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BIOPHYSICAL AND SOCIO ECONOMIC CHARACTERIZATION FOR CLIMATE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR THE PROVINCE OF IFUGAO

Outcome 3.1 – STRENGTHENING THE PHILIPPINES INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY TO ADAPT TO CLIMATE CHANGE (SPICACC)

APRIL – DECEMBER, 2010


TECHNICAL WORKING COMMITTEE

Joseph L. Ngohayon IFSU Project Leader Dr. Napoleon L. Taguiling Team Leader, Biological Characterization Milton P. Dulay Team Leader, Physical Characterization Dr. Ricardo L. Ildefonso Team Leader, Socio-Economic Profiling Dr. Serafin L. Ngohayon Team Leader, Agri-Livelihood Profiling Dr. Robert R. Ngidlo Technical Expert, Biological Aspect Carmelito C. Valdez Technical Expert, Physical Aspect Imelda Pascual Technical Expert, Socio-economic Aspect Cherry Ann B. Bumidang Technical Expert, Agri-Livelihood Aspect Mable Kate B. Sawey Administrative Aide

Tabulators/Enumerators Judilyn T. Dumag Ronald C. Pun-aduan Johnny L. Ngohayon Erick Jayson Aliguyon

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report presents the results of the study that was conducted to gather baseline data on the biodiversity, biophysical characteristics, socio-economic and agri-livelihood profiles of the selected barangays in the province of Ifugao, Philippines, and document the effects of climate change as well as the adaptation mechanisms of the respondents. The study sites represent the contiguous fragile ecosystems in the Cordillera Administrative Region which were selected through a series of consultations with the different stakeholders including the Local Government Units in the Provinces and actual site visits. Using a devised score card the barangay sites were finally identified. These includes Namnama, Alfonso Lista Ifugao for the low elevation areas from 100 – 500 m asl; Nagacadan, Kiangan for medium elevation areas from 500 – 1,000 m asl and, Viewpoint, Banaue and Bato-Alatbang, Mayoyao for high elevation areas from 1,000 m asl and above. A Project study team was organized from the Ifugao State University (IFSU) to plan and prepare the questionnaires for data gathering and finally

on April 14, 2010 the Letter of

Agreement with the Food and Agriculture Organization was signed to signal the implementation the commissioned study to conduct the Biophysical and Socio Economic Characterization for Climate Vulnerability Assessment for the Province of Ifugao under Outcome 3.1- Strengthening the Philippines Institutional capacity to Adapt to Climate Change (SPICACC). Proper coordination by the IFSU Team was conducted with the Agencies and LGUs concerned for sourcing the secondary data and the barangay officials of the study sites for the actual plot sites for bio-physical characterization and identification of the respondents for the socio and agri-livelihood profiling. Macrofloral and macrofaunal survey was conducted to assess biodiversity of the selected barangays. Water and soil analysis was also conducted to evaluate the biophysical resources. The data for socio-economic and agri-livelihood profiling were gathered from the four selected barangays using survey questionnaires, key informant interview (KII) and focus group discussion (FGD). Results of floral diversity assessment indicate that there are 53 families, 110 genera and 191 species with relatively high species diversity indices that range from 3.59-3.7. Ethnobotany survey revealed 36 food plants, 30 species of medicinal/ pesticidal plants, 5 species for fiber/ties, 4 species for dyes, 2 species for organic fertilizer, and 119 other tree species with economic importance. Faunal inventory recorded 57 bird species, 8 mammals, 5 amphibians, and 9 species of reptiles. Eight species of birds are included in the IUCN Red List Category. Of these, one (1) is considered vulnerable and seven (7) are considered nearly threatened.


Eight important creeks were identified in the pilot barangays and water quality analysis reveals that the water samples from these creeks has normal pH level except for Mabanutan creek in Namnama, Alfonso Lista which is slightly alkaline. The level of ammonia in all creeks ranges from 0.2 to 0.4 which is still an ideal range for most plants and animals. The land area for Barangays Namnama was classified as Santa Maria Soil Series while that of Nagacadan is Longa Salty Clay Loam and undifferentiated Mountain Soil. The soil in Barangay Viewpoint remains undifferentiated while Barangay Bato-Alatbang soils were classified as Mayoyao Clay Loam and Undifferentiated Mountain Soil. Soil analysis has shown that grassland areas in the selected barangays showed medium to strongly acidic pH range of 5.7 to 5.1 and low-medium organic matter content of 1.48 %. As to the forest areas, Barangay Nagacadan and Bato Alatbang showed strongly acidic with pH value of 4.9 and 5.0 respectively while Barangays Namnama have slightly acidic with 6.5 pH. Most of the soil samples from the transected agricultural lands in the pilot barangays are within the optimal pH range for rice production which is 5.5-7.5. The organic matter content of most of the transected agricultural lands are low to medium and with the total nitrogen content from low to very low. As to the respondents’ demographic data, most of the respondents are elementary undergraduates with only one with postgraduate studies. The tribal affiliation differs in each selected barangay, Ilocano dominates all other tribes present in Barangay Namnama, Tuwali recorded the largest number of respondents in Viewpoint and Nagacadan while Ayangan tribe dominates in Bato-Alatbang. As to the age of the respondents, majority of the respondents in Barangay Namnama are within age bracket of 29-38 years old while respondents of Nagacadan age are within 59 years old and above. Barangays Viewpoint and Bato-Alatbang are within 3948 years of age. In terms of the economic status of the community, majority of the respondents are within the poverty level with an annual income of 15,000 to 30,000 pesos or with a monthly earning of 1,500 to 2,500 pesos. These is due to the small land areas. There are only 76 farmers who own farm lands ranging from 1-7 hectares. There are also social factor that bears important points. The major source of potable water of the respondents from Namnama comes from deep well while Barangays Nagacadan, Viewpoint and Bato-Alatbang comes from springs. As to the type of houses, majority from the Barangays Viewpoint, Nagacadan and Bato-Alatbang have semi permanent houses with walls made of wood or bamboo and with galvanized roofing. Respondents in Barangay Namnama have equal distribution for temporary, semi permanent and permanent shelter. iii


With the presence of electricity in most of the houses, it allows that the respondents have different appliances in their homes. The most common appliance the respondents have is a transistor radio. As to the use of cellphones for communication purposes, majority of them uses cellular phones. In terms of the transportation used in the barangay, tricycle is the main transportation of the respondents from Barangays Namnama while the common transportation for Barangays Viewpoint and Bato-Alatbang are jeepney and buses. The results of the agri-livelihood profiling indicate that majority of respondents in the four pilot barangays are engaged in agriculture as their main livelihood. However, some of the respondents are engaged in wood carving, weaving and other activities to augment their income. They engaged in these activities generates income while waiting for rice harvest period. Some also reasoned out that their product is easier to market and these livelihood is easier to manage. These livelihood activities were mostly funded by the respondents themselves or with the help of their family members as only few opted to avail loan from the government or private credit agencies. The results showed that majority of the respondents in the pilot barangays have already been experiencing the effects of climate change on their health, livelihood, agricultural production, and natural resources management. Among the observed effects are: shortage in the supply of rice, instability of prices of agricultural products; frequent occurrence of cough and colds among the households; inadequate water resources to sustain agricultural production; and occurrence of flashfloods and soil erosion. The respondents engaged in inland fish production noted that the increase in water temperature affects the productivity of marine ecosystem. The respondents have employed some local strategies to cope with the effects of climate change. Majority of them establishes alternative source of water like shallow water pump irrigation and small water impounding to sustain agriculture production and establishes deep wells, tap natural springs and participate in watershed development like planting of trees and avoid cutting them through kaingin system to help maintain the water resources for drinking. Some local adaptation measures employed by the respondents to overcome the effects of climate change includes the practice of practical farming systems like the Sloping Agricultural Technology for crop diversification and soil conservation. Raising of animals is also an adaptation however products are more for food consumption and to sustain the use for local rituals and celebration more than for additional income source. Planting of trees to conserve the forest resource and boost the water resources for irrigation, drinking and fish production which is a fast thriving enterprise in the province is being is being participated by the respondents in the preservation of their forest farm or “muyong�. iv


Practice of organic farming were also intensified especially in the low elevation areas as most are being influenced by the commercial farming systems while high elevation areas maintain their traditional organic farming especially in rice growing in the terraces. Such study conducted is very important as base line data is established on biodiversity, bio-physical characterization, socio and agri-livelihood profile of these areas like the province of Ifugao which is identified to be most vulnerable to climate change and establishing information as to the adaptation practices of the indigenous people for possible adoption in other communities.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION Rationale Objectives of the Study

1 2

METHODOLOGY Biodiversity and Biophysical Characterization Location and Description of Project Sites

4

Methods of Floral Survey

5

Methods for Faunal Survey

7

Similarity Index for Fauna.

