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I can even kite-surf!: Student-Teachers Engaged in ‘Network Learning’ Incluso puedo hacer kite-surf: Profesorado en Formación Participan en ‘Aprendizaje en la Red’

Melinda Dooly Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona Faculty of Educational Science


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There have been noticeable advances in the use of ICT & social media tools in different levels of education as is evidenced by the number of conferences, articles, forums, and books available. Social media is becoming a quite common feature in education nowadays … however … IHIHI Ha habido avances notables en el uso de las TICs y los medios sociales en los diferentes niveles de la educación como lo demuestra la cantidad de conferencias, artículos, foros y libros. El uso de los TICs y los medios sociales se están convirtiendo en algo bastante común en las aulas hoy en día… no obstante …

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“…many teachers are still working with their students in a Web 1.0 world for school learning – while their students, outside of the classroom, are operating in a Web 2.0 world of social networking with social tools such as MySpace, Facebook, Ning (…).” (Dooly, 2010: 281) IHIHI “…muchos profesores siguen trabajando con sus alumnos en un mundo Web 1.0 en el aprendizaje escolar - mientras que sus alumnos, fuera del aula, están operando en un mundo Web 2.0 en las redes sociales con herramientas sociales como MySpace, Facebook, Ning (…).” (Dooly, 2010: 281)

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IHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHI “2.0 teaching approach is learner-centred, not technology-centred. While this may seem to be a contradiction when talking about a teacher actively engaged in Web 2.0, in fact, the focus of the definitions is on being able to effectively use available resources as a means of collaboration and development of shared knowledge, not on the technology itself. (…) teachers must know how to transform the way they (and their students) think about these resources.” (Dooly, 2010: 278) IHIHI “El enfoque de la enseñanza 2,0 esta centrado en el alumno, no centrado en la tecnología. Si bien esto puede parecer una contradicción cuando se habla de un profesor participando activamente en la Web 2.0, de hecho, se trata de ser competente en utilizar eficazmente los recursos disponibles como un medio de colaboración para desarrollar el conocimiento compartido, no en la tecnología en sí misma. (...) Los profesores deben saber cómo transformar la manera en que ellos (y sus estudiantes) conciben estos recursos.” (Dooly, 2010: 278)

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IHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHI “Literacy is seen as a social practice, which is multifaceted and learner-centred. (…) All literacy practices are integrated within a social context. (Markauskaite 2006: para. 6) In today’s world, language learning must be understood as socially-distributed cognition development process. Knowledge comes through action; and is distributed across the (embodied) members of a social group. IHIHI La alfabetización esta vista como una práctica social, que tiene múltiples facetas y esta centrada en el alumno. (...) Todas las prácticas de alfabetización están integradas dentro de un contexto social. (Markauskaite 2006: para. 6) Hoy en día, el aprendizaje de idiomas debe ser entendido como un proceso de conocimiento socialmente distribuido. El conocimiento viene a través de la acción, y se distribuye entre los (integrados) miembros de un grupo social.

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This is a brilliant example of what Downes (2010: 9) calls ‘collective intelligence’ or network of contextualised meaning(s). Knowledge is not a static, stand-alone entity and the way in which one ‘knows’ is measured by ‘connectedness between entities’. IHIHI Es un ejemplo brillante de lo que Downes (2010: 9) llama ‘inteligencia colectiva’ o ‘red de significado(s) contextualizado(s)’. El conocimiento no es una entidad estática e independiente y la forma en la que se mide cuanto se sabe, es por ‘la conectividad entre las entidades’. 6


IHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHI Most L2 teachers, however, continue to work in institutions in which they, their students, and their instructional practices are constructed by the positivistic paradigm that defines good teaching in terms of student performance on standardized tests and conceptualizes learning as internal to the learner. (Johnson, 2009: 113-114; 121) In an increasingly interconnected world, students should be introduced to embedded, contextualized learning that reflects the way knowledge is constructed and shared today; not fragmented ‘chunks’ of information. (Dooly & Sadler, tbp) If we consider the previous example of knowledge (Downes, 2010), it becomes patent that the way we teach and how we measure knowledge requires a rather radical paradigmatic shift. IHIHI La mayoría de los profesores de L2, sin embargo, continúan trabajando en las instituciones donde sus prácticas de enseñanza se construyen por el paradigma positivista, que define una buena enseñanza en términos de rendimiento de los estudiantes en pruebas estandarizadas y donde se conceptualiza el aprendizaje como algo interno al alumno. (Johnson, 2009: 113-114; 121) En un mundo cada vez más interconectado, los estudiantes deben tener acceso a una enseñanza integrada y aprendizaje contextualizado, que refleja la forma en que el conocimiento es construido y compartido hoy en día, no fragmentado de los “trozos” de información. (Dooly & Sadler, tbp) Si tenemos en cuenta el ejemplo anterior de conocimiento (Downes, 2010), se hace patente que la forma en que enseñamos y cómo medimos el conocimiento requiere un cambio de paradigma bastante radical. 7


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IHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHI Looking concretely at a teacher-education course that endeavoured to innovate the content and approach in order to accomodate the parameters mentioned previously: This book is an overview of the development of a teacher-education model to help the students ‘connect-the-dots’ between theory and practice by gradually immersing them in more and more complex online, dialogic learning interactions, thus promoting both ‘doing’ and ‘reflecting on doing’. Carried out through of a “sequence of situated technology experiences for teachers” (Egbert, Paulus & Nakamichi 2002: 122), it was implemented by two ‘connected’ colleagues (M. Dooly & R. Sadler) at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona and University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (respectively) between 2005-2012. IHIHI Observando concretamente a un curso de formación para profesorado de lenguas donde los docentes se esforzaban por innovar el contenido y el enfoque con el fin de dar cabida a los parámetros mencionados anteriormente: Este libro es una visión general del desarrollo de un modelo de formación de profesorado diseñado para ayudar a los estudiantes a hacer conexiones entre la teoría y la práctica a través de ‘inmersión’ en interacciones de aprendizaje-dialógico, promoviendo así tanto “saber hacer” como “saber reflexionar sobre la práctica". Fue llevada a cabo a través de una "secuencia de experiencias situadas con tecnología” (Egbert, Paulus & Nakamichi 2002: 122), por dos profesores ‘conectados’, entre la Universidad Autònoma de Barcelona y University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, entre los años 2005-2012. 9


IHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHI Some of the research background that went into the design of the computer-mediated collaborative teacher education course, most of which are commonly accepted as solid foundation for supporting the development of autonomous, informed, critically-thinking teachers. Dialogic Teaching (Alexander, 2008a, 2008b) Research in Teacher Ed.

Research in Classroom Interaction (Mercer, 2010)

(Edwards & Protheroe 2003; OECD 2005; Akbari 2007 )

•More L2 use •More exploratory talk •More critical thinking

•Experiential modelling •Knowledgesharing activities Situated Cognition (Narciss & Koerndle, 2008)

•Critically examine values, assumptions, theories & strategies •Take informed decisions

Reflective Practitioners (Schön 1983; Wright 2010)

Aquí hay algunos de los antecedentes de investigación que entraron en el diseño del curso colaborativo de formación del profesorado mediado por ordenador, la mayoría de ellos aceptados como una base sólida para apoyar el desarrollo de profesores autónomos, informados, y capaces de pensar críticamente.

