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Guide to Spa Resorts


The statue of Hercules at B책ile Herculane


Nature and health Thanks to its significant social and economic benefits, spa tourism has become a major segment of the international tourist market. It is now a domain that concentrates major material and human resources. Science and technology play an increasingly important part in this segment, as does the provision of complex tourist and medical services of the highest quality aimed at satisfying the vital needs of people today, which are determined by changes in lifestyle and general population health. Romania has one of the most remarkable networks of spa resorts in all Europe: one third of the continent’s thermal and mineral waters can be found in our country. This value is augmented by the complexity of local natural factors. In other words, you will find in the same spa resort the principal environmental factors alongside a wide range of curative mineral substances. Romania offers all the bathing minerals that can be used in the whole range of specific spa treatments. The therapeutic value of the natural cures available in Romania has been recognised by locals since ancient times. Archaeologists have discovered numerous mineral and thermal baths from the time of the Roman Empire. Even today, at many Romanian spa resorts you will find two-thousand-year-old vestiges of ancient baths. The Thermae Herculi, nowadays called Büile Herculane, was famous throughout the Roman Empire for the curative properties of its mineral waters. Many of today’s spa resorts continue this ancient tradition. In the eighteenth and nineteenth century they gained European renown, and became favourite destinations for those seeking a cure or wishing to spend their holidays in a spa resort. In 1924, the Romanian Institute of Balneology was established, the second of its kind in Europe, and researchers and physicians turned their attention to the treatment of ailments using natural cures. Spa tourism in Romanian has developed continuously, expanding greatly in the 1970s and 80s, and today there is a focus on recuperative spa services and preventative cures of the highest quality. Spa tourism is a major component of what Romanian tourism has to offer and is aimed not only at patients with medical problems but also at people wishing to relax, regain their vitality and get into better physical, mental and spiritual shape.

Contents Map of Romania showing spa resorts . . . . . 4 Spa resorts, ailments and available treatments . . . . . . . 6 Presentation of spa resorts . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Presentation of natural therapeutic factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Indications for prophylactic and anti-aging cures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Indications for spa cures by groups of ailments and geriatric spa cures . . . . . . 54


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Map of Romania showing spa resorts

1500 m

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34.

Legend

Amara Bazna BÅile 1 Mai BÅile Felix BÅile Govora BÅile Herculane BÅile OlÅneÍti BÅile TuÍnad Borsec BuziaÍ CÅlimÅneÍti-CÅciulata Covasna Geoagiu BÅi Lacul SÅrat Moneasa Ocna Sibiului Ocna Íugatag Praid Pucioasa SÅrata Monteoru Sângeorgiu de MureÍ Sângeorz BÅi SlÅnic Moldova SlÅnic Prahova Sovata Turda Vatra Dornei Vaˇa de Jos Voineasa Eforie Nord Techirghiol Neptun Saturn Mangalia

5


Rheumatism

Peripheral nervous system

x

x

x

Cardiovascular

x

Neuroses

Gynaecology

Digestive tract and connected glands

Nutritional and metabolic

Kidneys and urinary tract

Endocrine

x

Therapeutic recommendations

Procedures and treatments 1 Amara

x

x

2 Bazna

3 Båile 1 Mai

4 Båile Felix

x

5 Båile Govora

x

x

x

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8 Båile Tußnad

x

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9 Borsec

x

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10 Buziaß

x

x

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11 Cålimåneßti-Cåciulata

x

x

12 Covasna

x

x

13 Geoagiu Bai

x

14 Lacul Sårat

x

15 Moneasa

x

16 Ocna Sibiului

17 Ocna Íugatag

x

x x

x

x

7 Båile Olåneßti

x

x x

6 Båile Herculane

6

Respiratory and ear, nose and throat

Dermatology, allergies

Liver and gallbladder complaints

Occupational illnesses

Bathing in thermal water

Bathing in mineral water

Bathing in saltwater

Electrotherapy

Kinetotherapy

Inhalation and aerosol therapy

Mud packs

Mofetta

Internal cures using spring waters

Massage

Fitness

Ani-stres cure

Gerovital cure

Spa resorts, ailments and available treatments

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Neuroses

Kidneys and urinary tract

Endocrine

Cardiovascular

Gynaecology

Peripheral nervous system

Digestive tract and connected glands

Nutritional and metabolic

Rheumatism

19 Pucioasa

20 Sårata Monteoru

x

21 Sângeorgiu de Mureß

x

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24 Slånic Prahova

28 Va†a de Jos

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x

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23 Slånic Moldova

x

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26 Turda

x

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25 Sovata

x

22 Sângeorz Båi

34 Mangalia

x

Therapeutic recommendations

18 Praid

33 Saturn

Respiratory and ear, nose and throat

Dermatology, allergies

Liver and gallbladder complaints

Occupational illnesses

Bathing in thermal water

Bathing in mineral water

Bathing in saltwater

Electrotherapy

Kinetotherapy

Inhalation and aerosol therapy

Mud packs

Mofetta

Internal cures using spring waters

Massage

Fitness

Ani-stres cure

Gerovital cure

Procedures and treatments

x

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7


Presentation of spa resorts 1. AMARA Location In the central Bårågan Steppe, on the north-western shore of Lake Amara, 7 km from Slobozia. Altitude of 30m.

History The place name is attested in documents dating back to 1684, during the reign of Matei Basarab, who endowed the monastery he founded at Slobozia with extensive lands around the lake. After the secularisation of the monastic estates in 1864, the first bathing establishments came into being, including the hamlet of Amara. The locals heated water and mud from the lake using rudimentary installations. In 1905, a first wooden bathhouse was built, but it was destroyed in the First World War. After the Second World War, a number of structures intended for spa tourism were built on the shore of Lake Amara.

Climate Steppe continental, warm summers and cold winters. The average annual temperature is 10.3°C (the average for July is 22°C and for January -3°C). Low precipitation. The average annual humidity reaches 63%. Cloud cover in summer is 5.0 tenths. In winter the wind is north-easterly.

Natural therapeutic factors The water of Lake Amara, which is sulphurous, chlorosodic, magnesian and slightly bromate, has a total mineralisation of 9.88 grams per litre. Thanks to its sulphate-rich content, the water has a bitter taste, hence the name of the lake and the resort (amar means bitter in Romanian). The sapropelic lake mud has a concentration of 66.6 g/l. The borehole mineral water for cures is sulphurous, slightly sulphate, bicarbonate, sodic, magnesic, and hypotonic. Stimulatory, steppe bio-climate.

Therapeutic indications Degenerative rheumatic complaints (cervical, dorsal and lumbar spondylosis, arthritis, poly-arthritis), inflammatory rheumatic complaints (allergic conditions of the joints following acute rheumatism of the joints or acute infections, ankylosing spondylosis); abarticular rheumatic complaints (tendinosis, tendomyosis, tendoperiososis, scapulohumeral

8

periarthritis) post-traumatic complaints, (post-traumatic stiffness of the joints, post-operative conditions affecting the joints) peripheral neurological conditions(post-traumatic paresis and paralysis of the limbs, polyneuropathy symptoms, after-effects of poliomyelitis), gynaecological complaints (chronic metroanexita, secondary sterility, ovarian insufficiency), related dermatological and endocrine complaints.

Medical counterindications Cardiovascular complaints, Basedow’s disease, asthma, contagious diseases.

Treatment facilities Hot-bath facilities in tubs and pools, using water drawn from the lake; hot mud-bath facilities; facilities for cold mud packs, followed by bathing in the lake; spring-water drinking facilities for internal cures; complex hydro- and electro-therapy facilities; physiotherapy rooms; medical massage; aeroheliotherapy facilities.

Accommodation Two- and three-star hotels; motels; guesthouses

Tourist attractions A dendrological park; fishing; the Jegålia stud farm; the city of Slobozia, with the County Museum (archaeology, fine art, history, folk art), the Museum of Architecture, the Ionel Perlea Cultural Centre, and the Voevode Saints Church (a former monastery, built in 1628); excursions to Lunca Ialomi†ei, Pådurea Sudi†i, Crîngul Frumos, and Pådurea Buießti (hunting reserves).

2. BAZNA Location The spa resort is situated in the central Tîrnave Plateau, between the Tîrnava Mare and Tîrnava Micå Rivers, in a hilly region covered with extensive forests, vineyards and orchards. The resort is 17km from the town of Mediaß, 53 km from Sighißoara and 72 km from Sibiu.


History The qualities of the waters from Bazna were first noted in the eighteenth century. In 1814, the springs of Bazna became the property of the local Evangelical church, and by the end of the same year the construction of a bathing establishment was decided upon. The first facilities were created in 1835, and in 1843 the first bathing establishment was built. A pharmacy was opened in 1905, the year when a permanent physician was brought to the resort. It was also in this period that production of Bazna Salt commenced, with the trade name “Victoria”.

Climate Moderate continental climate, in a region of hills and plateaus, with an average annual temperature of 8-9°C. In January the average is -4°C, and in July around 20°C. The annual cloud cover is 5.5 to 6.0 tenths, and the annual average relative humidity is 80%. The resort is sheltered from winds by the surrounding hills.

Natural therapeutic factors Chlorate, sodic, iodate, bromate, concentrated, athermal spring waters, with a total mineralisation of 17.1 to 714.5 grams per litre. Bazna Salt is extracted from the spring waters and sold in pharmacies. The therapeutic mud extracted from the resort’s reservoirs is of mixed composition, in which sedimented mineral substances brought to the surface by water from the boreholes and springs predominate. The bioclimate is gently stimulatory. During summer, on the shores of the salt lakes the atmosphere is rich in aerosols and hydro-ions of iodine and sodium, which have therapeutic effects.

Therapeutic indications Degenerative rheumatic complaints (cervical, lumbar and dorsal spondylosis, arthrosis, polyarthrosis); inflammatory rheumatic complaints (allergic conditions following acute rheumatism of the joints or acute infections); abarticular rheumatic complaints (tendinosis, tendomyosis, tendoperiososis, scapulohumeral periarthritis); post-traumatic complaints (post-traumatic stiffness of the joints, post-operative conditions affecting the joints, muscles and bones, post-sprain conditions, luxations and fractures); peripheral neurological diseases (post-traumatic paresis and paralysis, stiffness following poly-neuropathy symptoms, after-effects of poliomyelitis); gynaecological complaints (ovarian insufficiency, cervicitis, chronic metroanexita); related complaints (ear, nose and throat complaints, endocrine complaints, occupational illnesses).

Treatment facilities Facilities for bathing in hot spring water and pools; hot-mud bath and mud-pack facilities; aeroheliotherapy facilities; mud-packs followed by bathing in pools of cold spring water; complex electro- and hydrotherapy facilities; physiotherapy rooms; medical massage.

Accommodation 3-star hotel, 3-star pensions, 4- and 2-flower rural pensions, 2-star villa.

Tourist attractions The fortified church in the village of Bazna, built in the gothic style in 1402, has a powerful tower on its east side, topped by a wooden gallery.

3. BÅILE 1 MAI Permanent spa and climatic resort in Bihor Couny. Altitude: 140m.

Location The resort is situated in the north-west of Romania, in the parish of Sînmartin, where the Miersig Plain meets the Hills of Oradei, at an altitude of 140m, 2km from Båile Felix and 10km from Oradea.

History The therapeutic effect of the mineral waters from hereabouts was discovered many years ago. The baths were variously named: the Baths of Saint Ladislas, the Baths of Haieu, and finally the Episcopal Baths, after they became the property of the Roman-Catholic Bishopric of Oradea in 1374. Early cures were carried out by application of mud extracted from the bottom of the Pe†ea streambed to painful areas of the body. The first therapeutic centres were built in the 1950s and 60s. Since 1978, the resort has grown continuously. The Venus thermal lido is the longest in the resort.

Climate Moderate continental-type climate. The average annual temperature is 10.5°C.

Natural therapeutic factors Oligo-metallic waters (bicarbonate and slightly chlorate, with temperatures varying up to 42ºC); the sapropelic mud extracted from the resort’s lake, fed by the waters that spring from the banks of the Pe†ea Stream.

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Båile Felix

Therapeutic indications Inflammatory rheumatic complaints, rheumatoid polyarthritis, ankylosing spondylosis, complaints resulting from acute rheumatism of the joints; degenerative rheumatic complaints; cervical, dorsal and lumbar spondylosis, lumbar arthrosis and polyarthrosis; post-traumatic complaints; post-traumatic stiffness of the joints, post-operative conditions of the joints and bones; post-fracture, sprain and luxation conditions; central nervous system complaints and peripheral semiparesis a minimum of six months after first occurrence, paraparesis a minimum of three months after occurrence of myelitis, bone-marrow operations, or spine injuries; various forms of paresis and paralysis; gynaecological complaints; minor disorders of puberty and the menopause; complaints associated with metabolic and nutritive diseases; type II diabetes; endocrine diseases; gout localised in the joints. Medical counter-indications: Infectious diseases, malignant diseases, haematological complaints (haemophilia), acute thromboses or thrombophlebitis, ischemic cardiopathy (pectoral angina, myocardial infarction), high arterial hypertension, acute respiratory tract complaints, pregnancy, endometriosis, anal or urinary incontinence, psychosis, epilepsy, tuberculosis.

Treatment facilities Diadynamic and interferential currents; magnetodiaflux; ultrasound; short waves; laser therapy; galvanic baths; ionisation; aerosols;

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therapeutic baths with thermal spring water in tubs and pools; underwater douche; manual segmental massage; kinetotherapy room. Mud packs: the therapeutic action is due to the physical and chemical properties of the mud. Thermo-therapy. Massage. Paraffin packs. Cures using mud stimulate peripheral neuro-receptors, vasodilation, and consequently the body’s reflexes.

Accommodation 2-star hotel, 3-star pensions, 4- and 3-star rural pensions.

Tourist attractions Båile 1 Mai: a lido with waves and one with thermal water, the oldest of its kind in Romania, with fourteen swimming pools; the Pe†ea Stream nature reserve – a lily lake home to three protected species: Nymphaea Lotus Thermalis (a relic from the tertian period that is unique in Europe, a tropical species that grows here thanks to the temperate climate); Racovi†å’s redeye (an endemic species of fish, named after Romanian naturalist Emil Racovi†å), and Melanopsis Parreyssi (a species of snail that has survived since the Ice Age). Excursions to the surrounding area – as for Båile Felix.


4. BÅILE FELIX Year-round spa and climatic resort located in Bihor County. Altitude 140m.

LOCATION The resort is situated on the north-western flank of the Apuseni Mountains, on the Crißurilor Plateau in the foothills of the Pådurea Craiului Massif. The Hidißel Stream runs through the town. The spa is 9 km from Oradea, and 22 km from the border town of Borß.

HISTORY The earliest historical documents relating to the resort date back to 1763 and include the notes of a physician regarding the construction of a bathing pool. In 1771, the original wooden pool was rebuilt in stone and supplied with bathing cabins. The resort’s first permanent building was erected in 1744. The resort began to grow after work on the first modern borehole was completed at the main spring in 1885.

CLIMATE Båile Felix enjoys a mild, temperate continental climate. The average annual temperature is 10.4°C (the average for July is 21.3°C, and the average for January is -2.1°C), which is higher than that for other areas

in Romania situated at approximately the same altitude, due to the circulation of warmer and moister air from the west and north-west, which transports masses of sea air. Winters are generally mild, without hard frosts; in summer, temperatures are not as high as in eastern or southern areas of the country. The average annual cloud cover reaches 6 tenths, with a maximum of 7.9 tenths in December and a minimum of 4.4 tenths in September. The most frequent sunny days occur in JuneJuly-August. The annual precipitation reaches 615.8 mm. Winds are mild and mostly south-easterly.

Natural therapeutic factors Thermal mineral waters, with a temperature between 41 and 49°C, and a total mineralisation of approximately 1 gram per litre. Chemically, the water is bicarbonate, sulphate, calceous, sodic, silicate, oligomineral. Mild, slightly stimulatory bio-climate.

Therapeutic indications Inflammatory rheumatic complaints (rheumatoid polyarthritis, ankylosing sponylosis in the dormant phase, conditions resulting from acute rheumatism of the joints), degenerative rheumatic complaints (cervical, dorsal and lumbar spondylosis with and without cervicobrachialgia, lumbosciatalgia, arthritis, polyarthritis); abarticular rheumatic complaints (tendinosis, tendomyosis, scapulohumeral periarthritis, etc.); post-traumatic complaints (post-traumatic stiffness of the joints, post-

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operative conditions affecting the joints, muscles and bones, conditions resulting from fractures, sprains, luxations); central and peripheral neurological conditions (hemi-paresis a minimum of six months after occurrence, paraparesis a minimum of three months after occurrence of myelitis, conditions resulting from bone-marrow operations and spinal injuries, various forms of paresis and paralysis); gynaecological complaints (chronic metroanexita, minor disorders of puberty and the menopause), related dermatological, nutritional and endocrine complaints. Medical counterindications: Infectious diseases, malignant diseases, haematological complaints (haemophilia), acute thromboses or thrombophlebitis, ischemic cardiopathy (pectoral angina, myocardial infarction), high arterial hypertension, acute respiratory tract complaints, pregnancy, endometriosis, anal or urinary incontinence, psychosis, epilepsy, tuberculosis.

TREATMENT FACILITIES Thermal spring-water facilities in tubs and pools, with facilities for kinetotherapy and underwater stretching; hot mudpack facilities; facilities for gynaecological cures using thermal spring-water and hot mud; spring-water drinking facilities for internal cures; complex electroand hydro-therapy facilities; aerosol and inhalation therapy facilities; outdoor thermal spring-water pools, some of which are open twentyfour hours a day, all year round; medical physiotherapy rooms; medical massage; sauna; Gerovital and Aslavital facial and body cosmetic treatments.

ACCOMMODATION 4- and 3-star hotels, 3- and 2-star pensions, 3-flower rural pensions, 2-star camp sites.

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS The artificial thermal lakes of Båile Felix have acclimatised lotuses, such as are usually found in India and Pakistan (Nelurnuncifera), Africa (Nymphea zanzibarena), Asia and Africa (Aeibornia crasepis). The city of Oradea: the Museum of the Criß Country, the Roman-Catholic Cathedral (the largest baroque cathedral in Romania), the ruins of Oradea Castle (built between 1114 and 1131), the Romanian Orthodox Cathedral, known as the Church with the Moon (the clock has a mechanism that tells the phases of the moon, unique in Europe), the Black Eagle Palace and Arcade (a Secession period architectural monument). Biharia: the ruins of Biharea Castle, which was the capital of the Voevodeship of Menumorut in the tenth century Batår: dendrological park, with species of exotic trees

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Chißcåu: the Cave of Bears Stîna de Vale: departure point for excursions to the Apuseni Mountains The Iadului Valley, with the Iadolina and Devil’s Mill waterfalls and the Leßu Reservoir Vadu Crißului: departure point for excursions to the Pådurea Craiului Mountains, the Crißul Repede Gorge, and the Vadu Crißului karst area

5. BÅILE GOVORA Year-round spa and climatic resort in Vîlcea County. Altitude: 360 m.

LOCATION The spa is located in north-eastern Oltenia, within a sub-Carpathian depression in the Hin†a River Valley, surrounded by hills forested with beech, oak and fir, 12 km from Govora and 21 km from Rîmnicu Vîlcea.

HISTORY The local spring water has been used for therapeutic purposes since 1879. For a time, cures were administered using copåi (wooden bathtubs) housed in the cells of Govora Monastery, six kilometres from the springs. The spring water was transported to the monastery in huge barrels, using oxcarts called sacale. The first bathing establishment at the springs dates from 1887. In 1910 the Palace Hotel opened, with rooms aligned in such a way as to capture at least one hour of sunlight every day. The central pavilion and casino were also established in the same year.

CLIMATE Moderate continental hill climate, with cool summers and mild winters. The annual average temperature is approximately 9°C (the average for July is 19°C, and the average for January is 3°C). The annual average precipitation is 840 mm, with the minimum occurring in September. The relative humidity is around 60-70% in the hot season and 70-80% in the cold season. The air pressure oscillates between 730 and 735 mm.

Natural therapeutic factors The spring waters are of differing concentrations and chemical compositions, and can be separated into three categories: concentrated chlorate-sodic, iodate, bromate; concentrated chlorate-sodic, sulphurous; mildly bicarbonate hypotonic, sulphurous. Mild sedative bio-climate.


Therapeutic indications Respiratory tract complaints (exposure to respiratory noxa, persons prone to microbial or viral lung diseases, allergenic asthma, chronic bronchitis tracheobronchitis, bronchiecstasis, pulmonary scleroemphysema); othorhinopharyngeal complaints (chronic catarrhal and suppurating rhino-sinusitis); abarticular rheumatic complaints (tendinosis, tendomyosis, tendoperiososis, scapulohumeral periarthritis, etc.); post-traumatic complaints (post-traumatic stiffness of the joints, post-operative conditions affecting the muscles, joints and bones, conditions following sprains and fractures); peripheral and central neurological conditions (delayed mild-paresis and the after-effects of hemi-paresis two years after the date of occurrence); gynaecological complaints (chronic metroanexita, minor disorders of puberty and the menopause), related gynaecological, renal, digestive, endocrine, cardiovascular and occupational illnesses. The local climate is favourable for people with upper respiratory tract complaints; allergenic pollen is present only in low quantities; favourable for treatment of chronic exhaustion and debility. Due to the iodine present in the atmosphere, the resort is not recommended for people suffering from thyroid conditions.