8

Species Richness and Diversity

8

Water Collection/Sampling and Analysis

8

Soil Sampling and Analysis

9

Socio-economic and Agri-livelihood Profiling and Local knowledge on climate change

10

Vulnerability Index Preparation of Thematic Maps and GIS Layers

11

Data Sources

11

Data Transformation and Layer Preparation

13

Vulnerability Analysis

14

Data and Information Gaps

15

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Description of the study Area General Description of the Province

16

Location and Description of the Selected Barangays

20

Biodiversity and Biophysical Characterization of the Selected Barangays Macrofloral Species Richness and Density

22

Macrofloral Species Similarity and Difference between Project Barangays 25 Macrofloral Species Dominance

27

Macrofloral Species Importance Values

28

Ethonobotany of Floral Species

29

Avian Species Composition

30

Species Distribution

31 v


Avian Species Similarity

33

Mammalian and Herpetofaunal Species

34

Water Quantity of the Creeks found in the Pilot Sites

36

Water Quality of the Creeks found in the Pilot Sites

36

Soil Analysis Conducted in the Selected Barangays

38

Socio-Economic Profiling Respondents Demographic Profile

41

Economic Related Factors

46

Socio-Related Factors

57

Agri-Livelihood Profiling Livelihood Activities of the Respondents

61

Livelihood Assistance Availed by the Respondents

62

Local Knowledge about Climate Change

Observed Effects of Climate Change

63

Practices Adopted to Overcome the Effects of Climate Change

67

Observed Adaptation Measures to Climate Change Planting of Trees and Conservation of the Forest

70

Raising of Animals

71

Multiple Cropping and not Mono Cropping

71

Practice of Sloping Agricultural Land Technology (SALT)

72

Practice of Organic Farming

72

Awareness to Environmental Changes

72

Changes on Farming Practices

73

Cooperation among Residents

73

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS Biodiversity and Physical Characterization Macro Floral Biodiversity of Pilot Sites In Ifugao

74

Macro Faunal Biodiversity of Pilot Sites in Ifugao

75

Water Analysis

77

Soil Analysis

77

Socio-economic Characterization Respondents Demographic Profile

78

Socio Related Factors

78

Economic Related Factors

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Agri-livelihood Profiling

80

LOCAL KNOWLEDGE ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE Observed Effects of Climate Change

81

Practices Adopted to Overcome the Effects of Climate Change

82

REFERENCES

83

ANNEXES

84

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LIST OF TABLES

Tables

Page

Table 1. Sources of data used in the study.

11

Table 2. NDVI thresholds

13

Table 3. Climate vulnerability matrix for the study areas

14

Table 4. Threshold values of vulnerability

15

Table 5. Mountain ranges, Location and Height, Ifugao: CY 2007

16

Table 6 Land area of the Province of Ifugao: CY 2007

17

Table 7. Number of species and diversity indices of species inventoried in Ifugao

23

Table 8. Top 15 species with the most number recorded individuals.

24

Table 9. Percent similarity matrix among project sites (%)

25

Table 10. Species Common to Barangays Nagacadan, Bato-Alatbang & Namnama

26

Table 11. Top 20 species with the highest dominance based on basal area (BA).

27

Table 12. Top 10 lists of species with the highest Species Importance Value (SIV) Table 13. List of Avian species and number of individuals

29

recorded in the three barangays Table 14. Avifaunal similarity indices of the three barangays in Ifugao

32 34

Table 15. List of Mammals and Herpetofaunal Species Recorded in the Selected Barangays

35

Table 16. Stream Flow and Land Area that can be Irrigate by the Creeks

36

Table 17. pH Status of Creeks found in the Pilot Barangays

36

Table 18. Ammonia Content of Creeks found in the Pilot Barangays

38

Table 19. The Result of the Soil Chemical Analysis conducted for Grassland Soil Samples.

38

Table 20. Summary Result of Soil Analysis for Forestland Soil Samples

39

Table 21. The pH of the soil sampled from the rice field of the Pilot Barangays

39

Table 22. The % Organic Matter of the Soils Sampled from the Rice field of the Pilot Sites

40

Table 23. The % Nitrogen of the Soils Sampled from the Rice field of the Pilot Sites

41

Table 24. Kinds of Crops Raised by Respondents.

46

Table 25. Kinds of Fruits Raised in the Pilot Barangay

47

Table 26. Yield of Banana in kilogram

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Table 27. Yield of Mango in kilogram

48

Table 28. Yield of Rattan Fruit in kilogram

48

Table 29. Yield of Pomelo in kilogram

48

Table 30. Yield of Betel Nut

48

Table 31. Kinds of animals raised

49

Table 32. Number of heads raised (hybrid swine)

49

Table 33. Number of Native Pig Raised

50

Table 34. Number of Goat & Cattle Raised.

50

Table 35. Number of Carabaos Raised

50

Table 36. Number of Native Chicken Raised.

51

Table 37. Number of Broiler Raised

51

Table 38. Number of Duck Raised

51

Table 39. Income Obtained from Native Pig Raising

52

Table 39. Income Derived from Goat and Cattle Raising

52

Table 40. Income Derived from Carabao Raising

53

Table 41. Income Obtained from Native Chicken Raising

53

Table 42. Income Derived from Duck Raising

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Table 43. Income Obtained from Native Chicken Raising

54

Table 44. Cropping Season for Fish Production

55

Table 45. Yield of Fish Produced (kg)

55

Table 46. Income Obtained from Fish Production

56

Table 47. Number Meals taken in a Day

56

Table 48. Type of House/Dwelling Owned by the Respondents

56

Table 49. Presence of Electricity in the Household

57

Table 50. Household Appliances Owned by the Respondents

57

Table 51. Communication facilities Owned and Used by the respondents.

58

Table 52. Transportation used by the Respondents

58

Table 53: Leisure Activities of the Respondents.

59

Table 54: Sports Activities of the Respondents

60

Table 55. Activities and Programs of the Community Participated by the Respondents. 60 Table 56. The Source of Fund for the Respondents Livelihood Project

61

Table 57. The Respondent’s Reason/s for choosing their Livelihood Activity

61

Table 58. The Type of Livelihood Assistance availed by the Respondents.

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Table 59. Trainings Availed by the Respondents

63

Table 60. Locally Observed Effects of Climate Change to Agriculture

64

Table 61.Locally Observed Effects of Climate Change to Health

64

Table 62. Locally Observed Effects of Climate Change to Water Resources

65

Table 63. Locally Observed Effects of Climate Change to Forest and Natural resources 65 Table 64. Locally Observed Effects of Climate Change to Species and Natural Resources

66

Table 65. Observed Effects of Climate Change to Fisheries

67

Table 66. Overcoming the Effects of Climate Change in Agriculture.

68

Table 67. Overcoming the Effects of Climate Change to Health.

68

Table 68. Overcoming the Effects of Climate Change to Water Resource.

68

Table 69. Overcoming the Effects of Climate Change to Species and Natural Areas

69

Table 70. Overcoming the Effects of Climate Change to Forest and Natural Resources. 69 Table 71. Overcoming the Effects of Climate Change to Fisheries.

70

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figures

Page

Figure 1. Respondents Distribution by Age

41

Figure 2: Respondents Distribution by Gender

42

Figure 3: Respondents Distribution by Civil Status

42

Figure 4: Respondents Distribution by Religious Affiliation

43

Figure 5: Respondents Distribution by Tribal Affiliation

43

Figure 6: Respondents Distribution by Educational Attainment

44

Figure 7. Distribution of the Respondents by Occupation

45

Figure 8. Annual Income Earned of the Respondents.

45

Figure 9. Farm Size of the Respondents from the Pilot Barangays

46

Figure 10. Respondents Livelihood Activities

62

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LIST OF ACRONYMS

asl – above sea level A. Lista – Alfonso Lista, a Municipality of Ifugao IUCN – International Union for the Conservation of Nature CITES Appendix II - It is a list of flora and fauna which international and national trade is strictly regulated. IPCC - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change EEPSEA - Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia ETM - Enhance Thematic Mapper NDVI - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index GIS – Geographic information System NSO – National Statistics Office IFSU - Ifugao State University KII – Key informant Interview FGD- Focus Group Discussion SPICACC - Strengthening the Philippines Institutional Capacity to Adapt to Climate Change FAO – Food and Agriculture Organization

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INTRODUCTION Rationale Changes in the earth’s climate are reflected in the variations in the environment, the natural processes that go around it, and in human activities. The largest impact on the local climate such as changes in cropping calendar is due to anthropogenic activities like deforestation, agriculture, and changes in the land uses. The widespread use of fossil fuels and these anthropogenic activities fundamentally change the environment. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), some effects of climate change that are happening and are being experienced now include the following: heavier rainfall; that cause flooding in many regions (warmer temperatures have led to more intense rainfall events in some areas) which cause flooding; occurrence of increasing extreme drought (due to higher temperatures which in turn cause a higher rate of evaporation and more drought in some areas of the world); changing ecosystems (like species movement from a cooler habitat to warmer habitat because of warming, or death because of the increase in temperature); change in the frequency and strength of tropical storms; and more frequent heat waves and warmer temperatures that affect human health. By its geographical and geologic location, the Philippines is constantly exposed to disasters and natural hazards. In the last five years (2005-2009) landslides in some parts of the country like the provinces Quezon, Benguet, Isabela and Nueva Vizcaya have

repeatedly

happened and have left over a hundred people dead. Recently, floods that were caused by heavy rainfall in the provinces of Rizal and Pangasinan brought about damages that affected large parts of the area and death of many people living on the floodplains. Among the recorded damages all throughout the country, Northern Luzon had the highest cost of natural disaster that amounted to 56.7% of all the damages. Likewise, its populace is considered as the most vulnerable because 37% of the people who were affected reside in Northern Luzon (Romero et al, 2009). Ifugao is one among the nine provinces in Northern Luzon that is worth assessing. The province is considered a high risk because of its geographical location, and increasing degradation exacerbated by increased deforestation rate, changes in the land uses and population build-up. The disparity in the ecosystems in Ifugao somehow affects the lives of the rural settlers thus the need to enhance climate change adaptation capacity in the community. Strengthening local institutional capabilities to adapt to climate change requires baseline information on existing biological and physical resources and the way of life of the involve communities must be silhouetted. Thus, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United 1


Nations (FAO), collaborated with the Ifugao State University under the project entitled, “Strengthening the Philippines Institutional Capacity to Adapt to Climate Change�. Biodiversity and biophysical characterization will provide additional scientific knowledge on species richness and diversity of floral and faunal resources in the area. It also evaluates the soil and water resources of the community. Further, the result will provide a deeper understanding on these parameters to serve as guide for communities, and institutions in designing protection, and conservation strategies of biological resources that will lead to sustainable use of some of the resources. It is also important to conduct socio-economic and agri-livelihood profiling since human activities contribute a lot in hastening the effects of climate change. Socio-economic pressures have forced upland dwellers to farm extremely steep slopes, and even to the extent of converting forest lands for agricultural purposes. At the start of the new millennium, Nibaten (2002) reported illegal massive clearings of forest lands in some parts of Ifugao for an extension farm.