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IHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHI Some of the activities for promoting dialogic teaching & learning (Alexander 2008a, 2008b): -

Peer-to-peer feedback (online & F2F)on teaching sequences (TS) Peer-to-peer discussion on theoretical paradigms for development of Action Research (AR)projects Peer-to-peer discussion about implementation of TS Design & implementation of podcasts & pedagogical activities (online groups) Wiki ‘Teacher Trajectory’; personal narratives (reflection of entire trajectory, re-write/justification of TS (as part of final evaluation)

Use of social media tools (as ‘immersion’ into Web 2.0): -

VLEs, forums, Wiki, audio & text chat, virtual worlds, podcasts, online text & audio presentations, document clouds … Dialogic Reflection: Online Trajectory Dialogic Reflection: Peer Feedback F2F &

Critical Thinking (express rationales, etc.) Professional Teacher

Situated cognition:

Dialogic Reflection: Action Research

Use of social networks as learners

Situated cognition: Use of social networks as teachers

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- AK: Materials development & adaptation, planning & sequencing of episodic learning, use of innovative resources - TK: paradigms of (post) CLT & dialogic teaching, sociallydistributed cognition 12


IHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHI Analysis of situated cognition must necessarily try to “[track] knowing in the making as the course unfolds”. While these episodes do not provide a full picture of learning processes, they do offer chunks (or nodes) of segmented data that provide insight into the relationship between the nodes that represent the “historical development” of the learner. (Barab, et al., 2001: 64-69)

IHIHI El análisis de la cognición situada debe tratar de "[rastrear] la cognición en el proceso de desarrollarse". Si bien estos episodios no proporcionan una imagen completa de los procesos de aprendizaje, ofrecen “trozos” (o nodos) de datos segmentados, que permiten conocer la relación entre los nodos, y así representan el "desarrollo histórico" del alumno. (Barab, et al., 2001: 64-69)

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IHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHI Analysis: Compilation of data sets (nodes) that allowed for exploration of teacher development through dialogic, blended-learning interaction. Focus: how redistribution of interaction order shows teacher development and learning by (a) sectioning experiences into actionrelevant episodes (AREs), (b) parsing them down to codes in a database, and (c) then representing them as nodes in a network “so that the historical development of the particular phenomenon of interest can be traced” (Barab, et al., 2001: 63). Due to space, this book includes single examples of the phenomenon observed and coded, according to recurrent themes. For more detailed analysis see Dooly, (2011), Dooly (2012), Dooly & Sadler (2013). IHIHI Análisis: Recopilación de “juegos” (nodos) de datos que permitieron la exploración del desarrollo de los profesores en formación a través de la interacción dialógica en contextos presenciales y virtuales combinados. Enfoque: ¿cómo la redistribución de la interacción muestra el desarrollo del profesorado y el aprendizaje? Método: (a) seleccionar experiencias relevantes, (b) crear un base de datos de los nodos, codificándolos, y (c), analizar los nodos en secuencia "para que se pueda ‘rastrear’ el desarrollo histórico del fenómeno de interés" (Barab, et al., 2001: 63). Debido a la falta de espacio, este libro solo incluye ejemplos individuales del fenómeno observado y codificado, de acuerdo con temas recurrentes. Para un análisis más detallado véase Dooly, (2011), Dooly (2012), Dooly & Sadler (2013). 14


IHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHI Through reflection on their own learning, the studentteachers became aware of the importance of dialogic interaction in teaching. In 5 out of 7 cases, this knowledge was integrated into their own pedagogical design. IHIHI A través de la reflexión sobre su propio aprendizaje, los profesores en formación se dieron cuenta de la importancia de la interacción dialógica en la enseñanza. En 70% de los casos, este conocimiento se integra en su propio diseño pedagógico.

Student-teacher indicates the importance of constant give-andtake of dialogue in the development of a successful TS and provides an example in her personal Wiki.

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In the audio, the student provides feedback on objectives and content of her peer’s TS. She ends with a suggestion for collaboration between schools. Her peer replies, ‘Yes, like us!’


IHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHI They identified how much they were learning through dialogic interaction and that this can be transferred to their own teaching approaches. IHIHI Identificaron lo mucho que estaban aprendiendo a través de la interacción dialógica y que es transferible a sus propios métodos de enseñanza.

