fuHkk;h FkhaA vaxkjs esa og ufxZl ds ghjks FksA mudh iRuh csxe ikjk mUgha ds nkSj dh ukf;dk jgha vkSj muds iq= v;wc [kka vkt ds uk;d gSaA xaxk teuk Hkh fnyhi dqekj us muds fy, cuk;h FkhA csxe ikjk dks mudh e`R;q ds ckn Hkh lc ykHk feykA

120

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pUnzys[kk % ,d 'kq:vkr rM+d HkM+d vkSj [kphZys lsVksa dh 'kq:vkr fuekZrk ,l-,l- oklu dh fQYe pUnzys[kk ¼1948½ ls gqbZA fQYe dh i`"BHkwfe jkt?kjkukas dh 'kku&'kkSdr ls tqM+h FkhA vr% blesa dbZ cM+s vkSj HkO; lsVksa dk fuekZ.k fd;k x;kA [kkl dj blesa cM+s&cM+s rcyksa dh rjg cus uxkM+ksa ij fFkjdrh urZfd;kaA ckn esa mUgha uxkM+ksa ds isV [kksydj lSfudksa ds fudkyus vkSj fHkM+us dk n`'; cM+h lthork ls fQYek;k x;k FkkA bl rjg ds n`';ksa ij fuekZrk us yk[kksa #i;s [kpZ fd, Fks vkSj bUgha HkO; n`';ksa ds dkj.k fQYe ckDl vkfQl ij iwjh rjg lQy Hkh gqbZA

e'kgwj ukVddkj vkSj dgkuhdkj % vkxk tkuh d'ehjh vkxk tkuh d'ehjh us yxHkx 50 o"kksZa rd fQYeksa esa dgkfu;ka vkSj ukVd fy[ksA mudh 29 fQYeksa us xksYMu tqcfy;ka vkSj 22 fQYeksa us flYoj tqcfy;ka eukb±A vkx tkuh d'ehj dh e'kgwj fQYeksa esa vueksy ?kM+h] rLohj] eq>s thus nks] ;s jkLrs gSa I;kj ds] yo bu f'keyk] pksjh&pksjh vkSj f[kykSuk vkfn gSaA fQj ogka ls os dydRrk vk x;sA fQj 1935&36 eas eqEcbZ ls mUgksaus viuk fQYeh dSfj;j 'kq: fd;kA igyh fQYe fgeka'kq jk; dh ckEcs Vkdht ds fy, fy[kh Fkh] ftlesa v'kksd dqekj vkSj nsfodk jkuh us dke fd;k FkkA 90 o"kZ dh mez esa 27 ekpZ dks mudk nsgkUr yanu esa muds csVs tghj d'ehjh ds ?kj gqvkA

equOoj lqyrkuk % ckcqy esa fnyhi dqekj ds lkFk Fkh equOoj lqyrkuk dk tUe caVokjs ds igys uoEcj 1924 dks gqvk FkkA os fQYeksa esa lu~ 1945 esa vk;haA 1951 rd ghjksbu ds :i esa fQYeksa esa mUgksaus dke fd;kA mUgksaus 'kkarkjke] egcwc [kku] dkjnkj] eksrhyky] etgj [kku] ujfxl rFkk fnyhidqekj tSls csgrjhu funsZ'kdksa vkSj lg dykdkjksa ds lkFk dke fd;kA os dgrh gSa eSua s viuh mez ls vfèkd mez okys 'kjkQr vyh ls izse fd;k vkSj mUgha ls 'kknh dj yhA mudh dqN vPNh fQYeksa ds uke gS&a etcwj] nnZ] ,syku] duht] nknk]


ljrkt] jkr dh jkuh] I;kj dh bTtr] esjh dgkuh] vaèkksa dh nqfu;k vkfnA mudh vafre fQYe Fkh ^ckcqy*A blesa mUgksaus fnyhi dqekj ds lkFk dke fd;k FkkA muds lkFk ufxZl Hkh FkhA etgj [kku tc mUgsa eqEcbZ ys vk;s Fks rks mUgksaus viuh igyh fQYe esa equOoj lqyrkuk dks flQZ ikap gtkj #i;s rFkk ,d ¶ySV fn;k FkkA mUgsa ^ckcqy* esa lcls T;knk 50]000 #i;s esgurkuk feyk FkkA ;g fdlh Hkh dykdkj dks nh tkus

okyh mu fnuksa dh vfèkdre jkf'k FkhA equOoj lqyrkuk dks ;k=k djus dk cM+k 'kkSd FkkA equOoj lqyrkuk dks vkt Hkh ,d baVjO;w ds ckjs esa ;kn gS] ftls vky bafM;k jsfM;ks ds fy, lquhy nRr us fy;k FkkA rc lquhy nRr fQYeksa esa ugha vk;s FksA lquhy nRr us ftl vnk ls og baVjO;w fy;k Fkk vkt Hkh mlds ckjs esa equOoj lqyrku dks ;kn gSA

*** vfHku; lkezkKh ehuk dqekjh ds nk,a gkFk dh ,d maxyh dVh gqbZ Fkh] fdUrq n`'; djrs le; og mls cM+h lQkbZ ls fNik tkrh FkhaA *** ehuk dqekjh dk vlyh uke egtcha FkkA muds firk vyhc['k ml tekus ds izfl) laxhrdkj Fks rFkk eka bdcky vius tekus dh [kwclwjr vkSj e'kgwj LVst dykdkj FkhaA *** lsalj cksMZ dh LFkkiuk 1920 esa eqEcbZ esa gqbZA cksMZ us 1933 esa iznf'kZr ^lSjUèkzh* ds dqN n`';ksa ij dSaph pyk;h vkSj lcls igys ^,* lfVZfQdsV fQYe ^galrs vkalw* ¼1950½a dks fn;k FkkA *** dbZ fQYeksa esa ftrsUnz ds lkFk jksekafVd Hkwfedk djus okyh uhrw flag us fQYe ^okfj'k* esa crkSj cky dykdkj ftrsUnz dh cgu dh Hkwfedk fuHkk;h FkhA fQYe esa ukf;dk gsek ekfyuh FkhA *** ^jkuh :ierh*] ^csnnZ tekuk D;k tkus* vkfn dbZ fQYeksa esa crkSj ukf;dk dke dj pqdh fu:ik jk; us tc igyh ckj fQYe ^equheth* esa eka dh Hkwfedk fuHkk;h] rc mUgsa bl o"kZ loZJs"B vfHkus=h ds fy, fQYe Qs;j iqjLdkj ls lEekfur fd;k x;k FkkA

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ewoh eqxy & ds- vkflQ

pkj fQYesa& Qwy] gypy] yo ,.M xkWM vkSj eqxy&,&vkte is'k djds ejgwe ds- vkflQ fQYeh nqfu;k ds ^ewoh fdax* vkSj ^ewoh eqxy* dgs tkrs gSaA ds- vkflQ ,d lPps Qudkj Fks] tks vius Qu dks frtkjr ugha bcknr le>rs FksA mudk iwjk uke djhe vkflQ FkkA mudk tUe mRrjizns'k ds bVkok ftys esa ukeh eqdke ij 14 twu 1924 dks gqvk FkkA vius oDr ds e'kgwj vnkdj uthj muds ekek FksA mUgha ds dkj.k ds- vkflQ dks fQYeh nqfu;k esa vkus dk ekSdk feyk vkSj fQj cgqr tYn ;s vkyk gkSlyk ukStoku fQYe b.MLVªh esa viuk ikao tekus esa dke;kc gks x;sA os ,d vPNs nthZ Hkh FksA mUgksua s igyh fQYe ^Qwy* is'k dhA ;g fgUnqLrku dh igyh eYVh LVkjj fQYe FkhA blesa ml oDr ds lHkh ukeh vnkdkjksa us dke fd;k FkkA ^Qwy* ,d cgqr cM+s eulwcs dh fQYe Fkh] ysfdu og ckDl vkfQl ij dke;kc ugha gqbZA ^Qwy* dh O;kolkf;d vlQyrk ds- vkflQ ds bjknksa ij dksbZ vlj ugha MkykA mUgksaus ,d vkSj cM+h fQYe dh rS;kjh 'kq: dj nhA blh nkSjku uthj ls rykd gkfly djds flrkjk nsoh ds- vkflQ dh ftUnxh esa vk x;h FkhaA os mudh ekeh FkhaA bl jksekUl vkSj 'kknh us csgn vQokgksa vkSj gaxkeksa dks tUe fn;k FkkA ds- vkflQ us fnyhidqekj vkSj ufxZl dks ysdj ^gypy* cuk;hA rduhdh n`f"V ls ^gypy* fnyhidqekj vkSj ufxZl dh csgrjhu fQYe le>h tkrh gSA bl fQYe esa fnyhidqekj dbZ fnu ds Hkw[ks gSaA os ,d vkneh dks lRrw [kkrs gq, ns[kdj vius lw[ks gksaBksa ij tcku Qsjrs gSaA bulku dh csolh vkSj cspkjxh dk fny ngyk nsus okyk lhu fnyhidqekj dh fQYeh ftUnxh ds csgrjhu lhuksa esa fxuk tkrk gSA csbfUrgk I;kj djus okyh ,d fgUnqLrkuh ukf;dk ds :i esa ufxZl dks Hkh bl fQYe ds fy, ges'kk ;kn fd;k tk;sxkA ds- vkflQ dh ftUnxh dk lcls cM+k dkjukek ^eqxy&,&vkte* gSA ;gh ,d fQYe ds- vkflQ dks fgUnqLrkuh fQYe b.MLVªh dk lcls cM+k fQYedkj fgnk;rdkj lkfcr djus ds fy, dkQh gSA 1942 esa tc igyh ckj ds- vkflQ us ^eqxy&,&vkte* dk [okc ns[kk Fkk] ml oDr mUgksaus fQYe QkbusUlj fljkt vyh gdhe ls dgk Fkk % ^^eSa bl fQYe ds tfj;s vdcj egku dks nksckjk ftUnk d:axkA fljkt vyh gdhe us fQYe esa iwath yxkuk eatwj dj fy;kA ds- vkflQ us eqEcbZ ds if'peh miuxj ekykM fLFkr ckEcs Vkdht esa fQYe 'kq: dj nhA vdcjs vkte dk jksy pUnzeksgu dj jgs Fks] vukjdyh Fkh ufxZl vkSj 'kgtknk lyhe dk fdjnkj vnk dj jgs Fks lizwA fQYe dh 'kwfVax csgn ,greke ls tkjh Fkh fd Hkkjr ds caVokjs ds gaxkes 'kq: gks x;sA pUnzeksgu dk nsgkUr gks x;kA fljkt vyh gdhe ikfdLrku pys x;sA mu fnuksa deky vejksgh Hkh ds- vkflQ dh ;wfuV esa 'kkfey gks x;s FksA vius cqyna gkSlys ds lgkjs ,d ckj fQj eulwck cuk;kA bl ckj [kq'kulhch ls mUgsa Qkbusla dk ;dhu fnyk;k 'kkgiqjth ikykuth usA ds- vkflQ u;s tks'k ds lkFk vius dke esa tqV x;sA mUgksaus ml nkSj esa ,d djksM+ dk ctV cuk;k FkkA ml le; cM+h ls cM+h fQYe nl&ckjg yk[k esa rS;kj gks tkrh FkhA eqxy&,&vkte dh vkmVMksj 'kwfVax jktLFkku vkSj Qrsgiqj lhdjh tSls LFkkuksa ij dh x;hA feysVªh dh enn yh x;h vkSj eqxy&,&vkte ds flQZ ,d lsV 'kh'k egy ij ianzg yk[k #i;s dk [kpZ vk;kA vdcjs vkte dk 'kh'k egy fQjkstkckn ds e'kgwj 'kh'kxjksa us rS;kj fd;k FkkA 'kh'k egy ds gj 'kh'ks ij ds- vkflQ vDl ns[kuk pkgrs Fks] ysfdu dSejk eSu vkj-Mh- ekFkqj us lsV dh ijh{k.k ds ckn dgk] bl pdkpkSaèk esa 'kwfVax djuk eqf'dy 122

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gSA fons'k ls dSejkesu vk;s fQj Hkh ckr cuh ughaA fQj vkjMh- ekFkqj us gh oks peRdkj dj fn[kk;k tks fons'kh ugha dj lds vkSj 'kh'k egy rS;kj gks x;kA ds- vkflQ ds 'kkgiqj th vkf'kd Fks vkSj muls vius csVs dh rjg eksgCcr djrs FksA ds- vkflQ ^eqxy&,&vkte* ds ,d eatj esa eksfr;ksa dk ,d ijnk yxkuk pkgrs Fks ftls tksèkkckbZ vius csVs lyhe dh okilh ij yqVk nsrh gSA ijnk bruk cM+k Fkk fd eksrh iwjs ugha fey jgs FksA vkflQ lkgc us 'kwfVax jksd nhA cksys ^^tc eksrh feysaxs rc dke pysxkA** mUghaa fnuksa bZn vk;hA 'kkgiqjth us bnh esa ,d cM+h jde ds- vkflQ dks nhA ds- vkflQ us ,d #i;k mBk;k vkSj dgk fd ^^ckdh jde ls eksrh eaxok nhft,A** eqxy&,&vkte nl lky esa cudj rS;kj gqbZA dsvkflQ us vius ml nkos dks lgh dj fn[kk;k Fkk fd os viuh fQYe ds tfj;s vdcjs vte ds tkgks tyky [kkunku rSejw h dh rkjh[k ¼bfrgkl½ ds bl rkcukd nkSj dks ftUnk dj nsxa As eqxy&,&vkte ds vdcj i`Fohjkt] 'kgtknk lyhe fnyhidqekj] Bkdqj nqtuZ flag vthr] tksèkkckbZ] nqxkZ [kksVs vkSj vukjdyh eèkqckyk dks ds- vkflQ us ftUnk fdjnkj cuk fn;kA tkfye ekSr us 9 ekpZ] 1971 dks bUMLVªh ds bl csrkt ckn'kkg dks Nhu fy;kA djksM+ksa dh fQYe cukus okys ds- vkflQ ds ckjs esa ;g ckr csgn vthc yxrh gS fd mUgksaus viuk ?kj ugha cuk;kA fdjk;s ds edku esa jgrs FksA cSad cSysal ugha j[kk csgn lknxh ilUn vkSj lPps bulku FksA os nwljksa dh rdyhQ cjnk'r ugha djrs FksA vthtksa ij] t:jreanksa dks fujk'k djuk xqukg le>rs FksA ds- vkflQ viuh futh ftUnxh esa csgn feyulkj vkSj lTtu O;fDr FksA LokFkZ] ?keaM vkSj j[kj[kko ls cgqr nwjA ds- vkflQ dh igyh choh flrkjk nsoh FkhA ckn esa mUgksua s fuxkj lqyrkuk ls 'kknh dh FkhA fuxkj ls mUgsa pkj cPps gSa] vdcj] 'kkSdr] eqfujk vkSj 'kckukA mUgksaus fnyhidqekj dh cgu v[rj [kkue ls 'kknh dh] ftlls rkchj vkSj tjhu nks cfPp;ka gSaA vc Hkh muds pkgus okys ;gh dgrs gSa fd vc fQYe m|ksx esa ,slk vkneh iSnk ugha gks ldrkA

gjQu ekSyk ds- vkflQ ,d ikxy&lk fn[kus okyk] ges'kk liuksa esa [kks;k [kks;k] csrjrhc diM+&s mls yksx mlds ckjs esa D;k dgrs gSa D;k lksprs gSa bldh ijokg ugha Fkh ;k ;wa dgsa mls bldk bYe gh ugha Fkk] fdUrq og fQYeh nqfu;k ls tksd dh rjg fpidk gqvk FkkA mldk lkjk dk lkjk thou fQYe lalkj Fkk& ;g fufoZokn gSA mls vius dks vkflQ dgykuk vPNk yxrk FkkA mldh dYiuk;sa fo'kky Fkha] HkO; Fkha] mlds lsVl~ Hkh HkO; gksrAs lkjk thou gh fo'kky FkkA fo'kky ,d tekus esa vUus fiDplZ esa Vsyj dk dke djus okyk fcuk bLrjh fd;s dqrsZ itkes esa vius dks egku vkSj mPp Lrjh; izekf.kr djus esa gh yxk jgk vius liuksa ds egy ls dHkh ckgj ugha fudyk& lkdkj djrk jgkA 4&6 fQYeksa dh ?kks"k.kk dh ij cu uk ldhA ^^uks ctV** ;g mldh igyh 'krZ FkhA ,slk Qk;usUlj feyus ij gh vkxs fiDpj dh ckr gksrh& fljkt gdhe us iSlksa dh FkSyh [kksy nh vkSj ^^eqxys vkte** dh rS;kjh 'kq: dhA panez ksgu ¼lyhe½ lizw ¼vdcj½ vkSj ufxZl ¼vukjdyh½ 'kq:vkr esa gh dqN Vsd ds ckn panzeksgu ej x;sA Qk;usUlj ikfdLrku pyk x;kA exj vkflQ cstkj ugha gq;sA u;s fljs ls 'kq: dh vkSj lu~ 1960 esa ehy dk iRFkj lkfcr gqbZ fQYe ^^eqxy&,&vkte** cudj fjyht gqbZ ftls vkt Hkh oks gh ntkZ feyk gqvk gSA vkflQ dks fQYeh eqxy dgk tkrk gSA oks Hkh flQZ thou esa dsoy rhu fQYesa cukus ij ^^Qwy**] ^^gypy** o ^^eqxy&,&vkte** vU; esa& ^^yo ,.M xkM** tks ejus ds ckn iw.kZ gksdj fjyht gqbZA

lkbfdy okyh Nksjh jeksyk ml le; jeksyk ukVd daiuh esa urZdh ds :i esa dke djrh FkhA pkj&ikap urZfd;ksa ds u`R; lewg esa og gkL; urZdh ds :i esa yksdfiz; FkhA dsnkj 'kekZ ml daiuh dk ukVd ns[kus x;s] rks mudh ikj[kh utj ml gkL; urZdh jeksyk ij iM+hA mUgksua s rqjUr ml gkL; urZdh dh [kkstchu djuh 'kq: dj nhA mUgsa viuh daiuh esa cqykdj mldh ilan ukilan ds ckjs esa iwNk vkSj fQj viuh fQYe ^vkSykn* esa ukf;dk ds :i esa vuqcafèkr dj fy;kA rc jeksyk dk okLrfod uke jspy dksgsu Fkk vkSj og ;gwnh FkhA dsnkj 'kekZ us mldk uke jeksyk j[kkA flusek&2005

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^vkSykn* ds ckn lq[k iapksyh dh fQYe ^[ktkaph* esa jeksyk ds vfHku; esa vkSj fu[kkj vk;kA fQYe dh 'kq:vkr esa gh yM+ds&yM+fd;ka lkbfdy ij ^lkou ds utkjs gaS] y yk y yk* xhr xkrs gq, fudyrs gSaA ml n`'; esa jeksyk dk vfHku; [kwc euksjta d vkSj vYgM+ 'kksf[k;ksa ls Hkjiwj FkkA ekLVj xqyke gSnj dh iatkc dh èkjrh ls ckoLFkk gydh&Qqydh yksd èkquksa ds dkj.k ^[ktkaph* fQYe [kwc pyhA blfy, jeksyk dh ekax Hkh c<+ x;hA vusd fuekZrkvksa us mls viuh&viuh fQYeksa esa dke djus dh is'kd'k dhA jeksyk us ykgkSj esa fdlh Hkh fuekZrk ds vkWQj dks Lohdkj ugha fd;k vkSj eqEcbZ vkuk ilan fd;kA eqEcbZ vkus ds ckn og ,d ds ckn ,d dbZ fQYeksa ds dkUVªsDV lkbu djrh pyh x;hA ^'kqfØ;k*] ^eupyh*] ^vycsyh* vkSj ^yydkj* fQYesa jeksyk dks dsUnzfcUnq cukdj rS;kj dh x;haA gj fQYe esa jeksyk gkL; vkSj vYgM+ ;qorh dh Hkwfedk dj jgh FkhA FkksM+s ls gh le; esa jeksyk dk uke n'kZdksa esa [kwc fiz; gks x;kA ijUrq u tkus D;k ckr Fkh jeksyk ds eu esa fQYe {ks= ds izfr fnu&c&fnu uQjr c<+rh x;hA blfy, os fQYe {ks= dks iwjh rjg viuk ugha ik;haA ftl jkLrs ls os fudy tkuk pkgrh Fkha vkSj--- ,d fnu mUgsa ekSdk Hkh feykA ,d ijns'kh ¼yanu ls½ ,slk Hkh vk;k] tks jeksyk dks fQYeksa esa ns[kdj vkdf"kZr gqvkA og ,d O;kikjh FkkA mlus jeksyk ls feydj vius izes dk btgkj fd;kA jeksyk us ml le; dqN ugha dgk] ijUrq eu gh eu esa QSlyk dj fy;k fd ;fn eq>s ;g fQYe {ks= NksM+uk gh gS rks bl ;qod dh ekax Lohdkj dj ysuh pkfg, vkSj blds lkFk fookg dj ysuk pkfg,A vkSj jeksyk fQYe {ks= dks vyfcnk dj x;ha vkSj O;kikjh ls 'kknh dj yhA

m"kk fdj.k dks fdrus ikiM+ csyus iM+s ukf;dk cuus ds fy, m"kk fdj.k ds eqrkfcd mUgsa ;g xqRFkh vkt rd le> esa ugha vk;h fd vkt ls 60 o"kZ igys lq[koLrq dksd.kLFk czkã.k] ftUgsa yksx izfrf"Br ukxfjd ,oa lektlsod le>rs Fks mUgsa viuh yM+fd;ksa dks u`R; laxhr fl[kkus dh dYiuk dSls vk;h\ ,d deZdkaMh czkã.k viuh csfV;ksa dks u`R; vkSj xkuk&ctkuk 124