Objectives of the Study The study endeavor to gather baseline data on the biodiversity,

biophysical

characteristics, socio-economic and agri-livelihood profiles of the selected barangays in the province of Ifugao, and to document the observed effects of climate change in the communities and enlist the adaptation mechanisms of community people. Specifically, the study aims to: 1. Provide data on the species richness and diversity of macro flora and fauna in selected barangays of Ifugao; 2. Uncover potential issues and challenges related to biodiversity; 3. Determine the chemical and physical characteristics of water found in the creeks located in the pilot barangays; 4. Determine chemical properties of soil in the selected barangays in the province of Ifugao; 5. Establish the socio demographic profile of the four barangays representing the low, medium and high elevation in terms of age, gender, civil status, educational attainment, and household size, tribal and religious affiliation; 6. Verify the economic profile of the respondents in terms of annual income, occupation, size of farms, kinds of crops and animals raised, income obtained and government material and technical services received; 7. Identify the respondents’ livelihood activities of the respondents and how they finance these activities; 2


8.

Determine the reasons why respondents choose these livelihood activities;

9. Determine the assistance the community people received from the government and private agencies; 10. Determine the effect of climate change as to the livelihood and health of the respondents, water resources, species and natural resources, forest resources; and 11. Determine the adaptation practices of the respondents to mitigate the effects of climate change.

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METHODOLOGY BIODIVERSITY AND BIOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION Location and Description of Project Sites Biophysical characterization in Ifugao was conducted in three barangays namely Nagacadan in Kiangan, Bato-Alatbang in Mayoyao, and Namnama in Alfonso Lista, Ifugao as shown in Annex 1. Elevation was the main basis in the selection of pilot sites such that low elevation (<500 m above sea level (asl)), medium (500-100 m asl) and high (>1000 m asl) elevation ecosystems were represented. The forest ecosystem in Barangay Namnama, Alfonso Lista, Ifugao with an average elevation of 369 m asl thus represents low elevation while the forest ecosystems in Barangays Nagacadan, Kiangan has a mean elevation of 979 m asl, and Bato-Alatbang, Mayoyao has an average elevation of 1292 m asl thus represents middle and high elevations, respectively. Thw forest area of Barangay Namnama, Alfonso Lista is about 577 meters and 922 meters, lower than the forest areas of Barangays Nagacadan, Kiangan and Bato-Alatbang, Mayoyao, respectively. The forest area of Barangay Nagacadan is 313 meters lower than the forest area of Barangay Bato-Alatbang, Mayoyao. The elevation and specific location of the study plots in the forest, agricultural, and grassland ecosystem are shown in Annex 1. The forest areas in Barangay Nagacadan, Kiangan, and Ifugao are generally â&#x20AC;&#x153;muyongâ&#x20AC;? or privately owned woodlots. Muyong is a parcel of forest area owned and managed by family or clan near the area. The forest areas are characterized as having steep to very steep slopes. The surface soil is generally black and contains thin to thick layers of organic matters. Big boulders of rocks were encountered in the plots. The forest is generally described as having partially closed to closed canopy. Wildings of various species abound in the understory level but some were cut down by the owner perhaps to give space for preferred species to grow. Below the forest area are rice terraces that are cultivated for rice production. The forest area in Barangay Bato-Alatbang, Mayoyao is generally characterized as a communal forest where any member of the community can utilize the resources found therein. The area is very steep with exposed boulders in some parts of the forest. The vegetation canopy is from open to partially closed and mixture of pioneer and some climax are found in the area. The presence of matured pioneer species indicates that the area have been cleared many years ago and have been abandoned to regain its vegetation.

4


Meanwhile the forest area of Barangay Namnama Alfonso Lista, Ifugao is located in Sitio Siningpit located a few kilometers from the barangay proper. It is the only remaining secondary forest in the area however, continued slash and burn practices will certainly deforest the area in a few years if not addressed. Existing tree vegetations are left-over of timbers harvesting and are generally characterized as having partially open to partially closed canopy. The elevation of the sampling plots ranges from 332 to 398 m asl. The four barangays are shown inset in the identified municipal sites in Ifugao. As for the mean elevation of the agricultural ecosystems, Barangay Namnama, Alfonso Lista, Ifugao is 294 meters above sea level (asl) and about 595 meters lower than the agricultural ecosystems of Barangay Nagacadan, Kiangan, Ifugao with a mean elevation of 889 meters. The mean elevation of agricultural areas in Barangay Bato-Alatbang is 1070 m asl, and is 776 meters and 181 meters higher than Namnama and Nagacadan, respectively. The mean elevation of the grassland ecosystems in Barangay Namnama, Alfonso Lista, Ifugao is 284.8 m asl and is about 641.3 m lower than the grassland ecosystems of Barangay Nagacadan whose mean elevation is 926.1 meters. The mean elevation for Barangay BatoAlatbang is 1141.2 m asl and is 856.4 meters and 215.1 meters higher than Namnama and Nagacadan, respectively. Eight creeks exist in the three pilot barangays. The Mabanutan and Namnama creeks are located in Namnama, Alfonso Lista, while the Monlanghi, Nungawa, and Andotmog creeks are located in Nagacadan, Kiangan. The Balo-o, Bato-Alatbang and Buyayao creeks are located in Bato-Alatbang, Mayoyao.

Methods of Floral Survey Rapid assessment of floral species using plot method was used in the inventory. A main survey/inventory plot with a dimension of 20x100 m along the slope was established per barangay. Within the main plot, three 20x20 m quadrants were established for tree profiling, and three 5x5m subquadrants per quadrant were established for the inventory of trees, shrubs and the like. All corners of plots and quadrants were marked with visible stakes and strings. The coordinates and elevation of the 20 x 20 m quadrants were determined using Global Positioning System (GPS). Tree identification was conducted at each 20 x 20m quadrant and in the 5 x 5 m subquadrants. The process includes locating, identifying and measuring diameter at breast height, total height and crown cover of all trees with a diameter at breast height (dbh) of 5 cm and above. 5


The density, frequency, dominance, species richness and diversity were measured using the following formula: number of individuals 1. Density (D) = ---------------------------area sampled Density of species A 2. Relative Density (RD) = -------------------------------------- x 100 Total density of all species Number of quadrants in which species A occurs 3. Frequency (F) = ------------------------------------------------------------------Total number of quadrants examined Frequency value for species 4. Relative Frequency (RF) = ------------------------------------------------------- x 100 Total of frequency values for all species Species basal coverage values 5. Dominance (Cover) = ------------------------------------------Area Sampled *Note: The basal areas of trees were taken at breast height level (1.5 m above ground), while measurements for small trees/shrubs were taken at 10 cm above the ground Dominance of species A 6. Relative Dominance (RDom) = ------------------------------------------- x 100 Total dominance of all species 7. Species Importance Value (SIV) As a rough and overall estimate of the influence or importance of plant species in the community, the SIV might be useful and were computed by the following formula: SIV = RD + RF + RDom

Where, RD = Relative density, RF = Relative frequency, and RDom = Relative dominance

8. Species diversity indices The Importance Value of Species A and total IV of all species were computed to obtain Species Diversity using the Shannon Index of General Diversity (H’): H’ = - ∑ ni_ log _ni_ N N

Where ni = total number of individuals per species N = total number of individuals of all species

6


9.

Similarity index was computed using the unweighted pair group method using Averages (UPGMA) shall be used in the data analyses.

Methods for Faunal Survey Rapid assessment of faunal diversity was employed in the conduct of inventory of all four major vertebrate groups (reptiles, amphibians, birds, and mammals) in the three barangays of Ifugao. Different techniques or methods of faunal inventory were used to include trapping of volant mammals, mist-netting of non-volant mammals, and transect survey of birds, reptiles and amphibians. Indirect methods of faunal survey like footprints, fecal droppings, roosting and nesting sites, other physical evidences and ethnobiological interviews indicated the presence of wildlife in the area were also employed. Avifaunal Survey. Composition and distribution of avian species were assessed using the transect survey method (Patindol 2003). Transect lines used were the 100m length along the slope used in the floral survey extended up to 500 meters. All species of birds encountered along the transect line were recorded. For each specie that is seen or heard, the following information were noted: species name and number of individuals. The avifaunal inventory was conducted early in the morning (from 6:00 to 9:00) and late in the afternoon (from 3:00 to 6:00) for 7 days per month for two months (July-August, 2010). Mammalian Survey. Mist nets for volant mammals and live traps for non-volant mammals were used in the mammalian survey. Nomenclature and classification were based on Rabor (1986). Mist-netting stations were set up on top of ridge and were monitored for days in specific study sites. The nets had an average mesh size of 36 mm and an average height of 2 meters. Nets were set 2 meters high with a ground clearance of about 0.5 meter. Species captured were identified up to the species level whenever possible and then released. Trapping of non-volant mammals involved setting of cage traps baited with cooked meat, or dried fish, on the ground along possible runways of wildlife. Similarly, trapped or captured animals were identified up to the species level whenever possible. Tracks and fecal matters were used to estimate the presence of wildlife in each transect route used. Herpetofaunal Survey. Random sampling for reptiles and amphibians was accomplished along streams, rivers or near bodies of water or any site believed to be harborages of herpetofauna. Animals were collected by hand or were captured by nets.