The student-teachers acknowledge that dialogic learning can be applied in their own classes.

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This student-teacher showed eventual conceptual understanding and application of the need for real purpose for communication in language teaching. Her original TS, which consisted of ready-made dialogues for role play, ended up as a telecollaborative project between her school and one in Australia.

Their ‘immersion’ in the use of social media, along with a burgeoning understanding of language teaching as more than teachercontrolled language input, gave them the confidence to explore the use of social media for authentic communicative purpose in their own teaching.

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IHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHI Through reflection on their own learning, the studentteachers became more aware of the language learning process as a socially-constructed activity. IHIHI A través de la reflexión sobre su propio aprendizaje, los profesores en formación se hicieron más conscientes del proceso de aprendizaje de lenguas como una actividad socialmente construida.

The student-teacher was aware that she would not have learnt ‘teacher-talk’ if she had staying within a closed dialogic circle of only her peers and placement teaching school in Catalonia. Furthermore, the language knowledge (the acronym of SWBAT) is directly linked to a deeper conceptual understanding of how to efficiently plan objectives.

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IHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHI Through Computer-Mediated Communication that facilitated intercultural dialogic interaction, the student-teachers explored each other’s languages and cultures. IHIHI A través de comunicación mediada por ordenador que facilitó la interacción dialógica intercultural, los profesores en formación exploraron las respectivas lenguas y culturas del otro.

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IHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHI Self-reflection of their own teaching trajectory (based on EPOSTL self-ranking) Eighty-two percent of the student-teachers from the two years that this resource was used listed the following competences in their top three assimilated during the academic year: • Adapt teacher practice for presenting classroom activities and management of tasks so that the practices integrate the use of technology as an everyday part of the classroom interaction. • Develop classroom activities that advance knowledge creation, ownership and responsibility of the learning process, innovation and life-long learning, supported by the use of technological tools. • Create new assessment methods that take into consideration the multiply-shared knowledge construction (rather than focusing on ‘individual’ knowledge) and new communicative skills acquired through the use of tools such as Internet and social networking.

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IHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHI Self-reflection of their own teaching trajectory (based on EPOSTL self-ranking)

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IHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHI The student-teachers became professional teachers and reflection still plays an important role. IHIHI Los profesores en formaci贸n se convierten en maestros profesionales y la reflexi贸n sigue desempe帽ando un papel importante.

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IHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHI Our aims were to make the teacher aware of the need of a paradigmatic shift, a shift that includes a new vision of how to approach language teaching content, planning and evaluation so that it includes a plurilingual, multimodal view of knowledge and socially distributed knowledge construction. It is not just about ‘shifting a few activities’ to accommodate a few minutes in the computer. It is about opening up the classroom to real communication for a real purpose (not artificially built language situations). This means understanding that language learning environment cannot be ‘controlled’ by the teacher. The teacher has to be willing to accept the idea of ‘cognition in the wild’ (Hutchins, 1995). IHIHI Nuestros objetivos fueron hacer a los profesores conscientes de la necesidad de un cambio de paradigma, un cambio que incluye una nueva visión de como abordar el contenido, la planificación y la evaluación en la enseñanza de las lenguas de tal manera que incluya una visión plurilingüe, multimodal y que integra el concepto de la construcción social y distribuida del conocimiento. No se trata de sólo cambiar algunas de las actividades para estar algunos minutos en el ordenador. Se trata de ‘abrir el aula’ a oportunidades de comunicarse en la lengua meta con un propósito real (no situaciones construidas artificialmente para practicar la lengua). Esto significa comprender que el entorno del aprendizaje de la lengua ya no puede ser 'controlado' por el profesor. El profesor tiene que estar dispuesto a aceptar la idea de “la cognición salvaje” (Hutchins, 1995). 23


IHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHIHI Aims accomplished? It’s a good start –there’s still a long road out there. However, through their situated learning with networked knowledge, they are better equipped to begin on that journey with their own students. They even learnt to ‘kite-surf’ in Second Life!