TREATMENT FACILITIES Facilities for bathing in hot iodate and sulphurous spring water; spring water pool for kinetoterapy; hot mudpack facilities; aerosoltherapy facilities, inhalation therapy, complex electro- and hydrotherapy; physiotherapy room, medical massage, spring water drinking facilities. There are marked routes for open-air cures.

ACCOMMODATION 1-, 2- and 3-star hotels, 3-star pensions, 4-, 3-, 2- and 1- star villas, and a 1-star tourist hostel.

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS Visits to the monasteries of Vîlcea, sites of historical and cultural interest, in settings rich in history. Govora Monastery, just six kilometres from resort, is one of the oldest monasteries in Wallachia, and is a mediaeval architectural monument of a rare beauty. Hurezi Monastery, a monument of Romanian architecture from the reign of Constantine Brîncoveanu, is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site. Excursions to the Drågåßani Winegrowing Region Museum, and wine tasting in the local wine cellars. The Museum of the Vîlcea Region Village in Bujoreni features 45 farmsteads, with 8,500 traditional installations, and also features an inn, school and wooden church. Particularly worthy of note is the tradition

of houses with belvederes from the Horezu ethnographic region, the winegrowers’ farmsteads from the Grågåßani vineyard, the crafts workshops and traditional handicrafts. The Gallery of Contemporary Folk Art in Horezu houses thousands of unique exhibits, in particular ceramics from Hurezi and pottery from other regions of the country, as well as a major permanent exhibition of modern folk art.

6. BÅILE HERCULANE Year-round spa and climatic resort in Caraß-Severin County. Average altitude: 160 m.

LOCATION The resort is located in south-western Romania, on the Cerna River, and sheltered in the east by the Mehendin†i Mountains, and in the west by the Cernei Mountains. Orßova (19 km away), Drobeta-Turnu Severin (41 km away) and Caransebeß (71 km away) are the closest cities.

HISTORY The spa dates from 153 A.D., as is attested by the votive stone in the baths. Knowing the curative properties of the waters, at Thermae Herculi the Romans built temples, baths, monuments and statues dedicated to the gods Hercules, Asclepius and Hygeia. From Roman times there are numerous remains: aqueducts, baths, statues, coins, and votive tablets to thank the gods for cures. Most of the buildings are in the Austrian baroque style, since the baths became part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1718. The Imperial Roman thermal baths, once frequented by General Marcus Aurelius Pius, the governor of the Roman province, are incorporated within the monumental structure of the Roman Hotel and can be visited by tourists.

CLIMATE Båile Herculane enjoys an intermountain depression climate, with sub-Mediterranean influences. The mountains that shelter the resort attenuate any temperate-continental influences, protecting it from strong winds. The annual average temperature is 10°C (the average in July is approximately 22°C, and in January -1°C). The maximum cloud cover occurs in winter, particularly in November, the sky being mostly clear in summer, for about 20-23 days per month. The precipitation is low, the annual average being 700-800 mm, mostly in the form of rain. Snow cover in winter is thin due to frequent melting. There are frequent days of atmospheric calm, the greatest number of days per month occurring in July, reaching a maximum value of 28%.

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B책ile Herculane


Natural therapeutic factors The spring waters of the spa can be grouped into the following broad categories: chlorate-sodic, bicarbonate, slightly sulphurous (Íapte Izvoare Calde (Seven Hot Springs), Scorilo Spring). These have a total mineralisation of 0.5-2.6 g/l, a temperature of 38.5-53.5°C, and a radioactivity level that reaches 22 MmC/l. Chlorate/sodic, bicarbonate, calceous (Hercule I and Hygeia Springs). These have a mineralisation of 0.6-3.5 g/l and a temperature of 45-56°C. Chlorate-sodic, bromateiodate, sulphurous (Apollo I and II and Hebe Springs). These have a mineralisation of 2.8 g/l and a temperature of 30-56°C. Chlorate/ sodic, bromate-iodate, sulphurous (Diana I-IV, Neptune I-IV, Trajan and Decebal Springs). The total mineralisation of these oscillates between 3.87 and 7.93 g/l and the temperature can reach up to 62°C. The main characteristic of spring waters of Båile Herculane is that they have very high levels of sulphurous hydrogen, with a maximum of 60 mg/l. The bio-climate is sedative and mild, with strong atmospheric ionisation, of more than 2,000 negative ions per cubic centimetre. The negative ions diminish the speed at which sanguine elements sediment, increase the colloidal stability of the blood and tissues and the body’s resistance to infectious diseases. They also have a regulatory effect on the endocrine glands and a favourable influence on all the chemical reactions occurring in the body. In addition, the high concentration of negative ions has a remarkable sedative effect.

Therapeutic indications Degenerative rheumatic complaints (cervical, dorsal and lumbar spondylosis, both with and without cervicobrachyalgia, lumbosciatalgia arthritis, poly-arthritis); inflammatory rheumatic complaints (ankylosing sponylosis); abarticular rheumatic complaints (tendinosis, tendomyosis, scapulohumeral periarthritis); post-traumatic complaints (post-traumatic stiffness of the joints, post-operative conditions affecting the joints, conditions resulting from fractures, sprains, and luxations); peripheral neurological conditions (paresis and paralysis); complaints associated with metabolic and nutritive diseases (mild types of diabetes, gout, arthropathies, hyperlipemia), related gynaecological, respiratory tract, renal, otho-rhino-pharyngeal, digestive tract, dermatological, cardiovascular and occupational illnesses.

TREATMENT FACILITIES Sulphurous and chlorate-sodic thermal spring water bathing facilities, both in tubs and pools; kinetotherapy facilities; spring water drinking facilities for internal cures; outdoor thermal spring water pool; spring water aerosol and inhalation therapy facilities; complex electro- and hydro-therapy facilities; physiotherapy and medical massage rooms; sauna; trails for outdoor cures.

ACCOMMODATION 3- and 2-star hotels, 4-, 3- and 2-star pensions, 3- and 2-star villas, hostel, motel.

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS Spa museum; Roman baths; imperial Austrian baths; stone bas-relief of Hercules from the Roman Era; Austrian Baroque style railway station in Herculane; the hunting-lodge of Emperor Franz Josef; the Casino. Excursions to nature parks in the Semenic Mountains, Cerna River, and Cerna Gorge. Excursions to the city of Drobeta Turnu Severin, the ruins of the Bridge Apollodorus, built during the reign of the Emperor Trajan; cruises up the Danube as far as the Danube Gorges; excursions to the town of Tîrgu Jiu, where tourists can see monumental sculptures by Constantin Brîncußi; the Tismana Monastery; and the Ponoare karst area.

7. BÅILE OLÅNEÍTI Year-round spa and climatic resort located in Vîlcea county. Altitude: 450 m.

LOCATION The resort is situated in north-eastern Oltenia on the Olåneßti River, surrounded by hills covered with beech and oak forests, and is southfacing.

HISTORY The curative waters of Olåneßti are first mentioned in a chrysoboulion (golden bull) dated 1760. The first chemical analysis of the spring waters was made in 1868, and it is from this time that the first spa buildings date. At the Vienna International Exhibition, in 1873, the spring waters won a gold medal, and the resort began to draw comparisons with the world’s leading spas.

CLIMATE Båile Olåneßti has a continental hill climate, with cool summers and mild winters. The average temperature for July is 21.2°C, and for January, -2.5°C. The annual average precipitation is 750-800 mm. Relative humidity reaches 60% in July-August and over 80% in DecemberJanuary. Cloud cover is relatively low, with an annual average of 5.5 tenths. The average air pressure is about 740 ml. The prevailing winds are from the south in winter and from the north in summer. Mountain breezes constantly freshen the air.

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Natural therapeutic factors Sulphurous, chlorate, low iodate, bromate, sodic, calceous, and magnesian spring waters, some oligominerals (springs nos. 11, 12, and 24), other hypotone (springs nos. 5, 7, and 14) or isotone (springs nos. 3, and 19), from natural springs. These are recommended for internal cures. Location: springs nos. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 are in Pavilion I, in the Tisa Valley, springs nos. 7, 15, 16, and 19 are in pavilion II, on the right bank of the Olåneßti Stream, and springs nos. 3, 5, 24, 30 have their own pavilions. Hypertone, sulphurous, chlorate, and sodic spring waters from boreholes. These are recommended for internal cures. Somewhat sedative bio-climate, characterised by very low stress on the nervous system, and also on the internal secretive glands, favouring rapid acclimatisation for those who come seeking a cure.

Therapeutic indications Renal and renal tract complaints (kidney stones, whether operated or non-operated, lithiasis of the urinary tract, chronic pyelonephritis, chronic glomerulonephritis); digestive tract complaints (hypo-acid chronic gastritis, chronic constipation, chronic colitis); hepatobiliary complaints (biliary dyskinesia, chronic cholecystitis, with or without gallbladder stones, disorders following liver operations, cholecystectomy, chronic hepatitis, chronic pancreatitis); respiratory tract complaints (occupational exposure to airborne pollutants, conditions resulting from microbial or viral lung diseases, allergic asthma, chronic bronchitis and thracheobronchitis, bronchiectasis); metabolic and nutritional complaints (hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia, hyperlipemia obesity); othorhinopharyngeal complaints (chronic laryngitis, nasal/sinus allergies); dermatological complaints (psoriasis, incipient ichthyosis, keratodermia, chronic scurf and urticaria, neurodermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, acne, pyodermitis); related degenerative rheumatic and abarticular complaints, asthenic neurosis, occupational illnesses, endocrine complaints.

TREATMENT FACILITIES Spring water drinking facilities for internal cures; hot spring water bathing facilities; inhalation and aerosol therapy facilities; complex electro-, hydro- and thermo-therapy facilities, medical massage, physiotherapy rooms.

ACCOMMODATION 3- and 2-star hotels, 3- and 2-star hostels, 4-, 3- and 2-star pensions, 4- and 3-star villas, 2-star rooms to rent.

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS The monasteries of Vîlcea, Turnu, Turnu, Stînißoara, Cornetu, Arnota, and Bistri†a, the Vîlcea Region Village Museum in Bujoreni (featuring

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kulas (fortified inhabitable towers), a church, homestead buildings, and Vîlcea-region folk costumes), Peßtera Liliecilor (the Cave of Bats), with access from the gardens of Bistri†a Monastery, the Trovan†ilor Museum in Costeßti. Annual folkloric festivals – “Cîntecele Oltului” (Songs of the Olt), held in August at Cålimåneßti-Cåciulata; “La izvorul fermecat” (At the Enchanted Spring), held in September at Båbeni; “Florile Govorei” (The Flowers of Govora), held in July at Govora; the Strawberry Fair, held in May at Govora; “Hora costumelor” (The Ring-dance of Folk Costumes), held in April at Pietrari; “Învîrtita dorului” (an ancient traditional folk dance), a rustic folk festival held in June at Vaideeni; “Cocoßul de Horezu” (the Horezu Rooster) Potters’ Fair, held in June at Horezu.

8. BÅILE TUÍNAD Year-round spa and climatic resort, situated in Harghita County. Altitude: 650 m.

LOCATION The resort is located on the southern side of the Ciucului Depression, at an altitude of 650 m, between the Harghita and Bodoc Mountains, in a splendid gorge of the Olt River, 32 km from Miercurea-Ciuc, 37 km from Sfîntu Gheorghe, and 67 km from Braßov.

HISTORY A company to develop the resort was formed in 1845, and in 1852 it was visited by the Emperor Franz Josef himself. In 1866, the water from the main springs was analysed and bottling of water from the main spring commenced. The resort continued to grow: the Bathing Institute was founded in 1890, and the Bathing Polyclinic in 1897. By 1987, the spa had expanded to be able to provide 4,000 beds.

CLIMATE Intermountain depression climate. The annual average temperature is around 6°C (the average for July is 17.5°C, and for January -4°C). The annual average precipitation reaches 600-700 mm, with the maximum in July (100-200 mm) and the minimum in February (15-30 mm). The average relative air humidity is 80%, with the minimum in June-July and the maximum in winter. The annual average cloud cover is 6.0, the highest readings occurring in December and the lowest in September. The air pressure in determined by the altitude of the resort, the variations in temperature and the wind direction, and varies between 690 and 710 mm. It snows forty days a year, and there is snow cover for eighty days. The prevailing winds are mild and north-westerly.


Båile Tußnad view from the Piatra Íoimului


Natural therapeutic factors

Year-round spa and climatic resort in Harghita County.

One characteristic of all the mineral springs in Båile Tußnad is their carbo-gaseous content. Thermal waters have also been discovered here: the borehole next to Lake Ciucaß is used in the outdoor pool; mofetta, used in CO2 dry-baths. Restorative bio-climate, with stimulatory effects, strongly ionised air rich in resinous aerosols and negative ions.

Borsec is situated in Harghita County, 28 km from Topli†a, and 130 km from Tîrgu Mureß, and is open all year round. It is located in a depression, surrounded by the Bistri†a Mountains, Cålimani Mountains, and Ceahlåu Mountains, and boasts spectacular scenery.

Therapeutic indications Asthenic neurosis: cardiovascular complaints (myocardial infarction a minimum of three months after release from hospital, arterial hypertension, valvulopathies operated a minimum of three months after surgery, conditions following phlebitis a minimum of three-four weeks after the acute phase, conditions following profound phlebitis a minimum of six months after the acute phase, peripheral arteriopathies due to arteriosclerosis, varicose veins); related complaints (digestive tract, endocrine, renal and urinary tract complaints, gynaecological complaints, occupational illnesses).

TREATMENT FACILITIES Carbonated mineral bath facilities; mofetta facilities; spring water drinking facilities for internal cures; outdoor thermal mineral water pool; outdoor mesothermal mineral water pool; complex electro- and hydrotherapy facilities; aerosol and inhalation therapy facilities; medical physiotherapy rooms; medical massage.

ACCOMMODATION 3- and 2-star hotels, 3- and 2-star pensions.

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS Lake Ciucaß, used in summer for canoeing, and in winter as skating rink; the ruins of the Piscul Cetå†ii Dacian fort; the Tinov Mohoß reserve; the Piatra Íoimului nature reserve, with an endemic species of mouseear (Hieracium pilosella); the Prophet Elijah Orthodox Monastery in Topli†a; Miko Castle; and the ethnographic museum in Miercurea Ciuc. Departure point for excursions to the Saint Ana Lake, 25 km from the spa.

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9. BORSEC

Bicarbonate, chlorate-sodic, calceous, magnesian, ferrouscarbogaseous, and hypotone spring waters, with a total mineralisation of 0.68-17.386 g/l. The springs are used for internal cures (spring no. 1, Stånescu, no. 1bis, no. 3, Mikeß, no. 4, Apor, no. 5, Rudy) or for external cures (springs nos. 1 and 2 at the Ana hot baths).

Altitude: 860-880 m.

LOCATION

HISTORY The springs of carbonated, bicarbonate, calceous, magnesian, alkalineferrous, and hypotone mineral waters have been famous for their healing properties since 1594. Borsec began to develop in 1804, and by 1873 it was already world famous, having won prizes for its spring waters in Vienna. Beginning in the late nineteenth century, summer homes and guesthouses were constructed in Borsec. The bathing facilities were established, some of them indoors.

CLIMATE Borsec has a cool climate. The annual average temperature is around 5°C. The average temperature for July is 14-15°C, and for January -6°C. The milder climate of Borsec, compared with that of nearby depressions Topli†a and Joseni, can be explained by the higher altitude of the depression in which the resort lies. The annual average precipitation reaches 800 mm, with the minimum in winter and the maximum in early summer. The annual average relative air humidity is 80%. The winds are generally constant, and with a higher intensity in winter.

Natural therapeutic factors Mineral waters, therapeutic peat mud, stimulatory mountain bioclimate. Internal and external cures using mineral waters.

Therapeutic indications Cardiovascular diseases; varicose veins; digestive complaints (chronic constipation, chronic hypoacidic gastritis); endocrine diseases; biliary dyskinesia; renal complaints; asthenic neurosis; nutritional diseases; muscular and joint pains.


TREATMENT FACILITIES Hot-baths facilities in tubs or pools; equipment for electro- and hydrotherapy; herbal-bath facilities; gymnastics rooms; electro-therapy; physiotherapy; electro-puncture; ionizations; balneophysiotherapy and medical recuperation.

ACCOMMODATION 3-, 2- and 1-star pensions, villas

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS A wooden Orthodox monastery, built in 1847; the town park, with the Main Spring and Republica Spring Íapte Izvoare (Seven Springs), Poiana Zînelor (Fairies Glade), Dealul Rotund (Round Hill), Peßtera de Ghea†å (Ice Cave), Cetatea Bufni†elor (Owls’ Castle), Grota Urßilor (Bears’ Grotto), and the Dwarf Sycamore Maple Botanical Reserve.

CLIMATE Buziaß has a plains climate, with a mild continental tone, influenced by masses of sub-Mediterranean air. The annual average temperature is around 11°C (the average for July is 20.8°C, and for January 0.1°C). Generally moderate, the annual average precipitation is 650 mm. The relative air humidity is 75%. The annual average cloud cover is 5.6 tenths. The annual average air pressure is between 750 and 755 mm. The prevailing winds are southerly. The Foehn blows in spring, bringing dry air from the south-east.

Natural therapeutic factors Carbonated, bicarbonate, chlorate, sodic, calceous, magnesian, and hypotone waters, with a total mineralisation of 2.0-6.6 g/l. The spring waters are mainly for external cures. Mineral water extracted from the Apemin borehole is bottled. Mofetta from borehole no. 4. Sedative, mild climate, with reduced stimulatory effects.

Therapeutic indications

10. BUZIAÍ Year-round spa and climatic resort located in Timiß County. Altitude: 128 m.

LOCATION The resort is located on the Banat Plain, on the north-western slopes of Silagiu Hill, on the lower course of the Salciei Stream, in the Buziaßului Depression, 25 km by road (DJ 592) and 28 km by train from Lugoj and 34 km by road (DJ 592) and 37 km by train from Timißoara

HISTORY Mineral waters have been used for cures here since 1811. It was officially declared a resort in 1819, when the first five springs came into use. In 1840 the bottling of spring water began. In 1874 the first boreholes were drilled, the first thermal spring water swimming pool was opened, called “Notatorium”, and production of bottled spring water reached 15,000 bottles a year, retailed in Budapest, Neusatz, Timißoara, Lugoj, Sibiu, and Caransebeß. The Phoenix mineral water factory, was inaugurated in 1907. At the Bratislava Exhibition (1908), Buziaß–Muschong mineral water was awarded a gold medal.

Cardiovascular diseases (post-infarct conditions in the postconvalescent stage, ischemic cardiopathy, compensated mitral and aortic insufficiency, arterial hypertension, peripheral arteriopathies arising from arteriosclerosis, polyarthrosis); degenerative rheumatic complaints (cervical, dorsal and lumbar spondylosis, arthrosis, polyarthrosis); abarticular rheumatic complaints (tendinosis, tendomiosis, tendoperiostosis, scapulohumeral periarthritis); posttraumatic complaints (post-traumatic stiffness of the joints, postoperative muscle, bone and joint complaints, conditions resulting from fractures, sprains and luxations); peripheral and central neurological complaints (mild paresis and late-occurring stiffness following heimparesis and paresis); related complaints (respiratory complaints, gynaecological complaints, metabolic and nutritional complaints, asthenic neurosis, occupational illnesses).

TREATMENT FACILITIES Hot bath facilities in tubs using carbonated mineral water; mofetta facilities; aerosol and inhalation therapy facilities; complex electro- and hydro-therapy facilities; physiotherapy room, medical massage.

ACCOMMODATION 3- and 2-star hotels, 4- and 2-star pensions, 1-star villas.

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TOURIST ATTRACTIONS The colonnade in the park, with its centuries-old trees, which is unique in Europe due to its length (500 metres), the Iulia Folea Troceanu Collection of Banat Folk Art; the Chapel on Silagiu Hill; the Mihai and Iosif Springs. Timißoara - the Museum of the Banat, with History, Natural Sciences and Art sections); the Baroque Roman-Catholic Cathedral (1773); the Bastion of Timißoara Castle, one of the few remaining parts of the fortifications built under the Austro-Hungarian Empire using the eighteenth-century Vauban technique. Lugoj – the Museum of History, Ethnography and Art, the Baroque Orthodox Cathedral (1759); the Traian Vuia Museum, dedicated to the aviation pioneer; the ruins of the Marginea feudal castle (seventeenthcentury). Giarmata – the Swabian Ethnographic Museum. The Recaß Wine Cellars – open to visitors and for wine tasting.

11. CÅLlMÅNEÍTI-CÅCIULATA Year-round spa and climatic resort in Vîlcea County. Altitude: 260 m.

LOCATION The resort lies on the right bank of the Olt River where it emerges from the Meridional Carpathians, in the Jiblea-Cålimåneßti sub-Carpathian depression, 18 km from Rîmnicu Vîlcea, 81 km from Sibiu, and 198 km from Bucharest.

HISTORY The Arutela Roman fort, whose ruins can be seen at Bivolari, near Cålimåneßti, used the thermal springs in its baths. The thermal springs, known since Dacian and Roman times, have been used for therapeutic purposes since 1830, in Cålimåneßti. The local spring waters were used even by Napoleon III, who suffered from kidney complaints, and were presented in L’Union medicale magazine in 1859. In 1873, Cåciulata water was awarded the gold medal at the International Spring Water Exhibition in Vienna. At the international exhibition of spring water and foods held in Brussels, Cåciulata water received the highest reward, the Diplome de Grand Prix, together with the Gold Medal.