7


Other methods of Faunal Survey. Ethnobiological interviews were conducted to determine the presence of other vertebrates that were not recorded during the field observations. Information on vernacular or local names, habitat type, socioeconomic importance and other patterns of behavior were noted. Other factors and activities related to the overall decline or loss of wildlife species in the area were also recorded. Similarity Index for Fauna. Sampling sites covered the 3 different identified project sites (Nagacadan, Kiangan; BatoAlatbang, Mayoyao; and Namnama, Alfonso Lista, Ifugao). In each study site wildlife inventories were conducted the forested area, and water bodies (river/creek, rice paddies). The Sorensen's Index of Similarity (Patindol 2003) was used to compare species composition between sampling sites. Similarity values (expressed in percentage) were calculated using the following equation: 2K SI = ------------------ x 100 A+B Where K = number of species common to sites A and B; A = number of species for site A, and B = number of species for site B. Species Richness and Diversity Species richness for each sampling site was measured using Menhinick's Richness Index (Magurran, 1988 as cited by Patindol 2003) with the following equation: R = S /N,

Where: S = total number of species per sampling site/elevation, N = total number of individuals per sampling site/elevation.

The overall pattern of species richness in each site was determined by plotting the values of species richness indices against the sampling sites in a line graph. The diversity shall be computed for each sampling site using Shannon's Diversity Index: Hâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; = -â&#x2C6;&#x2018; [ n1 / n ] In [ n1 / n ] Where: n1 = number of individuals per species and n = total number of individuals. ln = natural logarithm Water Collection/Sampling and Analysis There were eight creeks identified in the study. The creeks identified were: Namnama creek and Mabanutan creek located at Barangay Namnama Alfonso Lista; Bato-alatbang creek Buyayao creek and Balo-o creek located in Barangay Bato-alatbang Mayaoyao; and Nagawwa creek, Monlanghi creek and Andotmog Creek located at Nagacadan, Kiangan, Ifugao. 8


Namnama and Mabanutan creek were measured for quantity and sampled for quality on June 25, 2010. The Bato-alatbang creek, Buyayao creek and Balo-o creek were also measured for quantity and sampled for quality on July 2, 2010; Nagawwa creek and Monlanghi creek on July 6, 2010 Chemical parameters were sampled by collecting 1 liter of water sample between 9 am to 3 pm. from each of the creeks considered in the study sites. The water samples were brought to the laboratory for ammonia and ph range analysis. The physical characterization of the creeks focused primarily on the measurement of stream discharge. The parameters considered in getting the water quantity were water velocity, depth and width of the stream. The current velocity and area of the stream were taken with the use of current meter and tape measure respectively. The water discharges were computed using the formula; Q = AV

Where: Q = Stream flow Discharge A = Area of the Stream V = Water Velocity

As for the area that can be irrigated by the creeks was computed using the formula: A = Q/ WD

Where: A = Area (hectare) Q = Stream flow Discharge WD = Water Duty (1.5 liter/sec/ha)

Soil Sampling and Analysis The random sampling method was used in sampling the soils that were collected from the forest and grassland areas of the pilot barangays in Ifugao namely: Nagacadan, Kiangan, BatoAlatbang, Mayoyao and Namnama, Alfonso Lista, Ifugao. Soil samples were collected from each of the layouted 20 x 20 meters plot used for biodiversity inventory for grassland and forest land. Ten representative soil samples were taken per plot from each of the land uses. Samples per land use were mixed to form the composite sample per land use. The composite samples were brought to IFSU Laboratory for air drying. After air drying, the soil samples were pounded to powder form, sieved then properly packed and labeled. The soil samples were submitted to the soil laboratory for analysis. As for the agricultural lands, the soil samples were taken from the rice field with the same water source. Transect line were established in the rice fields in all sites. The elevation of these rice field were taken into account as the transect line was from the high elevation to low elevation area and Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to measure the elevation. 9


SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND AGRI-LIVELIHOOD PROFILING AND LOCAL KNOWLEDGE ON CLIMATE CHANGE The study targeted at least 60% of the household population from the study sites to answer the prepared questionnaires in order to obtain the necessary data for the socio-economic and agri-livelihood profile that was floated by hired enumerators. The respondents were chosen using the fish bowl method wherein one household is selected one at a time until 60% of the household populations were sampled. In terms of the actual numbers, there were five hundred eighty (580) respondents from the pilot barangays, 170 from Barangay Namnama, 160 from Viewpoint, 130 from Nagacadan and 120 from Bato-Alatbang. The study used the following instruments to gather the necessary data. Questionnaire. The questionnaire was the main instrument used in gathering the data. Only one set of questionnaire was used for the selected barangays and was presented in Annex 2. The questionnaire was formulated to secure data on the socio demographic profile and livelihood project undertaking of the respondents, on the effects of climate change among the four municipalities of Ifugao representing three different elevation and the prevalent best local practices adopted to overcome the effect of climate change. To test the validity of the questionnaire, it was pre-tested among respondents who were not selected for the final administration of questionnaire. Those questions that were not answered satisfactory were revised to make them clear for the respondents. Focused Group Discussion. The researchers conducted FGD among the respondents wherein the data gathered through the survey questionnaire were presented and verified to validate the data obtained. During the FGD those data not that were accepted by the respondents were immediately corrected hence, the final data for discussion was the result of the FGD. Key Informant Interview. The researcher employed a practical approach in the interview using structured and unstructured questions in order to countercheck and reinforce the data given in the questionnaire. There was no problem during the interview as the enumerators were fluent in both English and Ifugao the dialect spoken by the respondents. Observations. The observation technique was employed to validate the respondentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; responses on from the questionnaires administered on socio economic, agri-livelihood and the effect of climate change.

10


Data Analysis. The responses obtained from the questionnaire were properly tallied, tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis and interpretation. Frequency counts and percentages were used to treat descriptively the responses on demographic profile, socioeconomic factors, effect of climate change in terms of agriculture, health, water resource, species and natural areas, forest and natural areas and fisheries. Validation of data was made through focus group discussion and key informant interview. VULNERABILITY INDEX Preparation of Thematic Maps and GIS Layers A digital elevation model (DEM) and various thematic maps that cover the whole province of Ifugao were prepared in order to visualize the inherent vulnerability of the case study areas to rainfall-induced landslide and flood. The digital elevation model clearly indicates that three of the barangays, as discussed above, are sited in mountainous landscape and situated in high elevation while the other barangay is in the lowland and located near a large river. Rainfall amount (e.g., total annual rainfall) and extreme events like flood, and drought are believed to be critical factors that would trigger landslide in the study areas. In most cases, extreme rainfall events are brought about by typhoon. It must be noted that the whole province of Ifugao is inherently prone to typhoon. Other factors that were considered in the vulnerability assessment are: slope, soil type, amount of vegetation, drainage, road, and area of catchment. It is necessary to consider an indicator of vulnerability of the community and, in this case, population density was chosen as an indicator of how a given community or barangay would be vulnerable to climate variability and extreme events. Thematic maps in vector and raster data files were prepared for each of the abovementioned factors. Maps cover the whole province although the analysis focused in the case study areas. There is a need to extend the scope of analysis beyond the boundaries of the study areas because some physical factors are not confined to the bounds of the barangay only like topography and proximity to river. Data Sources The study relied on secondary data that were taken from various sources as shown in table 1. There was a need to adjust and extrapolate the values of some of the data in order to make it suitable for the analysis. Data is usually one of the constraints in carrying out a climate vulnerability assessment. In this regard, the availability of these data sources demonstrates that vulnerability studies and similar activities could be carried out by local people (e.g. municipalities 11


or barangay) given the usual resources that they have and the technical capability in order to analyze data. Table 1. Sources of Data used in the Study. Data or data set

Source/Web site/URL/Dataset

Data Format

Maps Derived

Administrative boundaries (provincial, municipal, barangay)

http://www.philgis.org/ifugao.htm

Shapefile

Location map showing provincial, municipal and barangay boundaries

Digital Elevation Model (DEM)

ASTER GDEM (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Global Digital Elevation Model)

GeoTIFF

Topographic

Remote sensing data (Landsat ETM+)

http://glcf.umiacs.umd.edu/data/lands at/

GeoTIFF

Amount of vegetation (NDVI)

Rainfall (isohyet)

PAGASA

Shapefile

Annual rainfall

Rainfall (events equal or more than 100 mm)

NVSU GIS Laboratory (compilation from the following stations: Echague, Isabela and Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya)

MS Excel

Average event of rainfall â&#x2030;Ľ 100 mm

Road

NVSU GIS Laboratory

Shapefile

Major roads in Ifugao

River

NVSU GIS Laboratory

Shapefile

Major rivers in Ifugao

Soil

Ifugao Provincial Planning and Development Office (PPDO), and BSWM

Shapefile

Soil Type

Population

National Statistics Office

Spread-sheet

Population density of barangay

Land map

Ifugao Provincial Planning and Development Office (PPDO)

Shapefile

Land use maps of each barangay

Other features of interest

Google Earth

Virtual landscape

No particular map but in areas covered by highresolution imagery, distribution of vegetation, river, road and houses are visible hence can be described.