In a world where technologies are evolving faster than ever, language teacher education must help future teachers gain confidence in the use of social media. This knowledge will be transferrable and even if a tool (like SL) is no longer relevant for them down the road, they have the experience and know-how to adapt new, better tools as language teaching resources.

¿Misión cumplida? Es un buen comienzo -aunque aún hay un largo camino para andar. Sin embargo, están más preparados para comenzar ese viaje con sus propios estudiantes. ¡Incluso aprendieron a hacer ‘kite-surf’ en Second Life! 24


Bibliography Akbari, R. (2007) Reflection on reflection: A critical appraisal of reflective practices in L2 teacher education. System 35: 192−207. Alexander, R.J. (2008a) Towards Dialogic Teaching: rethinking classroom talk (4th edition), North Yorkshire: Dialogos. Alexander, R.J. (2008b) Culture, dialogue and learning: notes on an emerging pedagogy, in N. Mercer & S. Hodgkinson (Eds.) Exploring talk in school, (pp. 93-114). London: Sage. Barab, S.A., Hay, K.E., & Yamagata-Lynch, L.C. (2001) Constructing networks of action-relevant episode: An in situ research methodology. The Journal of Learning Sciences, 10(1/2), 36-112. Dooly, M. (2010). The teacher 2.0. In S. Guth & F. Helm (eds) Telecollaboration 2.0: Language, Literacies and Intercultural Learning in the 21st Century, pp. 277-303. Bern: Peter Lang. Downes, S. (2010) Learning networks and connective knowledge, In H.H. Yang & S.C-Y. Yuen (Eds.) Collective intelligence and elearning 2.0: Implications of web-based communities and networking (pp. 1-26), Hershey, PA: IGI Global. Dooly, M. (2011). Crossing the intercultural borders into 3rd space culture(s): implications for teacher education in the twenty-first century, Language and Intercultural Communication, 11(4): 319-337. Dooly, M. (2012). Speaking like a ‘glocal’: Using computermediated communication in language teacher education to promote network learning. In S. Ben Said & L. Jun Zhang (Eds.) Language teachers and teaching: Global perspectives, local initiatives, Milton Park: Taylor & Francis. Dooly, M., & Sadler, R. (in press; 2013). Filling in the gaps: Linking theory and practice through telecollaboration in teacher education. ReCALL.

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Bibliography Edwards, A., & Protheroe, L. (2003). Learning to see in classrooms, what student teachers learn about teaching and learning while learning to teach in schools. British Educational Research Journal, 29 (2): 227−242. Hutchins, E. (1995). Cognition in the wild. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Johnson, K. E. (2009). Second language teacher education: A sociocultural perspective. New York: Routledge. Markauskaite, L. (2006). Towards an integrated analytical framework of information and communications technology literacy: From intended to implemented and achieved dimensions. Information Research. An Electronic Journal. 11(3) paper 252. Mercer, N. (2010). The analysis of classroom talk: Methods and methodologies. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 1-14. Narciss, S. and Koerndle, H. (2008) Benefits and constraints of distributed cognition in foreign language learning: Creating a web-based tourist guide for London. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 40 (3): 271−297. Newby, D., Allan, R., Fenner, A-B., Jones, B., Komorowska, H., Soghikyan, K. (2007). EPOSTL: European Portfolio of Student Teachers of Languages. Graz: European Centre for Modern Languages. OECD (2005) Attracting, developing and retaining effective teachers - Final report: Teachers matter. Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development. www.oecd.org/dataoecd/38/63/34991087.pdf Schön, D. (1983) The reflective practitioner. Basic Books: New York. Wright, T. (2010). Second language teacher education: Review of recent research on practice. Language Teaching, 43 (3): 259−296. 26


Melindaann.dooly@uab.cat http://pagines.uab.cat/melindadooly/


I can even kite-surf!: Student-Teachers Engaged in ‘Network Learning’