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Between 1882 and 1884, the Cålimåneßti Bathing Establishment was built, now called the Central Hotel. In 1910, the Govora-Cålimåneßti Company was awarded the concession for the resort, and in 1912 the Casino was built in Ostrov. In 1924, Hotel No. 1, the Jantea Hotel, the Bazaar and the Olt Theatre and Terrace (now the town library) were built. Between 1976 and 1979, the Cozia Bathing Complex was built.

CLIMATE Continental hill climate, without strong contrasts in temperature, characteristic of sheltered sub-Carpathian depressions. The annual average temperature is 9.8°C, the average for July is a little less than 20°C, and for January -1.5°C and -2°C. The annual average cloud cover is 5.5 tenths. The annual precipitation reaches 750-800 mm. The average relative air humidity reaches 60-80%. The resort is sheltered from strong winds.

Natural therapeutic factors Cold or thermal mineral waters, originating from natural springs and boreholes, with various concentrations and chemical compositions: chloro-sodic, bicarbonate, alkaline, calceous, magnesian, sulphurous, bromate-iodate; restorative bio-climate.

Therapeutic indications Digestive tract complaints (chronic hypoacidic gastritis, chronic constipation, chronic colitis); liver and gallbladder complaints (biliary dyskinesia, chronic cholecystitis, with or without gallbladder stones, post-operative liver complaints: cholecystectomy, chronic hepatitis, chronic pancreatitis); kidney and urinary tract complaints (operated or non-operated kidney stones, lithiasis of the urinary tract, chronic pyelonephritis, urinary infections, stable chronic glomerulonephritis); metabolic and nutritional complaints (diabetes, conditions caused by hyperuricemia, hyperlipemia, obesity); inflammatory rheumatic complaints (allergies in the joints following acute arthritis of the joints or local infection); abarticular rheumatic complaints (tendinosis, tendomiosis, tendoperiostosis, scapulohumeral periathritis); posttraumatic conditions (post-traumatic stiffness of the joints, complaints resulting from sprains, luxations and fractures); degenerative rheumatic complaints, peripheral neurological complaints (paresis, conditions resulting from poliomyelitis); respiratory complaints (persons exposed to airborne pollutants, microbes or viruses, allergic asthma, bronchitis and chronic tracheobronchitis, bronchiectasis); related complaints (gynaecological, ear, nose and throat, dermatological, cardiovascular, endocrine, asthenic, occupational illnesses).


Cålimåneßti, Oltului Valley


TREATMENT FACILITIES Mineral water hot baths in tubs and pools; outdoor sulphurous thermal water pool (Cåciulata); mineral water drinking facilities for internal cures; aerosol and inhalation therapy facilities; complex electro-, thermo- and hydro-therapy facilities; physiotherapy and medical massage rooms; aeroheliotherapy facilities at the thermal lido.

ACCOMMODATION 3- and 2-star hotels, 2-star hostels, 3-star motels, 4-, 3- and 2-star villas, 2-star cabanas, 2-star bungalows, 1-star tourist hostel.

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS Cozia Monastery (2 km from Cålimåneßti), founded by Mircea the Elder between 1387 and 1388, thought to by the oldest and most important monument of mediaeval architecture in Wallachia, renovated by Neagoe Basarab in 1517 and by Princely Cupbearer Íerban Cantacuzino in 1707. The murals were also restored during the reigns of Constantin Brîncoveanu, Bibescu, Ítirbei and others. The graves of Mircea the Elder and Teophana, the mother of Michael the Brave, can be found in the narthex. The monastery church is dedicated to the Holy Trinity, whose Feast is celebrated the day after Whit Sunday. Turnu Monastery, founded by Varlaam in 1676, the Bishop of Rîmnicu and Metropolitan of Wallachia. The church’s feast day is the Presentation of the Theotokos, celebrated on 21 November. Ostrov Hermitage, founded by Neagoe Basarab and his wife, Despina, between 1520 and 1521, located on an island in the middle of Olt River. The church’s feast day is the Nativity of the Theotokos, celebrated on 8 September. Stînißoara Monastery, founded by Gheorghe Cluceru and other boyars from Piteßti in 1747. The church’s patron is St George, whose feast day is celebrated on 23 April. The Arutela Roman fort, near the Cozia-Turnu Hydroelectric Dam.

12. COVASNA Year-round spa and climatic resort located in Covasna County. Altitude 550-600 m.

LOCATION The resort is located in the foothills of the western flank of the Bre†cului Mountains, in the southern part of the Tîrgu Secuiesc Depression, 31 km from Sfîntul Gheorghe and 60 km from Braßov.

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HISTORY Covasna has been famous since ancient times for the Balta Dracului (Devil’s Pool), which produces alkaline carbogaseous water and greyish mud. The earliest historical document dates back to 1567, but archaeological discoveries reveal that humans were present here as early as Neolithic times. In 1882, mineral water from the Horgasz spring was awarded a medal at Trieste.

CLIMATE Covasna has an intermountain depression climate, with cool summers and cold winters. The annual average temperature is 7°C (the average for June is about 17°C, and for January -5°C). The annual average precipitation reaches 600 mm, less abundant in February, and more abundant in May-August. The relative air humidity oscillates between 75 and 80%, lower in April and July-August. The annual average cloud cover is 5.9 tenths, with more sunny days in April, July and August-October. The forest-covered surrounding hills shelter the resort from strong air currents and winds. In Covasna, a mountain breeze can be felt as a result of the difference in temperature and air pressure between the mountains and depressions.

Natural therapeutic factors Covasna is one of the spas richest in mineral waters in all Romania, with a broad range of physicochemical compositions; carbogaseous, bicarbonate, chloro-sodic, iodate-bromate, ferruginous, arsenical, or mild sulphurous mineral waters, with a total mineralisation of 3.222.4 g/l. Mineral waters from Covasna contain a high concentration of volcanic carbonic acid: around 2.5 g/l. Another natural therapeutic factor specific to the spa is mofetta (a natural gas emission, mainly consisting of carbon dioxide), used mostly in treating cardiovascular system diseases. The mineral waters are recommended in the treatment of cardiovascular, gynaecological, locomotive, dermatological, metabolic and nervous system complaints. Mofetta gas from Covasna, with its 80-98% carbon dioxide content, has a vasodilatory effect, reduces blood pressure, and is beneficial for the heart and peripheral circulation. Mofetta is available at the treatment facilities in the Covasna, Cåprioara, and Montana Hotels. Another important therapeutic factor is the mild climate, which places low demands on the nervous and vegetative systems, and on the internal glands.


THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS Cardiovascular diseases (myocardial infarct a minimum of three months after release from hospital, ischemic cardiopathy, compensated mitral and aortic insufficiency, arterial hypertension, operated valvulopathies a minimum of three months after surgery, conditions following superficial phlebitis a minimum of three to four weeks after the acute phase, conditions following deep phlebitis a minimum of six months after the acute phase, varicose ulcers, peripheral arteriopathies due to arteriosclerosis, varicose veins); digestive tract complaints (chronic hyperacidic gastritis, gastric and chronic duodenal ulcers); liver and gallbladder complaints (biliary dyskinesia, chronic cholecystitis without gallbladder stones, conditions resulting from liver operations, chronic pancreatitis); related complaints (metabolic and nutritional complaints, asthenic neurosis).

TREATMENT FACILITIES Facilities for bathing in hot carbogaseous spring waters; mofetta facilities; spring water drinking facilities for internal cures; paraffin packs; aerosol and inhalation therapy facilities; complex electro- and hydro-therapy facilities; physiotherapy rooms, medical massage. There is also a Cardiology Hospital at the spa.

ACCOMMODATION 4-, 3- and 2-star hotels, 3- and 2-star pensions, 3- and 2- star rooms to rent, 1-star campsite.

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS The ruins of the Dacian fort on Fairies’ Hill. Ancient terraced stonewalls. The Balta Dracului (Devil’s Pool) Reserve, located in the middle of the town and declared a monument of the nature, releases the mofetta gas captured by the water table. Comandåu (18 km) – the Comandåu high-gradient forest railway (currently closed), or the Íiclåu, as it is known by locals, was built in 1886, and is a technical achievement unique in all of Europe. Mestecånißul de la Reci – a botanical reserve located on the floodplain of the Negru River, situated in the Reci sand dunes. Rare floral and fauna species have been discovered here, which, along with the birches in the sand dunes, form part of this protected area. Ghelin†a (20km) –a small fourteenth-century Transylvanian RomanCatholic village church. The walls of the nave have preserved their rich gothic murals. Cernat (25 km), the thirteenth-century Ika Castle.

13. GEOAGIU-BÅI Year-round spa and climatic resort, located in Hunedoara County. Altitude 350 m.

LOCATION The resort is located on the south-eastern flank of Apuseni Mountains, in the foothills of the Metaliferi Mountains, amid forest-clad peaks, close to the Mureß Corridor, at the confluence of the Geoagiu and Mureß Rivers. The town is 19 km from Oråßtia, and 46 km from Deva.

HISTORY At Germisara, the Romans built thermal baths that captured the spring waters using terracotta ducts. In 1935, excavation work began on the current small bathing pool, and statues representing Asclepius and Hygeia were unearthed. The baths were restored in the mid-sixteenth century by Queen Isabella, wife of Ioan Sigismund Zápolya, the King of Hungary. Use of the spring waters became systematic in the early twentieth century, when the first modern bathing facilities were established.

CLIMATE Moderate continental depression climate. The annual average temperature is about 9°C (the average for June is 20°C, and for January between -2°C and -3°C). Relatively low precipitation, with an annual total of 550 mm. Brief showers are characteristic of the summer period. The resort is sheltered from winds and enjoys warm weather in early spring thanks to the Foehn Wind. The rich natural vegetation in the surrounding area (beech, oak and fir forests) favour ozonic, purified and refreshing air.

NATURAL THERAPEUTIC FACTORS Bicarbonate, calceous, magnesian, slightly radioactive (4.14 MmC), hypotone, mesothermal (29-33°C) mineral waters. They have a total mineralisation of 1.1- 1.4 g/l and are used in external and internal cures. The bio-climate is mild and sedative.

THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS Degenerative rheumatic complaints (cervical, dorsal and lumbar spondylosis, arthrosis, polyarthrosis); inflammatory rheumatic complaints (conditions arising from allergies in the joints); abarticular rheumatic complaints (tendinosis, tendoperiostosis, scapulohumeral periarthritis); post-traumatic conditions (post-traumatic stiffness of the joints, post-operative conditions affecting the joints, conditions resulting

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from fractures, sprains and luxations); peripheral neurological disorders (mild paresis, stiffness resulting from polyneuropathy); gynaecological complaints (minor disorders of puberty an the menopause); related complaints (endocrine, metabolic and nutritional, dermatological, asthenic neurosis, cardiovascular diseases, occupational illnesses).

TREATMENT FACILITIES Facilities for bathing in hot mineral waters using tubs and pools; facilities for hot mud packs; facilities for electro- and hydro-therapy; spring-water drinking facilities for internal cures; outdoor pools with solaria for aeroheliotherapy; physiotherapy room; medical massage.

ACCOMMODATION 4-, 3-, and 2-star hotels, 3- and 2-star pensions, 3- and 2-star rooms to rent, 1-star campsite.

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS The town park, Roman thermal baths, and the Round Church in Geoagiu, built in the late eleventh century. Excursions in the surrounding area: Oråßtie, 20 km: the Dacian fort at Costeßti, in the Oråßtiei Mountains, on the left bank of the Oråßtie River, 20 km from the city. Probably, a royal residence between the first century B.C. and the first century A.D., the stronghold consists of consecutively aligned fortifications, earthworks, and a stone precinct, with bulwarks and two habitable towers on the upper plateau. To the south, the Blidaru Fort and Costeßti Fort guarded the road to the capital of the Kingdom of Dacia. The stronghold consists of a trapezoid-shaped precinct, with corner-towers and one central habitable tower, and a further precinct. An underground cistern collected the water from a nearby spring. Deva, 45 km away: the Deva Mediaeval Stronghold is located 200 m above the city, on Cetå†ii Hill, in a 30 hectare botanical reserve. Access to Cetå†ii Hill is made easier by a cable car. The Renaissance and Baroque castle of Voievode Gabriel Bethlen, built in 1613-1621, can be found nearby. The Museum of Dacian and Roman Civilisations houses ancient Dacian, Roman and early mediaeval archaeological artefacts, as well as fine and decorative art. Hunedoara, 55 km away: the Hunedoara Castle, a sumptuous Gothic castle, founded in 1364, is the most important example of mediaeval architecture in Romania. The Knight’s Room and the Ne Boisya (Be not afraid) Tower have been preserved unaltered to the present day. Ha†eg, 60 km away: Sarmisegetuza Regia Citadel, the capital of the Kingdom of Dacia, includes a spectacular round sanctuary in the sacred precinct, used as a calendar and in rituals. The nearby Sarmisegetuza

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Ulpia Traiana became the capital of Dacia after the Roman conquest. It consists of a fortified walled precinct, which housed a market, forum, and administrative edifices, along with an amphitheatre of 5,000 seats. The Densuß Chapel, a UNESCO World Heritage Monument, dates back to the thirteenth century, and is one of the oldest stone churches in Romania. It was built using stone brought from Ulpia Traiana Sarmisegetuza, and incorporates features from Roman monuments.

14. LACU SÅRAT Year-round spa and climatic resort in Bråila County. Altitude 25 m.

LOCATION The spa is located in the north-eastern Bårågan Steppe, in the middle of a nature reserve, on the banks of Lacu Sårat (Salt Lake), 5 km from the municipality of Bråila.

HISTORY The history of the spa began in 1879, when the first analyses of water and mud from Lacul Sårat were conducted. The earliest therapeutic facilities were built in 1883. In 1896, when it was connected to the water mains and electricity networks, the resort began to develop in earnest. People from all over the continent travelled to the resort, as Lacul Sårat was reckoned one of the pearls of European health resorts in its day.

CLIMATE Continental plains climate, with extreme contrasts and high temperatures. The annual average temperature is 11.1°C (the average for June is 23°C, and for January 2.3°C). Low precipitation, with the annual average not rising above 450 mm. The relative air humidity is high in winter (above 80%) and low in summer (less than 60%). The annual average sunlight is 2200 hours, with clearer skies in summer. The prevailing winds are north and north-easterly.

NATURAL THERAPEUTIC FACTORS The concentrated sulphate, chloro-sodic, magnesian lake water has a total mineralisation of about 84 g/l. The sapropelic mud extracted from the lake, with its odour of hydrogen sulphate, contains 62.3% water. Stimulatory steppe bio-climate, indicated for sick people with functional resources close to the normal values.


THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS Degenerative rheumatic complaints (cervical, dorsal and lumbar spondylosis, arthrosis, polyarthrosis); inflammatory rheumatic complaints (allergic conditions resulting from acute rheumatism of the joints or local infections); abarticular rheumatic complaints (tendinosis, tendomiosis, tendoperiostosis, scapulohumeral periarthritis); posttraumatic complaints (post-traumatic stiffness of the joints, conditions subsequent to operations on the muscles, tendons, bones and joints, conditions resulting from sprains, luxations and fractures); peripheral neurological complaints; gynaecological complaints (ovarian insufficiency, chronic cervicitis); dermatological complaints (psoriasis, ichtiosis, keratodermia, neurodermitis); endocrine complaints (benign hypothyroidism, hypo-ovaritis in puberty).

TREATMENT FACILITIES Facilities for bathing in hot mineral water using tubs; baths and hot mud pack facilities; electro- and hydro-therapy facilities; physiotherapy room; medical massage; hot water pool for kinetotherapy; facilities for aeroheliotherapy and cold mud packs, followed by swimming in the lake.

ACCOMMODATION 2-star hotels, 2-star pensions.

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS The Lacu Sårat wooden monastery; the Public Garden, an oasis of vegetation, which features the resort’s oldest building, the Water Castle; the Memorial Exhibition dedicated to Dumitrescu Panaitescu Perpessicius, the poet and literary critic; the Panait Istrati Memorial Museum, in the Public Gardens; the Greek Church, built in 1872; the Museum of Bråila, which has an ethnographic section featuring traditional buildings; Monument Park, covering 90 hectares; the Church of the Archangels Gabriel and Michael, the only church in Romania without spires (the church is a former mosque, converted into an Orthodox Church, after the Peace of Adrianopolis in 1929); the Danube esplanade, stretching 7 km.

HISTORY The Moneasa area has been documented since the late sixteenth century. 1886 is considered to be the year when the Moneasa resort was established, when it was designated as resort by the Imperial Internal Affairs Minister in Vienna. Five years later it became the property of Count Wenenheim, who, by developing the Sebeß-Moneasa narrow-gauge railway, facilitated transport to the resort, which led to an increasing number of tourists and the construction of new buildings. An analysis of the Moneasa resort’s thermo-mineral waters was conducted in 1898 and their superior chemical composition was confirmed, which led to acknowledgement of the resort as one of the most prestigious in Europe. During the First World War, Moneasa was destroyed, but subsequently rebuilt.

CLIMATE Moneasa has a moderate continental climate, with mild winters and cool summers. The annual average temperature is 9.5°C (the June average is 20°C, and the January average 1.1°C). The annual average precipitation reaches 800-1000 mm. The relative humidity is in between 78-93%. There are frequent rains in June; the lowest rainfall is in spring and autumn. Located in a narrow gorge, Moneasa resort benefits from strongly ionised air thanks to the forests at its edge.

NATURAL THERAPEUTIC FACTORS Oligomineral, mesothermal, bicarbonate, magnesian, and sodic mineral waters. They have a temperature of 24-32°C and a total mineralisation of 0.19-0.27 g/l. Mild bio-climate, with sedative and calming effects on the nervous system.

THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS Conditions affecting locomotion (degenerative inflammatory rheumatism, abarticular rheumatism, post-traumatic conditions); complaints of the peripheral nervous system; peripheral and central nervous system complaints; chronic gynaecological complaints; asthenic neurosis; related disorders (metabolic and nutritional diseases).

TREATMENT FACILITIES

15. MONEASA Year-round resort in Arad County. Altitude 290 m.

LOCATION The resort is located in the foothills of the Codru-Moma Massif, in the Moneasa Valley, surrounded by forest-clad hills, 20 km from Sebeß, and 110 km from Arad

Facilities for hot baths in tubs; pools for kinetotherapy; facilities for electro-, hydro- and thermo-therapy; physiotherapy rooms; medical massage; sauna; outdoor pools for spring-water bathing.

ACCOMMODATION 3- and 1-star hotels, 4- and 3-star villas, 2-star pension, 1-star cabana, 3-star cottages.

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TOURIST ATTRACTIONS Arad - the sixteenth-century Arad Castle; the baroque Serbian Church, from 1698; the History Museum Dezna Castle, Deznei Inn – historic monuments in the Dezna Valley Lipova, the seventeenth-century Orthodox church Íoimuß, a mediaeval fortress, built in the thirteenth century; it was in front of the castle that one of the most important battles was fought by peasant rebels Horea, Cloßca and Crißan was fought. Bodrogul Nou, Hodoß-Bodrog Monastery, founded in 1177, is one of the oldest ecclesiastical monuments in Romania. It houses a priceless collection of paintings, manuscripts, and religious artefacts. Vaßcåu karst plateau – the Cave of Bats near Moneasa, the Cave of Crystals, White Cave, Bears’ Grotto Moneasa Quarry is remarkable for its modern methods of excavation and the quality of its rock, but above all for the striking landscape revealed by its vast terraced opening. Moneasa water lily reserve and the laurel reserve situated 10 km from Gurahon†.

16. OCNA SIBIULUI Year-round spa and climatic resort in Sibiu county.

LOCATION Ocna Sibiului resort is situated in the north-western part of the Sibiului Depression, 400 m above sea level, 15 km from Sibiu. Currently, the old salt mines are filled with 15 pools of chloro-sodic mineral water, which has special curative effects.

HISTORY The salt deposits and natural environment encouraged human settlements as early as prehistoric times. Ocna Sibiului is documented as Terra Wiz (the Visa Land – the Romanian toponym of the river that runs through the town), in an act issued by Isztván, the King of Hungary. In 1598, the ambassador of Emperor Rudolf II, accredited by Michael the Brave, made mention of the lakes’ therapeutic effect. In 1820, a chemical analysis of the water was conducted for the first time, and in 1820, the Ocna Sibiului spa was officially opened, the current buildings having been constructed in 1900-1909.

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CLIMATE Moderate continental hill and plateau climate, with local variations including temperature inversions in winter, atmospheric calm, and also climatic peculiarities that play an important role in the prevention and treatment of various diseases.

NATURAL THERAPEUTIC FACTORS Lakes with high concentrations of salt water, mineral water from the Horea Spring, and sapropelic mud. Relaxing sedative topo-climate with reinvigorating effects on the human organism.

THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS rheumatism of the joints (spondiloarthrosis, coxarthrosis, gonarthrosis, arthritis of the hands, legs, shoulders); degenerative abarticular rheumatic complaints (entesopathy, regardless of location, scapulohumeral and coxohumeral periarthritis, epicondilitis, postural metatarsalgia, etc.); non-specific inflammatory rheumatic complaints (ankylosing seronegative spondiloarthropathy, rheumatoid polyarthritis, psoriatic polyarthritis, etc., after the remission of the acute stage of the illness); post-traumatic orthopaedic complaints and complications (fractures following the removal of plaster casts, or consolidation with metal osteosynthetic material, algoneurodystrophy in stages I and II); peripheral neurological complaints (neuralgia and neuritis); central neurological after-effects of brain traumas or strokes (hemiparesis, paraparesis, etc.); recovery from plastic surgery on the hands or legs, sub-acute and chronic inflammatory gynaecological complaints (anexitis, vulvovaginitis, treatment of sterility caused by chronic inflammatory metroanexita or anovulatory cycles); chronic exfoliative dermatological complaints (psoriasis); chronic ear, nose and throat and pulmonary complaints (allergic rhinitis, hypertrophied rhinitis, sinusitis, pharingolaryngitis, repeated anginas, tracheobronchitis); endocrinological complaints causing hypoactivity; preventative treatments for patients at risk of developing a disease of the locomotive system; treatments to combat stress and stay healthy. Counter-indications: Arterial hypertension, TB, inflammatory rheumatic complaints: rheumatoid polyarthritis, arthritis, coronoaropathy, cardiac insufficiency, ischemic or haemorrhagic strokes, thrombophlebitis, infectious diseases of any nature or location (any dental work, otitis, food poisoning), post-viral convalescence; tracheobronchitis, acute grippe, renal complaints, liver complaints, acute and chronic viral hepatitis, hepatic insufficiency.

TREATMENT FACILITIES Balneotherapy; thermotherapy (mud and paraffin treatment); contrast therapy (sauna); mechanotherapy; electro-therapy; kinetotherapy; lasertherapy; photo-therapy.


Ocna Sibiului


ACCOMMODATION 4-, 3- and 2-star hotels, 3- and 2-star, 2-star pensions, 2-star rooms to rent.

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS Cetate Reformed Church, originally a Roman basilica, built from stone and brick, with very thick buttressed walls, with three naves and six transepts, a semi-circular apse and a massive spire. In 1569, the church changed from the Roman-Catholic to the Calvinist Reformed denomination. The Archangels Michael and Gabriel Romanian Orthodox Church, founded by Michael the Brave, who, after the Battle of Íelimbår in 1599, stopped at Ocna Sibiului on his way to Alba Iulia and commanded a church be built. It was rebuilt in 1695 by Constantin Brîncoveanu. The Romanian Orthodox Church of the Transfiguration, built in 1790 by miners from the old salt mines. Built in brick, with a semi-circular apse on the east side and a spire, is decorated on the outside with a plaited girdle and blind niches, and on the inside with Neo-Byzantine paintings. The Nativity of St John the Baptist Romanian Orthodox Church, built from brick in 1810, with a semi-circular apse on the eastern side and a tall spire, preserves on the outside a few fragments of the 1827 mural paintings. The resort, built between 1907 and 1909, in a uniform and harmonious Belle Époque architectural style, with rich ornamentation consisting of floral and vegetal elements in the Vienna Jugendstil decorative-geometric manner characteristic of the 1900s in Transylvania. The Salt Museum, housed in the Upper School building, presents the history of salt and therapeutic bathing, with sections for history, ethnography, folk art and a small art gallery. The resort’s surroundings offer marvellous opportunities for excursions to old mediaeval strongholds or to town such as Sibiu, Mediaß, and Cluj, which are famous for their mediaeval ambiance.

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17. OCNA ÍUGATAG Year-round spa and climatic resort in Maramureß County. Altitude 490 m.

LOCATION The resort is located in the Maramureß Depression, in the foothills of the ˇibleß-Gutîi volcanic mountain chain, 20 km from Sighetul Marma†iei.

HISTORY Ocna Íugatag was first attested in historical documents that date back to 1355. The main local activity was salt mining. Silver and gold coins from Roman Era have been found around the salt mines. At the beginning of the twentieth century, when mining came to an end, water flooded and caused the collapse of the mine roof, thus creating the saltwater lake for which the city is renowned.

CLIMATE ntermountain depression climate. The summers are cool, the winters not very cold. The annual average temperature is 8°C (in June, over 18°C, and in January -4°C). The annual precipitation is 750 mm, and the prevailing winds are south-westerly and southerly.

Natural therapeutic factors Concentrated chloro-sodic mineral waters from the salt lakes created by the collapse of old salt mines. Gavrilå Lake contains concentrated chloro-sodic mineral water, with a total mineralisation of 289 g/l; mild bio-climate.

Therapeutic indications Degenerative rheumatic complaints (cervical, dorsal and lumbar spondylosis, arthrosis, polyarthrosis); abarticular rheumatic complaints (tendinosis, tendomiosis, tendoperiostosis, scapulohumeral periarthritis); post-traumatic complaints (post-traumatic stiffness, conditions resulting from operations on the bones, muscles and ligaments, complaints resulting from sprains, luxations and fractures); peripheral neurological complaints (post-traumatic paralysis and paresis of the limbs, polyneuropathy after the acute phase, polyradiculoneuritis in the after-effect phase, after-effects of polymyelitis); central nervous system complaints (mild paresis); gynaecological complaints (ovarian insufficiency, chronic cervicitis).


TREATMENT FACILITIES Facilities for bathing in hot mineral water using tubs and pools; facilities for electro-, hydro- and thermo-therapy; physiotherapy room; medical massage; pool for aeroheliotherapy and concentrated saltwater pools.

ACCOMMODATION 3- and 2-star hotels, 3- and 2-star pensions, 2-flower rural pensions, 3- star villas, 3-star cabanas.

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS Pådurea Cråiascå Nature Reserve, covering 44 hectares, at an average altitude of 485 m. The reserve is home to Romania’s most impressive durmast specimens (from the Ronißoara Oak subspecies), as well as zadå (larch tree), a caducous leaf conifer. A wooden church in the Maramureß architectural style. The old baths, a lacustrine area to the west of the town, is made up of pools created by the collapse of disused salt mines, which had been in use for 600 years. The new baths are the touristic centre of the spa, having been opened in 1972. In summertime it is a popular recreation spot, surrounded by the Cråiascå forest. The annual Tînjaua de la Hoteni, a traditional rustic festival, is held in Ocna Íugatag village. The event celebrates the first householder from the village of Horeni who goes out to plough, and is attended by thousands of people, in the natural setting of the Dårasca Valley.

18. PRAID Year-round spa and climatic resort in Harghita County. Altitude 500 m.

LOCATION The resort is located in central Romania, in the valley of the Tîrnava Micå River, in the Praid Sovata Depression, on the south-western flank of the Gurghiu Mountains, at an altitude of 500 m, 10 km from the Sovata resort.

HISTORY The salt mines of the Praid spa date back to Roman times. Historical documents reveal four amphitheatre-like excavations, as well as the discovery of bricks inscribed LMV (Legio V Macedonica). Documents also reveal that in 1405 salt began to be mined at Praid. Cures have been taken at Praid since 1960. In 1980, the treatment site sank 120 metres. In summertime, 2,500-3,000 people used to come to take cures.

CLIMATE Intermountain depression climate. The summers are cool, and the winters cold. The annual average temperature is 8°C (in June it is 18°C, and in January -4°C). The annual precipitation is 750 mm, and the prevailing winds are south-westerly and southerly.

Natural therapeutic factors Concentrated chloro-sodic mineral waters from the salt lakes, salt mine micro-climate. Strongly ozonic, stimulatory bio-climate.

Therapeutic indications Respiratory complaints (asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic rhinitis, chronic sinusitis, pulmonary emphysema, silicosis).

TREATMENT FACILITIES 16-18-day cures that entail lying in the salt mine for around 4-5 hours a day, annually or bi-annually, depending on the severity of the disease.

ACCOMMODATION 3-, 2- and 1-star hotels, 3- and 2-flower rural pensions.

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS Praid Salt mine and the Salt Mountain, Praid mesothermal Baths, 200 metres from the entrance to the salt mine, the Reformed Church, the Roman-Catholic Church.

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Tîrgu Mureß: the Teleki House, a baroque-style architectural monument; the Teleki Library, containing 44 princeps editions and 1,200 volumes dating back to the fifteenth to seventeenth centuries, the Bolyai Library, which houses 55,000 volumes. Sighißoara: the mediaeval citadel (fourteenth-sixteenth-century), the Clock Tower (fourteenth-century), the Church on the Hill.

19. PUCIOASA Year-round spa and climatic resort in Dîmbovi†a County. Altitude 350 m.

LOCATION The resort is located in the valley of the Ialomi†a River, in an area of forest-clad hills at the edge of the Leaota Mountains, 21 km from Tîrgovißte and 42 km from Sinaia.

HISTORY The earliest historical document relating to the resort dates back to 1649, when it was known as Piatra Pucioaså. Sulphurous water springs were analysed for the first time in 1821-1828. The first public bathing pavilion was built in 1834. Mineral waters from Pucioasa were exhibited at the universal exhibition in Vienna in 1873. In 1930, Pucioasa was declared a spa resort.

CLIMATE The local area has a continental climate, with cool summers and mild winters. The annual average temperature is about 9°C (the July average is 19°C, and the January average 3°C). The annual average air humidity is 76%, with a maximum of 85% in December-January, and a minimum of 65% in August. The Ialomi†a River and the reservoir along its course produce a large quantity of water vapour, especially in the hot season. Cloud cover is quite high all year round. The annual average precipitation reaches 750 mm. Air currents are mainly northerly and north-easterly.

Natural therapeutic factors Sulphurous, sulphate, chlorate, bicarbonate, calceous, sodic, hypotone mineral waters. Mild bio-climate.

Therapeutic indications Degenerative rheumatic complaints (cervical, dorsal and lumbar spondylosis, arthrosis, polyarthrosis); inflammatory rheumatic

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complaints; abarticular rheumatic complaints (tendinosis, tendomiosis, tendoperiostosis, scpulohumeral periarthritis, etc.); posttraumatic complaints (post-traumatic stiffness of the joints, conditions resulting from operations on the joints, conditions resulting from fractures, sprains etc.); peripheral and central neurological complaints (paraparesis a minimum of three months from its first occurrence); respiratory complaints (persons exposed to airborne pollutants, persons suffering from frequent microbial or viral pneumopathies, bronchiectasis); ear, nose and throat complaints (psoriasis, ichtiosis, keratodermia, chronic eczema, seborrheic dermatitis, acne, furunculosis, scleroderma); related complaints (metabolic, nutritional, cardiovascular, occupational illnesses).

TREATMENT FACILITIES Mineral water used in external cures – facilities for hot mineral-water baths; pools for kinetotherapy; installations for parafango therapy; inhalation and aerosol therapy facilities; electro- and hydro-therapy facilities; physiotherapy rooms, medical massage

ACCOMMODATION 2-star hotel, 3-star motel, 3-star pensions, 3-star cottages, villas.

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS The dam, reservoir, and jetty. The A. I. Bråtescu Voineßti Cultural Centre, and Independence Park, with the Heroes of the People Monument at its entrance, created by sculptor Liviu Brezeanu. Excursions to other tourist attractions: the Old Citadel of the Capital of Wallachia in Tîrgovißte (fourteenth-seventeenth-century), the Princely Court Museum Complex, the Museum and of Printing and the Romanian Book, the Gheorghe Petraßcu Memorial Museum in Tîrgovißte; the Prahova Valley; Braßov; Bran.

20. SÅRATA MONTEORU Year-round spa and climatic resort in Buzåu County. Altitude 86 m.

LOCATION Sårata Monteoru is located in Buzåu County and is part of Merei village. It is 19 km from the municipality of Buzåu, 8 km from Båile Sårata on the DN1 B (Ploießti-Buzåu) Monteoru, 67 km from Ploießti, and 112 km from Bucharest.


Ocna Sibiului therapeutic procedures


HISTORY Curative waters were first mentioned here in 1837, with locals using them to treat diseases. After the First World War, the Hydrology Institute was founded in Bucharest, which, during one an extensive survey of mineral waters in Romania, studied Spring no. 2 at Monteoru, finding that its waters contained sodium chloride and magnesium chloride, but no sodium bicarbonate, and that their chemical composition was similar to those of the French spa of Châtel Guyon.

CLIMATE Sårata Monteoru enjoys a mild temperate continental climate, with hot summers and mild winters. North-westerly winds are ameliorated by the hill tops which shut off the depression, giving it its specific, sheltered topo-climate. The annual average temperature is 10°C. On average, the first frosts occur at the end of November, and the last snowfalls at the end of March.

Natural therapeutic factors Salted, iodate, bromate, calceous, magnesian, sulphurous mineral waters, mineral mud deposits from sulphurous mineral waters, mild bio-climate. Remarkable results are achieved especially in the treatment of locomotive system complaints (degenerative rheumatoid, abarticular, post-traumatic), and gynaecological, gastro-intestinal, liver and gallbladder disorders.

Therapeutic indications Inflammatory rheumatic complaints: rheumatoid polyarthritis, spondylitis ankylopoetica; degenerative rheumatic complaints: arthrosis, coxarthrosis, gonarthrosis, radiculopathy, static disorders of the spinal column and lower limbs; disorders affecting the soft tissues (abarticular); scapulohumeral and coxohumeral periarthritis, tendonitis, fibromyalgia, etc; orthopedic complaints resulting from traumas: stiff bones and joints resulting from fractures, stiffness after spinal fractures, post-traumatic lesions of the tendons, muscle stiffness, post-traumatic circulatory and trophic disorders; peripheral neurological complaints: neuralgia, neuropathy, paresis and paralysis of peripheral nerves, polyneuritis; central nervous system complaints: post-stroke or braininjury hemiparesis and hemiplegia.

TREATMENT FACILITIES Hydro-therapy (hot saltwater baths); thermo-therapy with silicone gel; electro-therapy (low-, medium- and interferential frequency currents, high-frequency currents, short waves, ultrasound); dry galvanotherapy; four-cell galvanic baths; magneto-therapy; laser-therapy; photo/therapy

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with polarised light (bioproton); therapeutic massage, kinetotherapy and hydrokinetotherapy.

ACCOMMODATION 2-star hotel, 3-star hostel, 4-, 3- and 2-star pensions, 4-, 3- and 2-flower rural pensions, 2-star campsite, 2-star rooms to rent, 1-star bungalows.

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS The following attractions are within easy reach: the muddy volcanoes near Berca; Ciolanu Monastery; the sculpture park at Mågura; the Amber Museum in Col†i; the wine cellars of winegrowing resort of Pietroasele, where the so-called Hen and Chicken treasure trove of ancient gold was discovered; Dealu-Mare; Valea Cålugåreascå; Cheia spa (Cheia Monastery, rebuilt in 1835-1839 by shepherds from Sålißtea Sibiului after that the original wooden church, dating from 1770, burned to the ground) and Suzana Monastery; Slånic Prahova resort; Balta Bråilei (Danube cruises and the channels of Large Island, Bråila); angling.

21. Sîngeorgiu de MureÍ Location The salt baths of Sîngeorgiu de Mureß are situated in the valley of the Mureß River, in the Transylvanian Plain, 3km north-east of the city of Tîrgu-Mureß, in the direction of Reghin. They cover an area of more than 13 hectares, at an altitude of 320 metres.

History In 1880, there was a small swimming pool here, supplied with water from a natural spring at the ground level, whose waters were salty and sulphurous in content. “Salty wells” are also recorded elsewhere in the area in a document from 1888. In 1902, a limited company was established to develop and exploit the salt baths. In 1912, a borehole for methane gas discovered salt water at a depth of 864 metres. A further two boreholes were then drilled. The Hungarianlanguage Erdély (Transylvania) magazine reported in the summer of the following year, 1913, that “more than one thousand people bathed at Sîngeorgiu in a single day.” The spa continued to grow, in particular after 1980.


Climate Moderate continental hill climate. The average annual temperature is above 8°C (over 19°C in June, and below -4°C in January). The maximum precipitation is in early summer (over 90 mm in June). The annual rainfall is around 650 mm

Natural therapeutic factors Chlorate, sodic, iodate mineral waters with a content of 11.4 mg/l and mineralisation of 124 g/l; mineral mud. Mild bio-climate.

Therapeutic indications Degenerative rheumatic complaints (cervical, dorsal and lumbar spondylosis, arthrosis, polyosis); abarticular rheumatic complaints (tendinosis, tendomiosis, tendoperiostosis); post-traumatic complaints (post-traumatic stiffness of the joints, conditions resulting from fractures and sprains); peripheral neurological complaints (parestesis, neurogenic muscular atrophy); gynaecological complaints (ovarian insufficiency, chronic cervicitis); hypothyroidism; motor deficits of varying causes); post-traumatic complaints; obesity; regulatory disturbances of the superficial circulation; thermo-regulatory disturbances; habitual constipation; ear, nose and throat complaints (sinusitis, rhinopharingitis, acute and chronic tonsillitis); broncheopulmonary complaints (bronchial asthma, acute and chronic bronchitis); adaptation of capacity for effort; amelioration of the co-ordination, control and balance function; relaxation; improvement of posture; increasing joint flexibility; relearning how to breathe.

Treatment facilities Facilities for bathing in hot mineral waters; facilities for bathing in cold mineral waters and in open-air pools; facilities for aeroheliotherapy and open-air anointment with mud; mud packs; salt baths in pools and tubs; hydrotherapy (subaqueous douche and Scottish douche); aerosols; kinetotherapy; massage; reflex therapy; electrotherapy (low-frequency currents, diadynamic currents, galvanic currents, galvanic baths); medium-frequency currents (interferential currents); high-frequency currents (short waves); ultrasound; magnet therapy; laser therapy; phototherapy (ultraviolet radiation, infrared radiation).

Accommodation 3- and 2-star hotels, 3-star pensions, 4-flower rural pensions, 3-star cabanas.

Tourist attractions

22. SÎNGEORZ BÅI Year-round spa and climatic resort in Bistri†a Nåsåud county. Altitude 435 m.

LOCATION The resort is located at the edge of the Rodnei Mountains, on the upper course of the Someßul Mare River, in a hilly region.

HISTORY Documented in 1245 as Sanct Gurgh, Viennese officials marked Sîngeorz-Båi as a spa town on the 1700 Map of the Empire. Because of its healing springs, it was decided in 1876 that the name of the resort should be changed to Hebe (after the goddess of eternal youth in Greek mythology). There were 5 springs in Sîngeorz-Båi in the early days of the spa, but in 1951 spring no. 6 was opened, producing 65,000 litres per day. In 1958, springs nos. 7, 8 and 9 were discovered, sufficient for treatment and bottling purposes.

CLIMATE Moderate continental hilly and montane climate. The annual average temperature is 7.5°C (the average for June is 18°C, and for January -5.5°C). The summers are cool, the winters cold. The annual average air humidity reaches 82%, and cloud cover is 6.0 tenths. The annual average precipitation is 800 mm.

Natural therapeutic factors Bicarbonate, chlorate, sodic, calceous, magnesian, carbogaseous mineral waters; mineral mud; naturally occurring CO2 emissions (moffeta). Mild, sedative bio-climate.

Therapeutic indications Digestive-tract complaints (chronic hypo-acidic and hyper-acidic gastritis, chronic duodenal and gastric ulcers, after-effects of operations to remove stomach ulcers, non-specific chronic constipation and chronic colitis); liver and gallbladder complaints (biliary dyskenesia, chronic cholecistitis, with and without gallbladder stones, conditions resulting from liver operations, chronic hepatitis, chronic pancreatitis); metabolic and nutritional complaints (diabetes, hyperuricaemia, hyperlipemia, obesity); related disorders (respiratory, degenerative and abarticular rheumatic, cardiovascular).

Excursions to Tîrgu Mureß and Reghin.

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TREATMENT FACILITIES Mineral water drinking facilities for internal cures; facilities for hot mud packs and paraffin treatment; aerosol and inhalation therapy facilities; electro- and hydro-therapy facilities; moffeta; physiotherapy rooms; medical massage.

ACCOMMODATION 2-star hotel, s-star pensions, 2-star villas, 3-star cabana.

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS The ruins of Ciceu and Rodnei castles Roman Fort, Orheiu Bistri†ei Churches in Bistri†a – Orthodox, Reformed, Catholic; Synagogue Monasteries: Nußeni, Piatra Fîntînele Museums: Bistri†a County Museum, the Silversmith’s House and Andrei Mureßanu Memorial House (Bistri†a); Comparative Art Museum (Sîngeorz Båi), Sîngeorz Båi Museum, Liviu Rebreanu Memorial House; George Coßbuc Memorial House; Íugålete – Bistri†a Museum Complex Caves: the Fairies’ Grotto, Zalion’s Cradle, Tåußoarelor Spring Lakes: Zagra, Big Lala and Small Lala, glacial tarns below the Ineu Summit, Colibi†a (Cåliman Mountains) Nature reserves: Ineu - Lala, Rîpa Verde (Green Ravine), Piatra Corbului (Raven’s Rock) – Cålimani Mountains, Piatra Fîntînele – Bîrgåu Mountains, Stînca Iedului (Kid’s Crag) - Bujdei (Rodnei Mountains), the Muddy Volcanoes (Monor), the Salt Mountain at Sårå†el, Poiana cu Narcise (Lent Lilies Glade) - Mogoßeni. Ciocåneßti ethnographic area; the monasteries of northern Moldavia (Vorone†, Arbore, Moldovi†a, Putna); Bistri†a winegrowing region; the stud farm at Beclean; Maramureß (the Izei Valley), the Merry Cemetery at Såpîn†a.

23. SLÅNIC MOLDOVA Year-round spa and climatic resort in Bacåu County. Altitude 530 m.

LOCATION The resort lies on the western flank of the Eastern Carpathians, in the valley of the Slånic River, in an area of beech and fir forests, 18 km from Tîrgu Ocna. A large, tastefully laid-out park lends a special charm to the resort.

HISTORY The city has been documented since 1755. The curative springs were discovered in 1801. In 1827 the first spa was built for the Moldavian boyars who came here to take the waters. It was destroyed during the First World War but reconstructed afterwards. In a short time, the mineral springs of Slånic Moldova became renowned far and wide. In 1832 the first chemical analyses of the water were carried out, and in 1877, the first bathing facilities were constructed.