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fl[kkus ds fy, dSls rS;kj gq, gksxa \s bruk gh ugha os fQYe tSls cnuke is'ks esa viuh yM+fd;ksa dks dSls Hkstus ds fy, rS;kj gq,] ;g rkTtqc dh ckr gSA m"kk fdj.k ds vfHku; dh 'kq:vkr xkao ds NksVs&eksVs esyksa] vkjdsLVªkvksa vkSj ,dkfd;ksa esa fgLlk ysus ls gqbZA os mUgsa buesa dke djus ds fy, izksRlkgu fn;k djrs FksA blh nkSjku m"kk ds firk ckiw ejkBs dks irk pyk fd izgykn ds'ko v=s dks viuh fdlh fQYe ds fy, ,d NksVh yM+dh dh t:jr FkhA izdk'k ds'ko v=s dksbZ vkSj ugha] vkxs pydj ;gh lTtu vkpk;Z v=s ds uke ls fo[;kr gq,A ckiw ejkBs viuh csVh m"kk dks ysdj LVwfM;ks igqapsA ogka xtkuu tkxhjnkj vkpk;Z v=s dh fQYeksa ds fy, LVkj dkfLVax dk dke fd;k djrs FksA xtkuu tkxhjnkj us ckiw ls dgk fd muds ,d fe= gSAa mUgsa vius u;s ukVd ds fy, ,d NksVh yM+dh dh t:jr gSA vki muls lEidZ dhft,A ckiw ejkBs tkxhjnkj ds dgus ds eqrkfcd m"kk dks ysdj eks-xk- jkax.ksdj ds ;gka igqapsA jkax.ksdj us viuh ^ukVd fudsru* uke dh u;h laLFkk dh 'kq:vkr dh FkhA mudks vius igys gh ukVd ds fy, ,d NksVh&lh ckfydk dh t:jr FkhA gkykafd m"kk dks ukVd ;k flusek esa dke djus dk ;k fdlh vkSj rjg dk [;ky eu esa dHkh gqvk rd ugha Fkk] ysfdu ckiw ds lkeus yM+fd;ksa dh ,d ugha pyrh FkhA [kSj] jkax.ksdj us yM+fd;ksa ls dqN t:jh loky fd;sA mUgksaus iwNk mUgsa xkuk vkrk gS\ vkrk gS rks xkdj lqukvksA m"kk dks ,su oDr ij 'kkUrk vkiVs dk xk;k ,d xhr ;kn vk x;kA mUgksua s ml xkus dks xkdj lquk;kA xkuk ilan vk x;k vkSj m"kk dks pqu fy;k x;k vkSj ukV~; fudsru ds igys ukVd esa ,d Hkwfedk mUgsa fey x;hA ukVd dk uke Fkk ^vk'khokZn*A ;g m"kk dk igyk ukVd FkkA ;g ukVd muds fy, cgqr ydh lkfcr gqvkA bl nkSjku m"kk dk u`R; dk izf'k{k.k tkjh FkkA jkax.ksdj us ^vk'khokZn* ds ckn nwljk ukVd 'kq: fd;kA bl ukVd dk uke ^uanuou* FkkA bl ukVd esa m"kk ds lkFk mudh cM+h cgu dks Hkwfedk nh x;h FkhA mudh cM+h cgu dk uke Fkk m"kkrkbZA m"kk ds u`R; f'k{kd ds'kojko eksjs flusek ds fy, Hkh u`R; is'k


fd;k djrs FksA ,d fnu u`R; f'k{kd ds'kojko eksjs vius dqN fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks ysdj ,d LVwfM;ks igqapsA ogka igqaps rks mUgsa irk pyk fd ;g 'kkarkjketh dk LVwfM;ks gSA MkUl ekLVj us yM+fd;ksa dks bl ckr dh dksbZ tkudkjh ugha nh fd ;g u`R; fdl fQYe ds fy, gSA yM+fd;ksa dks vafre {k.k esa ekywe gqvk fd mUgsa esudk ds ihNs xzqi esa xkuk ukpuk gSA m"kk blh rjg LVst 'kks djrh jghaA blh rjg ds ,d dk;ZØe esa mn;'kadj vk;s gq, FksA mUgsa vius fuekZ.kkèkhu fQYe ^dYiuk* esa xziq MkUl ds fy, dqN yM+fd;ksa dh t:jr FkhA ixkj 500 #i;s izfr ekg FkhA m"kk dks bl fQYe esa dke feykA fQYe iwjh gqbZA fQYe iwjh gksrs gh ejkBs ifjokj dh eqEcbZ esa dkSVfq Ecd gkyr rax gks x;hA enzkl ls tks nks iSls dek dj yk;h Fkhs os [kRe gks x;sA m"kk ds firk ckiw ejkBs ds fnekx esa ^fQYe* dh yyd vc rd ckdh FkhA mUgksaus fQYe cukus ds pDdj esa èku tqVkus dh vksNh gjdr rd dhA mUgksua s Qk;usUljksa dks jkth djus dh [kkfrj viuh nksuksa csfV;ksa dks& m"kk vkSj yhykrkbZ& dks bu Qkbusaljksa ds lkeus ukpus vkSj mUgsa fj>kus rd dh gjdrsa djokbZA bl 'keZukd gjdr ls ukjkt gksdj m"kk dh eka us ckiw dks èkedh nh FkhA ckiw iwjs fnu lqcg&lqcg ?kj ls ckgj x;s vkSj 'kke dks tc ?kj vk;s rks m"kk vkSj yhykrkbZ dk dke iDdk djds gh ykSVAs mUgksua s oh-ih- tosjh uked ejkBh fQYe fuekZrk vkSj ,d xqtjkrh fQYe dh ckr rd djok yhA oh-ih- tosjh us ^ekQk jke* 'kq: fd;k] ftlesa m"kk dks ,d NksVk lk jksy fn;k x;k FkkA mUgksaus m"kk dks viuh xqtjkrh fQYe esa ghjksbu dk pkUl fn;kA ckiw ejkBs us viuh csVh m"kk dks fgUnh fQYeksa esa ykus dh fnykstku ls dksf'k'k dhA m"kk dks fgUnh fQYeksa esa NksVh&eksVh Hkwfedk,a feyrha jghaA LVwfM;ks tkuk] LØhu VsLV nsuk] dHkh NksVk&eksVk dke dj ysuk vkSj vfèkdka'k le; fcuk dke ds ?kj okil ykSV vkuk] ;g mudk :Vhu gks x;kA blh nkSjku ckyk lkgsc ikBd uke ds ,d izksM~;wlj viuh fQYe ^lhrk Lo;aoj* dh Iykfuax dj jgs FksA bl fQYe esa m"kk dks ,d NksVk&lk jksy fn;k x;k blesa mUgksaus nsoorh ds

:i esa dke fd;k FkkA nsoorh ds bl jksy ls izHkkr LVwfM;ks esa ppkZ 'kq: gksus yxh fd eqEcbZ ls ,d [kwclwjr] gksugkj yM+dh vk;h gSA fQj rks m"kk dk uke gj O;fDr dh tqcku ij vkus yxkA

'khyk jekuh % rhu cRrh pkj jkLrk dh cgw vkt dh 'khyk jekuh dks ns[kdj gkykafd dy dh jekuh dh dYiuk ugha dh tk ldrh] fdUrq Njgjs cnu dh bl flaèkh dU;k us vius fy, vPNh fQYesa NBsa n'kd rd nh gSAa 'kkarkjke ds ^rhu cRrh pkj jkLrk* ds Hkkjrh; ifjokj dh ,d cgw vFkok VSDlh Mªkboj dh Dyc Mkalj ;k vatfy dh ckS);qxhu ckyk jekuh us xqyke csxe] ckn'kkg] taxy fdax] lqyrkuk Mkdw] fe- lqijeSu dh okilh tSlh LVaV fQYesa Hkh nh gSa rks tks: dk xqyke] HkkbZ] xq# ?kaVky vkSj QaVw'k tSlh gkL; fQYesa HkhA lqjax] dykdkj] ukSdjh] ?keaM Hkh lkekftd fQYesa Hkh muds uke gSaA nso vkuUn] cyjkt lkguh] fd'kksj dqekj] Hkkjr Hkw"k.k] vthr] eksrhyky] t;jkt] lquhy nRr] psru vkuUn vkSj nythr muds uk;d jgs gSaA

ukfnjk dh ^vku* ^fdlku dU;k*] ^enj bafM;k*] ^vthr* vkSj ^lSjkaèkzh* esa dqN fQYedkjksa us jax Hkjus dh dksf'k'k dh] ysfdu eV~Vh te u ldh vkSj ;s fQYesa cnjax gks xbZaA lsfly ch- fMfey cus egcwc us viuh fQYe esa jax Mkyus dk u;k iz;kl fd;kA gjs&Hkjs [ksr&[kfygku] cgrs >jus] ckny Hkjs vkleku] ufn;ksa ij [kwclwjr iqy] tyk'k;ksa ij ls nkSM+rs gq, ?kksM+s] [ksyksa ds cM+s&cM+s eSnku] egy&nks egy] egyksa dh lkt&lTtk] 'kS;k d{kk] Luku d{k] mM+rs QqgkjsA fQYe dk ^[kkdk* egcwc lkgc ds Lusgh jek'kadj pkSèkjh us [khapk FkkA bl ^eh ds* dks thoUr cukus ds fy, Jh eqjyhèkj vpjsdj ds vykok Hkyk dkSu vPNk fey ldrk FkkA fQYe esa fnyhidqekj] izes ukFk] eqdjh] fuEeh ds vykok eq[; Hkwfedk] jktdqekjh dh Hkwfedk] ds fy, egcwc us viuh gh [kkst ufxZl dks pquk] ysfdu pan dkj.kksa ls ufxZl dke dj u ldhA vc egcwc ds fy, elyk [kM+k gks x;kA egcwc tSls jRu ikj[kh dks vkf[kjdkj ukfnjk feyhA ukfnjk ftldk okLrfod uke Qjgr btdsy gS vkSj os ;gwnh gSAa flusek&2005

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egcwc us Qjgr dks fQYeksa esa dke djus dh is'kd'k dh] D;ksafd fQYe esa iSlk gh iSlk Fkk blfy, mlus dcwy dj fy;k] ysfdu ;g ckr mldh eka dks ilan ugha vk;hA eka us dgk] vjh dkSu usd pyu ;gwnh rq>ls 'kknh djsxk\ vkf[kjdkj dkQh eukus ds ckn eka eku x;hA Qjgr us egcwc ds lkFk dkUVªsDV dj fy;kA gj ekg 1200 #i;sA vkjEHk ds rhu eghus mls flQZ vkfQl esa tkdj cSBus dks feyrs FksA vkf[kjdkj 'kwfVax 'kq: gqbAZ irk pyk fd bu rhu eghuksa dk Qjgr dks osru ugha fn;k x;kA egcwc us vius rY[k rsoj esa isesUV djus ds fy, dgkA Qjgr dks mlh oDr rhu gtkj N% lkS #i;s feysA tc og ?kj x;h rks eka dks ;dhu u vk;k vkSj le>h mlus dgha ls pksjh rks ugha dhA ;g ml fQYe ds fy, gks jgk Fkk tks Hkkjrh; flusek dk bfrgkl x<+us tk jgh FkhA Hkkjr dh igyh dke;kc jaxhu fQYe ^vku*A ;g fQYe 16 ,e,e ds QkeZV ij fpf=r dh x;h FkhA mls èkksus vkSj 35 fefe- ij Oyks vi djus ds fy, yanu ds VsDuhdyj ySc Hkstk x;kA ^vku* cudj rS;kj gks x;hA yanu dks ^fj;kyVks* flusek oYMZ izhfe;j ds fy, lqlfTtr fd;k x;kA 18 tqykbZ 1952] 'kgj yanu] LFkku fj;kyVks fFk;sVjA ^vku* dk izhfe;j D;k gqvk Hkkjrh; fQYeksa dks nqfu;k ds vU; ns'kksa esa izn'kZukFkZ [kqyk dj fn;k x;kA fQYe ds izhfe;j ds oDr yanu okfl;ksa dks igyh ckj irk pyk fd ^vku* dh ukf;dk fuEeh ds vksaB vkt rd oftZu fyIl gSa] ;kus mldk fdlh us dHkh Hkh pqEcu ugha fy;k gSA yanu izhfe;j ds Bhd nks g¶rs ckn ;kuh 1 vxLr] 1952 dks eqEcbZ ds izkbM vkQ fn us'ku fycVhZ flusek gky esa bl fQYe dk izn'kZu fd;k x;kA fQYe ^Jh 420* esa eqM+ eqM+dj u ns[k mudks ns[kdj n'kZu vkokt yxkrs FksA

jbZlh rfc;r ds Fks eksrhyky jktoa'kh eksrhyky dk tUe 1910 esa ,d Ldwy bULisDVj jktoa'kh th ds ?kj gqvkA firkth ds nsgkUr ds le; os nks o"kZ ds FksA mudh ns[kHkky muds dkdk th us dhA mUgksaus mUgsa fnYyh i<+us HkstkA ogka ls mUgksaus ch-,- dh fMxzh yhA fnYyh ls eqEcbZ usoh esa lk{kkRdkj ds fy, vk;s Fks ysfdu vdLekr chekj gks x;s vkSj okil ugha tk ldsA 126

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fQj ,d fnu ,d nksLr ds lkFk LVwfM;ks esa x;sA ogka ,d peRdkj tSlk gh gqvkA muds O;fDrRo dk peRdkj Fkk ;gA mUgsa QkSju uk;d cuk fn;kA fnXn'kZd Fks ds-ih- ?kks"kA ds-lhMs- dk laxhr Fkk vkSj vfHku; Hkh mUgksaus fd;k FkkA fQYe dk uke Fkk ^'kgj dk tknw*A lfork nsoh mudh ukf;dk FkhaA mUgsa tksj ls pkaVk ekjus ds fy, dgk x;k rks os fryfeyk x;haA nwljs fnu fQj ukf;dk dk uEcj vk;kA os yxkrkj fjVsd djrh x;ha vkSj pkaVs ekjrh x;haA eksrhyky dks ukuh ;kn vk x;hA mudh ,d fQYe ^nks nhokus* esa 'kksHkuk leFkZ ukf;dk FkhaA fnXn'kZd lh,e- yqgkus FksA mUgsa ukf;dk dks dldj idM+us dk vkns'k fn;k x;kA mUgsa ekywe Fkk fd ;gh ukf;dk muds thou esa vkus okyh gSA mUgksaus brus tksj ls dej idM+h fd 'kksHkuk leFkZ csgks'k gks x;haA MkWDVj cqykuk iM+kA os xHkZorh FkhaA fQj uwru dk tUe gqvkA ^lkou* esa 'kkUrk vkiVs mudh ukf;dk FkhaA ^izfrKk* esa ehuk dqekjh mudh csVh cuh FkhaA os gj j{kkcUèku ij mudh ryk'k djrha vkSj jk[kh ckaèkrh FkhA eksrhyky viuh eka ds lkFk 138 okYds'oj ij Åij ds caxys esa jgrs FksA mudk fookg in~ek uke dh lqUnj jbZl ?kjkus dh MkDVj yM+dh ls gqvk FkkA os viuh Dyhfud [kksyuk pkgrh FkhaA ;g eksrh ckcw dks ilUn ugha FkkA blfy, lkFk jgrs gq, Hkh mudh ckrphr cUn FkhA eksrhckcw gjQuekSyk vfHkusrk FksA iSls dks gkFk dk eSy le>rs FksA jsl esa ,d gh fnu esa yk[kksa gkjrs vkSj ?kj vkdj cM+h ikVhZ nsdj [kqf'k;ka eukdj 'kk;n xe xyr djrsA mUgksaus vius ppsjs HkkbZ eqd's k dks eqEcbZ cqyk;k vkSj LFkkfir fd;k vkSj eqds'k dh euilan xqtjkrh yM+dh dk dU;knku fd;kA 'kksHkuk leFkZ mudh lafxuh cuh 'kksHkuk leFkZ vafre le; rd muds lkFk gh jgrh Fkha ysfdu nksuksa dh viuh xkfM+;ka vius Mªkboj vkSj vius&vius ?kj FksA 'kksHkuk th dgrh Fkha fd eksrh dks pkgus okyksa dh deh ugha FkhA fQj Hkh gekjh fe=rk FkhA gekjk izse FkkA fcuk 'kknh ds gh ,d nwljs ls tks pkfg, fey jgk Fkk rks ge 'kknh D;ksa djrsA mudh vknrsa os tkurh FkhaA bruk ihrs vkSj >xM+rs fd os xqLls esa dbZ fnu 'kso ugha djrsA le>kSrk gksrk rc 'kso djrsA


geus uwru dks fLoV~tjySaM Hkstk rc ?kj esa cM+h xkfM+;ka [kM+h Fkha] ysfdu isVkª ys dk iSlk ugha FkkA dbZ ckj mUgksua s enn dh vkSj uwru dks vfHku; mUgksua s gh fl[kk;k& 'kksHkuk th ;kn djrh FkhaA jbZl fetkt ds eksrh ckcw Iykbax Dyc ds lnL; FksA [kqn gsyhdkIVj pykrs FksA ukfnjk us vius ?kj esa eksrh ckcw dh lqUnj rLohj yxk j[kh FkhA ;g rLohj ruqtk dks cgqr ilUn vk;h vkSj mUgksaus rLohj mls ns nhA fØdsV Hkh mUgsa ilan FkkA os dbZ pSfjVh [ksyksa esa dSIVu jgs vkSj thrs Hkh& t;jktth crkrs FksA ujfxl ds lkFk Hkh uk;d ,d fnu ,d Ldwy dh Mªsl esa cPph ?kj vk x;h rks eka us iwNk] ^^;g dkSu gS\** eksrh us dgk] ^^eka] ;g Hkh esjh fgjksbu gS D;k d:a\** fQYe Fkh ^rdnhj*A daèks rd ujfxl ugha igqaph FkhA yo lhu djuk FkkA ujfxl us dgk] ^^eSa czk Bhd dj jgh gwa uA** eksrh HkS;k dk ewM vkQ gks x;kA ml fnu 'kwfVax ugha dj ldsA ^;g jkLrs gSa I;kj ds* ¼1963½ esa v'kksddqekj eksrhyky ds lkFk FksA v'kksddqekj dks rks laokn ?kj igqapkus gksrs FksA eksrhyky rks ogha i<+dj 15 feuV esa rS;kj gks tkrsA bruh mudh Lej.k 'kfDr FkhA pUnzeksgu mUgsa viuk csVk ekurs FksA tc dHkh pUnzeksgu dh vkfFkZd lgk;rk djus dh is'kd'k djrs rks os dgrs] ^^vc csVs dks [kkÅ¡xk D;k\** var esa mUgksua s viuh ^NksVh&NksVh ckrsa* uke dh fQYe cuk;hA blesa ukfnjk eq[; Hkwfedk esa FkhaA 17 twu] 1965 dks eksrh ckcw dks rhljk gkVZ vVSd vk;k vkSj ftl 'kku ls os ft;s mlh 'kku ls chpdsUMh vLirky esa ls LoxZ flèkkj x;sA