Elevation Slope

12


Data Transformation and Layer Preparation Vector or feature GIS format such as streams and roads was converted to raster format. Buffer spatial analysis was performed for linear features especially for a road and ariver to define proximity of a location to the said linear ground feature. The slope map was created from the digital elevation model through the Surface Analysis function of ArcGIS. The measurement of slope was set to percent. Slope was categorized into six classes. The rainfall isohyet, which is in vector format, was converted into surface map using the TopoToRaster function of ArcGIS. Rainfall was expressed as annual rainfall in mm. For the soil, the parameters that were considered to be of considerable influence on landslide include depth of soil, drainage property and texture. These physical properties vary as soil series varies. A soil series is a group of soils that have the same genetic horizons, similar important morphological characteristics and similar parent material. It comprises soils which have essentially the same general color, structure, consistency, range of relief, natural drainage condition and other important internal and external characteristics. There are four soil series identified over the study areas, namely: Mayoyao Clay Loam, Longa Silty Clay Loam, Sta. Maria Clay, and the undifferentiated mountain soil. The influence of river and road on vulnerability was expressed in terms of distance or proximity. In case of stream or river, topography of the area was considered because risk of flooding must be treated in a per-catchment basis. Calculation of proximity to the river was computed by creating buffer polygons around the stream. The buffer distance was set to 500 meters. Within a catchment, areas close to river are more prone to flooding. The highest vulnerability value was assigned to areas within 500 m of a stream. Generally, vulnerability decreases with distance. With regards to proximity to road, the maximum vulnerability weight was assigned to areas bordering the road based on empirical observation that landslides in mountainous areas in Ifugao are triggered by inappropriate road cut or road design. Roads in mountainous terrains usually become impassable due to landslide rendering these roads unable to function in reducing vulnerability of affected communities during events of calamities. The population density was calculated using the formula below. The population data used in the study is the 2009 data sourced from the National Statistics Office and is the latest available data online from the said agency.

13


Population

Population density =

Where area is in hectare

Area of barangay The vegetation map was created from a Landsat ETM+ (Enhance Thematic Mapper) satellite imagery acquired in 2003. Landsat ETM+ is being used for many climate-related projects around the world. Unfortunately the sensor producing ETM+ has malfunctioned since 2003, hence images taken in 2003 and beyond contains data gaps. In relation to this, the study used an image taken prior to malfunctioning of the said sensor. To create the vegetation map, the image was transformed into normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). NDVI is the most widely used vegetation index. It uses band 3 and band 4 of the satellite data. The formula for calculating NDVI is given below:

NDVI

=

ρNIR − ρRED ρ NIR + ρRED

Where: NIR is band 4 and RED is band 3

The following thresholds were used to classify non-vegetation, low vegetation and highvegetation classes. Table 2. NDVI thresholds Threshold value

Description

-0.50 – 0

Non-vegetation

0.1 - 0.34

Low vegetation

0.34 – 1.0

High vegetation

Vulnerability Analysis The vulnerability analysis was carried out by overlaying the following factors: rainfall, slope, soil type, vegetation, proximity to river, proximity to road, catchment area, and population density. Each factor was assigned a weight according to relative importance in influencing the hazard, namely, rainfall-induced landslide and flood. In effect, the factors were ranked according to importance. The weight assignment was based on a number of published articles (see for example Pramojanee et al. 2001 and Yalcin and Akyurek 2004) and on the project team’s decision. The weights of factors and the corresponding weights of factor classes are shown in Table 3. 14


Table 3. Climate Vulnerability Matrix for the Study Areas Layer 1. Precipitation (mm/yr)

2. Population Density (Number of peron./ha)

3. Slope (%)

4. Soil Type

Classification

Factor Weight 8

7

6

5

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 2. 3. 4.

5. Vegetation 6. Area (ha)

4 3

7. Distance to Rivers/ (m)

2

8. Distance to Roads/ (m)

1

1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Weight Class >3,000 8 2,500 – 3,000 7 2,000 – 2,500 6 1,500 – 2,000 5 1,000 – 1,500 3 <1,000 2 >5 8 4–5 6 3–4 5 2–3 4 1–2 3 >1 2 >50 8 30 – 50 7 18 – 30 6 8 – 18 5 3–8 3 <3 2 With shallow soil, clayey poorly drained soil and soil 8 with high percentage of silt and very fine sand particle covering more than 60 % of the area With shallow soil, clayey poorly drained soil and soil with high percentage of silt and very fine sand covering 6 40-60 % of the area With shallow soil, clayey poorly drained soil and soil with high percentage of silt and very fine sand covering 4 20-40 % of the area With shallow soil clayey, poorly drained soil and soil with high percentage of silt and very fine sand covering 2 less than 20 % of the area Non-vegetation 8 Low vegetation 5 High vegetation 2 <500 8 500 – 1,000 7 1,000 – 2,500 6 2,500 – 4,000 5 4,000 – 5,000 3 >5,000 2 <500 8 500 – 1,000 6 1,000 – 1,500 5 1,500 – 2,000 4 >2,000 2 <500 8 500 – 1,000 6 1,000 – 1,500 5 1,500 – 2,000 4 >2,000 2

15


After the weight assignment, each factor was subdivided into classes categorizing the potential magnitude of influence to vulnerability. The number of classes of each factor was not necessarily the same. For instance, rainfall was divided into six classes while vegetation had only three classes. The pixel value was then calculated by multiplying the factor weight and the class weight for each layer. For example, a pixel value of 64 was obtained by multiplying the rainfall factor weight of 8 and the class weight of 8 for annual rainfall amounting to >3,000 mm. The pixel resolution used in the analysis was 5m x 5m. The analysis was implemented in IDRISI. Vulnerability = Annual rainfall (8), Population density (7) , Slope (6) , Soil type (5) , Vegetation (4) , Area (3) , River (2) , Road (1) Vulnerability analysis was carried out by overlaying technique. This employs the overlaying of inputs to arrive at the level of vulnerability.

The pixels with the highest value

represent points of highest vulnerability. Conversely, the pixels with lowest value represent points of lowest vulnerability to climate hazards such as flood and landslide. The maximum vulnerability value of the combination of all factors is 318 while the minimum value is 56. The calculated vulnerability values are then classified into three thresholds as shown in Table 4. Vulnerability thresholds are then described using a scale of “low” to “severe”. The final maps show locations according with corresponding vulnerability index. Table 4. Threshold Values of Vulnerability Class 1 2 3 4

Threshold value 56 – 175 175 – 210 210 – 250 >250

Vulnerability Index Low Medium High Severe

DATA AND INFORMATION GAPS Bio-Physical Characterization Species and varietal diversity for rice, corn and vegetable - Species and varietal diversity varies among sites due to adaptation to local condition and the residents choice for crop and variety. This is also influenced by the preference of the market for consumption Soil series description - The variation is strongly affected by elevation, soil series description for low lying areas which differs to those that are in from medium and high elevation areas.

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Climatic data for the province and the municipalities â&#x20AC;&#x201C; weather and climatic data were sourced out from various sources in Isabela and Nueva Viscaya and these are less reliable because of the distance of the station to the pilot areas. Variation of values is strongly affected by elevation, vegetation and topographic features of the place. Socio-Economic Characterization Data on household size â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the respondents practice and culture on the observance of extended family ties like most of Filipino families affect the data reliability as to the household size. Number of available family labor â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Family livelihood is most often part of the household thus the family members are the sources of labor. All members of the family have roles to perform and they made part of the family labor.

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS LOCATION AND DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT SITE General Description of the Province Ifugao is one of the provinces in the Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR). It is geographically situated at the foot of the Cordillera Mountain Ranges in Northern Philippines. It is bounded in the west by province of Benguet, on the south by Nueva Vizcaya, on the east by Isabela, and on the north by Mountain Province. The entire province has a total land area of 251,778 hectares and politically divided into eleven (11) municipalities with a total population of 161,623. Ifugao is formerly a sub province of Mountain Province until it was created into a province on June 8, 1966 under R.A. No. 4695 (NSO, 2000). In 2005, Ifugao was classified as 3rd class province and was ranked nine (9) among the poorest province in 2006. Topography The province of Ifugao is very mountainous with high river terraces located in the mountain slopes and its tributaries. Slopes range from very steep slopes to nearly level slopes with deep ravines. Some gentle slopes are found along the riverbanks, narrow valleys and top of ridges. Almost all municipalities are steeply sloping, rolling and undulating with slopes from 8-15%. The rest of the municipalities are steeply sloping with the 15-25% slope range. The topographic features of the province are marked by rugged mountains and massive forests except for the rolling lowland in the Municipalities of Lamut and Alfonso Lista and part of Aguinaldo. Table 5. Mountain Ranges, Location and Height, Ifugao: CY 2007 Name of Mountain Mt. Pulag Munhuyuhuy Napulawan Gibol Amuyao Polis Nazaragay Pulog Jamalapah Sto. Domingo Dome Binahagan

Location Tinoc Tinoc Hungduan Hungduan Mayoyao Banaue Kiangan Hungduan Banaue Kiangan Banaue Lagawe

Height above sea level (meters) 2,922 2,523 2,298 2,249 2,100 2,010 1,482 1,395 1,300 1,290 979 925

Source: CENRO â&#x20AC;&#x201C; DENR, Ifugao 16


The above figures present the fourteen (14) notable mountains in Ifugao. The western sides of Ifugao are Peak Mountains. This is where Mt. Pulag is located towering 2,922 meters above sea level. The least is Mt. Binahagan located in Lagawe and it tower about 925 meters above sea level. Land Area Ifugao has a total land area of 251,778 hectares, about 13.76% of the regionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s total land area (1,829,368 has) with the municipality of Alfonso Lista covering the most followed by Lagawe & Hingyon having the least area. Forestland accounts for the highest area at 224,296.10 hectares or 89% of the total land area while only 11% 0r 27,481.90 hectares are classified as alienable and disposable land. Table 6 Land Area of the Province of Ifugao: CY 2007 Municipality

Land Area (has)

Percent (%)

Classified A&D areas (has)