CLIMATE Slånic Moldova has a transitional climate between hill and montane, with not very hot summers and mild winters. The annual average temperature is 7.1°C (the average for June is 17.8°C, and for January -4.2°C). The annual average precipitation reaches 600 mm, and cloud cover is relatively low. In May-August and in October-November there is abundant rain (brief showers), September being the driest month. Located in a deep valley, the resort is sheltered from winds by forestclad slopes. The prevailing wind is south-westerly and can be felt in winter, refreshing the atmosphere with resinous aerosols. The number of clear days is as many as 293 per year.

Natural therapeutic factors Mineral waters from the spa’s more than twenty springs have been chemically classified into the following groups: chloro-sodic, alkaline, carbogaseous, mildly sulphurous, bromate, iodate mineral waters (springs nos. 1 bis, 3, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15); alkaline, chloro/ sodic, carbo-gaseous, hypotone mineral waters (Cinget Spring); alkaline, low carbo-gaseous mineral waters (Cascada Spring); ferrous, carbogaseous mineral waters (springs no. 14 and Chercheß); vitriolicferrous mineral waters (spring no. 8 bis) and vitriolic-silicate mineral waters (spring no. 5); oligomineral mineral waters (300 Steps Spring). The salt-mine micro-climate at Tîrgu Ocna, where patients with respiratory complaints are transported from the spa (in the salt mine, the air temperature is a constant 12°C, the air pressure 731 mmHg,

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Sl책nic Moldova


and the air humidity - 60-80%). In addition, there are no allergens, and a high concentration of sodium, calcium and chlorine aerosols; there is a higher concentration of carbon dioxide compared with that at the surface, resulting in physiological stimulation of the respiratory centre). Mild, sedative bio-climate.

Therapeutic indications Digestive tract complaints (chronic hyper-acidic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers a minimum of three months after the painful phase, conditions following stomach operations, non-specific chronic colitis); live and gallbladder complaints (biliary dyskinesia, chronic cholecistitis with or without gallbladder stones, conditions following liver operations and cholecistectomy); respiratory tract complaints (allergic asthma, chronic tracheobronchitis, bronchiectasis, pulmonary emphysema, chronic sinusitis); metabolic and nutritional complaints (mild and middling forms of diabetes, obesity); kidney and urinary tract complaints; peripheral neurological complaints; post-traumatic complaints; related complaints (degenerative or abarticular rheumatism, cardiovascular, endocrine and gynaecological complaints, occupational illnesses, asthenic neurosis).

TREATMENT FACILITIES Facilities for internal cures using mineral waters; respiratory therapy facilities (apparatuses for aerosol and inhalation therapy using mineral waters and pharmaceutical substances); underground sanatorium with salt-mine micro-climate at Tîrgu Ocna; facilities for bathing in hot mineral waters; complex electro- and hydro-therapy facilities; medical physiotherapy rooms, massage; mofetta.

ACCOMMODATION 3-, 2- and 1-star hotels, 4- and 2- star pensions, 3-star villas, 3- and 1-star rooms to rent.

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS The Casino, built in 1894, which is an architectural monument; Slånic Waterfall (599 m altitude), the 300 Steps on Dobru Hill, 826 m altitude. In the vicinity: • Bacåu: The Iulian Antonescu County History Museum; the County Art and Ethnography Museum; the County Natural Sciences Museum; the Vasile Anestin Astronomy Complex; the ruins of the Princely Court, built in 1481 as a capital for Wallachia by Alexandru, the son of Stephen the Great; the Precista Royal Church, built in the Moldavian style in 1491

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• Buhußi: the Weaving and Felt Museum (housed in the eighteenthcentury Buhußi Manor); the twelfth-century Ciolpani Monastery, the oldest wooden monastery in Moldavia. Runcu: Runcu Monastery, built in 1457 by Stephen the Great. • Comåneßti: the Ghica Palace (1790). • Moineßti: South Moldavian Oil Industry Museum; the Heroes of the War of Independence Monument 1877-1878. • Oneßti: The Church of the Dormition of the Theotokos, built in 1493 by Stephen the Great; the Stone Bridge built the period of Stephen the Great, the oldest in Romania. • Parincea: Parincea Monastery, founded in 1702. • Ítefan cel Mare Village: Bogdana Monastery, built in 1670. • Tescani: the Georges Enesco Memorial Museum. • Dårmåneßti: yew forest (3-hectare forest reservation), Poiana Uzului Dam and Reservoir. • Caßin: Tårcåtoarea (game reserve of 30 hectares, hunting-lodge, trout farm).

24. SLÅNIC PRAHOVA Year-round spa and climatic resort in Prahova county. Altitude 413 m.

LOCATION The resort is located in the sub-Carpathians, in the valley of the Slånic Stream, in a forested area 45 km from Ploießti.

HISTORY Salt has been mined in Slånic Prahova for over three centuries, making it the most recent of Romania’s salt mines. The earliest historical record attesting the existence of Slånic dates back to 1532, and the second oldest document dates from 1685, when Mihai Cantacuzino the Spatharius purchased half of the Slånic domain to open a salt mine there. The earliest mine workings date from 1688, in Valea Verde (Green Valley), and between 1689 and 1691 the same Mihai Cantacuzino opened another mine in Baia Baciului. In 1713, the Spatharius donated his domain in Slånic along with its salt mines to the Col†ea Monastery in Bucharest. In 1912, electricity was introduced to the mines, ending manual labour, and other modernisation work was carried out. In 1914, because of the collapse of a salt mine situated deep within the mountain, Lacul Miresii (Bride’s Lake) formed (20 m deep), also known as Grota Miresii (Bride’s Grotto).


CLIMATE Forested hill and montane climate. The annual average temperature is 9°C, with pleasant summers (the average for July is 19.5°C) and relatively mild winters (the average for January is -3.5°C). The annual average precipitation is 750 mm. Due to its intermontane position, the resort enjoys a sheltered topo-climate.

Natural therapeutic factors Concentrated, chlorate-sodic mineral water from the lakes; therapeutic mud extracted from the Baia Baciului (Head Shepherd’s Mine) and Baia Porcilor (Pigs’ Mine) lakes; salt-mine micro-climate in the Unirea mine workings Mild, vaguely sedative bio-climate.

Therapeutic indications Degenerative rheumatic complaints (cervical, dorsal and lumbar spondylosis, arthrosis and polyarthrosis); abarticular rheumatic complaints (tendinosis, tendomiosis, tendoperiostosis, scapulohumeral periarthritis); post-traumatic conditions (post-traumatic stiffness of the joints, conditions resulting from operations on the joints, muscles or bones, conditions resulting from fractures, sprains and luxations); peripheral neurological complaints (paresis and after-effects of polyneuropathy); gynaecological complaints (ovarian insufficiency, cervicitis, chronic metroanexita); respiratory complaints (chronic bronchitis and tracheobronchitis, bronchiectasis, allergic asthma); related complaints (occupational illnesses).

TREATMENT FACILITIES Facilities for bathing in hot mineral water; facilities for hot mud packs; facilities for vaginal irrigation using mineral water; facilities for cold mud packs followed by swimming in the lake; facilities for aeroheliotherapy; facilities for treatment of respiratory tract complaints in the microclimate of the Unirea salt mine; electro-therapy facilities; medical physiotherapy room, medical massage.

ACCOMMODATION 4-, 3- and 2-star hotels, 4-, 3-, 2- and 1-star pensions, 3-flower rural pensions, 3- and 2-star villas, 1-star tourist hostel.

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS The salt mountain of Slånic Prahova is situated within the built-up area of the town of Slånic, the entrance being located on Baia Baciului Street. In 1954, it was declared a geological and geomorphologic natural reserve. The former Unirea Mine, which has fourteen galleries at a depth of 220 m, houses two halls used as an underground sanatorium.

Muntele Verde (Green Mountain), with its brightly coloured volcanic turf, especially after rain, is a nature reserve. The Salt-mining Museum can be visited in the Cåmåråßiei House, a historic monument built in the late eighteenth century and completely renovated between 2002 and 2003. Bride’s Lake or Grotto (425 square metres, 20 m deep), formed in 1914 when an old salt mine collapsed. Crasna Monastery.

25. SOVATA Year-round spa and climatic resort in Mureß County. Altitude 475-530 m.

LOCATION The resort is located on the western flank of the Gurghiu Mountains, among forested peaks and tributaries of the Tîrnava Micå River.

HISTORY A year-round resort, Sovata was mentioned for the first time as a place with healing virtues in a document dating back to 1597. In the eighteenth century, the inhabitants of Sovata village and the surrounding areas used the salt water for bathing, but it was not until 1850 that it became a spa resort.

CLIMATE Intermontane depression climate, with relatively mild winters and cool summers. The annual average temperature is 7.6°C (in August, the hottest temperature for the resort is 17.5°C, and in January the coldest is -3.7°C). Moderate northerly winds. The annual precipitation reaches 755 mm.

NATURAL THERAPEUTIC FACTORS Curative factors include heliothermal lakes (for example, Ursu Lake), clayey, siliceous mud (Aluniß Lake), sapropelic mud (Negru Lake), and the invigorating bio-climate resulting from pure air charged with aerosols and negative ions. The highly concentrated chlorate-sodic mineral water from the heliothermal lakes has a temperature that varies between 30 and 40°C in summer, at 1 m deep, and 40-50°C at a depth of 1.5 m; the concentration ranges from 40 to 250%. Sapropelic mud from the lakes. Mild bio-climate.

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Therapeutic indications Gynaecological complaints (ovarian insufficiency, cervicitis, chronic metroanexita, secondary sterility); degenerative rheumatic disorders (cervical, dorsal and lumbar spondylosis, arthrosis, polyarthrosis); inflammatory rheumatic complaints (allergies in the joints); abarticular rheumatic complaints (tendinosis, tendomiosis, tendoperiostosis, scapulohumeral periarthritis); post-traumatic complaints (post-traumatic stiffness of the joints, conditions resulting from operations on the joints, muscles or bones, conditions resulting from fractures, sprains and luxations); peripheral neurological complaints (mild paresis, after-effects of polyneuropathy, after-effects of poliomyelitis); related complaints (endocrine, cardiovascular, asthenic neurosis, metabolic and nutritional disorders, occupational illnesses).

TREATMENT FACILITIES Facilities for hot baths in tubs and pools using saline mineral water; hot mud pack facilities; facilities for gynaecological treatment (vaginal irrigation using mineral water and vaginal tampons using mud); pools for kinetotherapy; electro- and hydro-therapy; medical physiotherapy room, medical massage; facilities and facilities for aeroheliotherapy and outdoor bathing in the Ursu and Aluniß lakes.

ACCOMMODATION 4-, 3- and 2-star hotels, 3-star motel, 5-, 4-, 3- and 2-star pensions, 3-flower rural pensions, 3- and 2-star cabanas, 2-star cottages, 1-star tourist hostel.

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS Praid (salt mine and Salt Mountain, the Mining Museum), the Bicaz Gorges, departing from Gheorgheni. Tîrgu Mureß (the Teleki House, a Baroque architectural monument; the Bolyai Library, with 55,000 volumes; the Teleki Library, with 65 incunables, 44 princeps editions, and 1,200 printed titles from the fifteenth to the sevententh centuries); Sighißoara (mediaeval walled town, from the fourteenth-sixteenth centuries, the fourteenth-century Clock Tower, the Church on the Hill).

26. TURDA Seasonal spa and climatic resort in Cluj County. Altitude 350 m.

LOCATION The resort is situated in the Arieß valley, in a hilly region 4 km from Turda and 30 km from the city of Cluj.

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HISTORY Salt has been mined for thousands of years in Turda, or Potaissa, as it was called in Roman times. First recorded in 1705, the present-day town of Turda resulted from the gradual integration of a number of smaller mediaeval settlements. The Roman-era baths are mentioned in documents dating from the Middle Ages, and up until the seventeenth century they were known as “the Turda salt mines”. Nearby, there are fifteen natural lakes, formed by mine ceilings caving in and flooding the galleries. The idea of founding a bathing establishment arose after a chemical analysis of data of the Roman lake water was carried out. A company formed for this purpose built the first facilities on the shore of the lake in 1840. These facilities consisted of two rooms for bathing, with a further fourteen having been added by 1843. In 1880, the baths were nationalised. Trees were planted on the slopes and a thirty-room hotel, restaurant and an amusement pavilion were built. The bathing facilities were modernised, incorporating twelve tubs. Beginning in 1931, Turda Town Hall set about improving the salt lakes. The Roman lake was dredged, the banks reinforced, and the hot-water bathing facilities were modernised. Two hundred cabins and a sandy beach were built on the western bank of the lake.

CLIMATE Intermontane depression climate. The annual average temperature is about 9°C (in June, it is around 19.5°C, and in January around -4.5°C). The annual precipitation is about 550 mm.

Natural therapeutic factors Chlorate-sodic mineral waters from resort’s the concentrated salt lakes; fossil sapropelic mud extracted from the lake; mild bio-climate.

Therapeutic indications Degenerative rheumatic complaints (cervical, dorsal and lumbar spondylosis, arthrosis, polyarthrosis); abarticular rheumatic complaints (tendinosis, tendomiosis, tendoperiostosis, scapulohumeral periarthritis); peripheral neurological complaints (mild paresis, minor stiffness following polyneuropathy, after-effects of poliomyelitis); post-traumatic complaints (post-traumatic stiffness of the joints, conditions resulting from sprains and fractures); cardiovascular complaints (varicose veins); gynaecological complaints (ovarian insufficiency, chronic cervicitis).

TREATMENT FACILITIES Facilities for bathing in hot salt water; electro-therapy facilities; medical massage; aeroheliotherapy facilities; cold mud packs followed by bathing in the lake; outdoor saltwater pools.


Sovata, Ursu Lake


ACCOMMODATION 4- and 3-star hotels, 3- and 2-star pensions, 4-star villas.

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS Turda Palace (a former princely residence, today the History Museum) is the most significant cultural centre and mediaeval architectural monument in Turda. The History Museum houses numerous historical artefacts discovered during archaeological digs in Potaissa, the Roman castrum of the Fifth Macedonian Legion. The Roman fort was preserved intact well into the Middle Ages. Other tourist attractions near the resort The Turda salt mine covers 45 square kilometres and is the oldest in Europe, dating back to Roman times. The mine galleries are open to the public and concerts are sometimes given within the mine. Aerosol therapy is also available inside the mine. The mine has been declared a museum and is regarded as the best-preserved ancient salt mine in Europe. Turda Zoo is located next to the Turda Bathing Complex, and was founded in 1953. It covers fourteen hectares, including a deer park. There is also an aquarium, and a museum of taxidermy. In the same area there is also a botanical reserve. The Turda Gorges, 6 km west of Turda, are a monument of nature rich in flora and fauna, and were declared a nature reserve in 1938. The ruins of the Potaissa Roman Fort overlook Turda, and date from 168 A.D.

27.VATRA DORNEI Year-round spa and climatic resort in Suceava County. Altitude 802 m.

LOCATION The resort is located in northern Romania, at the confluence of the Dorna and Bistri†a rivers, in one of the most beautiful depressions in the Eastern Carpathians, also known as the Dorne Land, 40 km from Cîmpulung Moldovenesc, 110 km from Suceava and 83 km from Bistri†a.

HISTORY The resort dates back to the fourteenth century, and its mineral waters have been famous and prized since 1800 (at Poiana Negri, 50,000 bottles had been bottled by 1812). In 1845, the first bathing

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establishment was built at Vatra Dornei. In the late nineteenth century, modernisation and improvement of the resort commenced: more springs were harnessed, peat mud treatment became available, and, most importantly, modern bathing facilities were built in 1895. Vatra Dornei was declared a town in the 1900s. The bathing facilities were completely destroyed by retreating German troops in 1944, meaning the resort had to be almost entirely rebuilt. After 1970, the capacity of the resort increased greatly (to around 5,000 beds), with some hotels boasting their own treatment facilities.

CLIMATE Vatra Dornei has a continental intermontane depression climate, with cool summers and cold winters. The annual average temperature is 5.2°C (the average for July is 15.2°C, and for January -6°C), lower than in other regions at the same altitude. The annual average precipitation is 670-800 mm, the number of days of snow reaching 120 per year. The annual average cloud-cover reaches approximately 6.0-6.5 tenths, with the sunniest days occurring in June, August and September. The average air humidity is higher in winter (November-February) and lower in late spring and in summer. The average air pressure is 693 mm. The forested surrounding mountains shelter the resort from strong winds.

Natural therapeutic factors Carbogaseous, ferruginous, low bicarbonate, calceous, magnesian, hypotone mineral waters; peat mud transported from Poiana Stampei and used for mud baths and mud packs; high purity borehole mofetta CO2; tonic, stimulatory mountain bio-climate.

Therapeutic indications Cardiovascular complaints (conditions following myocardial infarction in the post-convalescence stage; ischemic cardiomyopathy, compensated mitral and aortic insufficiency; arterial hypertensions, peripheral arteriopathy from arterosclerosis, varicose veins); degenerative rheumatic complaints (cervical, dorsal and lumbar spondylosis; arthrosis and polyarthrosis); abarticular rheumatic complaints (tendinosis, tendomiosis, tendoperiostosis, scapulohumeral periarthritis); posttraumatic complaints (post-traumatic stiffness of the joints, conditions following operations on the muscles, bones and joints, conditions following fractures and sprains); peripheral and central neurological conditions (mild paresis, minor after-effects of polyneuropathy, lateoccurring after-effects of hemiperesis and paraparesis, two years after onset); related disorders (respiratory, endocrine, digestive tract complaints, gynaecological, metabolic and nutritional disorders, asthenic neurosis, occupational illnesses).


TREATMENT FACILITIES Facilities for bathing in hot carbogaseous water in tubs; facilities for bathing in hot mud and mud packs; water drinking facilities for internal cures using mineral waters; artificial mofetta facilities; electro- and hydro-therapy facilities; mecanotherapy; aerosol therapy facilities; medical physiotherapy room, medical massage; open-air cures.

ACCOMMODATION 4-, 3-, and 2-star hotels, 3- and 2-star hostels, 3-star motels, 4-, 3and 2-star pensions, 3-, 2- and 1-star villas, 2-star cottages, 2-star campsite, 1-star cabana.

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS For those looking for an active holiday, Vatra Dornei offers numerous activities: backpacking, excursions to the monasteries of Bukovina, fishing on the Bistri†a River, sky-diving in Suhard, rafting, mountain biking in the Dorne Depression, and in winter there are ski slopes of medium difficulty, with cable-car access, a skating rink and sledging course, and on Runc Mountain there is off-piste skiing. The tourist attractions in the surrounding area include the Bukovina Ethnographic Museum, housed in the Town Hall, and Hunting and Natural Sciences Museum. A few kilometres from Vatra Dornei there can be found a number of Orthodox monasteries remarkable for their age and architecture: Putna, Sucevi†a (1581 - 1601), Moldovi†a (1532), Vorone† (1488), Humor (1530), etc. All of them are unique monuments of Romanian Feudal Art, with interior and exterior murals. The Piatra Tåieturii Monastery, Mestecåniß Convent, Podu Coßnei Convent, and the Holy Skepi of the Theotokos Convent are also within easy reach. The mediaeval-style “Dracula’s Castle” is 40 km from Vatra Dornei, on the Tihu†a Pass, in Piatra Fîntînele village. It is said that Count Dracula lived here (tourists can visit the crypt with his remains and some personal effects).

28. VAˇA DE JOS Year-round spa and climatic resort in Hunedoara County. Altitude 233 m.

LOCATION Va†a de jos is situated in the Crißului Alb valley, on the northern flank of the Zarandului Mountains, in the depression of the same name, 19 km from Brad, 58 km from Deva, 142 km from Oradea, and 139 km from Arad.

HISTORY In 1439, Va†a de jos was recorded as Wattya in an act issued by King Albert, who donated the estate to Serbian prince Gheorghe Brankovic in gratitude for his assistance during the war against the Turks. At the beginning of the twentieth century, King Carol II often stayed at Castle Såvîrßin when he was taking the cure at Va†a. The present-day treatment facility was used up until 2010 exclusively as a recovery centre for Romanian soldiers.

CLIMATE Moderate continental hill and montane climate. The annual average temperature is 9.5°C, with an average of 20°C in June, and -2°C in January. The annual average precipitation is 750 mm. The forested surrounding hills shelter the resort from strong winds.

Natural therapeutic factors Sulphurous, chlorate, sodic, calceous, thermal mineral waters (35-38,5°C); mild bio-climate.

Therapeutic indications Degenerative rheumatic complaints (cervical, dorsal and lumbar spondylosis, arthrosis, polyarthrosis); rheumatic complaints (tendomiosis, tendoperiostosis, scapulohumeral periarthritis); peripheral neurological complaints (mild paresis, after-effects of polyneuropathy); asthenic neurosis; gynaecological complaints (minor disturbances of puberty or the menopause); liver and gallbladder complaints; cardiovascular conditions; metabolic and nutritional disorders; related complaints (occupational illnesses).

TREATMENT FACILITIES Facilities for bathing in hot mineral water; under water douches; aerosol therapy; sauna Electro-therapy facilities (diadynamic, interferential and galvanic currents), ionising, infra-red ultra-violet, electro-stimulation, ultrasound, short wave, and laser therapies, magneto-therapy, outdoor pool for cold baths and a solarium for aeroheliotherapy.