fp=;k=k 1934&'kgj dk tknw] 35&eèkqfjdk&flYoj fdax 1925&yXu cUèku] 36&tkxhjnkj&dqyoèkw] 1937&gerqe vkSj og]38&lp gS] 39&vNwr nhokyh&gksyh] 1940] ijns'kh&'kknh] 41&vjeku bdjkj] 1942 rdnhj&rLohj] 43 nksLr&dfy;ka eqtfje] 44 ewfrZ&igyh utj&lkou] 45 chrs fnu nks fny] 47 xtjs&esjk eqUuk] 44&ifjorZu&1949% gekjh csVh&ljrkt] 50% csrkc&dkfQyk] 50%lEir 52% èkqvk&[kq'kcw] 54&nsonkl] 55% tkxrs jgks&caèku&vc fnYyh nwj ugha] 57% nks eLrkus

vukM+h&iSxke&eqfDr&ij[k&tehu ds rkjs ;g jkLrs gSa I;kj ds] 63 yhMj&NksVh NksVh ckrsa] 65%oDr&;s ftUnxh fdruh glhu gSA

chuk jk; ds fy, 13 vad 'kqHk jgk chuk jk; dk tUe 13 tqykbZ] 1932 dks gqvk Fkk vkSj rc ls muds thou dh vusd ?kVuk,a tUe fnu ij gh gqbZ gSaA izFke fQYe dk dkaVsªDV Hkh 13 tqykbZ] 1950 dks feyk FkkA mudh igyh fQYe muds vxys tUe fnu ij fudyh FkhA nqckjk fQj 1952 esa tUe fnu ij gh Hkkjrh; fp=iV ds izfl) ghjks izseukFk ds lkFk mudh eaxuh gqbZA 1950 ds izksM~;wlj MkbjsDVj fd'kksj lkgw us fQYe bafM;k esa ^dkyh ?kVk* fp= esa ghjksbu dk ikVZ djus fy, i<+h&fy[kh lqlaLd`r yM+dh ds fy, foKkiu fn;k FkkA lSdM+ksa us bl foKkiu dk mRrj fn;k vkSj mu vusdksa esa ls dqN yM+fd;ksa ds lkFk chuk jk; us fd'kksj lkgw dks izHkkfor fd;k vkSj ^dkyh ?kVk* esa izeq[k L=h pfj= mUgha dks fn;k x;kA ykgkSj ds ,d eè;e oxhZ; ifjokj esa tUeh d`".kk ¼chuk dk okLrfod uke ;gh gS½ dks cpiu ls gh fQYeksa dh vksj fo'ks"k #fp FkhA if'peh jsyos ds ,d vfèkdkjh muds firk feLVj ljhu us yfyr dykvksa ds izfr muds vkd"kZ.k dks c<+kok fn;k vkSj mUgksua s laxhr vkSj u`R; dh f'k{kk izkIr dj yhA mudh izkFkfed i<+kbZ ykgkSj esa gqbZ] ogka ls eSfVªdqys'ku ikl djus ds ckn y[kuÅ esa blkcsyk FkkscuZ dkyst esa mudk uke fy[kk x;kA fQYe esa muds lfEefyr gksus ds iz;Ruksa ls muds ekrk&firk vufHkK FksA bl dkj.k ^dkyh ?kVk* esa ^ghjksbu dk ikVZ [ksyus ds fy, muds pquko ls mUgsa Hkkjh >Vdk yxkA bl fopkj dk tksjnkj 'kCnksa esa mUgksua s fojksèk fd;k] ij Hkw[k gM+rky djus dh d`".kk us èkedh nhA mldh fopkjèkkjk ls lger gksus ;ksX; mu ij ncko Mky fn;kA ^dkyh ?kVk* ds fjyht gksus ds lkFk gh lkFk d`".kk ljhu vius vkd"kZd vfHku; ds dkj.k chuk jk; ds :i esa LVkj cu x;haA bl izdkj og mu FkksMs+ ls HkkX;'kkfy;ksa esa ls gS]a tks thou ds vko';d la?k"kks± vkSj ukmEehnksa ds fcuk gh LVkjksa dh nqfu;k esa mB x;haA mudh lQyrk ds lkeus ekrk&firk dk fojksèk Hkh BaMk iM+ x;kA ^liuk*] ^laxe*] ^vkSjr* vkSj ^vukjdyh* esa mUgsa izeq[k pfj= fn;s x;s gSa vkSj QyLo:i mUgsa [ksyksa esa flusek&2005

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vfèkdkjiw.kZ fu;a=.k izkIr gks x;kA oekZ ds ^vkSjr* ds lsV ij gh chuk vkSj ml fQYe ds ghjks izseukFk dk vkil esa ,d nwljs ds izfr izse gks x;k vkSj muds jksekal dk var 13 tqykbZ] 1952 dks mudh eaxuh esa gqvkA 2 flrEcj dks mudh 'kknh fQYeh nqfu;k dh ,d vfiz; ?kM+h lkfcr gqbZA izes ukFk tSls foy{k.k O;fDr dks mUgksua s dSls laHkkyk ;g Hkh ,d foMEcuk gS tks dHkh fQYe LVkj ls 'kknh ugha djuk pkgrs FksA ^vukj dyh* esa tc chuk nhokj esa pquh tk jgh Fkh rks n'kZd jks iM+s FksA

jsgkuk vkbZ fVdV f[kM+dh can jsgkuk vatqeu pkSèkjhA y[kuÅ esa eqjknkcknh pkanh dk dke djus okys firk dh e'kgwj edcwy vius tekus dh rkSck&rkSck glhuk vnkdkj jsgkukA ;knksa ds dkfQys] ml 'kks[k 'kjhj jDdklk ij] chrs gq, lkyksa dk reke bartkj fulkj dj nsrs vkSj mlds ckjs esa nkLrkus nksgjk&nksgjk dj vius tgu dh rktxh ls yckyc dj nsrsA vaxM+kb;ksa esa ygjksa dk rwQku] vnkvksa esa dRy djus dk lkeku vkSj xqejkg dj nsus dh nkor nsrh gqbZ eqLdjkgV jsgkuk dks jsgkuk cukus ds fy, dkQh FkhA mlds ukpus ds Qu dks lgh rkyhe vkSj jguqekbZ ds fy, lgh mLrkn dk cUnkscLr fd;k x;kA dRFkd xq# 'kaHkw egkjkt jsgkuk ds mLrkn r; fd, x, vkSj vc jsgkuk ds Qu dks iyus dk csgrjhu ekSdk fn;k x;kA 'kaHkw egkjkt ds 'kkfxnksZa esa fQYeksa ds e'kgwj vnkdkjk dTtu Hkh FkhaA dTtu dk y[kuÅ esa ukp ?kj FkkA jsgkuk dh iqjdf'k'k 'kf[l;r vkSj ukpus dh lykfg;r dh egd T;knk fnu dTtu dh fuxkgksa ls u fNi ldhA urhtk ;g gqvk fd dTtu] j¶rk j¶rk jsgkuk ds Qu dh rjQ f[kaph pyh x;hA ,d fnu ns'k&fons'k esa nkSjs djus okyh dTtu us jsgkuk dks vius lkFk 'kkfey dj fy;k vkSj vius dk;ZØeksa dh èkwe epk nhA dTtu us jsgkuk dh 'kf[l;r dks laokjus vkSj lgh m:t gkfly djus esa cM+h enn dhA jsgkuk tc eap ij mrjh rks ns[kus okyksa dks vius ftLe dh ygjksa esa yisVk fd;k] eqLdjkgV vkSj vaxM+kb;ksa ls ckaèk fy;k 128

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vkSj tc eap ls ckgj pyh x;h] n'kZdksa us dqflZ;ksa ls mB&mB dj mls okil cqykus dh Qjekb'ksa dha] ftldk urhtk jsgkuk dk eap ij nksckjk ykSV vkuk r; gqvkA jsgkuk dh pqHkrh gqbZ vnkvksa ls eqrkflj gksus okyksa esa e'kgwj fQYe funs'Z kd tukc ohjsUnz nslkbZ Hkh FksA nslkbZ us 1943 esa viuh fQYe ^vknkc vtZ* esa jsgkuk dks NksVk&lk jksy fn;kA ^vknkc vtZ* ds ckn fQYe rnchj ¼lqjS;k lgxy½ esa jsgkuk us Hkwfedk dhA bl fQYe esa jsgkuk yksxksa dh ilan esa 'kkfey gks x;hA fQYe ^'kgukbZ* us jsgkuk dh fQYeh ftUnxh esa tks 'kgukb;ksa ds lqj NsM+s] rks cjlksa rd lqukbZ nsrs jgsA ys[kd] xhrdkj vkSj funsZ'kd I;kjsyky larks"kh us jsgkuk ds Qu dks Hkkjr ds dksu&s dksus esa igqpa k fn;kA jsgkuk ds gqLu vkSj dkcfy;r ds mtkys] vxj ehyksa ds Qklys r; dj ldrs Fks] rks utnhd jgus okys Hkyk dSls muls cp ldrs Fks\ jsgkuk ds ml tknw esa lcls T;knk Mwc tkus okys [kqn ih-,y- pkSèkjh lkgc gh lkfcr gks x,A ^'kgukbZ* ds laxhr ¼lh- jkepUnz½ dk fQYe dh dke;kch esa cM+k fgLlk jgkA 1949 esa txr fiDplZ dh fQYe ^lqugjs fnu* esa jsgkuk us fuxkj vkSj :idey ds lkFk ,d u;k gaxkek cjik fd;k vkSj 1950 esa fQfYeLrku dh ^ljxe* esa jktdiwj vkSj jsgkuk dh tksMh+ us laxhr] ukp vkSj vnkdkjh ds tks tyos yqVk;s mudk c;ku djuk eqf'dy gSA 1948 esa ^f[kM+dh* fQYe us flusek ?kjksa dh f[kM+fd;ksa ij ^gkmlQqy* ds cksMZ yxok fn;sA larks"kh lkgc vkSj jsgkuk dk ;g ,d vkSj feyktqyk tknw FkkA fQYe ds uk;d Fks tokgj dkSy tks ckn esa ^e`x;k* ds uk;d feFkqu pØorhZ ds lfpo cus vkSj fQj dHkh uk;d ugha cusA n'kZdksa dk flusek?kjksa dh dqflZ;ksa ls mNy dj jsgkuk dh vnkvksa dks Nwus dh dksf'k'k djus ls jsgkuk ds iqjkus eap okys gknlksa dks nksgjk fn;k FkkA 1950 esa gh vfuy fo'okl dh èkquksa ij ukprh epyrh fQYe vk;h Fkh ^yktokc*A jsgkuk ds lkFk lksgu uk;d Fks] ysfdu ges'kk dh rjg fQYe dh dke;kch jsgkuk ds ne[ke dh [kq'kken djrh fn[kk;h nhA ';ke ds lkFk ^lwjteq[kh* vk;hA ';ke vkSj jsgkuk dh tksMh+ dks ilan fd;k x;k] ysfdu bl tksMh+ dks nksgjk, tkus dh ukScr gh u vk ldhA 1951 esa ,d ckj fQj lh- jkepUnz ds uxeksa ls xwta rh


jsgkuk vkSj ukflj [kku dh fQYe ^lkSnkxj* vk;hA r; djuk eqf'dy gks x;k fd rkjhQ esa lh- jkepUnz ds uxeksa dks vOoy njts ij j[kk tk; fd jsgkuk ds csfelky Qu dh rkjhQ dh tk;sA larks"kh lkgc] jsgkuk vkSj lh- jkepUnz dke;kch dh tekur ekus tkus yxs FksA mudh fQYeksa dh yxkrkj dke;kch us ns[kus okyksa ls ilan ds nLrs rS;kj djok fy, FksA ,sls esa ^f'ku&f'kuk dh cwcdk cw* ds is'k gksus ls dqN vkSj xqy f[kyk fn,A jatu ds lkFk jsgkuk dk csckd is'k gksuk] ,d u;k rtqckZ gh FkkA ^rqe D;k tkuks rqEgkjh ;kn esa ge fdruk jks,* okys ,d uxes ds fy;s yrk th dh rkjhQ Hkh dh tkuh pkfg,A jsgkuk vkSj larks"kh dh nksLrh us [kqydj eqgCcr dk :i vf[r;kj dj fy;kA 1953 esa gtkj jkrsa ¼eugj nslkbZ½ vkSj 1957 esa egfQy ¼nythr½ fQYesa vk;ha] ysfdu vpkud jsgkuk us fQYeksa ls fdukjk dj fy;kA ckUnjk ds ^foyk jsgkuk* esa jgus okyh bl vnkdkjk us ikfdLrku esa Msjk tk clk;kA gj eqgjZe dks eqEcbZ ls y[kuÅ tkus okyh bl glhuk us ges'kk ds fy, fgUnqLrku dh teha ls #[lr ys yhA lquk gS og dHkh&dHkh eqEcbZ vkrh FkhaA lUrks"kh ifjokj ls eqykdkr djrh Fkha] larks"k lkgc dh ;knksa dks lesVs ykSV tkrh FkhA larks"kh lkgc rc Hkh mudk Lokxr djrs FksA ekykM esa vius fe= vkVZ MkbjsDVj pksjfM;k th ds ?kj BgjkrsA dbZ ckj eq>s Hkh muds nhnkj dk volj feykA nksuksa dks ,d nwljs ls dksbZ f'kdk;r ugha FkhA tSls dqN gqvk gh ugha gSA ,d nwljs dk lEeku djrs FksA lUrks"kh th dsoy ?kj okyksa dks fo?u u gks blfy, nwj j[krs FksA ;FkklaHko vius vkfFkZd ladV esa Hkh mUgsa lg;ksx nsrAs tks muls curk djrs FksA u f'kdok u fxyk gS] lyker jgs rw] esjh ;g nqvk gSA esjs iz'u ds mRrj esa larks"kh th us jsgkuk dh rjQ b'kkjk djrs cl bruk gh dgkA dkjnkj fe;ka tc eqEcbZ vk;s rks eqEcbZ ds gks x;s fljkt vyh gdhe ds cSuj tujy fiDplZ esa 1938 esa cuh fQYe ^ckxoku* eYVh LVkjj fQYe FkhA bl fQYe esa vius tekus ds rhu izfl) ghjks ukUnzsdj] uthj vkSj fj;klr vyh [kku FksA lkFk gh foeyk dqekjh] ;kdwc] flrkjk nsoh] ds-

,u- flag] vljQ [kku vkSj jke vorkj Hkh FksA eqEcbZ esa fe;ka dkjnkj dh funsZ'ku okyh igyh fQYe FkhA ukUnzsdj dh Hkh iq.ks ds izHkkr ls ,xzhesaV dh fe;kn [kRe gksus ij izHkkr ds ckgj dh igyh fQYe FkhA ukUnzsdj egkjk"Vª ds dksYgkiqj 'kgj ds [kwclwjr [kq'kfetkt] feyulkj ilZukfyVh ds ekfyd FksA mudk vlyh uke ;wlqQ FkkA mUgsa vius jkScnkj ilZukfyVh ds dkj.k ejkBh vkSj fgUnh fQYesa feyrh x;haA 'ks[k Qrsgyky nkeys dh fQYe ^egkjFkh d.kZ* ¼1927 % ewd fQYe½ esa ukUnzsdj dh Hkwfedk iafMr dsnkj 'kekZ us ykgkSj esa ns[kk Fkk vkSj ml oDr ls gh ukUnzsdj dh eueksfguh Nfo muds fnyksfnekx esa ?kj dj x;h FkhA dsnkj 'kekZ dks dydRrk esa lu~ 1941 esa ^fp=ys[kk* fQYe dks funsZf'kr djus dk ekSdk feykA 'kekZ us ^fp=ys[kk* ds ,d vge fdjnkj fot; xqIr ds fy, ukUnzd s j dks fy;k Fkk vkSj mUgsa ckck lkgc dk fdjnkj fn;k FkkA fe;ka dkjnkj rks ekuks izHkkr ds 'kkgw eksMd] mYgkl vkfn uk;dksa ds nhokus cu x;s FksA ^izHkkr* ls ckgj vkrs gh dkjnkj us viuh laLFkk esa cqyk fy;kA 'kkjnk] dkuwu] xhr] latksx tSlh fQYeksa esa mUgsa ghjks dh gSfl;r ls pedk;kA ;s pkjksa fQYesa ckDl vkfQl ij fgV lkfcr gqb±A jkejkT; vkSj ^'kstkjh* tSlh fQYeksa ds 'kksgjr ;k¶rk pand z kUr dks dkjnkj lkgc us viuh cuus okyh fQYe ^laU;klh* esa mUgsa vge Hkwfedk nh] ysfdu f}rh; fo'o ;q) ds nkSjku ;g vQokg QSyh fd eqEcbZ 'kgj ij teZu ceckjh djus okys gSaA blfy, pUnzdkUr ^laU;klh* esa fn;k x;k fdjnkj fuHkk;s fcuk dksYgkiqj pys x;s vkSj bl rjg os fgUnh fQYeksa esa dke djus dk ekSdk xaok cSBsA ;g Hkwfedk ';ke dqekj dks feyhA ';ke dqekj dk okLrfod uke lS;n vyh FkkA ekLVj fouk;d dh ,d ejkBh fQYe ^yXu igkos d:u* ¼1946½ dks eqEcbZ esa fQYe 'kkSdhuksa us lj vka[kksa ij mBk fy;k] fQYe ejkBh esa Fkh] ysfdu xqtjkrh] ikjlh] iatkch yksxksa esa Hkh ;g [kwc yksdfiz; gqbZA dkjnkj fe;ka us ;g fQYe ns[khA mUgksaus bl fQYe dk dkihjkbV izkIr dj vius fy;s iatkch Hkk"kk esa ,d fQYe cuk;hA bl fQYe dk uke Fkk ^dqMekbZ* ¼1941½] ts-ds- uUnk us bldk Mk;jsD'ku fn;k FkkA flusek&2005

