IFF5 Front Cover
An MDM PUBLICATION Issue 5 â€“ February 2005
Reporting Worldwide to Municipal, Industrial and Fire Training Professionals
It’s easy to spot what the new ANSUL® MAGNUM 440 Rapid Intervention Vehicle was made for: all-out performance. With its compact design, the ANSUL MAGNUM 440 moves like a blur, turns on a dime, and gets to the scene of fires, rescue and emergency situations while the big boys are just starting to roll. But just as much as speed and agility, there’s power. The ANSUL MAGNUM 440 uses its off-road grip and proven twin-agent technology to fight fires with ferocity. And a full complement of state-of-the art equipment makes it the perfect tool for interdiction, haz-mat and emergency management roles in any number of tough disaster situations.
©2005 Ansul Incorporated
The ANSUL MAGNUM 440. Make no mistake … it’s a different kind of animal altogether.
February 2005 Issue 5 ICATI ON An MDM PUBL ary 2005 Issue 5 – Febru
38-42 Aircraft Rescue Firefighting
Rescue Tool Techniques
als ing Profession l and Fire Train l, Industria to Municipa Worldwide Reporting
13-16 The Basic Uses Of A Thermal Imager 17 Lenzing Product Profile 18-22 Firefighter PPE Buyers / Specifiers Guide
43-45 Interschutz Preview 46 Vema Lift Company Profile FIRE AND RESCUE TRAINING SECTION
48-49 Fire Science Academy Profile
Front cover picture: courtesy of Williams Fire & Hazard Control Inc Publishers David Staddon & Mark Seton Sales and Editorial Manager: Mark Bathard Contributing Editors Charlie McClung, Jonathan Bastian, Ivan Rich, David Durstine, Kenneth D. Honig, Gary West, Dave Cochran, Mitchell Baclawski IFF is published quarterly by: MDM Publishing Ltd 18a, St James Street, South Petherton, Somerset TA13 5BW United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 1460 249199 Fax: +44 (0) 1460 249292 e-mail: email@example.com website: www.iffmag.com
25-29 Big Hose Means Big Water
51-55 Latest Techniques and Innovations in Hazmats and
57-60 Selecting Outside Training Providers to Maximize Your
The Aire Group Product Profile
In-House Training Programs
33-37 Shipboard Firefighting
©All rights reserved
62-63 Product Updates 64 Advertisers’ Index
Periodical Postage paid at Charnplain New York and additional offices POSTMASTER: Send address changes to IMS of New York, P 0 Box 1518 Champlain NY 12919-1518 USAUSPS No. (To be confirmed) Annual Subscription UK - £35.00 Europe - 60 Overseas - US$70.00 lSSN - 1744-5841 DISCLAIMER: The views and opinions expressed in INTERNATIONAL FIRE FIGHTER are not necessarily those of MDM Publishing Ltd. The magazine and publishers are in no way responsible or legally liable for any errors or anomalies made within the editorial by our authors. All articles are protected by copyright and written permission must be sought from the publishers for reprinting or any form of duplication of any of the magazines content. Any queries should be addressed in writing to the publishers. Reprints of articles are available on request. Prices on application to the Publishers.
Page design by Dorchester Typesetting Group Ltd Printed by The Friary Press Ltd
INTERNATIONAL FIRE FIGHTER
COMMENT Well, here we are with issue 5, my, how time flies. It doesn’t seem that long ago when I was writing the comment for the launch issue of International Fire Fighter and here I am 15 months on, well into the second year of publication. This year is going to prove to be just as exciting as 2004 and I would please urge you to continue sending in your comments about International Fire Fighter (still nothing negative) and also ideas about future issues. If any of our readers or advertisers would be interested in submitting any articles for future use, I would be delighted to hear from you and discuss these possibilities. I am looking forward to meeting friends old and new in Indianapolis and Hannover later this year. We will be exhibiting at the FDIC and Interschutz so please pop by our booth for a chat. Mark Bathard Sales and Editorial Manager
It takes a team to beat fire
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At International Fire Expo 2005 you can discover all the latest developments across the entire fire industry. Whether you are interested in fire prevention, fire protection or fire fighting, this event covers it all.
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A record number of exhibitors will be displaying new and innovative products relevant to all areas of the fire industry
•NEW!!!• The Fire Fighting Zone - a new dedicated area providing fire fighting solutions The Emergency Action Zone - live demonstrations in fire fighting and rescue Informative seminars covering topics including the Regulatory Reform Order, FiReBuY, plus sessions on Marine and Airport fire safety, and more
•NEW!!!• Fleet Management Solutions - a new dedicated area for components manufacturers, complementing the Fire Fighting Vehicle Manufacturers Association (FFVMA) pavilion The May Series - International Fire Expo 2005 runs alongside IFSEC - Security Solutions and Network Advantage, Safety & Health Expo, ACPO, the International Police Conference and Exhibition, and The Facilities Show
Wherever you fit in the team, International Fire Expo is the place to find new solutions in the fight against fire.