ACCOMMODATION 4- and 3-star hotels, 3- and 1-star pensions

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS The traditional wood carvers of Ocißor; Bulzeßti trout farm Va†a de Jos 1. Basarabasa (wooden church) → Pråvåleni (Cremenea

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Hill and the Petrified Forest; Vramni†å Watermill) → Ciungani (the latesixteenth-century Church of the Annunciation, with murals daring from 1777; Izvorul cu Leac (the Healing Spring)) 2. Va†a de Sus (monument dedicated to Father Arsenie Boca; limestone quarry) → Cåzåneßti (historic wooden church, painted by Iohan Io†a in 1828)→ Ponor (calcite quarry) → Obîrßa (Arad county) → Såvîrßin (Arad county). 3.Prihodißte (Peßtera Liliecilor (Bats Cave)) → Tåtåråßtii de Criß → Birtin (historic church) → Baia de Criß. Baia de Criß – the Zarand the county prefecture building; the obelisk of Avram Iancu; the Cross of Iancu; the Avram Iancu Museum; the RomanCatholic church. ˇebea: Orthodox church; the Avram Iancu holm oak; the bust of Avram Iancu; the tomb of Avram Iancu, Ion Buteanu and other Transylvanian revolutionaries of 1848; the Flag with the faces of Iancu, Horea, Cloßca and Crißan Tomeßti: Íteia (traditional pumpkinseed oil press) → Tomeßti (small pottery workshops) → Tiuleßti → Leau† → Dobro† → Obîrßa: small pottery workshops specific to the Crißana region); master potters’ fair, in the last Sunday of July. Bulzeßtii de Sus: Bulzeßtii de Jos (nineteenth-century Church of the Archangels) → Bulzeßtii de Sus (Church of St John Chrysostom, from 1848; Grohotului Gorges; Podul Grohotului; rapids used for washing woollen fabrics; Påstråvåria (trout farm)) → Muntele Gåina (Hen Mountain) (the annual maids’ market). Ribi†a 1. Historic churches: Ribi†a – fourteenth-century Church of St Nicholas → Crißan - Crißan Monastery Church → Dumbrava de Jos: the Church of the nineteenth-century Dormition of the Theotokos. Church of St Nicholas, Dumbrava de Sus (1848) 2. Ribi†a → Ribicioara , eighteenth-century church of St Parascheva , Ribicioara’s Gorges. Tîrnava de Criß (historic church), Brad: Gold Museum, with artefacts from mining history, the only museum of gold in Europe. Excursions: tour of Hunedoara County (Oråßtie – Simeria – Deva – Ha†eg – the Church at Densuß - Hunedoara) Historic remains of Sarmisegetuza

29. VOINEASA Year-round spa and climatic resort in Vîlcea County. Altitude 580-640 m.

LOCATION The resort is situated in the Lotru Valley, between the Cåpå†înii and the Lotrului Mountains, 36 km from Brezoi.

HISTORY The resort is first recorded in 1520, in a chrysoboulion (golden bull) from the reign of Neagoe Basarab, the Prince of Wallachia, and in another issued by John Zapolia, the Voivode of Transylvania, when the two rulers decided upon the border between Wallachia and Transylvania. After 1774, some shepherds from the Sibiu region settled in Voineasa, and in 1908 the settlement was officially recognised as a village. After the construction of the Lotru-Ciunget hydroelectric power plant in 1960, the Voineasa and the Vidra resorts were built.

CLIMATE Voineasa has a montane corridor climate, with cool summers and cold winters. The annual average temperature is around 6 - 7°C. The annual average precipitation reaches 800-900 mm, and is more abundant in spring and early summer. The prevailing winds are north-westerly.

Natural therapeutic factors Tonic, stimulatory mountain climate, without dust or allergens.

Therapeutic indications Asthenic neurosis in the hyperactive form, convalescence, exhaustion, anaemia, hyperthyroidism in the incipient form, respiratory complaints.

TREATMENT FACILITIES Herbal baths in tubs; aerosol and inhalation therapy facilities; paraffin packs; electro-therapy facilities; medical massage; medical physiotherapy rooms.

ACCOMMODATION 4-, 2- and 1-star hotels; 3- and 2-star villas, 3- and 2-star pensions, 2-flower rural pensions, 3-star bungalows, 2-star tourist hostel, 2-star cabana

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TOURIST ATTRACTIONS Cozia Monastery is one of the oldest historic monuments in Romania, and has preserved original features from the time of its construction, between 1387 and 1391. It is of great historical and artistic significance for its murals, carvings and architecture. Peßtera Muierii (the Woman’s Cave) in Baia de Fier village, which has four level galleries, extending for a total length of 3,600 metres. Excursions to the Lotrului Waterfalls, the Latori†a Forest nature reserve (in the Latori†ei Gorge to the south-west of Voineasa village, 25 km away), and Ciunget Dam and Vidra Reservoir on Lotru River (Vidra is the highest altitude reservoir in Romania). There is trout fishing on the Brådißor and Målaia lakes. The Jidoacei Gorge and the lake of the same name are located approximately 12 km north-east of Voineasa, on the upper course of the Voineßi†a River. Peßtera Laptelui (Milk Cave) is located about 20 km south of Voineasa, in Rudåresei Valley (a branch of the Latori†ei River). The fossils discovered here are exhibited in the Vîlcea County History Museum.

30. EFORIE NORD Year-round spa and climatic resort in Constan†a county. Altitude 6 - 20 m.

LOCATION Situated between the Black Sea coast and Techirghiol Lake, 14 km south of Constan†a. The resort has a long sea front with a bluff more than thirty metres high. The beach, more than 3 km long, is in parts more than 100 m wide. The more than 30 hectares of trees within the resort freshen the air.

HISTORY The Bucharest Wardenship (Eforie) of Civil Hospitals founded a sanatorium spa here in 1894. In addition, a wooden bathing pavilion was built, which existed up until 1904. The resort began to expand in earnest after 1960, and is now the second largest on the Black Sea coast.

CLIMATE Coastal maritime climate. The annual average temperature is 11.2°C (above 22°C in July, and 0°C in January). Winters are mild with sparse snow. In summer time, there is 10-12 hours of sunshine a day, with a total of 2,400 hours a year. The wind blows almost constantly, with an annual average speed of 4 m/s. The prevailing winds are north-easterly

and westerly. Low-speed sea and land breezes can be felt on the shore. The annual average precipitation is 380 ml.

Natural therapeutic factors Concentrated salt water from Techirghiol Lake; seawater; sapropelic mud from Techirghiol Lake; maritime bio-climate rich in saline aerosols and solar radiation, with a stimulatory effect on the body.

Therapeutic indications Degenerative rheumatic complaints (cervical, dorsal and lumbar spondylosis); inflammatory rheumatic complaints (allergies in the joints following acute rheumatism of the joints or localised infection, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthropathy, rheumatoid polyarthritis); abarticular rheumatic complaints (tendinosis, tendomiosis, tendoperiostosis, scapulohumeral periarthritis); post-traumatic complaints (post-traumatic stiffness of the joints, conditions resulting from operations on the muscles, tendons, joints and bones, conditions resulting from sprains and fractures); peripheral neurological complaints (post-traumatic paralysis and paresis of the limbs, polyneuropathy after the acute phase, aftereffects of polyradiculoneuritis, after-effects of poliomyelitis); central nervous system disorders (paraparesis following myelitis a minimum of three months from onset, paraparesis following arachnoiditis); gynaecological complaints (ovarian insufficiency, chronic cervicitis, chronic metroanexita, secondary sterility); skin complaints; respiratory complaints; related disorders (ear, nose and throat, cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic and nutritional, occupational illnesses).

TREATMENT FACILITIES Facilities for bathing in hot concentrated saltwater from Techirghiol Lake using tubs and pools, for use in medical recuperation; facilities for bathing in hot mud and hot mud packs; facilities for gynaecological treatment; aerosol therapy facilities; kinetotherapy reservoirs; complex electro- and hydro-therapy facilities; medical physiotherapy rooms; medical massage; sauna.

ACCOMMODATION 4-, 3-, 2- and 1-star hotels, 3- and 2-star hostel, 5-, 4-, 3- and 2-star villas, 3- and 2-star pensions, 2-star bungalows, 1-star tourist hostel.

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS Outdoor cinema and theatre, sports fields, pools. TOURIST ATTRACTIONS on the coast and in Dobrudja Constan†a: National Museum of History and Archaeology; Roman mosaic from the third century; Roman town wall; Constan†a Art Museum;

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Military Museum; Romanian Naval Museum; the Grand Mosque (built in 1822, in the Byzantine-Egyptian style, with Romanian influences); the Casino (built in 1909 in the French Baroque style, with Rococo elements); the Aquarium; the Dolphinarium; the Astronomy Complex (planetarium, astronomic observatory, solar station); the Constan†a painted tomb; the Íu†u Villa; the Ovidiu Theatre; the Genoese Lighthouse (fourteenth-century); the statue of Ovid; the Tomis recreational port. Excursions The ruins of the ancient city of Histria; the Danube Delta; Reazem Lake; at Gura Porti†ei (located on a narrow sand bank, between the Black Sea and Golovi†a Lake, in the Danube Delta); the Danube-Black Sea Canal. The Dobrudja Gorges, 45 km north-west of Constan†a, (the remains of coral reefs from the vanished Thetis Sea are a curiosity of nature) Callatis Mangalia Castle Murfatlar – visits to the wine cellar and wine tasting, visits to local monasteries (sites of archaeological and Christian importance), the Dobrudja Viniculture Museum Adamclisi – the ruins of the Tropaeum Traiani triumphal arch, built in 109 A.D. to mark the victories of the Emperor Trajan, the ruins of the Roman Civitas Tropaensium. Ostrov: the ruins of the Dervent Roman-Byzantine fortress Íipotele village: the Dobrudja orchid forest, a monument of nature

and buildings around the lake and erected a public fountain in the town and an Orthodox chapel in Tuzla. Among the prominent visitors to Techirghiol was Mircea Eliade, whose parents bought the Villa Claudia in 1906. The great artist Constantin Tånase built a sanatorium for artists (the Villa Scena), and donated money to the building of the Community Centre and of St Elijah Church. In the ’20s, Cezar Petrescu, Tudor Arghezi and their families were frequent visitors. Ionel Teodoreanu wrote many of his novels at Techirghiol.

CLIMATE Maritime coastal climate. Clear skies are predominant, with more than 2,400 hours of sunshine a year. The air temperature is a little bit higher in summe time than that of other seaside resorts, but in wintertime the climate is milder; the annual average temperature is 11°C (in June it is 22-23°C, and in January -0.5°C). The annual average air pressure is 764.3 mm. Low precipitation, less then 400 mm. Sea breezes are less palpable than on the shore, but instead there is a lake breeze. The wind speed is quite low, and the prevailing winds are north-easterly, southeasterly and westerly.

Natural therapeutic factors The concentrated saltwater of Techirghiol Lake; sapropelic mud extracted from Techirghiol Lake; stimulating/bracing steppe bio-climate, with maritime influences.

Therapeutic indications

31. TECHIRGHIOL Year-round spa and climatic resort in Constan†a County. Altitude 15-20 m.

LOCATION The resort is located on the north-western shore of Techirghiol Lake, in a valley surrounded by low hills, 2.5 km from Eforie Sud and 18 km from Constan†a.

HISTORY The site was documented in 1560 as Tekfür-köy in firmans Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent sent to the Moldavian prince. Written information about the therapeutic effects of the lake and its mud date back to 1854. Ottoman military commander Said Pasha pitched camp in Techirghiol, where he bathed in local mud, on the recommendation of the locals. He was pleasantly surprised by the miraculous effects the treatment had on his sick arm. Mihail Kogålniceanu bought land

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Degenerative rheumatic complaints (cervical, dorsal and lumbar spondylosis); inflammatory rheumatic complaints (allergies in the joints following acute rheumatism of the joints of localised infections, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthopathy, rheumatoid polyarthritis following orthopaedic surgery); abarticular rheumatic complaints (tendinosis, tendomiosis, tendoperiostosis, scapulohumeral periarthritis); post-traumatic complaints (post-traumatic stiffness of the joints, conditions resulting from operations on the muscles, tendons, joints and bones, conditions resulting from sprains and fractures); peripheral neurological conditions (post-traumatic paralysis and paresis of the limbs polyneuropathy after the acute phase, after-effects of polyradiculoneuritis, after-effects of poliomyelitis); central nervous system disorders (paraparesis following myelitis a minimum of three months after onset, post-traumatic paraparesis a minimum of three months after onset, paraparesis following arachnoiditis); gynaecological complaints (ovarian insufficiency, chronic cervicitis, chronic metroanexita, secondary sterility); skin complaints; related disorders (ear, nose and throat, cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic, nutritional and respiratory, occupational illnesses).


Eforie Nord therapeutic procedures


TREATMENT FACILITIES Facilities for bathing in tubs or pools using hot concentrated saltwater from Techirghiol Lake; aerosol therapy facilities; facilities for bathing in hot mud and hot mud packs; electro- and hydro-therapy facilities; medical physiotherapy room, medical massage. On the shore of the lake there is an outdoor treatment facility, with equipment for aerosol, mudpack and bathing therapy.

ACCOMMODATION 2-star Techirghiol spa sanatorium, 2-star hotels, 3-star pensions, 3-, 2- and 1-star villas.

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS Touristic attractions on the coast and in Dobrudja may be visited. See Eforie Nord.

32. NEPTUN Year-round spa and climatic resort in Constan†a County. Altitude 5 – 20 m.

LOCATION Neptun resort is situated on the Black Sea coast, 38 km from Constan†a and 7 km north of Mangalia, in an area relatively rich with vegetation (Comorova Forest, with numerous southern species), and is considered to be the garden of the Romanian sea coast.

HISTORY The Neptun resort was built in the early ’70s, followed by the northern part, Olimp, finished in 1972.

CLIMATE Maritime coastal climate, influenced by the proximity of Comorova Forest. The annual average temperature is 11.2°C (the June average is 22°C and the January average 0°C). Low precipitation, with an annual average of about 400 mm. In the summertime, there is sunshine for twelve hours a day.

Natural therapeutic factors Seawater, with a mineralisation of 15.5 g/l; sulphurous, mesothermal mineral water; sapropelic mud extracted and transported from

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Techirghiol; maritime bio-climate, rich in saline aerosols and solar radiation, with an bracing, stimulatory effect.

Therapeutic indications Degenerative rheumatic complaints (cervical, dorsal and lumbar spondylosis); inflammatory rheumatic complaints (allergies in the joints following acute rheumatism of the joints of localised infections, biologically stabilised rheumatoid polyarthritis or with moderate inflammatory activity following orthopaedic surgery); abarticular rheumatic complaints (tendinosis, tendomiosis, tendoperiostosis, scapulohumeral periarthritis); post-traumatic complaints (post-traumatic stiffness of the joints, conditions resulting from operations on the muscles, tendons, joints and bones, conditions resulting from sprains and fractures); peripheral neurological conditions (post-traumatic paralysis and paresis of the limbs polyneuropathy after the acute phase, after-effects of polyradiculoneuritis, after-effects of poliomyelitis); central nervous system disorders (paraparesis following myelitis a minimum of three months after onset, post-traumatic paraparesis a minimum of three months after onset, paraparesis following arachnoiditis); gynaecological complaints (ovarian insufficiency, chronic cervicitis, chronic metroanexita, secondary sterility); skin complaints; related disorders (endocrine, metabolic, nutritional and respiratory, skin complaints, occupational illnesses).

TREATMENT FACILITIES Facilities for bathing in tubs and pools using hot seawater; facilities for hot mud packs; inhalation and aerosol therapy facilities; electro- and hydro-therapy facilities; medical physiotherapy room, medical massage.

ACCOMMODATION 4-, 3-, 3- and 1-star hotels, 3- and 2-star hostels, 1-star tourist hostel, 4-, 3-, 2- and 1-star villas, 3-star holiday village, treatment centre.

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS Recreation: outdoor cinema, summer theatre, Neptun bazaar, esplanade, multi-functional sports fields, two mini-golf courses, an amusement park, facilities for nautical sports, and a holiday village. Restaurants with a wide range of local food, fish specialities, and folkloric entertainment. Water sports at sea or on Lake Neptun. The “La Steaguri” beach is one of the most beautiful on the seacoast, with fine sand and a very gently sloping entrance into the sea, which has a sandy bottom, and excellent amenities. Touristic objectives on the coast and in Dobrudja can be visited. See Eforie Nord.


Neptun therapeutic procedures 47


33. SATURN Year-round spa and climatic resort in Constan†a County. Altitude 3-10 m.

LOCATION The resort is located on the Black Sea coast, between Mangalia and Venus, 43 km from Constan†a and 1 km from Mangalia.

HISTORY Saturn was built in 1972 and is an administrative part of the town of Mangalia.

CLIMATE Seacoast climate. The annual average temperature is 11.2°C (the average for June is 22°C, and for January 0.2C). The annual average precipitation is less than 400 mm. During the summer, there is 10-12 hours of sunshine a day, and around 25 days in any given month are sunny.

complaints (ovarian insufficiency, chronic cervicitis, chronic metroanexita, secondary sterility); skin complaints; related disorders (ear, nose and throat, cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic, nutritional and respiratory, occupational illnesses).

TREATMENT FACILITIES Facilities for bathing in hot sulphurous water and seawater; facilities for bathing in hot mud and hot mud packs; inhalation and aerosol therapy facilities; complex electro- and hydro-therapy facilities; medical physiotherapy room; medical massage; outdoor pools.

ACCOMMODATION 5-, 4-, 3- and 2-star hotels, 3-star apartment hotel, 1-star tourist hostel, 3-, 2- and 1-star villas, 3-, 2- and 1-star bungalows, treatment centre.

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS Recreation: water sports (boating, hydro-bikes, ski-jets); numerous summer gardens, beer gardens, open-air restaurants, discos. Tourist attractions in nearby Mangalia and other resorts on the coast and in Dobrudja can be visited. See Eforie Nord.

Natural therapeutic factors Sulphurous, chlorate, bicarbonate, sodic, calceous, meso-thermal mineral waters, at 21 - 28°C; seawater with a mineralisation of 15.5 grams per litre; sapropelic mud extracted and transported from Techirghiol Lake; local peat mud; maritime bio-climate rich in saline aerosols and solar radiation, with stimulatory effect on the body.

Therapeutic indications Degenerative rheumatic complaints (cervical, dorsal and lumbar spondylosis); inflammatory rheumatic complaints (allergies in the joints following acute rheumatism of the joints of localised infections, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthopathy, rheumatoid polyarthritis following orthopaedic surgery); abarticular rheumatic complaints (tendinosis, tendomiosis, tendoperiostosis, scapulohumeral periarthritis); post-traumatic complaints (post-traumatic stiffness of the joints, conditions resulting from operations on the muscles, tendons, joints and bones, conditions resulting from sprains and fractures); peripheral neurological conditions (post-traumatic paralysis and paresis of the limbs polyneuropathy after the acute phase, after-effects of polyradiculoneuritis, after-effects of poliomyelitis); central nervous system disorders (paraparesis following myelitis a minimum of three months after onset, post-traumatic paraparesis a minimum of three months after onset, paraparesis following arachnoiditis); gynaecological

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34. MANGALIA Year-round spa and climatic resort in Constan†a County. Altitude 0 - 10 m.

LOCATION Mangalia is southernmost resort on the Romanian seacoast (44 km from Constan†a), built on the site of the ancient Greek colony of Callatis.

HISTORY The city was founded on the site of an earlier local settlement, Cerbatis, in the early sixth century, B.C., and was named Callatis by its Greek colonists from Heraclea Pontica. Mangalia (Pangalia) was first marked on the map made in Pisa in the twelfth century. After 1965, the resort developed and expanded, the same as all the other resorts on the Black Sea coast.

CLIMATE Mangalia enjoys a plains climate, influenced by the Black Sea. The annual average temperature is 11.2°C (the July average is 21.8°C, and the January average is above -0.2°C). Spring comes early and is cool,


and autumn is long and warm. Cloud cover is low, with sunshine in summertime of around twelve hours a day. Annually, there are more than 2,500 hours of sunshine. The annual average precipitation is 400 mm. The prevailing winds are north-easterly and westerly. Breezes are stronger in summer on the shore, from sea to land during the day, and from land to sea at night.

Natural therapeutic factors Sulphurous, chlorate, bicarbonate, sodic, calceous, mesothermal 21- 28°C mineral waters; seawater, with a mineralisation of 15.5 g/l; sapropelic mud extracted and transported from Techirghiol Lake; local peat mud from Mangalia; maritime bio-climate, rich in saline aerosols and solar radiation, with a stimulatory effect on the body.

Therapeutic indications Degenerative rheumatic complaints (cervical, dorsal and lumbar spondylosis); inflammatory rheumatic complaints (allergies in the joints following acute rheumatism of the joints of localised infections, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthopathy, rheumatoid polyarthritis following orthopaedic surgery); abarticular rheumatic complaints (tendinosis, tendomiosis, tendoperiostosis, scapulohumeral periarthritis); post-traumatic complaints (post-traumatic stiffness of the joints, conditions resulting from operations on the muscles, tendons, joints and bones, conditions resulting from sprains and fractures); peripheral neurological conditions (post-traumatic paralysis and paresis of the limbs polyneuropathy after the acute phase, after-effects of polyradiculoneuritis, after-effects of poliomyelitis); central nervous system disorders (paraparesis following myelitis a minimum of three months after onset, post-traumatic paraparesis a minimum of three months after onset, paraparesis following arachnoiditis); gynaecological complaints (ovarian insufficiency, chronic cervicitis, chronic metroanexita, secondary sterility); skin complaints; related disorders (ear, nose and throat, cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic, nutritional and respiratory, occupational illnesses).