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blesa fj;klr vyh okLrh us vge Hkwfedk fuHkk;h FkhA iatkc izkfs oUl esa ;g fQYe cM+h gh dke;kch ds lkFk pyhA blh dgkuh dks ysdj fe;ka dkjnkj us ^cjkrh* uke ls fganh esa fQYe cuk;hA bldh Mk;jsD'ku Hkh ts-ds- uUnk us gh fn;k FkkA bl fQYe esa vkxk tkuh vkSj vkseizdk'k tSls ekus gq, vnkdkjksa us Hkwfedk fuHkk;h FkhA dkjnkj us ejkBh fQYesa ^isa<xkao ps 'kgk.ks* vkSj ^ckyk tks tks js* dh vkbfM;k ij ^pkpk pkSèkjh* vkSj ^thou T;ksfr* vkfn fQYesa cuk;haA ,slk Fkk dkjnkj dh ejkBh fQYeksa vkSj ejkBh dykdkjksa ls izes A

dgka ls dgka dSls igqaps cyjkt lkguh cyjkt lkguh dk tUe 1913 esa jkoyfiaMh esa gqvkA muds firk dV~Vj vk;Zlekth FksA ukVd flusek ,dne oftZr FkkA Mh-,-ch- dkyst dh i<+kbZ vkSj ykgkSj esa lkfgR; esa ,e-,- rFkk ukVdksa esa L=h ik= dk vfHku; djus okyh ne;Urh ls fookg gqvkA fQj dydRrk pys x;s iRuh ds lkFkA firkth dks tc ekywe gqvk fd dksbZ dke ugha fey jgk gS rks 100 #i;s dk euhvkMZj Hkstk vkSj QkSju ?kj vkus dk vkns'k fn;kA fy[kk fd nsj djksxs rks eSa Lo;a vk tkÅaxkA D;k djrs\ ysfdu cyjkt us rkj ds tokc esa rkj ns fn;kA VSxksj 'kkfUr fudsru esa ukSdjh fey x;h gS vkSj iwtk dh NqfV~V;ksa esa ?kj vkÅaxkA nksuksa 'kkafr fudsru igqap x;sA ukSdjh feyuk rks laHko ugha Fkk fQj Hkh os laLFkkid dks le>k jgs Fks fd mUgksaus firkth dks bl rjg dk rkj ns fn;k gSA gesa dsoy dqN fnu Bgjus fn;k tk;sA [kpZ ds fy, gekjs ikl 100 #i;s gSaA ij brus esa VSxksj lkgc Lo;a viuh ikS=h ds lkFk vk;s vkSj mUgksua s ckrsa lquhaA mUgksua s cyjkt ls dgk] ^?kcjkvks ugha] ;gka jgks vkSj ukSdjh Hkh fey x;h le>ksA ;qod rqe eq>ls vfèkd èkuoku gks esjs ikl rks 100 #i;s Hkh ughaA ;g ckr Fkh 1937 dh vkSj ,sls Fks xq#nso VSxksjA fQj jkex<+ dkaxzsl vfèkos'ku esa mUgsa fjiksVZ rS;kj djus dk volj feykA oèkkZ esa xkaèkh th ds lkfUuè; dk Hkh volj feykA ,d fnu oèkkZ esa gh ch-ch-lh- esa fganh ,ukmUlj dk dke fey x;kA xkaèkh th ls vkKk ysdj cyjkt naifRr baXySaM mMsA+ ckr Fkh 1940 ebZ dhA fQj 1944 esa Hkkjr okil vk;sA 130

flusek&2005

1947 esa thou lafxuh py clhA psru vkuUn dh ^ckth* esa ys[ku dk;Z fd;kA fQj 5 ekg dh ltk ,d tqylw esa Hkkx ysus ds fy, HkksxhA fQj mudk HkkX;ksn; ^ckth* vkSj ^ge yksx* ls 'kq: gks x;kA fQj rks ^jkgh*] ^caèku*] ^cktwcan*] ^vkSykn* vkSj ^nks ch?kk tehu* us rks dgka ls dgka igqapk fn;k mUgsaA 13 vizSy dks mudk fuèku gks x;kA dqN fQYesa % iq= ijhf{kr lkguh fQYeksa ls tqM+s gSaA HkkbZ HkhLe lkguh lkfgR; esa izfl) uke FkkA pfpZr fQYesa % èkjrh ds yky 1946]ge yksd&1951] nks ch?kk tehu&1953] ghjk eksrh&1959] dkcqyh okyk&1961] vui<+] vdsyk] gdhdr&1963] vkljk] gejkt] ,d Qwy nks ekyh] ge ,d gSa] ryk'k&1975A

dye ds flikgh fo".kq esgjks=k igyh fQYe izHkkr dh ^ek;k efPNUnz* Vwfjax Vkdht ds VsVa ds flusek esa Q'kZ ij cSBdj ns[kh FkhA mlh ?kM+h ls vutkuh dkeuk fQYesa ns[kus vkSj fQYeksa esa izos'k dh vadqfjr gks mBhA ,d fnu esa rhu 'kks ns[kdj ;g reUuk gks x;h fd eSa Hkh ftUnxh dk lQj :igys ijns rd igqapdj gh iwjk d:axkA fQj D;k FkkA 1943 esa liuksa dk vjeku iwjk djus ds fy, egkuxjh eqEcbZ esa igqap x;sA dfo xhrdkj ljLorhdqekj nhid ls laidZ gqvkA fQj LVwfM;ks ds pDdj yxk;sA ,d fnu ,DVj cuus dk vjeku Hkh iwjk gqvkA eqerkt 'kkafr ds lkFk ,d Mk;ykx cksyus dk volj feyk] fQYe Fkh ^ysMh Mk;jsDVj*A oyh lkgsc Mk;jsDVj FksA fQj dye idM+dj ,DLVªk cu x;sA nhid th dks ;g dke ilUn ugha vk;kA mUgksaus le>k;k fd dye dh etwjh djks vkSj mUgksaus Mk;jsDVj èkh: HkkbZ ds uke ,d flQkfj'kh i= fn;k vkSj mUgsa ^lkr leUnj dh efydk* fQYe esa ys[ku dk;Z fey x;kA lkFk gh lkbM ghjks ds vfHku; dk volj Hkh feykA mudh dEiuh dk uke Fkk fo".kq flusVksuA fe=ksa vkSj Lotuksa us le>k fd eqEcbZ igqap dj [kqn dk LVwfM;ks Hkh [kksy fy;kA ;g Fkk uke dk peRdkjA fQj xkM+h iVjh ij vk x;h ^jkejkT;* ds uke ls izfl) dEiuh izdk'k fiDplZ esa ^cky;ksxh* fy[kus dks fey x;hA nsosUnz xks;y dh ^ujlh HkDr* feyhA fQj rks èkkfeZd vkSj ikSjkf.kd fQYe ds [;kfrizkIr ys[kd gks x;s fo".kq thA jkekuUn lkxj ds èkkjkokfgd ^jkek;.k* esa Hkh


mUgsa volj fey x;kA ;gh ugha nf{k.k ds ,u-Vh- jkekjko th us mUgsa ^czãf"kZ fo'okfe=* ds laokn fy[kus ds fy, cqyk;kA ;g muds fy, cM+s xkSjo dh ckr FkhA 70 fQYesa fy[kus ds ckn os izfl) ys[kd iafMr eq[kjke 'kekZ ds lg;ksxh Hkh gksdj jgsA fo".kq th fQYe jkbVlZ ,lksfl,'ku ls vkthou lfØ; jgsA 1947 esa ,lksfl,'ku dk vkfQl dej tykykcknh ds FkSys esa yVdk jgrk FkkA rc ls fo".kq th lfØ; dk;ZdrkZ gSa vkSj vkt ,lksfl,'ku dk 'kkunkj vkfQl gSA mUgsa ys[kuh ds èkuh egkjfFk;ksa dk lg;ksx feykA lHkh jk;Vj ,lksfl,'ku ds lnL; jgs gSaA muesa izeq[k Fks& MkW- lQnj vOckl lkgc] ,l-,uf=ikBh th] iafMr iznhi] cztsUnz xkSM+] MkW- jkgh eklwe jtk] bUnhoj vkfnA vkt Hkh os iw.kZ :i ls lefiZr gSa vkSj mikè;{k ds in ij vklhu gSa vkSj fQYe dh etwjh Hkh py jgh gSA oghnk jgeku xq#nRr dh xqykcks ^I;klk* esa xqykcks ,d vke ftLe cspus okyh cktk: vkSjr FkhA tc oghnk us xqykcks dks viuh gLrh dh igpku nh vkSj xqykcks dh Hkwfedk dh] genfnZ;ksa ds gkj iguok,A blls lkQ tkfgj gks x;k fd vnkdkjh dh lw>cw> vkSj vnkvksa dh lkyfg;r gh fdjnkj] ;kus Hkwfedk dks dke;kch dh jkg ij ys tk ldrh gSA oghnk ds <ads gq, ftLe us] mls xqykcks cuus ls ugha jksdkA ml fglkc ls fyckl esa lLrkiu vkSj cktk:iu Hkwfedk dh igpku rks gks ldrh gS] t:jr ughaA ^lLrs fyckl] vxj dke;kch dh lh<+h cu ldrs] rks ,slh dbZ vnkdkjk,a Fkha tks egt Qu dh ukdke;kch dh otg ls ghjksbu ugha cu ik;haA viuk ftLe fn[kkdj gels Hkh vkxs tk ldrh FkhaA ^,d Qwy pkj dkaVs* esa eqds'k ds xk, xhr] ^erokyh ukj Bqed&Bqed pyh tk;* ij tks ukp oghnk us is'k fd;k mlds ckjs esa mls csfelky gh dgk tk ldrk gS] D;ksafd ukp esa lathnkiu vkSj ckadiu is'k djuk gj cM+h urZdh dh [kwch ugha cu ldrhA blds vykok ^rhljh dle*] ^:i dh jkuh pksjksa dk jktk*] ^xkbM*] ^eq>s thus nks*] ^èkjrh*] ^Qkxqu* oxSjg tSlh xbZ fQYesa oghnk dh vnkdkjh vkSj ukpus ds Qu dh felkysa cu x;h FkhaA ^[kkeks'kh* dh ulZ jkèkk cq>rs nh;ksa dh jks'kuh nsuk QtZ le>rh FkhA rks ^chl lky ckn* okyh uV[kV jkèkk us eqgCcr

ds vkxs fj'rksa ds [kks[kysiu vkSj bUlkfu;r ds <ksax ij djkjh pksV dh FkhA nksuksa Hkwfedk,a ,d nwljs ls fcydqy tqnk Fkha] ysfdu nksuksa dh dke;kch us oghnk ds Qu ds nk;jksa dks tks 'kksgjr nh Fkh] og dkfcys rkjhQ FkhA ?kqa?k#vksa dks rjlrs jksth ds ukprs ikaoksa us tc [kqn dks 'kkSgj ds fiatjsuqek ?kj ls vktkn dj fy;k rks jksth ds ikao tehu ij ugha] vkdk'k ds lhus is fFkjdus yxs FksA ^xkbM* dh jksth dks oghnk ds cxSj 'kk;n oks iw.kZrk u fey ikrhA ^pkSngoha dk pkan* dh tehyk us lpeqp pkSngoha ds pkan dks eqdkcys esa f'kdLr nh FkhA 'kkSgj dks egcwc dh rjg I;kj djus okyh tehyk dks Hkh cnys&cnys esjs ljdkj utj vkrs gSa dgdj f'kdos fxyksa ls ukrk tksMu+ s dh t:jr vk iM+h FkhA viuh fQYeh ftUnxh dks ftl gqLu vkSj lathnxh Hkjh lknxh ls clj fd;k mldh felky fey ikuk 'kk;n vkus okys dbZ cjlksa esa eqefdu u gks ik,A dkxt ds Qwy lkfgc choh vkSj xqyke] rhljh dle] 'kxqu] ,d fny lkS vQlkus] dkyk cktkj tSlh dbZ fQYesa mlds Qu dh felkysa nksgjkrh jgsaxhA tkus D;k rwus dgh tkus D;k eSsaus dgh ckr dqN cu gh x;hA

vetn [kku % vjs vks lkack fdrus vkneh Fks( ^'kksys* vetn dks vkt cPpk&cPpk tkurk gSA ^'kksys* ds pfpZr ik= us mUgsa pksVh ij igqapk fn;kA bDdhl vDVwcj] 1943 dh 'kke dks ykgkSj fLFkr ekMy Vkmu esa mudk tUe gqvkA cpiu esa 7 ekg esa tUe ds dkj.k ejrs&ejrs cpsA fQj tokuh esa ,DlhMsUV ls cpsA <kbZ lky ds Fks] rc eqEcbZ vk x;sA firk t;Ur rc ^'khjh Qjgkn* uked fQYe cuk jgs FksA 1946 dk uoEcj dk eghuk FkkA i`Fohjkt ds iM+kslh jgsA fQj ckUnzk esa vk x;sA igys ekmUV esjh Ldwy esa] fQj lsaV ,aMªwt esa i<+kbZ dhA muds fy, xksYMu ykbQ FkhA i<+kbZ esa fnypLih Fkh ughaA [kwc cnekf'k;ka dhaA iqfyl baLisDVj ds csVs dk flj QksM+ fn;kA Ldwy ls Hkkxrs jgsA cki t;Ur Hkh Ldwy esa vkdj fizfa liy ls fey dj csVs dks U;w Vkdht ys tkdj fQYe fn[kkrsA cgkuk cukrs fd MsafVLV ds ikl ys tkuk gSA ,d fnu iknjh us flusek&2005

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ns[kk rks [kwc fiVkbZ gqbAZ fgnk;r fey x;h fd ;k rks Ldwy vkvks ;k MsafVLV ds ikl jkst tkvksA ?kj ij HkkbZ bfEr;kt ls >xM+k gksrkA eka ckFk:e esa cUn dj nsrhA buds okfyn ges'kk budk i{k ysrs FksA iM+kls esa eqfxZ;ksa okyh FkhA nkuk Mkyrs rks os eqfxZ;ka buds ?kj vkrha vkSj fQj okil ugha tkrhaA jkst rdjkj gksrh] ysfdu fu'kkusckth dh izSfDVl pyrh jgrhA okfyn Åaph etcwr dndkBh ds FksA cM+s jkschys vkSj jlhysA QS'ku dh 'kq:vkr muls gksrh FkhA yksx mudh udy djrs FksA lwV&VkbZ dbZ ckj fnu esa cnyrs FksA xkM+h gS rks lcls vyx 'kkunkjA 13 lky dh Fkh eka tc mudh 'kknh gqbZ FkhA eka dks 6 fQV ds tknqb&Z lk rst nedus okys vkneh ds lkFk ikfjokfjd ekgkSy cukus esa le; yxkA firk th 100 fQYeksa ds uk;d jg pqds FksA mUgsa Hkh dke feyuk cUn gks x;kA ,d le; ,slk vk;k fd [kpZ pykus ds fy, lkjh dherh phtsa pyh x;ha] ysfdu fQj Hkh vetn dks BkB ckV ls j[kk tkrkA mudh eka dk dsoy daxu cpk FkkA firk fdlh ls dke ekaxus ugha x;s] u fdlh ds lkeus gkFk ilkjkA brus esa ,d peRdkj gqvkA vjksM+k us mUgsa fQYe ^Mksyh* ds fy, vuqcafèkr dj fy;k] rc mudh le> esa vk;k fd cqjk oDr D;k gksrk gSA tc vetn rhu ckj Ldwy esa Qsy gq, rks iknjh us dgk fd D;ksa cki dk iSlk cjckn djrs gksA Ldwy NksM+ nks vkSj iku dh nqdku [kksy yksA bl vieku us lkjh ftUnxh cny nhA fQj vetn us [kwc i<+kbZ dh vkSj vkBoha d{kk esa rks lcls vPNs fo|kfFkZ;ksa esa fxus tkrs Fks vkSj eSfVªd djds dkyst igqap x;sA

fQj fnyhi lkgc dh lh[k firkth ls feyus ^yhMj* dh 'kwfVax esa x;s rks fnyhi lkgc us dgk] ^NqfV~V;ksa esa D;k djksxsA bèkj vkdj vflLVsUVh djksA ^cksys D;ksa d:a vflLVsUVhA fQj yx x;s gSa mlh esa rhu eghus dke fd;kA jkst VSDlh] u;s diM+s] u;s BkV] osru ugha feyk rks dke NksM+ fn;kA okil dkyst igqap x;sA 1963 esa ^esjs oru ds yksxksa* ukVd vky bafM;k ;wFk QsfLVoy esa pquk x;kA fnYyh igqaps MkDVj jkèkkd`".ku vkSj iafMr usg: ls feysA ukVdksa esa dke djus yxsA okfyn dh chekjh esa daMDVjh Hkh dh] ysfdu cpk ugha ldsA mUgsa lcls cM+k vQlksl jgk fd os ^'kksys* ugha ns[k 132

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ldsA twu esa mudk bardky gks x;k vkSj ^'kksys* vxLr esa iznf'kZr gqbAZ

fetkZ xkfyc ds loZJs"B vfHkusrk% Hkkjr Hkw " k.k eSa tc muds ?kj [kkj esa x;k Fkk rks muds njokts ij ^Hkkjr&jRu* dh useIysV yxh FkhA fQj mUgksaus gh crk;k fd ^cjlkr* ds le; oknk fd;k Fkk jRu ekyk ls og iwjk fd;k vkSj muls 'kknh dj yhA Hkkjr Hkw"k.k dk tUe 14 twu] 1919 dks mRrjizns'k ds vyhx<+ 'kgj esa gqvk FkkA muds firk esjB esa ljdkjh ukSdjh esa mPp in ij dk;Zjr FksA Ldwyh f'k{kk esjB esa gh gqbZA mlds ckn os vyhx<+ eqfLye fo'ofo|ky; esa Lukrd dh fMxzh ysdj eqEcbZ vk x;sA cpiu ls laxhr vfHku; esa :>ku FkkA eksrhyky o ds,y- lgxy ds tcjnLr QSu jgs Hkkjr Hkw"k.k us 'kq: esa dkQh la?k"kZ fd;kA 1942 esa mudh crkSj ghjks igyh fQYe ^HkDr dchj* iznf'kZr gqbZ tks dkQh ilan dh x;hA blds ckn 1944 esa dsnkj 'kekZ us viuh fQYe ^lqgkxjkr* esa xhrk ckyh ds uk;d dh Hkwfedk mUgsa nhA fQYe ^dfo* esa ^dfo* dh vkSj lksgjkc eksnh dh fQYe ^fetkZ xkfyc* esa ^fetkZ xkfyc* dh Hkwfedkvksa esa Hkkjr us ftl vn~Hkqr vfHku; {kerk dk ifjp; fn;k] og dkfcy&,&rkjhQ FkkA Hkkjr Hkw"k.k dh fQYe ^cjlkr dh jkr* o ^Qkxqu* us ckDl vkfQl ij dkQh èkwe epk;h FkhA bu fQYeksa esa Hkkjr o eèkqckyk dh jksekafVd tksM+h dks n'kZdksa us dkQh ilan fd;k FkkA 1950 esa vk;h Hkkjr dh lQy fQYe ^cStw ckojk*A fQYe ds nnZ Hkjs xhr laxhr] eeZLi'khZ ,oa R;kx ls ifjiw.kZ dFkk us yksxksa dks eksfgr dj fy;k Fkk vkSj os ,d lQy uk;d cudj mHkjsA lu~ 1962 esa cuh fQYe ^vaxfq yeky* esa yhd ls gVdj Hkwfedk FkhA yxHkx 300 fQYeksa dks viuh vfHku; {kerk ls laokjus okys Hkkjr Hkw"k.k us 10&12 Vhoh lhfj;yksa esa Hkh dke fd;k FkkA ^xkfyc* dh Hkwfedk gsrq mUgsa yanu dh ^,f'k;u fQYe lkslk;Vh* dk loZJs"B vfHkusrk dk iqjLdkj fn;k x;k Fkk rks