Aguinaldo 33,980 13.50 Asipulo 27,533 10.94 Banaue 22,468 8.92 Hingyon 6,008 2.37 Hungduan 20,410 8.11 Kiangan 8,410 3.34 Lagawe 35,383 14.05 Lamut 18,477 7.34 A. Lista 44,905 17.84 Mayoyao 13,710 5.46 Tinoc 20,464 8.13 TOTAL 251,778 100 Source: DENR (Provincial Forestry Medium-Term Plan)

2,372 562 132 1289 149 7541.30 12,695 2,741.60 27,481.90

Soil Classification and Structure The soil classification in the province varies from clay loam to sandy loam. These soil types are observed to sustain various farming activities in the province. Soils in the province are derived from sedimentary recent alluvial deposits and volcanic parent materials/hard igneous rocks. Taxonomic classification of soils per land use management unit in the province has a total of 61 pedons. There are 4 soil orders, 8 sub-orders, 12 great groups and 19 subgroups. In areas of the province that are located in low sedimentary hills, lowland river terraces and stream valleys have been estimated to have ustic moisture regime. Poorly drained soils (aquic sub-groups) are known to occur in rice terraces where seepage is 17


prevalent. The soil in the mountains is strongly acidic and hasa low fertility (dystropepts and humi-repoeptes). This occurrence could be attributed to the high rainfall in the area, which has leached the surface soil considerably and also aggravated by farming practices in the area where no sound soil consideration management is being followed. Geology Based on the Bureau of Soils Survey, the complex lithology and structure of the province are to a certain extent reflected by its topography. Extensive rocks are predominantly exposed in the area and this gives rise to a rolling and rugged topography. Mineralization and geological history of the province were affected by natural forces such as folding, faulting, thrusting, etc., which account for the raising of the area especially in the western part of the province. The crystalline coralline limestone formed from the skeleton of the polyps, effects of tectonic stresses, together with the erosion forces formed the present configuration of the province. Lineation in the tertiary sedimentary rocks in the eastern part of the province is produced by north and northeast trending faults. In the central a western part, plutonic rocks and out crop are extensively exposed, showing that diastrophism greatly affected the area. Rock exposures are generally rare and deeply weathered in certain places. Road cuts, stream banks and quarries were also exposed. Climatic Type In general, the province has two types of climate according to the Corolla Climate Classification of the Philippines. The western portion is under Type I with two pronounced seasons, dry from November to April and wet for the rest of the year. Type II affects the eastern portion with the seasons not very pronounced. Relatively it is also dry from November to April and wet for the rest of the year. There is no data for rainfall distribution in the province, however using the data from the stations located at Banaue, Ifugao, the mountain ranges were considered as the dividing lines between areas with almost equal rainfall. This could therefore be assumed that the eastern municipalities with Type II climate receives the least rainfall ranging from 1500 mm to 300 mm per year and the western municipalities with Type I climate has the highest with 2500 mm to 4500 mm per year. This could be due to orographic lifting. The

18


central municipalities, which serve as the transition areas, receive the highest annual rainfall with 3000 mm to 4000 mm. The temperature in the province goes with elevation. There is no data with regards to the temperature of the province. However with the same vegetation, it could be assumed that places with higher elevation experience the lowest air temperature, while places with lower elevation experience high or warm conditions. The province experience two types of monsoon winds, namely Northeast Monsoon, which prevails from November to February, and Southeast Monsoon, which reaches the province from June to September. The southeast monsoon is responsible for the greater portion of rainfall period during the rest of the year especially during March to May and whenever the northeast and southeast monsoons are weak. . The province is within the regular path of typhoons that passes the areas mostly in July, August and September. There are also few tropical cyclones that come as clearly as May and as late as January. As to the frequency of occurrence, almost 32 percent of the typhoons during the year pass through the province. Social Characteristics The name Ifugao is derived from the word "IPUGO". Pugo means "hill" while the prefix "I-" means "from". The Spaniards changed "Ipugo" to "Ipugaw", and it was finally changed by the Americans to "Ifugao". For the Ifugaos, custom is the basis of all laws. But these customs would mean nothing if not supported by ancestry knowledge. Among the Ifugaos, extensive pedigrees exist. They are the graphic representation that puts in evidence one of the most basic principles of the Ifugao culture: "We cannot but do what our ancestors told us". Economy The people in Ifugao province depend greatly on their wet-rice pond fields. The majority, consisting of 84% of the whole population, derive their regular diet from agriculture products, most of them come from the wet fields; 10% derive from rivers such as fish, clams, and snails living in those wet fields. The Ifugao (people) plant taro, cotton, beans, radishes, cabbage, and peas in their farms. They raise sweet potatoes and corn elsewhere in swidden fields. The social status of an individual depends on the rice fields owned or managed. Irrigation system is through constructed dikes and sluices. Pond fields range in size from just a few square meters to more than one hectare and the average size was 270 square meters. 19


Location and Description of the Selected Barangays Topography Unlike the other three barangays, Namnama is located in the lowland. The elevation ranges from 120 to 160 m asl and the slope is flat to moderate (Annex 3). The barangay is located around 10 km away from the Magat Dam spillway. The landscape is dominated by cropland interspersed by hedges of tree vegetation along narrow streams and gullies. Barangay Namnama has a total population of 1,108 with 232 households that have 5 average household sizes. Houses are concentrated at the eastern part of the barangay, which is close to the Magat River. The boundaries of Nagacadan nearly coincide with watershed divide. Nagacadan is a rural area with a total land area of 897.41 hectares. The barangay is situated upstream of the central settlement of the municipality of Kiangan. Its landscape is characterized by a mix of rice terraces and patches of native forest vegetation along the valley and by relatively thick patches of forest vegetation on the mountain slopes. Houses are concentrated along the road that is sited on hillside less than 300 m away from the stream. The elevation of the barangay ranges from 740 to 1,360 m as shown in (Annex 4). As for Barangay Viewpoint, it is situated in one of the highest elevation points in the province of Ifugao. Its elevation ranges from 1,380 to 2,140 m asl (Annex 5). It is located along the boundary of Ifugao and Mt. Province. Because of its location, the barangay is popular for a viewpoint that offers the best view of the Banaue Rice Terraces. Barangay View Point has a total of 258 households as of 1996. The landscape of the barangay is characterized by a rugged terrain that is dominated by rice terraces interspersed with patches of forest vegetation. The only significant agricultural related economic activity engaged in by View Point households is Rice farming. Vegetables and root crops production was engaged in by only few households. Both activities are meant for household consumption. Like View Point, Bato-Alatbang is situated along the boundary of Ifugao and Mt. Province. The topography is also rugged and the elevation ranges from 1,140 to 1,980 m asl (Annex 6). A short stream traverses the eastern part of the barangay. In year 2000, NCSO reveals that the barangay has a total population of 689. The dialect of the residents of the Barangay is the Ayangan Tribe.

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Slope and Soil Series Distribution of the Selected Barangays Barangay Namnama showed almost has an equal distribution of the slope ranges 318%, 8-18% and 18-30% as shown in Annex 7 while Barangay Nagacadan classified as medium elevation area showed majority of the area has a slope range of 0-3% (Annex 8 ). Barangays Bato-Alatbang and Viewpoint, showed that majority of the land area have a slope that ranges from 30-50% and greater than 50% classification as shown by annex 9 and 10. If translated to topography, these ranges indicate that most of the land areas have moderately steep to very steep topography thus making the place more vulnerable to soil erosion. As to the soil series in the barangays, Namnama land area was classified as Santa Maria Soil Series as shown in Annex 11 while Nagacadan has Longa Salty Clay Loam and Undifferentiated Mountain Soil (Annex 12). The soil in Barangay Viewpoint remains undifferentiated (Annex 13) while Barangay Bato-Alatbang soils were classifies as Mayoyao Clay Loam and Undifferentiated Mountain Soil as shown in Annex 14. Land Use Maps of the Selected Barangays The elevation of Barangay Namnama ranges from 120 to 160 m as and the slope is flat to moderate. (Annex 15). The barangay is located around 10 km away from the Magat Dam spillway. The landscape is dominated by cropland interspersed by hedges of tree vegetation along narrow streams and gullies. As to Barangay Nagacadan, the land uses are varied (Annex 16). The dominant land use could be described as a mix of agriculture, wood source either for construction or energy, and pasture. This occurs in the dominant land cover type in the barangay. The dominant land cover type according to the map sourced from the Provincial LGU is brush land (48%). Residual forest which serves as the source of wood for household and community uses comprise around 25% while agriculture, which is mostly in the form of rice terraces, was around 22% of the total land area of the barangay. Other land uses include settlement and grassland which is mostly idle land View Point is situated in one of the highest elevation points in the province of Ifugao. Its elevation ranges from 1,380 to 2,140 m. It is located along the boundary of Ifugao and Mt. Province. Because of its location, the barrage is popular for a viewpoint that offers the best view of the Banaue Rice Terraces. Houses are mostly found along the road that runs across steep slopes hence inherently vulnerable to landslides. The landscape of the 21


barangay is characterized as rugged terrain that is dominated by pine forest (57%) as shown in Annex 17. Patches of broad-leaf forests intersperse rice terraces on the lower slopes. These broad-leaf forests are usually short and dominated by short-lived and lesserknown tree species hence most likely fall under brush land category (10%) in the land use map derived from medium resolution satellite imagery. Mossy forest is also a significant land cover type in the barangay comprising close to 25% of its total land area. Like View Point, Bato-Alatbang is situated along the boundary of Ifugao and Mt. Province. The topography is also rugged and the elevation ranges from 1,140 to 1,980 m asl. A short stream traverses the eastern part of the barangay. Its land use or land cover map (Annex 18) shows that brush land is the dominant land cover (48%), which is used by the community for various purposes such as wood source, agriculture and pasture. Mossy forest comprises around 45% of the barangay. This forest is being set aside for its environmental and watershed values. A small part of the barangay (7%) falls under other land uses category. This is actually a mix of settlement, agriculture and infrastructure.