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Rescue tool technique
By Charlie McClung, Ndip AEC Natal
Pic courtesy of ICET BV
SAFE RESCUE EQUIPMENT OPERATION ●
Know your equipment OPERATING RESCUE EQUIPMENT REQUIRES sufficient training. We often find that operators are not fully aware of the capabilities of such equipment and the possible reactions as a result of their use. Knowledge of hydraulics basics and how the system works is essential for all rescuers as it enhances safety, prevents tool damage and in the event of a mishap trouble shooting can be effected in remote areas where maintenance technicians are not available.
ue to technical developments our tools are inherently lighter, but at the same time stronger. Lightweight cutters can develop cutting forces of over 30 tons! Using this extreme force on any piece of metal, can cause a sudden reaction to both the material and the cutter involved. The working forces exerted by spreaders and rams can also create dangerous situations if one is not used to working with these kinds of forces. In this article I will discuss some technicalities concerning cutting, spreading and ramming. Due to the variety of accident scenes, it is impossible to prescribe how to deal with each situation. I can however present some general rules which will provide guidance for the safe operation of rescue equipment for both the operator and the victim(s). All squad members should of course be adequately protected. Full bunker
INTERNATIONAL FIRE FIGHTER
gear or overalls, gloves and boots must be worn. Helmets with attached visors should be complimented with additional eye protection. We also need to look at all kinds of possible hazards, such as oncoming traffic, glass, sharp metal etc.
OPERATING DIFFERENT TYPES OF CUTTERS
The standard cutter (Parrot beak) The standard cutter was mainly developed to cut the roof posts of cars and trucks. Operating these cutters is relatively easy if we bear in mind some basic rules: place the cutter onto the object at a 90 degree angle. ● during the cutting process the cutter may move in any direction, taking the least line of resistance, be prepared for this action.
allow the tool to move, do not attempt to forcibly hold the tool in the original position. This may place unnecessary stress on the blades. in addition, no operator is strong enough to resist the forces exerted by the tool and attempting to do so takes his/her mind off the really important issues. the operator should constantly observe the cutter and its movement. Make sure that whatever is being cut is also being held or supported to prevent injury to the user/victim from flying bits of metal or a door or roof falling down. Before cutting, always inspect what you intend to cut and during the process observe the tips of the cutter as they may separate and/or cross over causing damage. With increased strengths of motor vehicles this is more likely to occur. If the cutter moves in a direction where it may endanger the safety of the operator or anyone else, the dead man’s handle should be released immediately or turned to the opposite position. The cutter’s action should also be stopped immediately if the cutter comes into contact with a part of the car. This situation could jeopardize www.iffmag.com
hinge or lock as possible with the tips in order to roll the door off the hinge or nader bolt or break it. In this way you can avoid causing a lot of torn out sharp sheet metal.
Pic courtesy of ICET BV
the operators hands or if continued could cause severe damage to the tool. ● In both situations, the cutting action should be renewed from a different angle. ● Solid parts such as bars and hinges should be cut in the recess of the blades. If substantial structures like hinges have to be cut by the normal blade opening, the operator should watch the movement of the blades extra carefully. One could say that if the blades stay together the cutting action is O.K. If the blades start to separate or cross over, the action should be stopped and reversed immediately to prevent damage or breakage of the blades. CUTTING WITH THE STRAIGHT-BLADED CUTTER The shape of the blades of these cutters is completely different from the parrot beak cutter. The cutting edge of the blades is bigger and therefore it is usual for these tools to twist while they are carrying out a cutting action. Again, one should allow this movement of the tool, as long as no dangerous situation occurs. As always, but especially in the case of these strong cutters, someone should assist the tool operator. This “buddy”, who is of course also fully protected, must take care that parts which have been cut off cannot cause dangerous situations. When a cut off
part is supported by the (gloved!) hand of an assistant, the reaction is mostly minimal. Of course assistance is also needed to support a roof, for instance when the roof parts are cut. These cutters are specially suited to cut solid steel parts, such as you would be likely to encounter in heavy trucks or trains. The cutter should be inserted as deep as possible, since the cutter is strongest near the hinge point and here also, one should always watch the blades when cutting something. When the blades move apart, the action should be stopped!!