;gka jk"Vªifr ds gkFkksa ^Lo.kZ ind* feyk FkkA 1852 esa Hkkjr dks ^pSrU; egkizHkq* esa muds l'kDr vfHku; ds fy, ^fQYeQs;j vokMZ* ls mUgsa lEekfur fd;k x;kA ^clar cgkj* esa Hkh Js"B vfHku; gsrq mUgsa ^eSfjV vokMZ* ls lEekfur fd;k x;kA 26 tuojh] 1992 dh lqcg 73 o"khZ; Hkkjr Hkw"k.k lnk&lnk ds fy, bl nqfu;k ls dwp dj x;sA vius vizfre vfHku; ls yk[kksa fnyksa ij jkt djus okys Hkkjr lnk ds fy, ,d ;kn cudj jg x;sA

dkfeuh dkS'ky % uhpk uxj iz[kj izfrHkk okyh lqUnjh dkfeuh dkS'ky dk vkuUnizn fookg] iksVZ VªLV ds lqifjVsMa Us V bathfu;j ds Åaps vkSj ftEesnkj vksgns ij dke dj jgs O;fDr ls gqvk FkkA cpiu esa dkfeuh vkSj blh izdkj muds HkkbZ&cguksa dks eap ls izse FkkA mudh cgusa lEHkk"k.k fy[krh Fkha] muds HkkbZ [ksy dks funsZf'kr djrs Fks vkSj og lkt lTtk ij è;ku nsrh FkhA bl izdkj lc feydj ifjokj ds n'kZdksa dk euksjatu ykgkSj ds vius edku ds lkèkkj.k eap ij dksbZ NksVk ukVd [ksydj fd;k djrs FksA Lo- jk; cgknqj ,l-vkj- d';i] muds firk iatkc ds lqfo[;kr f'k{kk izes h FksA iatkc ;wfuoflZVh ds Mhu vkSj Hkkjrh; foKku dkaxzsl ds lHkkifr gksus ds vfrfjDr og ykgkSj esa ml lekt ds ,d izfrf"Br O;fDr FksA 1927 esa tUeh ckfydk mek Ldwy esa cgqr vfèkd pSrU; fo|kFkhZ Fkh vkSj d{kk esa lnSo izFke vk;k djrh FkhA blds vfrfjDr rSjus] xkus] ukpus cSMfeUVu [ksyus vkSj oDrO; nsus esa Hkh mUgksaus n{krk izkIr dh FkhA vFkZ'kkL=] vaxzsth vkSj Hkwxksy fo"k;ksa dks ysdj izFke Js.kh esa fMxzh izkIr dj yhA mudh cgu m"kk ftudk fookg Jh lwn ls gqvk Fkk] ,d eksVj nq?kZVuk dk f'kdkj gqbZ vkSj mek d';i viuh eka ds lkFk eqEcbZ pyh vk;ha vkSj viuh cgu dh nks yM+fd;ksa dh ns[kjs[k djus ds fy, mUgha ds ikl jg x;haA vkxs pydj muds ikfjokfjd izse dk vUr mek d';i ds muds thtk ds lkFk gq, fookg ls gqvkA bl izdkj mUgksaus ?kj laHkkyus vkSj cPpksa ds ykyu&ikyu dh ftEesnkjh mBk yhA

psru vkuUn us viuh izFke fQYe ^uhpk uxj* ds fy;s d';i ifjokj ds iqjkus ikfjokfjd fe= gksus ds ukrs Jherh mek ls ^uhpk uxj* esa ,d ize[q k jksy fuHkkus dk vuqjksèk fd;kA mek us ;g Hkwfedk Lohdkj dj yh vkSj Jh lwn dh fgEer vkSj izsj.kk feyus ij 1946 esa igyh ckj fp=iV ij vk;haA muds fp=iV ds uke ^dkfeuh dkS'ky* us turk dk è;ku vkd`"V dj fy;k vkSj ;|fi ^uhpk uxj* dkQh ckn esa fjyht gqbZ ij fQfYeLrku dh ^'kghn* vkSj eqEcbZ Vkdht ds ^ftn~nh* esa muds vfHku; dh flusek ns[kus okyksa us cM+h iz'kalk dhA vkj-ds- fQYe dh ^vkx* fQfYeLrku dh ^nks HkkbZ* vkSj ^ufn;k ds ikj* vjksjk dh ^ixM+h* vkSj ^ikjl*] ,e- vkSj Vh dh ^uewuk*] izdk'k dh ^jk[kh* vkSj txr fp= dh ^'kk;j* us mudh ml [;kfr dks vkSj vfèkd iq[rk dj fn;kA mudk uke vc cgqr Åapk mB x;k vkSj dkfeuh lcls vfèkd pkgh tkus okyh rkfjdk cu x;haA muds ikl vc vfèkdkfèkd fQYe vkus yxhaA dkfeuh dkS'ky dh iz'kaluh; fQYesa gSa & uhpk uxj] 'kghn] nks HkkbZ] ufn;k ds ikj] ixM+h] vkx] ikjl] uewuk] jk[kh] 'kk;j vkSj jkèkk d`".k rFkk fcjkt cgw tks 'kjn ckcw dh ^x`gLokfeuh* ij vkèkkfjr FkhA bl fQYe esa mudks cgqr iz'kalk feyhA Hkxrflag cus tc eukst dqekj cpiu esa eukstdqekj gfjd`".k xksLokeh gqvk djrs FksA cpiu x;k] tokuh vkbZ] rks fQYeh dhM+k dkVus yxkA ikdsV euh ls iSls cpkdj ;k nksLrksa ls mèkkj ysdj fQYesa ns[krs vkSj [kqn Hkh ghjks cuus ds lius ns[kk djrs FksA fnyhidqekj ds HkDr Hkh gks x, Fks vkSj bl fnyhi HkfDr dk tknw dqN ,slk pyk fd ?kjsyw uke gfjd`".k cnydj eukstdqekj cu x,A 13 lky dk gfjd`".k xksLokeh rc Hkh 'kehZyk vkSj Mjiksd lk Fkk vkSj vc Hkh gSA tc og dke;kc LVkj cu x;k] rc Hkh mlds 'kehZysiu vkSj f>>d dk ;g vkye Fkk fd jksekafVd n`';ksa esa Hkh og viuh ghjksbu dks gkFk yxkus ls ijgst djrk FkkA izrhd Lo:i ghjksbu dks Nwus ;k mlls fpidus dk vkHkkl nsdj gh dke pyk ysrk FkkA ;g fdruk cM+k xq.k Fkk bl dykdkj dkA ;g vkt ds xksfoUnk ;k lyeku [kku D;k ijns ij ,slh flusek&2005

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dyk dk ifjp; ns ldrs gS\a rkSck dhft,A mudh uh;r dk dSls Hkyk gksxkA ,fDVax ds cgkus ghjksbu ds lkFk NsM[+ kkuh djuk Hkh rks vkt dh dyk esa 'kkfey gks x;k gSA [kSj] rsjg lky ds gfjd`".k xksLokeh dks dkyksuh ds yM+dksa us ljnkj Hkxr flag dk jksy nsus dk QSlyk fd;k FkkA rc gfjd`".k dk ifjokj fnYyh dh jktsUnz uxj dkyksuh esa jgrk FkkA mlh dkyksuh ds yM+dksa us ,d LVst izksxzke dk vk;kstu fd;k FkkA eu esa igys gh ,fDVax dh dqycqykgV epk djrh FkhA blfy, rsjg lky ds gfjd`".k Hkxrflag dV ewaNs j[ks vkSj flj ij ixM+h ckaèk xoZ ls Qwys ugha lekrs Fks] ysfdu ekeyk ;gh LoHkko dk FkkA f>>d vkSj ladksp dk fd yksx D;k dgsxa \s n'kZd mUgsa Hkxrflag ds :i esa Lohdkj dSls djsaxs\ dgha gwV u fd;k tk,] dgha etkd u mM+sA bUgha 'kadkvksa ls f?kjs gfjd`".k mQZ ljnkj Hkxrflag dks d¡id¡ih us èkj nckspkA gksBa QM+QM+kus yxsA mudk lkjk esdvi gh pkSiV gksus yxk] rc nksLrksa us vkSj izksxzke ds lapkydksa us gfjd`".k dks <ka<l caèkk;k] mudh gkSlyk vQtkbZ dh] pwafd ljnkj Hkxrflag dk pfj= ,sfrgkfld Fkk] blfy, n'kZdksa esa Hkh mUgsa ns[kus dh mRlqdrk FkhA n'kZd Hkh dkSu\ mlh dkyksuh dsA ftudks ekywe Fkk fd gfjd`".k dks ljnkj Hkxrflag cuk;k x;k gSA pfy,] bartkj vkSj mRlqdrk dh ?kfM+;k lekIr gqbZaA ijnk mBk] ysfdu ;g D;k\ ljnkj Hkxrflag rks ogka ls Qjkj gks pqds FksA og vius nksLrksa vkSj 'kqHkfpardksa dh lkjh mEehnksa ij ikuh Qsj dj LVst ds ihNs ls pqids ls Hkkx fy, Fks vkSj cngoklh esa dkyksuh dh nhokj Qkandj vius ?kj esa tk ?kqls FksA lkjk izksxzke fdjfdjk gks x;kA cgqr etkd mM+k--- vkSj fQj gqbZ vugksuh dh gksuhA mlh fnYyh 'kgj esa eukstdqekj us dHkh vius thou dh igyh fQYe 'kghn ns[kh Fkh] ftlds ghjks muds pgsrs fnyhidqekj FksA mlds vBkjg lky ckn mlh fnYyh esa mudh viuh igyh fQYe ^'kghn* dk izhfe;j gksus tk jgk FkkA ;g Hkh igyk vkSj 'kk;n vkf[kjh ,slk ekSdk Fkk fd fdlh fQYe ds izhfe;j esa Hkkjr ds izèkkuea=h Lo- yky cgknqj 'kkL=h th us viuh mifLFkfr ntZ djkbZ Fkh vkSj bRrQkd Hkh nsf[k,A viuh ghjks okyh bl fQYe esa eukstdqekj us ljnkj Hkxrflag okyk ogh jksy vnk fd;k Fkk] ftls cpiu esa gfjd`".k xksLokeh ds :i esa djrs gq, og LVst NksM+dj Hkkx [kM+s gq, FksA 134

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'kks [kRe gqvk rks ^'kghn* ds fuekZrk dscy d';i vkSj funs'Z kd ,l-jke 'kekZ izèkkuea=h 'kkL=hth ds lkFk QksVks f[kapokus dh tYnckth fn[kkus yxs] ysfdu 'kkL=h th dh vka[ksa rks fdlh vkSj dks ryk'k jgh FkhaA mUgksaus iwNk] ^og ukStoku dgka gS\* vkSj muds bl iz'u ds mRrj Lo:i ml ukStoku dks <wa<dj yk;k x;k] tks bl volj ij Hkh ,d dksus esa 'kjek;k vkSj ldqpk;k gqvk lk [kM+k FkkA 'kkL=h th us mlh ukStoku ds lkFk [kM+s gksdj QksVks f[kapok;kA vki le> x, u eukstdqekj dh ;g vnkA vkt Hkh 'kghn Hkxrflag ij lHkh fQYeksa esa eukst dqekj ppkZ esa gSAa fnyhidqekj ds os iz'kald FksA blfy, mUgsa gh viuh fQYe ^Økafr* esa ysdj muds lkFk dke fd;kA

uokc ckuksa ls fuEeh cuh % cjlkr ls yo ,aM xkWM rd dk lQj oghnu ckbZ vkSj ekSlh T;ksfr us [kwc dksf'k'ksa dh ysfdu uokc ckuks dks dsoy okns gh feys dke ughaA tks QksVks f[kapok;s Fks oks Hkh dke dh ryk'k esa lc pys x;sA ;gka nkeu esa oknksa vkSj rlfYy;ksa ds flok; dqN ugha FkkA egcwc [kka 1948 esa vankt cuk jgs FksA oks ubZ yM+dh dks lkFk esa ugha ys ldrs FksA dqDdw dks fQj mUgksaus fy;kA fujk'k gksdj vkxjk tkus yxhA uokc vkf[kjh lyke djus ds bjkns ls vkj-dsLVwfM;ks esa ekSlh ds ikl igqaphA ogka ,d gennZ us mlls dgk rqeus vkxjk tkus dk QSlyk rks dj gh fy;k& cs'kd tkvks] ysfdu bruh dksf'k'ksa dh gSa ,d dksf'k'k vkSj lghA gennZ us dgk ^jktdiwj viuh ubZ fQYe ^cjlkr* ds fy, yM+dh dh ryk'k esa gSa tks izes ukFk dh ukf;dk gksA os ntZuksa yM+fd;ksa dks ukeatwj djkj ns pqds gSaA gks ldrk gS--- rqEgsa--lk{kkRdkj gqvkA jkt us dkxt ij fy[k ,d laokn uokc dks fn;k vkSj dgk ^;g yM+dh csgn mnkl gS--- bldk fny csoQkbZ ls VwV pqdk gS*--- cl bruk ,glkl djkuk gSA uokc us eu esa lkspk eSa D;k de VwVh gqbZ gwa vkSj uokc us vnkdkjh ds tfj;s og Mk;ykx dg lquk;kA jkt mBs vkSj cksys rqe gh esjh ^cjlkr* dh nwljh ghjksbu] deky dj fn;kA ^cjlkr* 'kq: gqbZ] uokc dk uke jkt us fuEeh dj fn;kA

'kwfVax dk igyk fnu izseukFk vk;s vkSj dSejs ds lkeus [kM+s gks x;sA fuEeh


dks vkns'k feyk--- izes ukFk dh vka[kksa esa ns[kks--- fuEeh us iz;Ru fd;k ysfdu >sia xbZAa izes ukFk&LVwfM;ks fn[kkus ds cgkus ;gka&ogka ys x;sA fQj Hkh ckr cuh ughaA rc jkt us dgk& fuEeh rqe izes ds lj dks ns[kksA dSejs dh dyk ls ge vka[kksa esa Hkh fn[kk;saxsA vka[kksa esa eqgCcr ds reke jax vnkdkjh esa I;kj dk ,glkl vkSj vkokt esa oQk ds ,syku dks cqyan djrh fuEeh us dHkh ihNs eqM+dj ugha ns[kkA mlds vc [kqys vksaBksa ij n'kZd nhokus gksus yxsA og tekuk ujfxl] eèkqckyk vkSj ehukdqekjh dk FkkA izfrHkk dh bl ^frdM+h* ds ckotwn vkSj lkFk&lkFk dkfeuh dkS'ky] xhrkckyh vkSj fuEeh us n'kZdksa dk viuk ,d lewg vius gh cycwrs ij [kM+k dj fy;k FkkA cjlkr vkSj ^nhnkj* ds ckn ujfxl vkSj fuEeh dHkh lkFk ugha vk,A vku] vej] mM+u [kVksyk] nkx vkSj nhnkj ds ckn dHkh fnyhi vkSj fuEeh us lkFk dke ugha fd;kA njvly fuEeh ,d ,slh vfHkus=h Fkh tks NksVs ls jksy esa Hkh ,slk tcnZLr izHkko iSnk djrh Fkh fd n'kZd dsoy mudks ;kn j[krs FksA n`';ksa dks ^pqjk* ysus dh bl vn~Hkqr izfrHkk ds dkj.k lg&dykdkj fuEeh ls cpuk pkgrs FksA ,slh vkrafdr djus okyh fuEeh dh izfrHkk FkhA Hkkjrh; fp=iV ij ftl rjg ujfxl us viuh vka[kksa dk iz;ksx fd;k] ehukdqekjh us viuh vkokt ls yksxksa dks ckaèkk vkSj eèkqckyk dh nsg;f"V us unh cudj n'kZdksa dks Mqcks fn;k] mlh rjg fuEeh us vèk[kqys vksBksa ls vjekuksa ds Hkaoj iSnk fd,A èkeZsUnz] jktsUnzdqekj] 'kEeh diwj vkfn ds ;qx esa yksx ftl rjg jktdqekj ls vkrafdr jgrs Fks] mlh rjg dh izfrHkk dk vkrad fuEeh us vius ;qx esa QSyk j[kk FkkA bl dkj.k ml ;qx dh Js"B fQYesa fuEeh dks ugha feyh vkSj fdlh vPNh Hkwfedk dks ikus ds fy, tks gFkdaMs yxkus iM+rs Fks mudk iz;ksx fuEeh dks ugha vkrk FkkA ^vku* dk izn'kZu fons'kksa esa Hkh gqvk FkkA ogka ds v[kckjksa us fuEeh dh cgqr iz'kalk dh Fkh vkSj mlds eneLr vksBksa ds ckjs esa fy[kk Fkk fd os ^vuNq, vksBa * vèk[kqys vksBa gSAa 16 lky esa fuEeh us 44 fQYesa dh ftuesa ls vkèkh fQYesa fgV FkhaA mldh vkf[kjh fQYe jktsUnz dqekj dh cgu ds :i esa ^esjs egcwc* FkhA nso vkuan ds lkFk ^vkafèk;ka* dh Fkh ftls dku fQYe mRlo esa fn[kk;k x;k FkkA cq) èkeZ dh i`"BHkwfe ij

jfpr izse&dFkk ^vatfy* esa fuEeh us psru vkuan ds lkFk dke fd;kA 1987 esa ds- vkflQ dh ^yo ,aM xkM* dks vius vèkwjs Lo:i esa gh iznf'kZr dj fn;k x;kA fuEeh dks ubZ ih<+h us igyh ckj bl fQYe esa ns[kkA ^vkdk'knhi* esa xwxa h ukf;dk dh Hkwfedk n'kZd dHkh Hkwy ugha ldsxa s tc ;g xhr&xkrh gS n'kZd fpYykrs gSa rHkh xzkeksQksu ctrk fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA vèk[kqys gksBa ksa dks xhr ij fgyrs xquxqukrs ns[kdj ,dne [kkeks'k gksdj mls fugkjus yxrs gSaA bl eqgCcr dh oQk vkSj I;kj dh ikdhtxh us 17 vizSy 1966 ds fnu ys[kd vyh jtk ls fudkg djds fQYeksa ls vodk'k ys fy;kA ize[q k fQYesa %& cjlkr] jkteqdVq ] nhnkj] vku] vkafèk;ka] nkx] esgeku] vej] dLrwjh] dqanu] mM+u [kVksyk] olar cgkj] HkkbZ&HkkbZ] vatyh] pkj fnu pkj jkgsa] vaxqfyeky] esjs egcwc] iwtk ds Qwy] yo ,aM xkWMA

l'kDr cqfu;kn ij fVds gSa èkesZUnz èkesZUnz dh ilZuSfyVh ds uSflfxZd xq.k vkt Hkh muesa lqjf{kr gSAa pkj n'kdksa ls n'kZdksa vkSj muds chp tks fj'rk cuk gqvk gS og nksuksa rjQ ls f'kn~nr ds lkFk ihf<+;ksa ls Hkh fuHkk;k tk jgk gSA èkesZUnz dh jsat euq";rk dh jsat gS] dqVqEc ekrk&firk] cgu] ifjokj] ?kj] xkao] [ksr] ijaijk] vuq'kklu] vknj Hkkoukvksa ls Hkjs ;s ljksdkj gh èkesZUnz dh iwath gSa ftUgsa ysdj iatkc ls os lkFk vk;sA eqEcbZ esa rks leqnz dh ygjsa iSjksa dks cM+s 'kkar Hkko ls Nwrh gSa] exj ;gh ygjsa iSj Hkh tehuksa ls m[kkM+ nsrh gSaA os xeZ jsr ij y{; ysdj pys] la?k"kZ fd;k vkSj lQyrk gkfly dhA vusd izcq) fQYedkjksa us èkesZUnz ls ,slk dke fy;k] tks n'kZdksa ds tsgu esa vkt Hkh rktk gSA èkesZUnz dk dSfj;j pkj n'kd iqjkuk gSA 1960&61 esa mudh igyh fQYe ^fny Hkh rsjk ge Hkh rsjs* vk;h FkhA èkesZUnz iatkc dh èkjrh ls lius ysdj eqEcbZ vk;s FksA ftl nkSj esa èkesUZ nz LVªxy dj jgs Fks] ml nkSj esa izfrf"Br funsZ'kdksa ls le`) Fkk fQYe txrA èkesZUnz jkLrs ds dkaVksa ij t[e lgdj Hkh pyrs x;s vkSj vius fy, tn~nkstgn djrs jgsA vkBosa n'kd ds vklikl tc fgald flusek dk nkSj 'kq: gqvk rks ijns ij ,Mospa j gh flj p<+ dj cksyus yxkA tc flusek&2005

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fQYeksa esa [kyuk;d dks tjk T;knk gh rkdroj cuk;k x;k] rks uk;d Hkh mrus gh rkdroj gksus dh ckr lksprs x;sA ,sls dbZ nkSj fgUnh flusek ds bfrgkl esa vk;s gSa tc n'kZd flusek ?kj dk jkLrk gh Hkwy x;s vkSj og Vsyhfotu ls tqM+ x;sA ,slh n'kk esa tc fQYesa yxkrkj fiV jgh gks]a rks vkidks ;kn gksxk fd ^xqykeh* tSlh fQYeksa dks Hkkjh lQyrk feyrh gSA fuLlansg bu fQYeksa ds uk;d èkesZUnz gh FksA èkesZUnz dHkh uEcjksa ds Qsj esa ugha jgsA mudh ,d ,slh txg] muds n'kZdksa us eqdjZj dj nh] tks vkt Hkh dk;e gS vkSj yxkrkj dk;e jgsxhA

latho dqekj % ifCyflVh dke ls gksrh gS] dksjh ifCyflVh ls dke ugha gksrk iSnkb'kh rks og latho dqekj ugha Fks vkSj u bl rjg ^fcth* gh fd [;kyksa dh fdlh VwVh gqbZ dM+h dk flyk tksM+us dh Hkh Qqjlr u feysA muds ikl rks Vkbe cgqr gksrk Fkk] D;ksafd Ldwy dh fdrkcksa&dkfi;ksa ls og lqyg de gh dj ldsA nksuksa nwj&nwj jgrs vkSj ,d nwljs dks rdyhQ de nsrs FksA bl ykijokgh dk vFkZ mUgsa rc le> esa vk;k tc ?kj dk cM+k lnL; gksus ds ukrs Hkj.k&iks"k.k dk Hkkj mu ij vk;kA ,d le; rks ,slk yxk fd tSls og vkt rd le; xaokrk vk;k gSA le; mls blh rjg xaok;sxkA og dqN dj ldus ds dkfcy ugha Fkk] og dqN lh[kk gh ugha Fkk--exj dqN lh[kus dks 'kk;n dHkh nsj ugha gksrhA igys Hkh mlus ;g ckr lquh ij mlus dgk fd ftUnxh ds Ýse cgqr nsj esa Li"V gksrs gSaA dekus dh fpUrk us lq>k fn;k Fkk] ^rw ,d dke rks dj ldrk gS] ogh ftls rw 'kkSfd;k djrk vk;k gS mudh ^yo ,.M xkM* cgqr pfpZr fQYe Fkh tks ds- vkflQ dh e`R;q ds ckn iznf'kZr gqbZ FkhA ijs'kkuh ds vkye esa izdk'k dh ,d fdj.k fn[kk;h nh] ^gka og ,fDVax djsxkA ,DVj cusxkA* latho ml rjg ds lius ysdj ugha pyk Fkk tks mls gkfly gks ldk] 'kkSgjr] iSlk] 'kkSd] mldh rks pan t:jrsa Fkha] jksVh vkSj lkQ diM+k] cl] edku ¼,d dejs dk½ mlds ikl Fkk ghA vksoj ukbV ghjks cu tkus dh ckr rc mls ekywe gh ugha FkhA blhfy, 'kk;n og tkdj ml ykbu esa [kM+k gks x;k tks izfl) vkSj iSls dh rjQ ugha tkrhA ,d fnu mlus vius vki dks ,DVªkvksa dh HkhM+ esa [kM+k ik;k Fkk] ysfdu bl ckr dk 136