ACCOMMODATION 4-, 3-, 2- and 1-star hotels, 3-star hostel, 3-star pensions, 4-star villas, treatment centre

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS Callatis Archaeology Museum, founded in 1925 and re-organised in 1962, built following the archaeological discovery of Neolithic, Greek and Roman remains (antique columns, bas-reliefs, sculptures, jewellery, alabaster items, pottery, statues, etc.). The ruins of the ancient city of Callatis preserve part of the city walls, from the first and second centuries, B.C.; the Hellenistic cemetery from the fourth to second centuries, B.C. lies to the north of the city ruins; another cemetery from the fourth to sixth centuries B.C. was unearthed along the western boundary of the city, where there is also a large burial mound from the Greek and Roman Era, in which the fourth-century “papyrus tomb� was found in 1959 (papyrus inscribed in Greek, the only one to have been discovered in Romania). A Syrian-type edifice, dating back to fourth and sixth centuries B.C. and the Esmahan Sultan Mosque, in the Moorish style, built in the sixteenth century, in Mangalia. The Mangalia stud farm, 3 km from the town and 500 m from the Black Sea coast, has a hippodrome for trotting and gallop; visitors can take carriage rides along the Black Sea coast and horse-riding lessons. Recreation: discos, cinemas, libraries, sports fields, boat trips to other coastal resorts. Every year, in the first Sunday of August, the Callatis Festival is held in Mangalia.

TREATMENT FACILITIES Facilities for bathing in hot sulphurous and sea water; facilities for bathing in hot mud and hot mud packs; inhalation and aerosol therapy facilities; reservoirs for kinetotherapy; complex electro- and hydrotherapy facilities; medical physiotherapy rooms; medical massage; sauna.

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Natural therapeutic factors and their effects Romania’s resorts are recognised for their extraordinarily wide range of natural therapeutic factors

Climatic factors Solar radiation Physical/chemical and meteorological factors • A tmospheric composition, relative oxygen pressure, carbon-dioxide and water vapour content, ozone and aerosol concentrations, absence of chemical pollution, • a tmospheric electricity, air ionisation geological and geographical factors, the geomagnetic field and geological characteristics of the soil, forms of relief, altitude, forested areas, proximity to large bodies of standing water, steppe areas manmade factors – any negative effects are, in effect, absent

The climatic and bio-climatic areas of Romania are as follows: Mountain climate, with a tonic-stimulatory bio-climate In the upper parts of low and medium mountainous areas (between 700 m and 2000 m), and sedative and relaxing effects in the lower parts. It stimulates neurovegetative and endocrine functions. Likewise characteristic are the biological effects of air pressure and partial low pressure, type B ultra-violet solar radiation, and the absence of pollution. The mountain climate produced by peaks and plateaux allows climatic cures in the form of air bathing and heliotherapy between 9 and 11 a.m. The mountain climate produced by depressions and valleys permits climatic cures in the form of static or moderate dynamic air baths. T he hilly and plateau climate, with its sedative relaxing bio-climate In the extra-Carpathian hills and Transylvanian plateau, at altitudes between 200-300 metres and 700-800 metres, is milder in terms of heat and moisture, and more dynamic than in mountainous areas, with mild winters and cool summers, moderate temperatures and precipitation, and a reduced air dynamic. Aero- and heliotherapy can be applied.

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T he plains climate, with its stimulatory/excitatory bio-climate, encountered in the Romanian Plain and the Tisza Plain, places higher demands on the central nervous, neurovegetative, and endocrine systems. In summer, hot or very hot and dry, mildly dynamic aerotherapy can be applied. T he seacoast continental climate, with its marine-influenced stimulatory/excitatory bio-climate, features higher humidity, wind speed, and sunlight, and lower precipitation. There is moderate, predominantly positive air-ionisation, lower cutaneous stress due to the influence of breezes, and higher pulmonary stress due to humidity. In transitional periods, there are two to three relaxing months, but the total bio-climatic stress is high. Climatic therapy is at a premium on the seacoast and is used in numerous ways: pure helio-maritime treatment or thalassotherapy in May and September/October; contrast therapy – heliotherapy and sand-baths (psamotherapy); sea-baths, anointment with cold mud; lake swimming, air-baths on the shore. In the cold season, only maritime aerosol cures and the cures available in treatment facilities are applied. Interior therapeutic micro-climate in salt mines, with a constant temperature of 10-14°C, high atmospheric pressure, pure air, no air currents, saline aerosols with Na, K, Ca, Mg, predominantly positive ionisation.

Therapeutic mineral waters Criteria: a. Diluted salts content (mineralisation) of more than 1g/litre b. T he presence of curative oligo-elements: bromine, iodine, iron, arsenic, lithium, strontium, boron, barium, silicon, manganese, aluminium, c. Diluted content of gases with biological effects: CO2, H2S, d. S ource temperature – thermal waters (32-38°C), hypo- (20-31°C) and hyper-thermal (>38°C) water e. Radioactive elements content of more than 50-100 uMache/litre f. Scientifically acknowledged therapeutic action Oligo-mineral or acratic (soft) waters have a mineralisation of less the 1 g/l and do not contain pharmacologically effective chemical elements or therapeutic gases.


Thermal waters – used for external cures in pools, recommended for kinetotherapy or thermo-therapy Cold waters (below 20°C) - have exceptional diuretic effects – diuretic crenotherapy Oligo-elements appear in small concentrations in mineral waters, in an ionised state, and include: • Manganese – takes part in metabolic processes, such as the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides. The action of arginase has hypoglycemiant effects on the liver and acts as a lipotropic factor • Lithium – activates the Na/K and Ca/Mg pump in cellular membranes • Zinc – component of insulin molecules, an element in the formation of carbonic anhydrase and in the processes of protein synthesis – present in many crenotherapy spring waters in Romania, with concentrations of up to 4 mg/l • Copper – takes part in the synthesis of cytochrome oxidase within the mitochondria, and together with magnesium and zinc has protective effects on the insulin and pancreatic system • Molybdenum – takes part in the metabolism of purines, in the formation of xanthine oxidase and plays a role in maintaining the elasticity of the arterial walls • Vanadium – activates the coenzyme of vitamin B1 • Silicon – present in undissociated form in alkaline and thermal waters (between 10-120 mg/l), it contributes to arterial wall structure (arteriosclerosis)

Therapeutic mud (pelloids) These accumulate in natural conditions and are used in medical treatments involving baths, medical packs and local procedures. They are heterogeneous mixtures of organic and mineral substances in numerous states of aggregation and structural forms, including solid state (macro, micro and ultra-micro-colloidal and molecular), liquid (watery solution) and gaseous (H2S, CO2, O2, H, hydrocarbons, etc.). According to physical/chemical composition, mud is: - sapropelic, from continental lakes and lagoons, produced by underwater sedimentation of organic and mineral materials under the influence of biological, micro-biological and physical-chemical processes – with an organic content higher than 10% in dry mud - mineral, from continental lakes and lakes forming on salt massifs or around natural springs, and artificial reservoirs on an argillaceous bed – with an organic content lower than 10% in dry mud

Mofetta gases Mofettas are declivities where CO2, which is heavier than the air, accumulates, and where patients are stand on steps at an indicated level for a determined length of time. The CO2 is absorbed by the tegument submerged in the mofetta gases, which combines with the effects of the gases that are inhaled. Natural emissions of CO2 in the volcanic area of the Eastern Carpathians reach concentrations of between 94 and 99.8%, while other, solfatara emissions also contain H2S. In the Western Carpathians there can be found emissions which have a high nitrogen content (18-91%) as well as their CO2 content (4-81%). Carbonic gases extracted from mineral waters is employed in mofetta treatment and industrial CO2 in so-called artificial mofetta treatment.

Physical-kinetic methods of treatment at resorts Physical medicine and physiotherapy are based on kinetotherapy, which developed from scientific physiology, and the methods include thermotherapy, electrotherapy, respiratory tract therapy, occupational therapy and massage therapy (reflex massage techniques adopted from oriental medicine). In modern balneology, the objectives are more extensive and are aimed principally at primary prophylaxis in healthy humans (health and wellbeing cures, spa tourism) and at assisting recovery in people with chronic diseases and dysfunctions. Therefore, the basic methodology is prophylactic kinetotherapy and recovery therapy, along with methods employing natural curative factors (climatic therapy, thalassotherapy, heliotherapy, aerotherapy, open-air cures, the pleasant surrounding and climate of the spa, mineral waters, seawater and therapeutic lake waters for swimming, relaxation or pleasure, mineral waters for crenotherapy, diuresis or digestive cures). Depending on desired end result, treatment facilities allow both optimal exploitation of therapeutic natural factors and of conditions for application of kinetotherapy and hydrokinetotherapy, in indoor and outdoor pools, baths and jacuzzis, aerobic and fitness rooms, and walking trails for open-air cures. Antialgic electrotherapy and sedative and neuromuscular stimulation facilities are used, which can be applied in a wide variety of cures.

- peaty, from marshy areas, produced by incomplete transformation of materials due to high humidity, with an organic content higher than 10% in dry mud.

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Indications for prophylactic bathing cures Health cures – forms and indications Restorative cures – “mise en forme” (getting into shape)

Objectives: relaxation, gradual exercise to train for exertion by means of combating hypokinetic syndrome, recovery of natural sleep/waking and rest/exertion biorhythms; stabilisation of the nervous system; exercise of thermoregulatory functions; balanced nutrition; behavioural education Methods: various forms of climatic therapy– aerotherapy; heliotherapy; open-air cures, kinetoprophylaxis using exercise and relaxation; aerobics; swimming and sports; hydrotherapy with contrasting thermal factors (heliotherapy/sea swimming; heliotherapy/cold mud rubs /lake swimming; heliotherapy/lake swimming in submontane and hill resorts); diet therapy; occupational therapy; psychotherapy. Cure indications: various age groups regarded as healthy, but complaining of physical or mental discomfort that is either acute or results from periods of increased stress, with frequent feelings of fatigue and irritability, lower performance at work, decreased free-time activities, a tendency to be sedentary, sleep/waking and rest/exertion disturbances, and thermo-regulatory disturbances.

Fitness and adaptation to exertion cures

Such treatments are commonplace nowadays, and under careful supervision they are useful in the prevention of hypokinetic syndrome, cardiorespiratory diseases and disorders of the myoarthrokinetic system. They can also be applied in combination with other methods – outdoor cures on forested mountain slopes, with natural aerosols and unpolluted air, subject to the sedative-relaxing or tonic-stimulatory influence of the climate, or by swimming in lakes, pools or in the sea (thalassotherapy). Supplimentary methods can also be applied: hydrotherapy with contrasting thermal factors, and others.

Anti-stress cure

This is recommended for a wide spectrum of young people and active adults whose jobs place high demands on their neuropsychic system, inducing disturbances of biorhythms, in particular those connected to sleep/waking and rest/exertion. The anti-stress cure methods at spa resorts draws upon the relaxant-sedative climate of hilly areas and bathing and hydrotherapy procedures, combined with sedative electrotherapy electromagnetic fields, massage, psychotherapy, and diets.

Active preventative cures for degenerative and age-related disorders of the locomotive system Objectives: to correct inappropriate or tiring work postures and demonstrate relaxing postures appropriate to the activity; to learn

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recommended ways of performing the physical exertion required by the type of work activity; to increase the flexibility of joint, ligament and muscular tissues; to restore and improve the strength of muscles weakened by physical exertion; to provide aerobic training; to train the cooling mechanisms of people whose jobs expose them to high temperatures and humidity; to reduce fat in those with excess body mass or obesity. These objectives are attained through spa-climatic and physical-kinetic means, such as a tonic-stimulatory or sedative-relaxing climate, indoor and outdoor kinetoprophylaxy, open-air cures and sports, hydrokinetotherapy in pools, swimming, application of contrasting thermal factors, specific forms of kinetotherapy to build strength, aerobic training, massage, as well as forms of group education, during 5-6-hour daily programmes, distributed in a balanced way over the course of the day, keeping to a timetable of rest and sleep, and rounded off with entertainment and cultural activities in the ambience of the spa resort.

Active prophylactic cures for cardiovascular complaints

These are health cures for patients liable to cardiovascular complaints.

Objectives: to provide health education and make changes in behaviour with regard to the negative effects of smoking, alcohol, and poor diet; to learn methods of muscular and mental relaxation and habits with regard to movement and physic effort, aimed at training the cardio-respiratory and muscular functional capacities aerobically. Method: daily talks with the doctor; kinetoprophylaxy using relaxation techniques; aerobic training for dosed exertion; open-air cures; sport, swimming and excursions; bathing-therapy using carbogaseous baths or mofetta therapy for demonstration purposes; hydrotherapy and sedative massage; diet therapy and, in some cases, group psychotherapy. These programmes are intended to make sure that the patient has assimilated the knowledge and behavioural habits required in order to limit the action of risk factors identified by anamnesis and clinic examination.

Active preventative cures for respiratory tract complaints These are health cures for patients liable to bronchial and pulmonary complaints.

Objectives: to avoid polluted or toxic environments; to provide sanitary education with regard to the effects of smoking, avoiding exposure to


the cold and correcting sedentary lifestyles; to teach correct breathing exercises; to rectify any identified muscular and bone disorders and increase adaptive capacity to cold through alternative hydrotherapy. Method: climatic therapy procedures; aeroheliotherapy and open-air cures; inhalation therapy using alkaline or chlorosodic waters; breathing exercises; group education and even group psychotherapy. Indications: people who are exposed to airborne pollutants in the workplace or who are predisposed to inflammatory or bronchial and

pulmonary allergic diseases; smokers; people at risk of respiratory dysfunctions; the obese; persons with postural disorders of the spine – kyphoscoliosis, the after-effects of tuberculosis.

Other types of prophylactic cure

Anti-aging, anti-obesity, prevention of diabetes, prevention of osteoporosis, crenotherapy for the digestive system, diuretic crenotherapy.

A quality life for seniors

Drawing upon her research in geriatrics and gerontology, in 1952 Dr. Ana Aslan founded the world’s first Institute of Geriatrics and Gerontology and by 1972 had succeeded in developing the formula for her Gerovital H3 medicine. The medicine acts upon the common mechanisms of degenerative diseases specific to old age. In 1976, she developed Aslavital, a product efficacious in therapy of the nervous system and cardiovascular apparatus. Her success in the prevention and therapy of ageing brought her world renown, and the products and treatments provided by the Ana Aslan Institute of Geriatrics and Gerontology earned an international reputation. Today, the Ana Aslan Institute of Geriatrics and Gerontology provides personalised preventative and curative treatment based on the individual patient’s age and pathology, using H3 products and Aslavital, according to an original method. Treatment is indicated for a wide range of complaints specific to old age: degenerative rheumatoid complaints, peripheral circulatory disturbances, depressive conditions, digestive apparatus distress, asthma, blood pressure, dyslipidemia, diabetes, etc. Ana Aslan therapy can be employed prophylactically, starting from the age of forty.

aging products, thermophoresis, iontophoresis, anti-aging masks, reinvigoration, and good skin vascularisation for optimal elasticity, using computerised apparatus; plus anti-cellulite and muscle invigoration treatment for body reshaping. A number of health spas in Romania offer guests the opportunity to follow cures and procedures based on Gerovital and Aslavital. These spas, which together are called Ana Aslan Health Spas, combine the natural environmental factors specific to mountain resorts or the coast (strongly ionised air, saltwater, sapropelic mud, healing herbs), with classic therapeutic procedures. Guests have access to hydrotherapy rooms, massage cabins, aesthetic treatment for the body and face, electro- and magneto-therapy, individual kinetotherapy, and fitness rooms. The list of the most prestigious spas in this class includes: Eforie Nord - Hotel Astoria, Hotel Europa, Ana Aslan Health SPA; Poiana Braßov - Hotel Sport, Hotel Bradul, Hotel Poiana; Båile Herculane – Hotel Roman; and Bucharest - Athenée Palace Hilton, Crown Plaza. Ana Aslan’s range of Gerovital H3 cosmetic products are famous throughout the world (in Europe, the United States, Canada, Asia and South America). Indications for spa cures by groups of ailments and geriatric spa cures

Besides anti-aging therapy, a cure adapted to the patient’s actual pathologies is recommended. In addition, treatment can include face and body toning, which consists of gommage (exfoliation), hydration, skin nutrition using Ana Aslan anti-

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Indications for spa cures

by groups of ailments and geriatric spa cures Spa treatments by groups of ailments (in secondary prevention, therapy or medical recovery)

Rheumatic complaints A) Inflammatory rheumatic complaints - rheumatoid polyarthritis – clinical forms – in stages II and III, once stabilised, after attacks have passed or during periods of reduced inflammatory activity, clinical forms with moderate inflammatory activity, or with functional or post-operative deficits – counter-indications - clinical forms with systemic manifestations, rheumatoid polyarthritis in stages III and IV, rheumatoid polyarthritis during attacks of inflammation – recommended spas 4, 13, 25, 30, 31, 34, - r heumatoid polyarthritis - clinical forms with moderate inflammatory activity, or with functional or post-operative deficits - recommended spas 4, 31, 34, - a nkylosing spondylitis – counter-indications: peripheral or febrile forms, forms accompanied by breathing difficulties, stage-IV ankylosing spondylitis , recuperable forms - recommended spas 1, 3, 4, 6, 11, 13, 14, 19, 25, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34 - p soriatic arthritis - clinical forms- in stages II and III, once stabilised, after attacks have passed or during periods of reduced inflammatory activity, - clinical forms with moderate inflammatory activity, or with functional or post-operative deficits - counter-indications forms with a rheumatoid-type evolution - recommended spas 1, 14, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, - p ersons with previous rheumatic conditions, secondary infectious rheumatism, reactive arthritis with meteorotropic muscle and joint pains – counter-indications cardiac sequelae following acute rheumatism of the joints, recommended spas 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 19, 20, 24, 25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, B) degenerative rheumatism of the joints - peripheral and axial arthrosis; coxarthrosis, gonarthrosis, cervical, dorsal and lumbar spondylosis, and others - clinical forms- compensated forms with reduced or absent symptoms; decompensated algic and muscular forms, without inflammatory decompensation or functional deficits; counter-indications – cases where surgery is recommended recommended spas 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 19, 20, 24, 25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34 Decompensated forms with functional deficits and operated forms recommended spas 4, 30, 31, 34,

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- c ervical and lumbosacral radiculopathy with discopathic or spondylogenous causes, or via a narrow canal - clinical forms- algic cervical or lumboradicular forms, without motor deficit – counterindications – hyperalgic forms and clinical forms- algic forms and forms with motor deficit, sequelae following surgery– counter-indications – cases where surgery is recommended - recommended spas 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 19, 20, 24, 25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34 - s tatic disorders of the spinal column and lower limbs - clinical forms- compensated forms in children, young people or adults, or decompensated algic, muscular, neuro-endocrine and/or neurovegetative forms - recommended spas 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 19, 20, 24, 25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34 - h ypokinetic syndrome, sedentary persons, overweight persons or those with hyperlaxity of the joints - recommended spas 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 19, 20, 24, 25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34

C) Rheumatic complaints affecting the soft tissues (periarticular and muscular) - scapulohumeral or coxofemural periarthritis - clinical forms– forms healed without sequelae, simple forms of pain in shoulders, or pericoxitis with pain during movement– counter-indications mixed forms of pain in the shoulders - recommended spas 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 19, 20, 24, 25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, Or clinical forms– blocked shoulders, stiff shoulders, forms of pericoxitis, with deficit in leaning and walking – counter-indications forms with lesions to the capsule of the shoulder joint where surgery is recommended recommended spas 1, 3, 4, 6, 11, 13, 14, 19, 25, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34

Complaints resulting from orthopaedic traumas A) bone and joint sequalae resulting from fractures of the limbs (fractures, joint stiffness, osteoplasty, osteoporosis, etc.) – a. clinical forms– forms accompanied by pain and stiffness, but without major functional decompensation connected to mobility or self-care – counter-indications septic arthritis, unconsolidated fractures, ankylosis, joint instability, bone infections, pseudo-arthrosis, osteonecrosis of the femur head, vicious callus - recommended spas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 11, 13, 14, 17, 19, 24, 25, 26, 27, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34 or clinical forms– forms with decompensation of functions and deficits of movement– counter-indications – the same as above - recommended spas 4, 30, 31, 34


B) sequelae resulting from vertebral fractures, without medullary lesions counter-indications cases that require surgery - recommended spas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 11, 13, 14, 17, 19, 24, 25, 26, 27, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34 C) post-traumatic lesions of the tendons and ligament capsules - clinical forms– selected cases, following orthopaedic surgery - recommended spas 1, 4, 5, 6, 11, 13, 14, 25, 29, 30, 31, 34, D) post-traumatic muscular sequelae clinical forms– forms without loss of function – counter-indications muscular infections - recommended spas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 11, 13, 14, 17, 19, 24, 25, 26, 27, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34 E) cutaneous sequelae resulting from trauma (edemas, hypertrophic scars, atrophy, transplant scars) - recommended spas 5, 6, 11, 19, 34 F) complex post-traumatic sequelae: osteo-articular, facial, cutaneous, muscular, without nerve lesions clinical forms– cases resolved from the orthopaedic point of view – counter-indications bone or muscle infections - recommended spas 4, 6, 11, 30, 31, 34, G) circulatory or trophic disorders resulting from trauma - clinical forms– vein and lymphatic circulatory disorders, sequelae following thrombophlebitis – counter-indications in the two-three months immediately after a trauma or in the acute phase of thrombophlebitis recommended spas 1, 6, 11, 14, 19, 27, 30, 31, 34,

Natural therapeutic factors for patients suffering from orthopaedic traumas (depending on the type of sequela): Climate – coastal climate for thalassotherapy, heliotherapy, thermotherapy on beach sand, thermotherapy using mud, seawater bathing. Kinetotherapy in saltwater is readily available. The relaxing-sedative climate of spas in hilly regions and the tonic-stimulatory sub-Alpine climate are recommended in cases of post-traumatic sequelae. Spring waters – concentrated chlorate-sodic waters in bathing pools facilitates hydrokinetotherapy during recovery and has anti-inflammatory, hyperaemic effects on the skin, stimulating cutaneous receptors and the subjacent tissues, antialgic effects, etc. Sulphurous waters in bathing pools for hydrokinetotherapy with vasodilatatory and cutaneous trophic effects. Carbogaseous spring waters and moffeta to stimulate peripheral circulation, with sedative effects and regulatory neurovegetative benefits.