Hybrid blades Cutters are now being produced with a combination of parrot and straight blades, these cutters do not move predictably when being used (full rotation of a smooth parrot beak) and the cutting action needs to be watched more closely for blade separation. USING HYDRAULIC SPREADERS Forced door displacement: Most spreaders have very thin and well serrated tips with a good grip. Therefore it is relatively easy to get the spreader into a door opening without jamming or bumping. If getting the tips in is proving difficult the use a door squeeze or other technique such as a fender crush to gain a purchase point for the spreader tips. The aim is to get as close to the
1. One of the team should support the door to prevent it from shooting away. 2. This member should always take up a position beside the door and never in the path where the door is expected to be displaced. (Anticipate the action) 3. The spreader should always be located above the upper hinge and then above the lower hinge in order to roll the door off the hinges down and away from the rescuer and casualty. 4. During the spreading operation the operator must take care not to be caught between the spreader and the side of the vehicle. 5. Correct body positioning will alleviate being injured or damage to the operator’s back. Beside opening doors, spreaders can be useful in many other ways when making space, such as pushing a chair backward or forward, lifting a dashboard, pulling a steering column etc. Sometimes a spreader is also used to lift all kind of obstacles such as cars, trucks or heavy machinery. Although the capacity of most spreaders is more than sufficient to lift most of these objects, we discourage the use of a spreader as a lifting tool. The tips of the spreaders are not very wide and for that reason they are not suitable to lift loads, and can cause instability especially on uneven ground. If however a spreader is used for lifting purposes in an emergency, one should look for solid parts to insert the spreader into, increase the surface area of the tips by means of wooden blocks and support the load with stabilisation material continuously, both during and after lifting. USING HYDRAULIC RAMS The rams are mostly used to create space around an entrapped casualty in techniques such as a dash roll or dash lift. Following a side impact the rams can be used to cross ram doors away INTERNATIONAL FIRE FIGHTER
Rapid and reliable. Partner offers two powerful and reliable rescue cutters: The Partner K 950 Rescue and the K 650 Rescue. The Partner K 950 Rescue is our largest rescue cutter and has a higher powerto-weight ratio than any other rescue cutter on the market. The Partner K 650 Rescue is a smaller and lighter machine that fits in most types of rescue vehicles. Easy start and the specially designed starter handle with room for heavy gloves make our cutters really easy to start. Reliability is increased considerably, since the Active Air Filtration System is protected inside the casing and the cutting arm has a sealed drive belt. The chromium plated blade guard, which is visible in smoke, steam and water spray, makes operations much easier to control.
PARTNER K 950 / K 650 RESCUE Engine Displacement Power Weight, without fuel and blade
Air-cooled 2-cycle engine 94 cc / 71 cc 4,5 kW/ 3,5 kW 10,4 kg / 9,1 kg
Cutting equipment, blade: Diameter 350 mm (14") / 300 mm (12") Cutting depth 125 mm (5") / 100 mm (4")
Electrolux Construction Products, SEâ€“433 81 Partille, Sweden. Tel: +46 (0)31-94 90 00. Fax: +46 (0)31-94 91 14. www.partner-industrial.com
from a casualty. Rams could also be used to lift or support a crushed in roof. Rams that can have chain adapters attached can also be used for pulling actions such as pulling a vehicle out from under a truck. The rams are available in varying capacities and lengths depending on manufacturer. Some models can be used with extension pipes to increase the length. The extension-pipes cannot and may not be used on the plunger side of the ram because of the increased danger of bending the plunger. There are telescopic rams also available on the market these vary in length and power. Of course the ideal situation is to have a complete series of rams available to fit into every possible situation.
General operating rules: 1. Always try to place the load on the ram into the centre of the plunger. 2. Place cribbing under the area you intend to push off. (The use of a ram support will spread the load and offer you varying lengths and angles from which to push) 3. Place the heads of the ram on solid material that will not tear during the push. (A hinge or strengthened support is a good site. 4. Guard against the ram slipping out as a lot of energy it released. 5. The operator must be an arms length away from the tool and preferably behind it. (This is to prevent him/her being injured should the ram spring free unexpectedly) 6. Use two members during the operation, one watches the progression of the push at the head of the ram and the other to watch the base of the ram and the effect of the push on the pillar or floor of the vehicle. 7. As the push is being effected monitor the movement of the vehicle and crib as necessary. 8. Good strategic cutting prior to the push will not only make it easier to push but will also enable you to move the metal in the direction you want it to go. Rams are the most effective way of removing dashboards away from casualties and are preferred to pulling with chains. (However the latter remains an option in certain situations.)
Pic courtesy of ICET BV
LIFTING BAGS There are two types of lifting air bags. The first type is the HIGH PRESSURE LIFTING BAG, this bag operates up to a maximum pressure of 8 bar. ■ The second type is the LOW PRESSURE LIFTING BAG, this bag operates up to a maximum pressure of .5 bar. ■
Pascal’s law applies in the case of both high and low pressure bags; this being Pressure x Surface area = Lifting Force. So why do we have two types of air bags? Both bags have their advantages and disadvantages The high pressure bags have a starting height of only 25mm but a smaller lifting height, the Low pressure bag starts at 60mm, but a much larger lifting height. ● The High pressure bag can be placed into very small spaces to begin the lift. ● The high pressure bag can lift larger weights of up to 67 tons in some models. The Low pressure bag can lift weights of up to 16 tons depending on make. ● The Low pressure bag will lift weights of up 16 tons for the ●
full stroke of the bag, this being 620 mm in some makes, whilst the High pressure bag will lift 67 tons only for a few cm and then, as the surface area of the bags decreases, the lifting force will diminish proportionately.