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vQlksl lathodqekj dks dHkh ugha gqvk fd og ,DLVªk D;ksa cukA ml fnu Hkh ugha tc mls igys igy ekywe gqvk fd ,DLVªk ,dLVªk gh gksrk gS dHkh ghjks ugha curkA mls cl dke ls eryc FkkA NksVk gks ;k cM+kA ukVd og djrk Fkk ij jkst rks ukVd gksrs ugha] lkFk esa ;gka dke djuk D;k cqjk FkkA ysfdu ,d fnu ,d xqtjkrh fQYe esa mldk ntkZ ,DLVªk ls mBkdj vkfVZLV dk dj fn;k x;kA mls Hkwfedk nh x;h] Hkwfedk gkykafd NksVh lh Fkh] ij fQYe ds eq[; dykdkjksa ds lkFk Fkh vkSj muds lkFk lsV ij dke djrs gq, izsl QksVksxzkQjksa us mldk Hkh QksVks [khapk Fkk vkSj fQj og dbZ fnuksa rd mu if=dkvksa dks <w<a r+ k fQjk Fkk] ftuesa og QksVks Nik Hkh ij tSlk mlus lkspk Fkk] mlds Nirs gh èkekdk gksxk] lc fuekZrk mls <w<a xa+s s og dqN Hkh ugha gqvkA ml fnu ,d xqj mldh le> esa vk;k ifCyflVh dke ls gksrh gS] dksjh ifCyflVh ls dke ugha gksrkA ysfdu tc mlus dqN le; ihNs eqM+dj ns[kk rks ik;k fd fuekZrk funs'Z kd ds- vkflQ us viuh egRokdka{kh fQYe ^yo ,aM xkM* esa etuaw dh Hkwfedk ds fy, mldk pquko fd;k FkkA igys ;g Hkwfedk Lo- xq#nRr dj jgs FksA 'kwfVax 'kq: gksus ij yksxksa us dgk esdvi ds ckn latho xq#nRr th ls gwcgw feyrk gSA ;g la;ksx Hkh blh njE;ku ekywe gqvk fd mudh vkSj latho dqekj dh tUefrfFk Hkh ,d gSA ;g lc lqu ns[kdj mldh vka[kksa esa vkalw vk x;sA gs izHkq ;g dSlh yhyk gS rsjhA dgka Loxq#nRr tSlk dykdkj] dgka vnuk lk lathoA ;g D;k rqyuk gSA

fookg fo'ks"kK cklq us ^vkLFkk* Hkh cuk;h Fkh ;g mudh vfUre fQYe Fkh cklq HkV~Vkpk;Z] foey jk; ds lgk;d funsZ'kd Fks vkSj vius xq# dh yM+dh fjadh ls mUgksua s izes fookg fd;kA xq# cgqr [kQk FksA mUgksaus mls {kek ugha fd;kA 'kSysUnz foey jk; ds fiz; dfo Fks vkSj mUgksua s cklq dks funs'Z kd ysdj Quh'ojukFk js.kq dh ^rhljh dle* dk fuekZ.k fd;kA bl dykRed fQYe us jk"Vªifr dk ind thrk] ijUrq vke n'kZd us bls vLohdkj dj fn;kA blh fQYe ds fuekZ.k us dfo 'kSyUs nz dks brus dM+os vuqHko fn, fd mudk thou ds izfr fo'okl gh VwV x;kA dfo 'kSyUs nz vius fj'rsnkjksa vkSj fe=ksa }kjk Bxs x,A


njvly ^rhljh dle* og igyh fganh fQYe gS] ftlls lekukarj flusek dk nkSj 'kq: gqvkA cklq HkV~Vkpk;Z vkSj fjadh dks vkfnR; uked iq= gqvk] ftlus dkykarj esa vkfej [kku dh igyh fQYe ^jk[k* dk funsZ'ku fd;k vkSj 'kf'k diwj dh csVh latuk ls fookg fd;kA dqN le; ckn og latuk dks NksM+dj ;wjksi pyk x;k vkSj og fookg VwV x;kA bl ifjokj ds fudV ds yksx tkurs gSa fd cklq vkSj fjadh dh dHkh vkil esa ugha cuh vkSj os vyx&vyx jgrs gSaA deky dh ckr ;g gS fd cklq HkV~Vkpk;Z us fookg ds fo"k; esa ikjaxr fQYesa vuqHko] vkfo"dkj] x`g izos'k vkSj iapoVh tSlh fQYesa cuk;haA vFkkZr os bl fo"k; esa ikjaxr gSa] ijUrq Lo;a viuk fookg ugha cpk ik, vkSj mudk csVk Hkh firk ds in fpUgksa ij pyrk gqvk viuh iRuh ls nwj pyk x;kA mUgksua s js[kk] vkseiqjh vfHkuhr vkLFkk fQYe dk fuekZ.k fgUnh vkSj vaxzsth Hkk"kk esa fd;k Fkk] ftlesa xqytkj dh 'kk;jh gSA cklq us jktdiwj] jkts'k [kUuk] 'kfeZyk VSxksj vkSj latho dqekj tSls dykdkjksa ds lkFk fQYesa cuk;h gSaA bl ckj mUgksua s js[kk vkSj vkseiqjh dks fy;k gSA bl rjg dh dyk fQYeksa esa ,d xje csM:e lhu j[kus ls n'kZdkas ds ,d [kkl oxZ dks flusek ns[kus vkus ds fy, etcwj fd;k tk ldrk gSA cgqr ls yksxksa esa lhèks iksuksxzkQh ns[kus dk lkgl ugha gksrk] blfy, gkV dyk fQYeksa ds lgkjs viuh I;kl cq>krs gSa vkSj cnuke Hkh ugha gksrAs cklq HkV~Vkpk;Z izse vkSj 'kknh ij ntZu Hkj fQYesa cukdj Hkh dgha ugha igqpa ik;sA dqN xt dh nwjh ij fjadh jgrh gS] vxj rhljh dle ds fnuksa dh izse vxu yxk ysa rks vius fiz; fo"k; dks csgrj le> ldrs gSaA iksFkh i<+us ls ;k gtkjksa QqV lSY;qykbM dks Qwda nsus ls <kbZ vk[kj le> ugha vkrsA js[kk us deky dk vfHku; fd;k gSA js[kk dk ,d :i tks yxHkx ohHkRl gSA tc&tc os cPpksa ds fy, twrs [kjhn dj nsus okys dh 'kj.k esa igqap tkrh gSa mls cykRdkj dgsa ;k leiZ.kA lsalj okyksa dk dguk Fkk fd js[kk us fojksèk ugha fd;k] blfy, cykRdkj dk lhu ugha dVkA

fgUnh fQYeksa esa lqfp=k lsu vkSj mRre dqekj ,d lkFk ugha vk;s ^>adkj* fQYe ds fy, lqfp=k lsu vkSj mRre dqekj] ^urZdh* ds fuekZrk esjs fe= eqdUq n f=osnh Fks vkSj funs'Z kd fufru cksl FksA fufru nk ds lkFk cgqr vPNs lacaèk gks x;s FksA tc lR;thr jk; dh fQYe ^ikFksj iapkyh* dh ppkZ tksjksa ij Fkh] ml le; os vesfjdk ls eqEcbZ vkdj ,EcslsMj gksVy esa Bgjs FksA caxky ds eq[;ea=h MkW- ch-lh- jk; ds lg;ksx ls fQYe dk fuekZ.k gqvk FkkA ,d rjg ls ljdkj us gh Qkbusal fd;k FkkA nknk us gesa lkFk pyus ds fy, dgkA ge rS;kj gks x;sA lR;thr jk; us nknk dks ns[krs gh yiddj pj.k Li'kZ fd;k vkSj gels ueLdkjA vki dh yk;czsjh esa gh cgqr dqN lh[kk gS] vkidk vk'khokZn gSA cgqr fouez Fks osA fQj ckr pyh caxky ds lqèkhj eqdthZ dh] ftudh caxyk fQYe cgqr pyh FkhA mlh fo"k; ij fQYe cukus vkSj lqfp=k lsu vkSj mRre dqekj dks lkFk ysdj dydRrk pysA gekjs fe= gfj tyksdk caxkyh fuekZrkvksa dks Qkbusal djrs FksA ysd ,osU;w esa mudk edku Fkk vkSj ;gka eqEcbZ ds lcls iqjkus osd a Vs'oj izls okyksa ds os nkekn FksA tkrs oDr muds lkFk gh x;sA yM+dh dks fonkbZ esa bruk lkeku fn;k fd ys tkuk eqf'dy gks x;kA lkFk esa ia- iznhi th dks Hkh ys fy;s FksA dydRrs esa rks mudh xkM+h IysV QkeZ ds ikl vk x;hA lc lkeku ysus muds vkneh vk x;s FksA gfj ckcw ds firkth us cgqr la?k"kZ fd;k gksxk vkSj dbZ jkr Hkw[ks Hkh lks;s gksaxsA blfy, os ,d VªLV cuk x;s Fks] ftlesa iwjs ifjokj ds Hkkstu dh O;oLFkk VªLV djrh FkhA dksbZ lnL; dek;s ;k ugha] [kkuk rks mls feysxk gh] Hkw[kk ugha lks;xs kA rhu eaftys edku esa uhps VªLV ds eSustj frokjh th esgekuksa ls mudh [kkus dh ilUn iwNrsA ogh [kkuk cukrs Fks] ogh [kkuk cukuk vkSj lc lnL;ksa dks yap ij vkSj jkr dks ?kj ij [kkuk vfuok;Z FkkA tks fdlh dkj.k ugha vk ldrk] mls lwpuk nsuh gksrh FkhA uhps ekLVj th cPpksa dks i<+kus vkrs vkSj Åij dh eafty ij ,d eafnj Fkk] ftlesa ekrkth Hkh jgrha FkhaA 'ks"k nks eafty ij esgeku vkSj gfj ckcw rFkk muds iq= jgrs FksA

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ge rks ftl dke ds fy, x;s Fks] muds ?kj esa jg dj Hkkx&nkSM+ eqf'dy Fkh blfy, ,Ecslh gksVy esa pys x;sA ogka feys gdhe lkgc tks fnYyh ds lcls iqjkus ewd fQYeksa ds le; ds forjd Fks vkSj mUgksua s ,d fQYe Hkh cukbZ FkhA mudks laxhr dk 'kkSd Fkk vkSj xkuk lqus fcuk mUgsa uhn ugha vkrh Fkh vkSj lkFk gh mudk ;g Hkh ekuuk Fkk fd vkfFkZd n`f"V ls lcls detksj xkus okys gksrs gaSA ,d ds ihNs lkjk ifjokj jgrk gSA mudh ,d eu ilUn Dykfld xkf;dk Hkh FkhA mUgksaus cgqr vkxzg fd;k fd vki fQYesa D;k cukvksxs vxj xkuksa dk etk ysuk ugha tkurs gks rksA gekjh mUgksaus ,d ugha lquh vkSj xkM+h esa fcBk&dj ys x;sA ogka tc igqpa s rks gdhe lkgc ds uke ls gh ogka lc rS;kjh FkhA xkf;dk dks gdhe lkgc us igys iafMr iznhi th dk ifjp; djk;kA os lqurs gh nkSM+h vkSj muds pj.kksa esa fxj iM+hA vki ;gka\ ge rks vkids xhr ^fiatjs ds iaNh js] rsjk nnZ u tkus dksb*Z xkdj jksth jksVh pykrs gSAa oks xkus gekjs fy, vkius fy[kk gSA gekjk nnZ dksbZ ugha tkurk vkSj jksus yxhA yx jgk Fkk fd og fcydqy vfHku; ugha dj jgh FkhA fcuk fXyljhu ds mlds vkalw cg jgs FksA ekfyd tc rd vki [kqn ;gka ;g xkuk ugha lquk;saxs] gdhe lkgc esjk lj dVok;sa rks Hkh ugha xkÅaxhA iznhi th dks xkuk lqukuk iM+k fQj muls mlus lk"Vkax naMor fd;k vkSj cgqr vPNs ehjk ds Hktu xk;sA brus esa gdhe lkgc ds dgus ij dqN jksekafVd xhr Hkh lquk;sA

mRre dk vuqcaèk nwljs fnu mRre dqekj feysA ckr iDdh gks x;h] ysfdu lqfp=k lsu eksLdks QsfLVcy esa x;h gqbZ FkhA ugha fey ldha vkSj mRre dqekj us lqfiz;k pkSèkjh dks ysus dk lq>ko fn;k tks gesa ilUn ugha FkkA eqEcbZ vkdj fQj vk'kk ikjh[k dks mRre dqekj ds lkFk fy;k vkSj Mk;jsDVj lqèkhj eqdthZA iznhi th ds xhr vkSj jks'ku dks laxhr nsus ds fy, vuqcafèkr fd;k x;kA laxhr izèkku fo"k; FkkA blfy, uke j[kk x;k ^>adkj*A iafMr lq[kjke 'kekZ dks iVdFkk vkSj laokn ds fy, j[kk x;kA dydRrs esa gkV yxrk gS fd [kjhnus okyksa dh gh xjt gS] nqdkunkj dks D;k pkfg,] dgrs gSa] eqEcbZ esa xzkgd vkrs gh mlds lkeus lkfM+;ksa ds dbZ fMtkbu j[k nsrs gSAa lkgc ;g [kwc ilan vk;sxhA ese lkgc dks dgrs&dgrs dqN u dqN cspa gh nsrs 138

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gSaA Vsªu ls IysV QkeZ ij gh irk yx tkrk gS fd ;g dydRrk gSA phaVh dh rjg vkneh pyrs gSaA eqEcbZ dh rjg Hkkxrs ugha fn[kkbZ nsrAs ,jksMe~ ij lkeku fudkyrs le; irk yx tkrk gS fd dydRrk gSA vxj vkidk dksbZ fe= dkj ls LVs'ku ls pkSjaxh tk jgk gks vkSj vkidks fy¶V nsus ds fy, cqyk;s rks vkidk ;gh dguk Bhd jgsxk eSa tYnh esa gwaA iSny vk jgk gwaA 'kke ds le; fMuj ij] eq>s gfj ckcw us cSjs ls VkbZ ekax dj xys esa Mkyh FkhA jkr dks jkeyhyk] jkl yhyk] Hktu] laxhr ds dk;ZØe ckaxM+ dh vusd bekjrksa dh Nr ij gksrs FksA ckaxM+ gh ,d m|ksxifr dydRrk esa gS] ftuds ikl lcls vfèkd fdjk;k vkrk gS vkSj dS'k ikVhZ gSA yap ds le; nkl ds jlxqYys vkSj vkxUrqdksa ds fy, pk; dh euqgkj ugha] Mkc ¼ukfj;y ikuh½ dk izcaèk vkfQl esa gksrk FkkA fQYe Qkbusal ds fy, oekZ esa jk"Vªh;dj.k ds ckn Hkkjr vk;s fVEcj ds O;kikfj;ksa dk fo'ks"k ;ksxnku Fkk] ftuesa ize[q k nqxM+] nkekuh] ljkQ] ykM+lfj;k] Mkxk izeq[k FksA

vk cSy eq>s ekj nwljh ckj dydRrk dh ;k=k vk cSy eq>s ekj dks pfjrkFkZ djrk gSA dqN fe=ksa us feydj NksVh fQYe ^lh vkbZ Mh 302* cukbZ FkhA cgqr tYnh fQYe cu x;hA QkbV ekLVj vteh HkkbZ fnXn'kZd FksA ogka ds forjd us vkns'k fn;k fd fcYVh cSad ls Hkst nksA ckEcs ySc ds lsB okfM;k vius yM+ds gks'kh dks fQYe fo|k fl[kkus vkSj eq¶r esa gokbZ ;k=k dk etk fnykus ds fy, fcYVh ¼vkjvkj½ ysdj Hkstrs FksA mUgsa vkus&tkus vkSj Bgjus dk iSlk nsus ij forjd dks jlhn nsdj iSlk ysdj vk tkus dk dke Fkk rFkk dqy 3 yk[k #i;k forjd ls ysuk FkkA fizaV rks Vsªu ls fHktok fn;s FksA eSaus lkspk eSa gh D;ksa u ;gka okfM;k lsB dks iSlk nsdj vkj-vkj- ysdj pyk tkÅaA fjyht Hkh ns[k ywaxkA iSlksa dk izcUèk ,d lIrkg ds fy, fd;k vkSj igqap x;s neneA forjd dks rkj Hkst fn;k FkkA mudks rks fQYe fjyht djuh gSA lkspk Fkk Hkkxs&Hkkxs vk;saxs vkSj fjlho djsaxs] ysfdu dksbZ ysus ugha x;kA cgqr bUrtkj fd;kA gksVy igqapk] nwljs fnu forjd ds vkfQl dh ryk'k dhA vkfQl feyk ysfdu cUn FkkA iwNus ij irk yxk eqEcbZ esa


x.kifr dh èkweèkke dh rjg nqxkZ iwtk dh èkwe Fkh vkSj mlh fnu flusekvksa dh vfuf'prdkyhu gM+rky FkhA forjd ds ?kj dk irk rhu fnu ckn feykA ekfyd feys rks dgus yxs] eSa fizUV ysdj Hkh D;k d:axk] flusek rks cUn gSA iSlk Hkh ugha feyk tks feyus okyk FkkA vc fizUV dgka j[ksa vkSj mUgsa forjd dks nsa] rks iSlk dkSu nsxk vkSj dc feysxkA eq>s rks eqEcbZ tkrs gh nsuk iM+xs kA ,d forjd Fks Jh gfj'kadj lgk;A cM+s tehankj FksA ehrk fQYe ds uke ls vkfQl FkkA mudh iRuh ,d ckj eqEcbZ vk;h Fkha rks ^xksnku* fQYe fdlh Hkh rjg ysuk pkgrh FkhaA izsepUn dh iz'kald FkhaA esjs fy, dksbZ nwljk mik; ugha FkkA muds vkfQl esa fizUV j[kok dj eqEcbZ vk x;kA gM+rky 20 fnu rd pyhA VwVh rks lgk; th ds eSuts j us fizUV ns fn;sA iwjk iSlk Hkh ugha fy;kA bl rjg ls vfèkd le>nkjh djus dk urhtk eq>s fey x;kA

yksdfiz; usrk larks"k flag tSu dksVZ fjlhoj Hkh 'kk;n gh fQYe m|ksx dk dksbZ O;fDr gks] ftls larks"k flag tSu uke ysdj ugha cqykrs gksAa mudh yksdfiz;rk dk deky rks rc ns[kus dks feyk tc eqEcbZ gkbZ dksVZ us mUgsa Qk;usalj ls lacafèkr fQYe dk dksVZ fjlhoj cuk fn;kA vkt rd ;g lEeku fdlh dks ugha feyk FkkA bZ'oj dh d`ik ls mudk iwjk ifjokj] csVs] iksrs] ijiksrs lc Qy&Qwy jgs gSaA lHkh fQYe m|ksx dh lsok esa layXu gSaA deZBrk ds èkuh vkB n'kdksa lss lHkh dks lkFk ysdj pyus okys] fQYeks|ksx ds izeq[k vkèkkj LrEHk Jh larks"k flag tSu foxr 35 o"kksZa ls lsUVªy lfdZV flus ,lksfl,'ku ds lkFk fQYe QsMjs'ku vkQ bafM;k] dsUnzh; fQYe lfefr vkfn ds ekè;e ls fQYe lalkj dh vVwV lsok,a dj jgs gSaA laxBu dh tks Hkh izxfr fn[kkbZ ns jgh gS] fQYe Hkou dk viuk Lo:i vejkorh] t;iqj] Hkqlkoy esa laLFkk ds vius gh dk;kZy; ,oa Hkou gksuk] ikap n'kdksa ls Hkh Åij fQYe lalkj dh lsok,a djuk ,oa laxBu dks etcwr cukuk fdlh ,d O;fDr ds gkFk esa gS rks og uke flQZ larks"k flag tSu dk gh gks ldrk gSA Jh larks"k flag tSu iwjs fQYe lalkj esa MSMh ds uke ls iqdkjs tkrs gSaA okLro esa muds dke Hkh MSMh ds gh leku gSAa NksVs &NksVs forjd] fuekZrk dksbZ Hkh gks] QkSju os mudk dke gkFk esa ys ysrs gSaA vkt os okLro esa vtkr 'k=q gSAa