BIODIVERSITY AND BIOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE BARANGAYS Macrofloral Species Richness and Density The result of the survey on the macro flora revealed 70 families 131 genera and 216 species. Of the 216 species, 191 species were trees and shrubs, 6 species of palm and palm-like, 11 species of ferns, and 9 species of grasses, herbs and vines (Annex 19). The trees and shrubs in the three barangays of Ifugao belong to 53 families and 110 genera (185 identified, 6 unidentified). All the trees and shrub species surveyed were angiosperms except for Benguet Pine (Pinus Kesiya) which was a Gymnosperm. Of the 53 families, Moraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Myrtacea, Meliaceae, Rubiaceae Sapotaceae and Lauraceae families had the most number of individuals at 22, 20, 10, 9, 9, 7 and 6, respectively. Of the 110 genus, Ficus, and Syzygium had the most number of individuals at 15 and 10 respectively. The complete list of species recorded is shown in annex table 1. Of the species recorded, 34 were endemic to the Philippines, four (4) vulnerable under IUCN red list of 2010 (Lithocarpus ovalis, Ziziphus talanai, Sandoricum vidalii, Dillenia philippinensis). Vulnerable species are those that

has been categorize to be endangered unless the

circumstances threatening thier survival and reproduction improve.

22


One species of rattan known as Lituko (Calamus manillensis) with edible fruits was recorded in the sampling plots at Kiangan, and another known as Barit (Calamus sp.) was recorded in Alfonso Lista Ifugao. Table 7. Number of Species and Diversity Indices of Species Inventoried in Ifugao. Indicators No. of Species (S) Total No. of Individuals

Namnama,

Nagacadan,

Bato-Alatbang

Grand Total

89

86

74

191

1197

1535

734

3466

Shannon's Index H'observed

3.59

3.7

3.6

4.48

H'max

4.49

4.45

4.304065

5.25

Eveness

0.8

0.83

0.84

0.85

Simpson's Index Λ

0.046

0.035

0.039

0.016

1/λ

21.68

28.432

25.939

62.05

1–λ

0.954

0.97

0.96

0.984

Berger-Parker Most Abundant (Nmax)

149

123

66

149

Berger-Parker Index

0.124

0.08

0.09

0.043

1 / Berger-Parker Index

8.034

12.48

11.121

23.262

Table 7 shows the number of species and the diversity indices for the forest ecosystems in the three barangays of Ifugao. The diversity index ranges from 3.59 to 3.7 indicating relatively high species diversity. Of the 191 species of tree and shrubs recorded, Namnama, Alfonso Lista with the lowest elevation showed the highest number of species (89) followed by Nagacadan, Kiangan and Bato-Alatbang, Mayoyao with 86 and 74 species, respectively. The data showed that Alfonso Lista had the highest species richness which could be attributed to its lower elevation and warmer climate that may have been favorable to the growth of more species. Compared to the result of macrofloral inventory conducted by Taguiling (2009) in Bangaan, Banaue, where Muyong showed the highest species richness (97 species), followed by the communal forest (83 species) and mossy forest (51 species). The data appeared to follow the same trend: Species richness of trees and shrubs decreases with increasing elevation. The total number of species however is comparable to the number of species found in Mt. Malindang with 86 tree species (Arances et al. 2004) that is relatively higher compared to the species found in Mt. Katinglad in Bukidnon with only 43 tree species per hectare (Pipoly and Madulid 1996). 23


A total of 3,466 individuals were surveyed distributed to 1197, 1535 and 734 individuals for A. Lista, Kiangan and Mayoyao forests, respectively. This is translated into a density of 0.99, 1.28, and 0.61 tree per m2 or an average of 0.96 or about 9,600 trees per ha. This figure is relatively high since all the wildings of trees and all shrubs with 0.5 cm diameter were included in the inventory of species. The data is more or less comparable to the number of individual trees in Mt. Malindang with high tree density ranging from 961 to 1,000 individuals per hectare (Arances et al. 2004). The most abundant species of trees and shrub found in the three municipalities of Ifugao is shown in Table 8. In Alfonso Lista, a shrub species (Laportea sp.) unidentified to the residents appeared to be most abundant with 149 individuals. It could be noted however that the species was only clumped in one of the subplots and the species was not found in the other plots. It must also be noted that it was a coincidence that wildings of the species were very abundant during the field inventory. The second most abundant was Dysoxylum arborescens with 124 species but most of the individuals were wildings. Table 8. Top 15 Species with the Most Number Recorded Rank 1

Namnama, Laportea sp.

Nagacadan Lithocarpus sp.

Bato-Alatbang Deutzia pulchra

2

Dysoxylum arborescens

Dasymaschalon oblongatum

Eurya amplixicaulis

3

Aphania philippinensis

Talauma angatensis

Astronia williamsii

4

Ervatamia ecarinata

Syzygium santosii

Calicarpa formosana

5

Manilkara merillianna

Goniothalamus trunciflorus

Garcinia rhizoporoides

6

Streblus asper

Syzygium ecostulatum

Helicia robusta

7

Memecylon lanceolatum

Palaquium luzoniense

Saurauia elegans

8

Canthuim subcapitatum

Sterculia brevipetiolata

Litsea quercoides

9

Mallotus Philippinensis

Sandoricum vidalii

Ficus botryocarpa

10

Canthium dicoccum

Pygeum vulgare

Cynometra sp.

11

Cleistanthus ovatus

Acer laurinum

Canarium asperum

12

Macaranga bicolor

Elaeocarpus argenteus

13

Pterospermum diversifolium Pentacme contorta

Turpinia ovalifolia

Ficus glaberrima

14

Canarium asperum

Aphanamixis perrottetiana

Pygeum vulgare

15

Laportea sp.

Garcinia rhizoporoides

Litsea perrottetii

24


In Kiangan, Ifugao the most abundant species was Lithocarpus ovalis with 123 individuals followed by Dasymaschalon oblongatum and Talauma angatensis with 112 and 87 individuals, respectively. During the site field reconnaissance, Lithocarpus ovalis were on their flowering stage and it could be seen even from a far distance that many of these species were really abundant in the forest area of Nagacadan, Kiangan. In barangay Bato, Mayoyao, species locally known as Hanaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;-ti (Deutzia pulchra) had the highest number of individuals (55) followed by Eurya amplixicaulis and Astronia williamsii with 54 and 52 individuals, respectively. Field observation in the forest area of barangay Bato-Alatbang, Mayoyao showed that many pioneer species were present in the area indicating that the area was once disturbed but had gradually recovered through time.. Macrofloral Species Similarity and Difference Between Project Barangays Quantitative and qualitative measures were used for the similarity analysis and the result is presented in Table 9. The numbers in the upper cells right show similarity between the species of the project sites using qualitative analysis while the number in the lower cells shows similarity using quantitative analysis. Table 9. Percent Similarity Matrix among Project Sites (%) A. Lista Kiangan Mayoyao

Jaccard measure (qualitative data) 1 12.9 5.1 1 2.9 16.5

10.1 26.0 1

The measures indicate that species found in Kiangan are more similar to species found in Mayoyao compared to Alfonso Lista. These findings could be explained by the fact that the elevation of the sampling sites in the forest areas of Kiangan and Mayoyao has only a difference of 313 m thus, many species that will thrive in the forest areas of Kiangan will also thrive in the forest areas of Mayoyao. On the other hand, many species found in Alfonso Lista may not be able to thrive in Kiangan and Mayoyao due to their relatively high difference elevation. Further data analysis showed that there were 40 out of 191 species that were singletons or represented by one individual. This indicates the rarity of the species at least at the project sites. There were 159 species that were found unique in each project site as shown in annex 19.. That is, 64 species out of 191 species were only found in Namnama, Alfonso Lista, 52 species found only in Nagacadan, Kiangan and 43 species found only in Bato-Alatbang, Mayoyao. 25


Table 10 further reveals that there were 10 species

that occur in all

sites, 10

species common to Alfonso Lista and Kiangan, 5 species common to Alfonso Lista and Mayoyao and 14 species common to Kiangan and Mayoyao. This information indentifies the species that can be grown in the different project sites. Table 10. Species Common to Barangays Nagacadan, Bato-Alatbang & Namnama Species Common to All Project Sites A. Lista Kiangan Mayoyao

Name of Species

Grand Total

Eurya amplixicaulis

1

9

54

64

Pygeum sp. Turpinia ovalifolia Canarium asperum

1 4 24

43 41 6

15 7 21

59 52 51

Litsea perrottetii

17

12

15

44

Ficus glaberrima

3

10

16

29

Semecarpus cuneiformis Linociera philippinensis Leea aculeate

3 12 11

23 7 7

3 3 1

29 22 19

Wikstroemia lanceolata 1 13 4 Species Common to Alfonso Lista and Kiangan Syzygium santosii 21 86

107

Ervatamia ecarinata

60

3

63

Syzygium polycephaloides Canthium dicoccum Clerodendrum minahassae Artocarpus ovata

17 34 4 2

32 7 16 15

49 41 20 17

Pterospermum niveum

7

9

16

Pterocarpus indicus Mangifera altissima Grevia setacea Ficus irisana Eurya obovata Pipturus arborescens Ficus septica Lithocarpus ovalis

8 8 6 6 Species Common to A. Lista and Mayoyao 12 6 3 1 2

18

16 12 18

9 10 8

12 11 10

1 6 Species Common to A. Lista and Mayoyao 123 11

7 134

Garcinia rhizoporoides

34

40

74

Palaquium luzoniense Litsea quercoides Macaranga bicolor Calicarpa formosana Elaeocarpus argenteus Viburnum luzonicum Palquium sp. Evodia benguetensis Evodia dubia Bridelia glauca Premna integrifolia

69 27 42 6 8 20 7 3 5 6 3

2 30 11 46 18 2 13 9 7 2 1

71 57 53 52 26 22 20 12 12 8 4

26


Macrofloral Species Dominance Species dominance in a forest may indicate its succession stage. Since dominance is dependent on the basal area, tree species with high diameter and density values also had high dominance values (Table 11). In the sampling site in Namnamna, A. Lista, Ngarusangis (Cleistanthus ovatus) showed the highest dominance at 0.832 m2 followed by Dysoxylum arborescens with a basal area of 0.490 m2. Table 11. Top 20 Species with the Highest Dominance based on Basal Area (BA) .