Operating the lifting bags Points to remember 1. “Pack as you jack”. You must never take the risk of lifting a load without placing cribbing under the load as you lift. If the load should move or the bag deflate, then the cribbing will support the load. 2. For the best and safest lift ensure that the bag is totally under the load. A bag which is half under the load will give you only half the lifting capacity of the bag and will cause a sideways lift of the load. 3. Always use two bags together for a stable lift. 4. Never place cribbing on top of the bag as there is a chance that as the bag inflates the cribbing could be ejected with great force. 5. To provide the greatest degree of lift, the bag should be placed as close as possible to the load that is to be lifted. If the space between the two surfaces is too great, ensure that this space is filled UNDER the bag until the bag is flush with the load. INTERNATIONAL FIRE FIGHTER
Not without my MSA
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MSA Europe, Berlin Phone: +49  68 86-555 firstname.lastname@example.org
Pic courtesy of ICET BV
6. With high pressure bags that do not lock together, never use more than two bags on top of each other as the middle bag will be displaced with force and a bad situation will result
All sorts of hand tools are in use in the course of rescue work. Many of the smaller hand tools are normally part of a personal toolkit and are kept in a tool pouch which is worn around the fire fighter’s waist. Inside such a pouch you might find: pliers, knife, screwdriver, tape measure, centre punch and seat belt cutters. The idea of this tool set is that the fire fighter does not have to keep going back to the tool dump to collect small tools. A Halligan tool is very often used when dealing with the sheet metal work of buses, minibuses, heavy goods vehicles, trams, trains and aircraft and where it is necessary to make a large opening, use is made of the Halligan tool. This works like a large can opener and can be moved along the plate work and when used in combination with a hydraulic cutter is extremely efficient and quick.
Other Hand tools include: 1. Hack saws 2. Hammers 3. Axes 4. High lift jacks 5. Pot jacks
Apart from Lifting bags air driven tools can play a significant part in a rescue if the area is not safe to operate hydraulics in or if they are busy or not available these include: Air chisels Saws
The same safety procedures are adopted when using these tools, a disadvantage of this type of tool is noise coupled with a high air requirement.
Battery operated tools Reciprocating saws as well as hydraulic battery operated tools are already being used in the market. The reciprocating saws are easy to carry and very efficient cutting tools. Their main disadvantage is noise and danger to the vehicle occupants from the moving blade. As more vehicles on our roads are being made from polycarbonate materials, which shatter when cut with traditional cutters, I can see the use for reciprocating saws a frontline extrication tool becoming more frequent.
Rescue assist tools Apart from the traditional tools such as hydraulics and pneumatics there are a number of other assist tools that can help the rescue team secure the environment and ensure the safety of the team and casualty. Here are a few I have found very helpful during extrications:
Stabilisation material of all types effective stabilisation is the key to efficient rescue. Wood cribbing, plastic chocks and blocks and shores are a few items we use. 2. Tool staging tarpaulin for keeping equipment clean and in one place. 3. Centre punch for breaking windows 4. Glass cutters for laminated windshields 5. Protective covers for sharp metal with magnets to keep them secure 6. Plastic protective shield for the casualty 7. Clear plastic cover to protect the casualty from flying glass and metal 8. Valve stem puller to deflate tyres so they can be re-inflated for towing 9. Airbag restraint systems for the steering wheel 10. Knives and screwdrivers for cutting and stripping to locate airbag cylinders in the C pillar There are many tools being developed to assist rescuers and as access into vehicles through laminated and polycarbonate constructions becomes more frequent and difficult, more tools will be developed. In conclusion I would like to thank my friend and mentor the late ICET founder Rob Walmsley for assisting with some of the material for this article. Our view has always been there are many ways to removing parts of a vehicle, but before all, know your equipment and techniques, be safe and let common sense prevail. Charlie McClung, Ndip AEC Natal, has been a rescue paramedic for 22 years, his skills were honed in the military and the Kwazulu Natal townships in South Africa as a National Diploma Paramedic before moving to Botswana where he was chief paramedic for an aviation rescue service. At present he runs a training school in Botswana and provides specialist rescue assistance the local emergency services. Part of his portfolio is a chief instructor for ICET in the Netherlands, providing specialist rescue training to rescue teams worldwide.
INTERNATIONAL FIRE FIGHTER