larks"k flag tSu ds fopkj 100 djksM+ dh vkcknh ds fy, dsoy 12 gtkj flusek ?kj f'kYi foKku dh vizR;kf'kr izxfr ls mRiUu rduhdh Økafr rFkk fo'o Hkj esa QSyrh gqbZ oS'ohdj.k dh izfØ;k ls gekjk ns'k vNwrk ugha jg x;k gSA bl ØkfUrdkjh ?kVukØe ds lanHkZ esa gekjs ns'k dk flusek m|ksx ,d u;s nkSj ls xqtj jgk gSA ;g u;k nkSj vk'kkvksa rFkk laHkkoukvksa ds lkFk gh vleatliw.kZ Hkfo"; dk lans'k iznku djrk gSA gekjs ns'k esa flusek m|ksx dk fodkl vius cycwrs ij laHko gqvk gSA flusek dk fodkl lkoZtfud euksjatu ds ekè;e ds :i esa gqvk] ysfdu blesa dykRed] f'k{kk rFkk yksd laLd`fr dh vfHkO;fDr;ksa dk Hkh lekos'k jgkA flusek izkjaHk ls vius lkFkZd egRo dks LFkkfir djus gsrq la?k"kZjr jgk gSA ns'k esa flusek dk bfrgkl vius dykRed] lkaLd`frd rFkk lkFkZd opZLo dks LFkkfir djus ckcr la?k"kZ dk bfrgkl dgk tk ldrk gSA gekjs ns'k esa flusek ds izfr ijaijkxr rkSj ij mnklhu joS;k jgk gSA 'kkldh; uhfr;ksa esa bl Økafrdkjh ekè;e ds izfr dqN vioknksa dks NksMd + j lkekU;r;k izkRs lkgukRedrk dk vHkko jgk gSA fodkl'khy ns'kksa esa flusek dks vR;Ur egRoiw.kZ dyk dh ekU;rk iznku dh x;h gSA vfodflr ns'kksa esa flusek dks okf.kfT;d vk; izkfIr gsrq egt ^dkeèksuq* le>k x;k gSA lnh iqjkus vfèkfu;eksa rFkk fu;eksa ls flusek dk gekjs ns'k esa lapkyu gksrk vk;k gS vkSj Hkkjh Hkjde dj&O;oLFkk bl vkS|ksfxd ekè;e dk 'kks"k.k djrh jgh gSA blds vfrfjDr euksjta u izèkku bysDVªkfW ud rduhd esa ;qxkUrdkjh ifjorZuksa ds QyLo:i vU; ekè;e flusek dh lkSru ds :i esa mHkjs gSAa gekjs ns'k esa nqfu;k ds djhc lHkh jk"Vªksa dh rqyuk esa lcls vfèkd vkSlru lkr lkS] vkB lkS fQYeksa dk fuekZ.k izfro"kZ gksrk gSA foRrh; laLFkkuksa rFkk cSd a ksa rFkk dqNd s jkT;ksa dh fp= fuekZ.k ds izfr izkRs lkgukRed uhfr;ksa ds QyLo:i pyfp=ksa ds fuekZ.k esa o`f) gksuk fuf'pr gS vkSj bl lacaèk esa foRrh; laLFkkuksa] cSadksa }kjk pyfp=ksa ds fuekZ.k izksRlkgu gsrq foRrh; lqfoèkk eqgS;k djus ckcr QSlyk Lokxr ;ksX; gSA ns'k dh lkS djksM+ ls vfèkd vkcknh ds fy, fQYe izn'kZu lqfoèkk,a&;kfu flusek?kj miyCèk gSaA gekjs ns'k esa foxr flusek&2005

139


n'kd ;kuh 1990&2000 ls 2000&2001 ds nkSjku flusek?kjksa dh la[;k 13101 ls ?kVdj 11962 gh jg x;h gSA foxr n'kd dh vofèk ds nkSjku 1139 flusek?kj VwV pqds gSaA

xks f oUn fugykuh % ,d izfl) Nk;kdkj ls fuekZrk& fQYe dk viuk ,d ewM eu%fLFkfr gksrh gSA ;g dFkkud ds vuq:i r; gksrk gSA blfy, ml eu%fLFkfr dks ykus ds fy, Nk;kadu ds <axksa esa vny&cny djuh iM+rh gSA ;g fopkj gSa izfl) Nk;kdkj xksfoUn fugykuh dsA viuh fQYesa ^vadjq * vkSj ^fu'kkar* dh fuekZ.k&iz.kkyh dk ftØ djrs gq, ,d fnu mUgksua s dgk] ^^okrkoj.k vkSj ik=ksa ds euksHkkoksa dks fQYekuk cgqr gh eqf'dy gSA** mUgksaus dgk] ^vadqj* esa ygygkrs gq, [ksr] cknyksa ls Hkjk vkdk'k] ;kuh lqUnj okrkoj.k Fkk] rks nwljh vksj ik=ksa dh ?kqVuHkjh ftUnxh FkhA ,d rjQ yksds'ku ds yqHkkousiu dks fQYekuk Fkk] rks nwljh vksj okrkoj.k esa ik=ksa dh ?kqVuHkjh ftUnxh dks fn[kkuk FkkA blds fy, eSaus fo'ks"k Vsdfud dk lgkjk fy;kA eSaus izkd`frd jks'kuh vkSj yks ,axy 'kkV~l fy;sA mn;iqj esa iys&c<+s xksfoUn us dHkh fQYeksa esa vkus dh ckr lksph rd ugha FkhA vkdka{kk Fkh bathfu;j cuus dhA eSfVªd ds ckn fdlh flusekVksxzkQh baLVhV~;wV dk foKkiu ns[kk] rks vpkud eu esa yxu mBh dSejkeSu cuus dh] ysfdu ifjokj okys fojksèk esa FksA Lukrd dh fMxzh ysus ds ckn tc Hkfo"; ds ckjs esa lkspk tkus yxk] rks ^dqy xq#* us Hkfo";ok.kh dh fd ;g yM+dk dykdkj cusxkA ekSdk feykA ?kj okyksa dh vuqefr fey x;hA csaxyksj ds ^jktsUnz ikWyhVsfDud* ls flusekVksxzkQh dk fMIyksek izFke Js.kh ds lkFk izkIr fd;kA fQj 'kq: gqbZ eqEcbZ dh la?k"kZjr ftUnxhA xq#nRr dh fQYeksa ls izHkkfor gksdj mUgha ds dSejkeSu oh-ds- ewfrZ ds lkFk dke djuk 'kq: fd;kA izksRlkgu feykA ^cgkjsa fQj Hkh vk;saxh*] ^ftn~nh*] ^dSls dgwa*] ^yo bu Vksfd;ks* vkfn dbZ fQYeksa esa muds lg;ksxh ds :i esa dk;Z fd;k vkSj blh chp fp=kadu dh u;h&u;h rduhd vkSj bl {ks= esa fd;s x;s iz;ksxksa ls ifjp; gqvkA eu esa dqN dj fn[kkus dh vkdka{kk Fkh] ysfdu lkèku ugha FksA mUgha fnuksa iafMr lR;nso nqcs ls ifjp; gqvkA izeksn 140

flusek&2005

pØorhZ vkSj vius xq# ewfrZ lkgc ls izksRlkgu ikdj Lo;a dh fQYe lR;nso nqcs ds lkFk feydj cukus dh ;kstuk cuk;hA ^fQYe foRr fuxe* ls vkfFkZd lgk;rk fey x;hA ejkBh esa ^'kkrrk dksVZ pkyw vkgs* dk fuekZ.k 'kq: gqvkA Lora= :i ls ;g xksfoUn dh igyh fQYe FkhA blesa mUgksaus Nk;kadu fd;k FkkA fQYe dks dkQh ljkguk feyh vkSj ';ke csusxy ls ?kfu"Brk c<+hA muds lkFk dqN o`Rr fp= ,oa foKkiu fQYeksa dk Nk;kadu fd;k vkSj fQj jaxhu fQYe feyh] ^vadqj* ,oa ^fu'kkar*A yksdfiz; ukVddkj] vfHkusrk fxjh'k dukZM dh fQYe ^dkMq* ¼dUuM½ tks 'osr&';ke Fkh] dk Hkh fp=kadu fd;kA ^dkMq* ds Nk;kadu dh dkQh iz'kalk gqbZA ';ke csusxy dh vkxkeh nks fQYeksa dk Nk;kadu Hkh xksfoUn us gh fd;kA muds fopkj ls] ^Nk;kdkj funsZ'kd dh dYiuk dk mlh ds fopkjksa ds vuq:i gh fcEcksa dh 'kDy esa vuqokn djrk gSA rks D;ksa u funs'Z kd ds lkFk fey cSBdj gh mldh dYiuk ls ifjfpr gksdj dSejs }kjk mls ijns ij mrkjk tk;sA tks funs'Z kd dh dYiukuqlkj rks gks gh] lkFk&lkFk n'kZd dks Hkh okLrfodrk dk vkHkkl fnyk;sA vko';drk gS rks flQZ yxu dhA xksfoUn fugkykuh us foHkktu dh foHkhf"kdk Hkh ns[kh gSA mlh foHkktu dh foHkhf"kdk ij mUgksua s ^rel* dk fuekZ.k fd;kA os dgrs gSa fQYe gkFk ls mBkdj ekjus okyk gfFk;kj ugha gSA fQYe oSpkfjd gfFk;kj gS ftlls vki lkeus okys ds fnekx esa dqN loky mBk ldrs gSaA mls m}sfyr dj ldrs gSa fd eSa ,slk lksprk gwaA rqe ,slk&lksprs gks fd ugha\ xksfoUn fugkykuh dh vfèkdka'k fQYesa NksVs n'kZd oxZ ds fy, gSaA fugkykuh dh fQYesa lkekftd eqn~ns ij gksrh gSaA exj muesa O;fDr dk egRo T;knk gksrk gSA xksfoUn fugykuh us ^vkdk'k* ds funsZ'ku ls nLrd nhA bl fQYe ds fo"k;] izHkko vkSj fuokZg ds dkj.k og vkjEHk ls gh lekukUrj flusek ds etcwr vkSj egRoiw.kZ funs'Z kd cu x,A os pkgrs rks vklkuh ls eq[; èkkjk dh fQYeksa ds cgko esa 'kkfey gks ldrs FksA ij is'ks ds rkSj ij flusekVksxzkQh dks viukus ds lkFk gh mUgksaus lpsr fu.kZ; fy;k fd os ';ke csusxy tSls funsZ'kdksa ds lkFk dke djsaxsA funsZ'kd ';ke csusxy vkSj dSejkeSu xksfoUn fugykuh dh tksMh+ us ^vadjq * ls vkjEHk fd;kA ckn esa xksfoUn fugykuh funsZ'kd ds eSnku esa mrjs rks ,d rjg ls mUgksaus csusxy dh ijaijk dks gh u;h 'kk[kk nhA mudh fQYesa


lekukarj dh ygj esa ugha gSaA mUgksaus fQYe dks flQZ dykRed vH;kl ;k n`f"V dh fHkUurk rd lhfer ugha j[kkA vkjEHk ls gh mudk fo'okl jgk fd ledkyhu leL;kvksa ls tw>rh mudh fQYesa n'kZdksa ds [kkl oxZ rd igqaps vkSj mUgsa tkx`r djsaA xksfoUn fugykuh us flQZ lekjksgksa vkSj iqjLdkjksa ds fy, fofHkUu fQYeksa dk funsZ'ku ugha fd;kA os fQYeksa ds lkFk iz;ksx Hkh djrs jgsA ^ikVhZ*] ^vk?kkr*] ^n`f"V*] ^nzksgdky* lHkh fQYeksa esa os [kqn dks gh pqukSrh nsrs gSaA ;g pqukSrh fo"k; vkSj f'kYi nksuksa Lrjksa ij gSA viuh igyh fQYe ^'kkarrk dksVZ pkyw vkgs* ls ysdj ^gtkj pkSjklh dh eka* rd xksfoUn fugykuh us lkfgR; dks viuh fQYeksa dk vkèkkj cuk;kA ikB] fo"k; vkSj ;FkkFkZ ds fy, lkfgR; ,oa lkfgR;dkjksa ij xksfoUn dh ;g fuHkZjrk gh] muds funsZ'ku dh [kkl 'kfDr Hkh gSA jaxeap esa lfØ; jgs xksfoUn fugykuh us viuh 'kSyh esa jaxeap ds rRoksa dk Hkh lqUnj lekos'k fd;kA bl lanHkZ esa ?kfu"B fe= lR;nso nqcs ds izHkko dks os bZekunkjh ls Lohdkj djrs gSaA os ,sls flusekVksxzkQj gSa] tks dSejs ls dgkuh fy[krs gSAa

uwru Hkh fdlh ls de ugha Fkh 'kksHkuk leFkZ ,d cgqr lqUnj vfHkus=h FkhaA Hkkjrh; flusek dks mUgksua s nks csgrjhu vfHkusf=;ka nha % uwru vkSj ruqtkA uwru us vnkdkjh dk u;k vk;ke LFkkfir fd;kA uwru fQYeh nqfu;k esa vkus okyh igyh fel bafM;k FkhA ¼1949&50½A uxhuk ,d ,slh fQYe Fkh] tks ^,* xzsM dh Fkh vkSj mldh ghjksbu Fkh uwru] ftls gky esa tkdj fQYe ns[kus ugha nh x;h Fkh] D;ksafd og ckfyx ugha FkhA nqcyh&iryh yM+dh èkhjs&èkhjs viuk eqdke cukrh x;hA gj jksy mlus ,slk fd;k ekuks mlds fy, gh fy[kk x;k gksA lhek] cafnuh] lqtkrk] lksus dh fpfM+;k] eSa rqylh rsjs vkaxu dh] ;s dqN fQYesa gSAa yksx tks txg ehukdqekjh dks nsrs gS]a mlls de uwru dks ugha nh tk ldrhA fdlh Hkh ghjks ds vkxs og 19 ugha iM+hA fnyhidqekj us uwru ds lkFk dke fd;kA ,d fQYe mudh vkus okyh Fkh ysfdu fQj cUn gks x;hA uwru ,d ,slh l'kDr vfHkus=h Fkh ftldh felky de feyrh gSA mldks lgh dke feyk vkSj mldk ewY;kadu Hkh gqvk] ysfdu ruqtk ds lkFk ,slk ugha gqvkA dk'k ruqtk dks lgh vkadk x;k gksrk rks ,d vkSj ghjk bl fQYeh nqfu;k dks fey tkrkA

uwru us gYds&QqYds dke Hkh fd;s exj os ehy dk iRFkj cuhaA fd'kksj ds lkFk euekSth esa dke fd;k rks v'kksd dqekj ds lkFk xaHkhj jksy HkhA fcuk cksys gh uwru cgqr dqN dg tkrh FkhaA vfHku; esa bruh fo'kkjn gksrs gq, uwru dk O;fDrxr pfj= iz'kaluh; ugha jgkA muds [kkrs esa dbZ ,sls dkaM tqM+s gSaA mUgksaus latho dqekj dks lsV ij tkdj rekpk ekjk FkkA mUgksaus viuh eka dks izkiVhZ ds fy, dksVZ esa ?klhVk FkkA ;g muds iz'kaldksa dks dHkh vPNk ugha yxkA bruk gh ugha] eSa Hkh HkqDr Hkksxh FkkA ?kj tkdj muls vuqcèa k fd;k] ysfdu dgus yxh igys vki lkgc ls feyksA iSlk mUgksaus fy;k gS vkSj lkgc dHkh ugha feysA fn;k gqvk iSlk Mwc x;kA ;g rks gky Fkk mudkA

nknk lkgs c rks j .ks ¼tUe % 13 viz S y ] 1880½ uhao esa dbZ iRFkj gksrs gSa] muesa ls ,d Fks % nknk rksj.ks ;g dSlh foMEcuk gS fd lu~ 1913 esa fjyht gqbZ nknk lkgsc Qkyds dh fQYe ^jktk gfj'pUnz* ls igys lSdM+kas Kkr&vKkr dykdkjksa] VsDuhf'k;uksa us Hkkjrh; fQYe baMLVªh dks viuh esgur o yxu ls c<+kus esa viuk Hkjiwj ;ksxnku fn;k gS] ysfdu d`r?u baMLVªh vkSj flus bfrgkldkjksa us mUgsa ,slk Hkqyk;k tSls mudk dksbZ vfLrRo gh u FkkA jkepUnz xksiky rksj.ks dks Hkh Hkqyk fn;k x;k gSA ;s ogh rksj.ks lkgc gSa ftudh fQYe ^iqaMyhd* nknk lkgc Qkyds dh fQYe ^jktk gfj'pUnz* ds ,d o"kZ iwoZ ;kuh 18 ebZ] 1912 esa eqEcbZ ds dksjksus'ku fFk;sVj esa fjyht dh x;h FkhA nknk lkgsc rksj.ks egkjk"Vª ds flaèkq nqxZ ftys ds ,d NksVs xkao lqdwyokg esa 13 vizSy] 1880 dks tUes vkSj izkFkfed ,oa mPp f'k{kk mUgksua s flaèkq nqxZ ftys dh rglhy ekyo.k esa ik;h FkhA os ukSdjh ds fy, eqEcbZ igqapsA eqEcbZ esa mUgksaus xzhOt dkVu daiuh ds fo|qr foHkkx esa DydZ de lsYl eSu dh ukSdjh Lohdkj dj yhA eqEcbZ esa jkekjko ckyd`".k dhfrZdj viuh LVst daiuh ^Jhikn laxhr eaMyh* pyk;k djrs FksA LVst 'kks ds fy, T;knkrj 'kkSfd;k dykdkjksa dks gh fy;k tkrk vkSj pqfuUnk iz{s kdksa ds lkeus [ksyk tkrk FkkA ;g eaMyh cgqr lkjs 'kksèk fd;k djrh Fkh] ftlesa ^Jh iqaMyhd* [ksyk tkrk FkkA bls Lo;a dhfrZdj us fy[kk Fkk] D;ksafd ^Jh iqaMyhd* 'kks turk esa lcls flusek&2005