Neurological complaints A) Peripheral neurological complaints a. various types of neuralgia (Arnold’s neuralgia, cervical-brachial, intercostal, lumbosciatic neuralgias, etc. - clinical forms– cases with specific diagnoses but with functional deficit - recommended spas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 11, 14, 15, 17, 19, 24, 25, 30, 33, 34, b. paresis and paralysis of the peripheral nerves (radicular, plexal, troncular), whether post-traumatic or due to compression (discopathy, narrow canal, incarceration syndromes) - clinical forms–only after neurosurgical examination in post-traumatic cases, after surgical examination

in cases of lesions of the axonatmesis or neurotmesis type, with removal of the compression or re-establishment of nerve continuity – counterindications muscle or bone infections - recommended spas 1, 4, 5, 6, 11, 14, 30, 31, 34, c. p olyneuritis (toxic, dysmetabolic or infectious) , clinical forms– following detox therapy, stabilisation of diabetes or anti-infectious treatment– counter-indications decompensated neuropathy resulting from collagen diseases, paraneoplastic neuropathy and in diabetes - recommended spas 1, 4, 5, 6, 11, 14, 30, 31, 34, d. sequelae resulting from poliomyelitis - clinical forms– delayed sequelae in adults with functional deficits– recommended spas 1, 4, 5, 6, 11, 14, 30, 31, 34,

B) Central neurological complaints a. hemiparetic and hemiplegic sequelae resulting from strokes or brain injuries clinical forms – stroke sequelae or brain injuries – carefully selected cases following post-acute recovery in hospital recuperation units, a few months following the stroke– counter-indications cases involving background cardiovascular complaints where it is not recommended that the patient travel recommended spas 4, 30, 31, 34 other than during the summer season or clinical forms after-effects of strokes, old cases, patients who have recovered but have reduced motor deficit recommended spas 4, 8, 10,13, 13, 15, 29 b. paraparesis resulting from spine injuries with medullary lesions Clinical forms 1. patients who have recovered with the help of a wheelchair, for treatment of trophic and circulatory complications or processes of arachnoiditis or corneal myelitis – counter-indications cases without sphincter disorders - recommended spas 3, 4, 5, 13, 15, 30, 31, 34 or Clinical forms 2. following surgical removal of the compression (disk hernias, benign tumours) three months after surgery –– counterindications following malign tumour processes - recommended spas 3, 4, 17 or Clinical forms 3. post-traumatic forms, at least three months after the injury – counter-indications cases without complete medullary section or sphincter disorders - recommended spas 3, 4, 15, 30, 31, 34 C) Neurosis-type functional disorders - various forms of asthenic neurosis1. clinical forms–patients who have been diagnosed as suffering from asthenic neurosis by neuropsychiatrists and recommended to take pharmacological treatment in a spa environment – counter-indications patients suffering from hysterical and obsessive-phobic neuroses and psychosis - recommended spas 8, 17 and Sinaia, Predeal (in specialist units) or Soveja or 2. clinical forms–persons predisposed to neurosis who have stressful jobs or neurovegetative disorders or who have had crises diagnosed as neurosis - recommended spas 8, 13, 15, 22, 23, 25, 27, 29, and Sinaia, Predeal and Soveja

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Cardiovascular complaints A) chronic ischemic cardiopathy – 1. clinical forms–painful and non-painful forms only in periods of remission – counter-indications infectious cases with frequent attacks and arrhythmia - recommended spas 10, 12, 29 or 2. clinical forms–selected patients, accompanied by their cardiologists, for recuperation in late phase II; sequelae resulting from myocardial infarction in late phase II and in phase III – counterindications only patients recommended by their specialist cardiologists - recommended spas 13 or 3. clinical forms– sequelae resulting from myocardial infarction in late phase II and in phase III – counter-indications only patients recommended by their specialist cardiologists - recommended spas 13 B) arterial hypertension 1. clinical forms– essential arterial hypertension in stage I; secondary artherosclerotic and post-climacteric hypertension recommended spas 8, 10, 11, 12, 27, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34 or 2. clinical forms– arterial hypertension in stage II in the absence of disease – counter-indications patients with complicationsrecommended spas 8, 10, 12, 29 C) valvulopathy – 1. clinical forms–compensated forms of mitral or aortic insufficiency; operated cases of valvulopathy (two to three months after surgery) counter-indications valvulopathy of aortic stenosis complex or evolving valvulopathy, valvulopathy with cardiac insufficiency – or 2. operated cases of valvulopathy (two to three months after surgery) recommended spas 10, 12, 29 D) peripheral arteriopathy – 1. clinical forms– artherosclerotic forms – counter-indications counter-indicated forms in advanced stages with clinically manifest dysfunctions, as well as forms with surgical counterindications - recommended spas 8, 10, 12, 27, or 2. clinical forms–functional arteriopathies of the Raynaud’s disease type, acrocyanosis, erythromelalgia - recommended spas 8, 10, 11, 12, 27, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34 E) chronic vein diseases – 1. clinical forms– sequelae resulting from thrombophlebitis– counter-indications earlier than three to six months after the acute stage, or 2. clinical forms– operated varicose veins – counter-indications earlier than two to three months after surgery recommended spas 8, 10, 12, 24, 30, 31, 33, 34 or 3. clinical forms– venous insufficiency in stage I - recommended spas 24, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, F) patients at risk of cardiovascular disease - clinical forms– dyslipidemia, weight problems, stress, accompanied by arterial tension with oscillating values – recommended spas health cures for patients with cardiovascular risk cure de

Respiratory and ear, nose and throat complaints A) bronchial; clinical forms–pure bronchial asthma (in young people), spastic tracheobronchitis – counter-indications bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis require recuperation - recommended spas 5, 7, 11, 18, 23, 24, 30, 31, 34,

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B) c hronic tracheo-bronchitis; clinical forms–persistent recurring forms – counter-indications clinical bronchial asthma and chronic bronchitis require recuperation - recommended spas 5, 7, 11, 18, 23, 24, 30, 31, 34, C) b ronchiectasis; clinical forms– selected cases- recommended spas 5, 6, 7, 11, 18, 23, 24, 30, 31, 34 D) r espiratory neurosis;- recommended spas 5, 6, 12, 13, 18, 23, 27, and Sinaia, Stîna de vale, Brådet E) n on-specific chronic obstructive bronchial neuropathy – chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, chronic bronchial asthmarecommended spas 5, 18, 23, F) r estrictive breathing dysfunctions resulting from pulmonary fibrosis, pneumoconiosis, pachypleuritis, thoracoplasty, kyphoscoliosis, obsesity, etc. - recommended spas 5, 18, 23, E) p ersons with risk factors for respiratory diseases; 1. clinical forms– persons exposed to environments polluted with airborne particles (e.g. chemicals, metallurgy or textiles industries) or 2. clinical forms–longterm smokers, persons addicted to tobacco recommended spas – respiratory cures or 3. clinical forms patients suffering from frequent respiratory ailments, in particular during cold weather, persons with infectious or allergic respiratory complaints (rhinitis, sinusitis, tracheobronchitis, etc.) recommended spas 5, 6, 7, 11, 15, 22, 23, 24, 18, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34 and Borßa, Soveja, and sub-alpine climatic spas F) n ose and sinus complaints; 1. clinical forms chronic catarrhal and suppurating rhinosinusitis 2. hypertrophic chronic rhinopharyngitis or 3. Hypertrophic chronic laryngitis or 4. Nasal and sinus allergies recommended spas 5, 6, 7, 11, 15, 22, 23, 24, 18, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34 and Borßa, Soveja, and sub-Alpine climatic spas

Digestive, liver, gallbladder, kidney and urinary tract complaints Conditions of the digestive tract, liver and gallbladder A) persons at risk of digestive ailments – unhealthy living and eating, consumption of foodstuffs irritating or toxic to the stomach, intestines, liver and bile ducts (alcohol, smoking, coffee, excessive salt and condiments, stressful lifestyle) – health cures for digestive repose or anti-stress cures - recommended spas 7, 11, 12, 22, 23, B) u nclassifiable digestive ailments, patients who eat unhealthily and have stressful lifestyles 1. clinical forms–chronic gastropathy with chlorhydropeptic secretory dysfunctions during periods of remission or 2. clinical forms sequelae resulting from stomach operations, but without dysfunction or complications - recommended spas 7, 12, 22, 23, C) g astroduodenal ulcers during high-intensity attacks, not ameliorated by diet or medication, with recent bleeding or gastric evacuation disturbances; relapse of peptic ulcers after stomach operations; malabsorption syndrome 1. clinical forms of hyposthenic syndrome with chlorhydropeptic hyposecretions ; recommended spas 7, 11, 22, 23,


or 2. clinical forms duodenal forms with hypersthenic chlorhyropeptic hypersecretion or gastric and duodenal ulcers –- recommended spas 22, 25 D) non-specific chronic enterocolopathy, chronic non-organic constipation clinical forms–cases investigated under the supervision of a specialist gastroenterologist – counter-indications ulcerated-hemorrhagic rectocolitis-type complaints, Crohn’s disease, acute or chronic enterocolitis with malabsorption - recommended spas 7, 12, 22, 23, E) bladder and gallbladder duct complaints, including dyskinesia, chronic cholecystitis without gallbladder stones, biliary lithiasis, sequelae following removal of the gallbladder 1. clinical forms– diagnosed cases: forms without accentuated clinical symptoms, with previous gallbladder problems or 2. chronic forms without inflammatory or painful attacks – counter-indications biliary dyskinesis caused by obstruction, where surgery is recommended, acute cholecystitis, biliary lithiasis with frequent colic, acute cholecystitis where surgery is recommended recommended spas 7, 12, 22, 23, F) stable forms of chronic hepatitis clinical forms– cases investigated under the supervision of a specialist gastroenterologist – counter-indications aggressive evolving forms, forms with splenomegaly - recommended spas 7, 12, 22,

Kidney and urinary tract ailments A) persons with factors that put them at risk of urinary infection or renal lithiasis; uric diathesis; intestinal and genital infections, frequent cystitis; labour in high-temperature conditions, with reduced diuresis; health cures with an emphasis on diuresis recommended spas 7, 8,11,12, 23, B) patients with renal lithiasis, who have rarely eliminated stones, with previous urinary infection or renal colic recommended spas 7, 8,11,12, 23, C) urinary lithiasis; 1. clinical forms–relapsing forms, all metabolic types, localised in the kidneys or ureter, with permeable urinary ducts, or 2. operated forms, all metabolic types – counter-indications large diverticular calculi, with upstream dilatation, lithiasis with septic stasis, with hydronephrosis, bilateral uretal lithiasis - recommended spas 7, 12 D) urinary infections; chronic pyelonephritis clinical forms– repeated forms of bacteriuria in the urine, with renal insufficiency within certain limits – counter-indications azotate retention with urea values of more than 0.80 g/l of more than 5mg/l or clearance of creatinine of less than 60ml/ min or arterial hypertension with a maximum of more than 180mmHg or minimum of more than 110 mmHg - recommended spas 7, 12

Gynaecological complaints A) sub-acute and chronic metroanexita; counter-indications acute inflammatory infections; 1.clinical forms–sub-acute forms stabilised at two to three months following the acute phase, recommended spas 1, 2, 14, 25, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34 or 2. clinical forms chronic forms; recommended spas 1, 2, 5, 6, 11, 14, 19, 25, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34 or 3. clinical forms patients with repeated inflammatory metroanexial

processes, outside active periods–- recommended spas 3, 4, 13, 15, 27, B) s econdary sterility; clinical forms– patients investigated and recommended by specialist gynaecologists - recommended spas 30, 33 C) following genital tuberculosis; clinical forms– diagnosed cases, two to three years after stabilisation– recommended spas 30, 33; D) disorders of genital function 1. clinical forms hyper-reactive type – neurotic syndrome in puberty or the menopause, algic disturbances in the genital area, perceptual disturbances in the genital area recommended spas 3, 4, 13, 15, 23, 29 Or 2. clinical forms hyper-reactive type – hypotone dyskinesia, local secretory and trophic disturbances, local disturbances of hormonal reception (frigidity) recommended spas 1, 2, 5, 6, 11, 14, 19, 24, 17, 25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, E) patients presenting factors that put them at risk of gynaecological ailments 1. clinical forms work in cold temperatures, high humidity, stressful micro-climate recommended spas 3, 4, 13, 15, 23, 29 Or 2. patients with inflammatory and functional algic complaints, having been examined and recommended for treatment by a gynaecologist recommended spas 1, 2, 5, 6, 11, 14, 19, 24, 17, 25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34,

Other groups of ailments and spa cures Metabolic diseases A) diabetes; counter-indications forms of diabetes with a tendency to acidosis, labile insulin-dependent forms, with advanced arterialsclerosis complications clinical forms1. patients with potential, latent, asymptomatic or sub-clinical diabetes recommended spas 6, 7, 11, 12, 19, 22, 23, 34 or 2. cases with clinical symptoms and dysfunction (specific applications of the micro-angiopathy or neuropathy type) or syntropy (macro-angiopathy, HTA, obesity, hepatocholecystitis, etc.) recommended spas 7, 11, 22, 25 B) o besity; - educationally targeted cures, aimed at teaching good eating habits and reducing weight through diets, KT and crenotherapy counterindications extreme obesity, involving inability to move or make any physical effort, with cardio-respiratory insufficiency, or uncooperative cases recommended spas weight-loss cures, in the form of health cures at any spa C) g out and hyperuricemic syndrome counter-indications patients with heightened nephropathy, secondary prophylaxis , clinical forms– 1. forms without clinical symptoms (with the exception of gout attacks), patients with hyperuricemic syndrome recommended spas 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 13, 15, 19, 30, 34 or 2. forms of gouty chronic arthritis, with or without muscle and joint dysfunction recommended spas 3, 4, 6, 14 , 19,32, 31, 32, 33, 34

57


Spas recommended for patients with endocrine and related diseases A) hyperthyroid complaints involving hyperfunction - clinical forms hyperthyroidism, Basedow’s disease in the first two stages counterindications Basedow’s disease in stages III and IV, toxic adenoma and hyperthyroid gout- recommended spas 9 and the Sinaia, Stîna de vale, and Borßa climatic spas B) hypothyroid complaints involving hypofunction clinical forms hypothyroidism or myxedema recommended spas 1, 2, 5, 14, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, C) hyperfunctional gonad disorders recommended spas 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 11, 13, 15, 27, 23, D) hypofunctional gonad disorders recommended spas 1, 14, 19, 24, 25, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34

Spas recommended for patients with dermatological complaints A) exfoliating dermatosis: psoriasis, incipient ichtiosis, keratodermia clinical forms patients with a clear diagnosis and recommendation from their dermatologist recommended spas 1, 7, 11, 14, 24, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34 B) algodermia (chronic eczema, chronic urticaria, occupational eczemas), pruriginous complaints, chronic pyoderma, seborrheic dermatitis, polymorphic or rosaceous acne clinical forms– patients with a clear diagnosis and recommendation from their dermatologist recommended spas 6, 7, 11, 19, 34 C) diffuse or limited neurodermatitis clinical forms– patients with a clear diagnosis and recommendation from their dermatologist recommended spas 6, 7, 11, 19, 34, D) congenital eczema (atrophic dermatitis) clinical forms– patients with a clear diagnosis and recommendation from their dermatologist recommended spas 30, 31, 34

Bathing and climatic spa cures for seniors A) Cures aimed at therapy and prevention of secondary dysfunction and disabilities (using individually tailored methods) a) ailments:chronic ailments of the locomotive system – rheumatic, orthopaedic, traumatic, and peripheral neurological; or mono- and polyarticular arthrosis, periarticular and muscular complaints, fibromyositis, neuralgia, neuritis; - sequelae resulting from fractures or injuries to the soft tissues counter-indications: patients with polypathology or sensorial and neuropsychical complaints, but only those that can be moved and those without major dysfunctions recommended spas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 19, 24, 25, 26, 27, 30, b) ailments: chronic ailments of the digestive tube: gastroduodenal or biliary dyspepsia, biliary lithiasis, chronic cholecystitis, intestinal complaints, colitis, frequent constipation, secondary phenomena produced by

58

medicaments counter-indications: patients who can be moved and who do not have major dysfunctions recommended spas 7, 11, 22, 23, 24, c) ailments: respiratory and ear, nose and throat complaints: tracheobronchitis, bronchiecstasis, simple bronchial asthma, chronic sinusitis or rhinosinusitis, rhinogenous deafness, etc.; - recommended spas 5, 23, 26 d) a ilments: peripheral vascular complaints: varicose veins, angiospasms; sequelae from thrombophlebitis, etc. - recommended spas 2, 8, 12, 29 e) a ilments: gynaecological complaints: chronic anexita, dystrophic vaginitis, - recommended spas 1, 2, 14, 25, 30, 31, 34 f) ailments: dermatological complaints: dermatose contact psoriasis recommended spas 30,33, 32, 33, 34,

B) Cures aimed at recuperation in an area of major dysfunctional pathology a) motor recuperation cures for the elderly - ailments degenerative articular rheumatism (hips, knees), with or without prostheses, with difficulty in walking, cervical or lumbosacral vertebral disk ailments, with or without radiculopathy, with dysfunction affecting the patient’s ability or look after himself or herself, orthopaedic and post-traumatic complaints (hip fractures) or spine complaints, with dysfunction in walking, peripheral and paretic neurological, central cerebral and medullary complaints (post-traumatic nerve lesions, polyneuropathy, cauda equina syndrome, hemiparesis or paraparesis, etc. counter-indications: only patients able to take part in progressive aerobic training session, who are co-operative and have limited polypathology (cardio-circulatory insufficiency, CCID, HTA in stages II and III, respiratory insufficiency, sensorial complaints, psychical ailments) recommended spas 4, 33 and Brådet, in special recuperation centres b) cardiovascular recuperation - ailments 1. Elderly people with sequelae from myocardial insufficiency stage III recommended spas 13 recuperation hospital 2. seniors with peripheral arteriosclerotic arteriopathy with clinical symptoms of dysfunction recommended spas 8, 10, 12, 29 c) respiratory recuperation for elderly people suffering from non-specific obstructive chronic bronchoneuropathy with dysfunction, chronic bronchial asthma, with acute dyspnoea, pulmonary emphysema with respiratory insufficiency, restrictive breathing dysfunction from various causes recommended spas 5, 25 in sanatorium conditions C) treatment aimed at integrated and recuperative cures to reactivate mental and physical capacities; Complex cures, in the spa resort setting, including treatment of chronic ailments affecting the elderly (with polypathological aspects); recuperation of dysfunctions of the locomotive system and cardiorespiratory systems; group socialising and physical activities, to reactivate mental, physical and behavioural capacities in the elderly counter-indications patients selected according to the goals and facilities of each treatment centre; recommended spas bathing and climatic geriatric recuperation spas.


ROMANIA’S TOURIST INFORMATION OFFICES ABROAD AUSTRIA

ITALY

SPAIN

Opernring 1, Stiege R, 4 stock, tür 404 A-1010 Viena Tel: (0043 1) 317.31.57 Fax: (0043 1) 317.31.574 e-mail: rumaenien@aon.at www.rumaenien-info.at

Via Torino 95, Galleria Esedra 00184 Roma Tel: 0039-06-488.02.67 Fax: 0039-06-4898.62.81 e-mail: office@romania.it www.romania.it

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ul.Krakowskie Przedmiescie 47/51 00-071, Varßovia Tel/Fax: +48 22 826 40 10 e-mail: info.rumunia@wp.pl

22 New Cavendish Street Londra W1G 8TT Tel: (0044 207) 224.36.92 Fax: (0044 207) 935.64.35 e-mail: romaniatravel@btconnect.com www.Romania.Travel

GERMANY

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Dachauer str. 32-34 D-80335 Munchen Tel: 0049-89-515.67.687 Fax: 0049-89-515.67.689 e-mail: muenchen@rumaenien-tourismus.de www.Rumaenien-Tourismus.de

Masfilmovskaya Street No. 35, office 313 119330, Moscova Tel: 007-499-143.87.65 Fax: 007-499-143.86.72 e-mail: romaniatravel@gtmail.ru www.romaniatravel.ru

355 Lexington Avenue, 8th Floor New York, NY 10017 Tel/Fax: 1 212.545.8484 e-mail: infoUS@Romania.Travel www.Romania.Travel

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The development of the Romanian tourism brand for building a positive image of Romania as a touristic destination Ministry of Regional Development and Tourism June 2011


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ROMANIA - Guide to Spa Resorts  

Guide of Romanian spa resorts for treatment of rheumatic, orthopedic-traumatic, neurological, cardiovascular, respiratory and otolaryngology...

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