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T;knk yksdfiz; Fkk] blfy, mldh lQyrk dks ns[krs gq, nknk lkgc rksj.ks us mls fQYeh :i nsus dk bjknk fd;kA cksuZ ,.M 'ksQMZ daiuh esa ,d ewoh dSejk iM+k gqvk FkkA mls [kjhnus dh ckr pyhA ,d gtkj #i;s esa ckr cu x;h vkSj dSejk [kjhn fy;k x;kA dhfrZdj us vius ewy ukVd dh t:jr ds eqrkfcd vius Lusgh Jh ukMd.khZ dh lgk;rk ls iVdFkk rS;kj dhA lu~ 1909 esa fQYekadu dk Jhx.ks'k fd;k x;kA ;g fQYekadu mlh LFkku ij fd;k x;k Fkk tgka vkt ukt flusek dh fcfYMax gS] dSejs ds lkFk dSejkeSu Hkh ns fn;k dqN 'krksaZ ijA tgka vktdy ukt vkSj bEihfj;y flusek gS igys ;g [kkyh txg iM+h gqbZ FkhA ;g lj eaxynkl uRFkwHkkbZ dh [kkyh tehu FkhA blh eSnku esa ^iqMa yhd* dk ijaijkxr rjhds ls eqgrw Z gqvkA fQYe dh 'kwfVax tYnh gh lekIr gks x;hA ,Dlikst fd;k x;kA fQYe dks izkslsl ds fy, baXySaM Hkstuk t:jh Fkk] D;ksafd Hkkjr esa rc rd fQYe izkslsflax dh O;oLFkk x;h FkhA bl chp QkbusUl [kRe gks x;k FkkA cuZ ,.M 'ksQMZ okyksa us ftl dSejk eSu feLVj tksu ludks yksu ij fy;k Fkk og viuh lfoZl pktsZt ekaxus yxkA nknk lkgc rksj.ks us bl xqRFkh dks lqy>kus ds fy, ,d gtkj #i;s esa fy;k gqvk foY;elu dSejk mls nsus ds fy, rS;kj gq, vkSj mlh ds tfj;s cuZ 'ksQMZ daiuh dks dgk fd ,DliksTM fQYe baXySaM izkslsflax ds fy;s ys tk;sA blh nkSjku Jh fVi.khl vkSj Jh fp=s us fQYe izn'kZu gsrq ,d fFk;sVj LVsMa MZ jksM vkSj puhZ jksM ds eè; cuok;kA ;gh oks dksjksus'ku fFk;sVj FkkA ^iqaMyhd* dh flQZ ,d fizUV baXySM ls leqnz ekxZ ls eqEcbZ yk;h x;h FkhA fQYe dh yackbZ 1500 QhV FkhA izkts Ds Vj gkFk ls pyk;k tkrk FkkA vkf[kjdkj fQYe ^iqaMyhd* 18 ebZ 1912 dks eqEcbZ esa lSMLVZ jksM puhZ jksM ds djhc dksjksus'ku fFk;sVj esa izn'kZu ds fy, is'k dh x;hA fQYe yxkrkj nks lIrkg rd pyh tks vius vki esa ,d miyfCèk gSA rksj.ks fQYe ^iqMa yhd* ds fuekZ.k ds nkSjku Hkh viuh xzhOt dkVu bysfDVªdy daiuh ls tqM+s jgsA bl nkSjku rksj.ks lkgc cM+h cM+h 'kf[l;rksa ds laidZ esa vk;sA blds ckn daiuh us mUgsa izeks'ku nsdj djkph esa cSd a eSuts j dh gSfl;r ls 1913 esa HkstkA 142

flusek&2005

;gha djkph esa os r#.k QqrhZys ukStoku ds laidZ esa vk;s vkSj os Fks ckcwjko ibZA rksj.ks lkgc us ckcw jko ibZ dks vius fQYe fctusl esa lgk;d dh gSfl;r ls fy;kA djkph dh ukSdjh ls os lsokfuo`Rr gks x;s vkSj ckcwjko ibZ ds gejkg cudj eqEcbZ pys vk;s] mUgsa vesfjdk fQYe izkstsDVlZ cspus dh ,tsUlh fey x;hA blh nkSjku rksj.ks lkgc dks Kkr gqvk fd ,d ukStoku ckcwjko feL=h mQZ ckcwjko isUVj us ,d ewoh dSejk [kqn cuk;k gSA blfy, os dSejk ns[kus dksYgkiqj x;sA ckcwjko isUVj dh viuh fQYe fuekZ.k laLFkk egkjk"Vª fQYe daiuh FkhA rksj.ks vkSj isUVj feysA nksuksa us vius [kqn ds cuk;s gq, dSejs vkSj mlls igys ckgj ls eaxok;s x;s dSejk ds ckjs esa ckrphr dhA rksj.ks ckcwjko isUVj dh tkudkjh ls cgqr izHkkfor gq,A mUgksua s rksj.ks lkgc ls viuh fQYe daiuh Tokbu djus ds fy, dgkA rksj.ks lkgc us mudh vkWQj dcwy dj yhA blds ckn os fQYe forj.k] izpkj] QkbusUl ,oa O;olk; ds ekeys esa lgk;rk djus yxsA mUgksaus isUVj lkgc ls egkjk"Vª fQYe daiuh ls eqDr djus dh ;kpuk dh vkSj eqEcbZ ckcwjko ds lkFk okil pys vk;sA ;gka vkdj mUgksaus MkW- HkMdedj ekxZ fLFkr ckyds'oj gkml fcfYMax esa viuk dk;kZy; 1922 esa [kksykA mUgksua s viuh laLFkk dk uke ewoh dSejk daiuh j[kk vkSj fQYe fuekZ.k ds fy, vko';d lkexzh dk vk;kr 'kq: dj fn;kA ckcwjko us Hkh viuk vyx O;olk; 'kq: fd;kA os vesfjdk esa cus fQYe lhfj;Yl eaxokrs vkSj forfjr djrsA rksj.ks lkgc dks fQj ,d ckj fQYe fuekZ.k dk [;ky vk;kA mUgksaus Jh ef.kyky tks'kh ds lkFk feydj 1923 esa v'kksd fQYe~l dk xBu fd;kA mUgksaus ewd fQYe dh 'kq:vkr dh tks dUgS;kyky eq'a kh ds miU;kl ^i`Foh oYyHk* ij vkèkkfjr FkhA bl fQYe esa nknk lkgc rksj.ks us u;s psgjksa dks izLrqr fd;kA bu dykdkjksa ds uke Fks Qkfrek] lqyrkuk vkSj tqcsnkA ;s rhuksa lxh cgusa FkhaA tqcsnk us vkB o"kZ ds ckn Hkkjr esa cuus okyh igyh cksyrh fQYe ^vkye vkjk* esa ghjksbu dh Hkwfedk fuHkk;h FkhA Hkkyth isa<kjdj us Hkh rksj.ks dh fQYe i`Foh oYyHk esa flusfj;ks jkbVj vkSj esdvi eSu dh gSfl;r ls igyh ckj dke fd;k FkkA blds vykok mUgksaus ¼Hkkyth½ ,d NksVh lh Hkwfedk


vnk dh FkhA fQYe i`Foh ^oYyHk* 1924 esa fjyht gqbZ FkhA fQj os nwljh fQYe cukus dh fgEer tqVk u ik;sA ckcwjko vius ckyds'oj gkml esa fctusl esa rjDdh dj jgs FksA blfy, rksj.ks lkgc us mUgsa vius fctusl dks Lo;a ns[kus dh Lora=rk ns nhA rksj.ks lkgc us jk;y vkVZ LVwfM;ks esa tujy eSuts j dh gSfl;r ls Tokbu fd;kA os vk)Zsf'kj bZjkuh ds fo'ks"k fudV vk;sA rksj.ks lkgc us 1928 esa ,d u;h laLFkk cuk;h ftldk uke Qsel fiDplZ j[kk x;kA vkxs pydj vius uke dh gh rjg fMfLVªO;w'ku {ks= esa Hkh ;g laLFkk Qsel gqbZA Qsel fiDplZ dh LFkkiuk djrs gh rksj.ks lkgc us vyx&vyx fQYe fuekZ.k laLFkkvksa ls lksyfMfLVªO;w'ku ds gd gkfly djuk 'kq: dj fn;kA mUgksaus vnsZf'kj bZjkuh dks vius dkUQhMsUl esa fy;k vkSj mUgsa bl ckr ds fy, jkth fd;k fd mudh viuh futh fuekZ.k laLFkk vkSj viuk LVwfM;ks gksuk pkfg,A bZjkuh lkgc us eqEcbZ ds dSusMh fczt ds djhc tehu [kjhnh vkSj nknk lkgc rksj.ks dh ns[kjs[k esa fQYe LVwfM;ks dk fuekZ.k fd;kA mUgksaus nknk lkgsc rksj.ks dks viuh laLFkk dk tujy cuk;kA bEihfj;y fQYe daiuh dh vFkZO;oLFkk ij Hkkjh idM+ ds dkj.k bEihfj;y fQYe daiuh us viuh lkjh ewd fQYeksa dk fuekZ.k fd;kA rksj.ks us ^flUnckn n lsyj* ¼1930½ vkSj ^fnykoj* ¼1931½ tSlh fQYesa Mk;jsDV dhaA blh tekus esa ¼1927 ls 1930½ esa Hkkjrh; fQYe ekdZsV esa fons'k esa cuh cksyrh fQYeksa dk vk;kr vkjaHk gks x;k FkkA nknk lkgc dh ikj[kh utjksa us Hkkjr esa cksyrh fQYeksa ds Ldksi dks rkM+ fy;k FkkA mUgksaus vkfM;ks dksesDl fjdkfM±x e'khujh dh ,tsUlh gkfly dj yhA nknk lkgc us bEihfj;y daiuh dks cksyrh fQYesa cukus ds fy, e'khujh eqgS;k dhA vc rd Hkkjr esa ^vkokt jfgr* fQYesa curh FkhaA mlh oDr fQYedkj Hkh cksyrh fQYe cukus dh nkSM+ esa tqM+ x;s vkSj vkf[kjdkj bZjkuh lkgc nkSM+ esa vkxs fudy x;sA mudh igyh cksyrh fQYe eqEcbZ ds eSftfLVd flusek x`g esa 14 ekpZ] 1931 dks iznf'kZr dh x;hA ^vkye vkjk* ds ckn rksj.ks lkgc dh vkfM;ks dkesDl e'khu dk flyflyk py iM+kA mUgksua s j.kthr ewohVksu dh igyh fQYe ^nsoh nso;kuh ¼1931½* vkSj izHkkr dh igyh fQYe ^v;ksè;k dk jktk ¼1932½* cuokbZA

fQYeksa dks vkokt eqg;S k djus ds fy, nknk lkgc rksj.ks dk cgqr ;ksxnku gSA blds ckn nknk lkgsc eqEcbZ pys x;sA ogka nksjkc 'kkg ls feysA nksjkc 'kkg us dbZ LVaV fQYesa cuk;h FkhaA mudh fQYe fuekZ.k laLFkk dk uke ljLorh fQYe daiuh FkkA ;g ewd fQYeksa ds tekus dh ckr gSA ckrphr ds ckn os vius cSuj] lEifRr rFkk e'khusa bl 'krZ ij cspus dks rS;kj gks x;s fd u;h daiuh }kjk fd;s x;s O;kikj esa mUgsa 60 izfr'kr dk ykHk feysxkA rksj.ks us tehu dk eqvkotk nsdj tehu izkIr dj yhA bl rjg ljLorh flusVksu dh cqfu;kn iM+hA ;g 31 fnlEcj] 1931 dh ckr gSA bl cSuj esa cuus okyh igyh fQYe Fkh] ^';ke lqUnj* ftlesa u;s&u;s dykdkjksa dh Hkjekj FkhA bu dykdkjksa esa 'kkgw eksMd ¼d`".k½] 'kkUrk vkIVs ¼jkèkk½] ckcw jko dsrdj ¼ukjn½ bR;kfn FksA nknk rksj.ks dh fuekZ.kkèkhu fQYe Fkh ^';ke lqUnj*A bRrQkd dh ckr gS fd ckcwjko dsrdj bl fQYe ds laxhrdkj Hkh FksA ;s ';kelqUnj Hkkyth isa<kjdj dh igyh fnXnf'kZr Vkdh fQYe FkhA u;s rkts psgjs] izHkko'kkyh laokn] cf<+;k flukfj;ks] xhr vkSj Hkkyth ds funs'Z ku dk vlj Fkk fd fQYe fjyht gksrs gh mls [kwc lQyrk feyhA eqEcbZ esa ;g fQYe yxkrkj 27 g¶rs pyh vkSj fVdV f[kM+dh ij ,d fjdkMZ dk;e fd;kA ^';ke lqUnj* Hkkjr esa flYoj tqcyh] jtr egksRlo eukus okyh igyh fQYe FkhA rksj.ks us ^';ke lqUnj* dh lkmaM fjdkfMZxa Hkh dh FkhA ^';ke lqUnj* dh 'kkunkj dke;kch ds ckn ^vkokjk 'kgtknk* ¼fganh&ejkBh½ HkDr izgykn] N=ifr laHkkth ¼ejkBh½ fQYesa cuk;haA ;g lkjh fQYesa 1933&34 ds nkSjku cuhaA rksj.ks lkgc us vkokjk 'kgtknk esa ekLVj foV~By dks funs'Z kd dh gSfl;r ls izo's k fn;k FkkA blh fQYe esa 'kkgw eksMd us Mcy jksy fuHkk;k FkkA 'kk;n ;g Hkkjr esa igyk Mcy jksy FkkA lu~ 1932 ls 1941 ds dky[k.M esa nknk rksj.ks dh daiuh us 15 fQYesa cuk;haA blesa 8 ejkBh] 3 fgUnh vkSj ckdh pkj fQYesa vkSj fgUnh ejkBh dh FkhaA ckn esa Ýhykflax dh 'kq:vkr gks x;hA rc mUgsa fganh esa fQYesa cukuk iM+k rkfd vf[ky Hkkjrh; O;olk; gkfly fd;k tk ldsA fgUnh ds dykdkjksa dks ysuk iM+kA eksrhyky dks ^lp gS* ds fy,] fj;klr vyh [kku okLrh dks ^Lo.kZ yrk* esa vkSj ek;k cuthZ dks ^vkokt* esaA fQj Hkh mUgsa blls vfèkd Qk;nk ugha gqvkA rksj.ks ds flusek&2005

143


iqjkus lkFkh ckcwjko ibZ us Hkh ljLorh flusVksu ls fdukjk dj fy;kA rksj.ks ,d rjg ls daxky gks x;sA os viuh laLFkk cUn djus dh lkspus yxsA mUgksaus viuh vkf[kjh fQYe ^vkokt* 1942 esa cuk;hA vkf[kjdkj mUgksaus viuk LVwfM;ks ebZ 1942 esa can dj fn;k vkSj bl rjg ljLorh flusVksu dk cksyckyk [kRe gks x;k vkSj mldh vkokt 'kkar gks x;hA

mUgksaus fQYe m|ksx dks D;k dqN ugha fn;kA ysfdu fQYe m|ksx dk fjokt pyk vk jgk gS fd ftruk fn;k mlls T;knk olwy dj ysrh gSA j.kthr] feuokZ] ch,p- okfM;k] ch-,e- O;kl] ,e-,e-Vh- okyksa dk tks gqvk ;g lc bl m|ksx dh foMEcuk gSA fQj Hkh ,d xkao ls vkdj ftruk dqN nknk rksj.ks us fd;k mls ;g ih<+h t:j ;kn j[ksxhA

*** 1950 esa iznf'kZr fQYe ^e'kky* dk ia- iznhith }kjk fyf[kr xhr ^Åij xxu fo'kky] uhps xgjk ikrky* xkuk eUuk Ms us xk;k FkkA bldh fo'ks"krk ;g Fkh fd eUuk Ms ds lkFk dksjl esa [kqn laxhrdkj ,l-Mh- ceZu uk;d v'kksd dqekj rFkk fd'kksj dqekj us viuh vkokt nh FkhA *** fnyhi dqekj vfHkuhr igyh fQYe ^Tokj HkkVk* esa uk;d dh Hkwfedk vkxk us fuHkk;h Fkh] tcfd fnyhi dqekj lguk;d FksA blh rjg fQYe ^ifrrk* esa Hkh uk;d vkxk rFkk lguk;d nso vkuan FksA ckn esa fnyhi dqekj vkSj nso vkuan eq[; ghjks cu x, vkSj vkxk lg uk;d dh Hkwfedk djus yxsA eueksgu nslkbZ ds funsZ'ku esa cuh fQYe ^èkjeohj* esa èkesZUnz ds cpiu dh Hkwfedk muds csVs rFkk vkt ds LVkj ckch nsvksy us fuHkk;h FkhA *** MSuh us vius dSfj;j esa ,d fQYe ^fQj ogh jkr* dk funsZ'ku Hkh fd;k Fkk] ftlesa jkts'k [kUuk vkSj fde eq[; Hkwfedk esa FksA *** fQYe fuekZrk&funsZ'kd egcwc [kku us fnyhi dqekj vkSj jktdqekj dks ysdj ,d fQYe ^dQu* dk fuekZ.k djus dh ;kstuk cuk;h Fkh] exj mudh vpkud e`R;q ds dkj.k mudh ;g ;kstuk iwjh u gks ldhA cgjgky] bUgha nksuksa dykdkjksa dks ysdj lqHkk"k ?kbZ us fQYe ^lkSnkxj* cuk;h] tks lqij&Mqij fgV jghA

144

flusek&2005


Jh- foรฐyHkkbZ iVsy ds lkFk ch- ih- tks'kh

fQYe f{kfrt ds fuekZ.k ds le; & ckydfo cSjkxh] izsediwj vkSj tkfgjk ds lkFk ch-ih- tks'kh ch- ih- tks'kh] e- iz- ds eq[;ea=h ';keukjk;.k 'kqDy dk Lokxr djrs gq, A

,d lekjksg esa larks"k flag th] jkejkt ukgVk ds lkFk A

e/;izns'k eS=h la?k esa cksyrs gq, ch- ih- tks'kh


tUe % 1926] f[kyphiqj] eè;izns'kA f'k{kk % ch- dkWe-A1947&48 rd MkW- jkeeuksgj yksfg;k ds lfpo ds :i esa fgUnh dk dk;ZA 1948&50 rd iztke.My ds lfØ; dk;ZdrkZ jgsA 1948&55 rd lkjaxiqj ls izdkf'kr lkIrkfgd jktuhfrd if=dk ^egkHkkjr* ds lEiknd jgsA 1955 esa fQYe ^VªsM xkbM* if=dk ds laLFkkid lnL; ds :i esa lEc)A 1955&74 rd eqEcbZ ls izdkf'kr if=dk ^flusok.kh* lkIrkfgd dk lEiknu fd;kA ^fgUnh fQYeksa dk lqugjk lQj* uked iqLrd lEcUèkh vuqlaèkku] lEiknu ,oa ys[kuA 1950 esa fQYe ^vej flag jkBkSM+* ds izksMD'ku fMt+kbujA 1970 esa fQYe ^nks psgjs* ds lg&fuekZrkA 1973 esa ^fdLlk dqlhZ dk*] 1974 esa ^f{kfrt* vkSj 1982 esa ^t; ckck vejukFk* rFkk o`Rr fp=ksa ^pkSFkk ikyuk* rFkk ^ekSle cnyk gS* ds fuekZrk ds :i esa dk;ZA fQYe forj.k ds eè;izns'k] mRrjizns'k] egkjk"Vª vkSj lh-ih-] lh-vkbZ- vkfn lHkh O;kikfjd laxBuksa ds lnL; jgsA ^n xzsVj fQYe izksMD'ku dks&vkWijsfVo lkslk;Vh ds lfpo] ^eè;izns'k eS=h la?k* ds egklfpo rFkk ^tuZfyLV lkslk;Vh* ds lnL; jgsA

cnzhizlkn tks'kh

esjs fy, t¨'kh th bl baMLVªh ds fMlsaV cqtqxZ dh rjg FksA vHkh bl voLFkk esa eS D;k dg\ cgqr cgqr lqHkdkeuk,¡ vkSj c/kkÃA ch- vkj- b'kkjk & ?? Qjojh ???? baMLVªh esa eS t¨'kh th d¨ ckck dgdj cqyk;k djrk FkkA gj eqf'dy ?kMh esa ge lkFk jgs gSA vkt ckck ugha gS] ysfdu bu fdrkc¨ ds :i esa os ges'kk lkFk jgsxsA lqHkdkeukvks ds lkFk & çdk'k >k & fnlEcj ???? nqlj¨ ds fy, l¨puk mudk LokHkko FkkA ;g iqLrd fjlpZj¨ ds fy, [ktkuk gS & fou¨n frokjh ¼ iwoZ laiknd & ek/kqjh ½ vkids }kjk flusek ds tue vkSj fodkl esa cgqr lh vudgh ckrs mtkxj g¨xhA vius le; ds lQy dykdkj¨a ds la?k"kZ vkSj leiZ.k d¨ fd;k ftlls vkus okyh i<+h dqN lh[k ys ldsA & foB~By Hkkà iVsy xka/khoknh fopkj¨ ls çHkkfor Fks vkSj ges'kk mPp fopkj¨ ds lkFk jgsA ges'kk lcds ennxkj jgsA esjs O;fDrxr thou esa Hkh mudk cgqr cM+k ;¨xnku jgk vkSj os esjs cM+s Hkkà tSls FksA mudh ys[kuh d¨ ç.kkeA jkex¨iky xqIrk ¼ fuekZrk vkSj QkmaMj VªLVh vokMZ vdsMeh ½ brus o"kZ¨ ckn t¨'kh dh ,d lkFk ? fdrkcs çdkf'kr g¨ jgh gS] r¨ lc dqN ftoar g¨us tSlk yx jgk gSA t¨'kh ifjokj d¨ c/kkÃA ferqy çnhi What I Can mention is deepest and soulful friendship of my father and Uncle Joshiji. The friendship is an example for our generation. It is an immense pleasure that his books are being published. My best wishes... - Baran Adarsh (Trade Guide)

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book of mb joshi

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