3

Namnama, A. Lista Species Name Cleistanthus ovatus Dysoxylum arborescens Canarium asperum

4

Ficus balete

0.43

Pavetta membranacea

0.32

5

Shorea contorta

0.35

Pterocarpus indicus

0.28

6

Streblus asper

0.32

Baludibud

0.26

7

Elaeocarpus sp.

0.23

Macaranga bicolor

0.19

8

Ficus glaberrima

0.23

Artocarpus communis

0.14

0.22

Acer laurinum

0.13

Palquium sp.

0.20

Talauma angatensis

0.11

Saurauia elegans

0.17

Sterculia brevipetiolata

0.08

Litsea quercoides

0.17

Dasymaschalon oblongatum

0.08

Ficus botryocarpa

Rank

1 2

0.83

Nagacadan, Kiangan Species Name BA Lithocarpus sp. 0.62

0.43

Sandoricum vidalii

0.38

Deutzia pulchra

0.49

Turpinia ovalifolia

0.35

Astronia williamsii Canarium asperum Pinus insularis Garcinia rhizoporoides Helicia robusta Elaeocarpus argenteus

BA

15

Memecylon lanceolatum Syzygium polycephaloides Linociera philippinensis Diospyros philippinensis Mallotus Philippinensis Canthuim subcapitatum Aphania philippinensis

16

Ficus irisana

0.14

17

Laportea sp. Cynometra warburgii

0.120 Glochidion longistylum

0.046

0.118 Astronia williamsii

0.041

19

Mangifera altissima

0.088 Syzygium ecostulatum

0.040

20

Ervatamia ecarinata

0.087 Litsea quercoides

0.03

9 10 11 12 13 14

18

0.16

Canarium asperum

0.156 Syzygium santosii

0.07 0.06

0.15

Semecarpus cuneiformis

0.06

Palaquium luzoniense

0.06

Total 5.082

Total 3.326

Bato-Alatbang, Mayoyao Species Name BA Cynometra sp. 0.71

Ficus minahassae Calicarpa formosana Eurya amplixicaulis Pavetta parvifolia Alnus japonica Pittosporum ramosii Saurauia clementis

0.38 0.37 0.37 0.35 0.33 0.25 0.23 0.19 0.19 0.16 0.15 0.14 0.11 0.11 0.09 0.09 0.08 0.08

Litsea perrottetii

0.07 Total 4.41

BA â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Basal area (m2) 27


The locally known Palayon (Lithocarpus ovalis) with a basal area of 0.620 m2 was the most dominant specie in Nagacadan, Kiangan followed by Bakuwog (Sandoricum vidalii) and Kurdadanum (Evodia benguetensis) at 0.376 m2 and 0.348 m2, respectively. On the other hand, Bahog (Cynometra sp.), Hanati (Deutzia pulchra) and Talanak (Astronia williamsii) revealed the highest dominance value at 0.710, 0.375, and 0.371 m2, respectively in Barangay Bato, Mayoyao, Ifugao. In Barangay Namnama, Alfonso Lista, the first 20 species with the highest dominance value has a total of 5.082 m2 and accounts for 80% of the total dominance value of all species. In Barangay Nagacadan, Kiangan the total dominance value (3.326 m2) of the first 20 species with the highest dominance accounts for 80% of the total dominance value of all species. The total dominance value (4.414 m2) of the first 20 species in Barangay Bato-Alatbang, Mayoyao accounts for 85% of the total dominance value of all species therein. The highest dominance values observed for Cleistanthus ovatus, Lithocarpus ovalis and Cynometra sp. were due to the greater number of bigger species compared to the other species. The very few numbers of big trees (except Balete tree) in Barangays BatoAlatbang and Namnama was due mainly to the continued utilization the bigger diameter trees for domestic use by the community. It was further known through key informant interview that the sampling sites in the two areas were considered communal forest, thus everyone has the access, unlike in Kiangan where the sampling sites were muyong or private woodlots owned by a certain family, thus the utilization of trees therein is regulated by the owner and nobody can use the resources found therein without asking permission. The dominance values for all species in Barangays Namnama, Nagacadan, and Bato-Alatbang, were 6.3567,

3.6405, and

5.1933 m2, respectively with a total of 15.19 m2. Macrofloral Species Importance Values The top 10 species with the highest Species Importance Value (SIV) in the three barangays is shown in Table 12. Results showed that Palayon (Lithocarpus sp.) had the highest species importance value (12.45%), followed by Dysoxylum arborescens with SIV of 10.82 and Laportea sp. at 9.74. Generally the result of the analysis showed similar or lower SIV values when compared to SIV values that were obtained by Taguiling (2009) and relatively lower compared to other tropical tree inventories for both lowland and upland forests which range from 12.5 to 52.4 as cited by Arances et al. (2004). 28


The species importance value is dependent on the number of tree per sampling area (density), the degree of occurrence of species per sampling site (relative frequency), and the relative dominance of each species which is derived from the data on diameter of each species. Of these factors, the low species importance value obtained from this assessment can be attributed most to the few number of large-diameter trees in the sampling sites resulting to low relative dominance. Most of the trees found in sampling sites were on their seedling stage or a little larger and very few attained diameter greater than 30 cm. Table 12. Top 10 Lists of Species with the Highest Species Importance Value (SIV) Species RD RF Rdom SIV 1 Lithocarpus ovalis 3.99 4.02 4.44 12.45 2 Dysoxylum arborescens 3.69 3.72 3.41 10.82 3 Laportea sp. 4.43 4.47 0.83 9.74 4 Canarium asperum 1.52 1.53 6.01 9.06 5 Cleistanthus ovatus 0.98 0.99 5.78 7.75 6 Dasymaschalon oblongatum 3.33 3.36 0.55 7.24 7 Syzygium santosii 3.18 3.21 0.49 6.89 8 Garcinia rhizoporoides 2.20 2.22 2.28 6.71 9 Deutzia pulchra 1.96 1.98 2.60 6.55 10 Cynometra sp. 0.77 0.78 4.93 6.49 Ethonobotany of Floral Species Ethnobotanical survey was conducted purposely to record knowledge of community members on the uses of plant species found in their locality. Results showed 36 food plants, 30 species of medicinal/pesticidal plants, and 25 species had socioeconomic and cultural importance. There were 121 tree species with some economic importance to community members distributed as follows: 67 species were used for housing construction, 53 species used for handicraft, 110 species used as firewood, 53 species were used as sources of lumber, 35 species were used for furniture, 51 species were used for charcoal making, 16 species used as fence, and 5 species utilized as source of fiber (Annex 20). Food Plants. Most of the food plants encountered in the sampling plots were wild fruit-bearing trees (58%) and most of the fruits were eaten raw (Annex 21). Shoots of palm species and species of grasses, ferns and herbs are used as vegetables and often cooked. The fruit of Lituko (Calamus manillensis) is the only fruit sold in commercial scale and is 29


considered as the most economically important food plant species as it gives additional income to farmers. Of the wild vegetable food plants, species now popular in the market as organic vegetables include the locally known Amti (Solanum nigrum), Kunde or wild petchay, wild ampalaya (Momordica sp.) and pako (Diplazium esculentum). While community people do not depend so much on wild food plants, they have high knowledge of these plants and some of which are becoming good additional source of income to some farmers. Medicinal Plants. The list of common ailments and the medicinal plants used as remedy are in Annex 22. There are ailments that can be cured by more than one species and there are species that can cure more than one kind of illness. Key informants revealed that there is a decreasing interest and knowledge on the use of medicinal plants among the younger generations. When asked why, they prefer to refer their illness to health workers and use commercial drugs. Socioeconomic and culturally Important Plants. There were 25 plant species identified as socioeconomic and culturally important species (Annex 23). The plant or its parts are either used directly during sociocultural rites or serve as a raw material in making items that used these rites. For instance Pterocarpus indicus (Udyo) is used to make â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;bulolâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a human-like wood carving used in indigenous religious rites and Hagabi, a large wooden chair that indicates the social status of a family.. Avian Species Composition Avian faunal inventory in the three barangays of Ifugao namely Nagacadan, Kiangan; Bato-Alatbang, Mayoyao; and Namnama, Alfonso Lista revealed a total of 57 bird species recorded primarily based on transect survey results (annex 23). The data is much higher compared to the 41 bird species recorded in Bulosao Watershed Forest Reserve in Samar (Patindol 2003). Out of 57 species, 35 species were identified and belong to 12 orders, 27 families and 28 genera. The most represented order was Passeriformes with 18 species belonging to 15 genera and 15 families. The second most represented order was Columbiformes with 3 species belonging to 2 families. This was followed by three orders represented by two species each: Charidriformes, Cuculiformes, and Gruiformes. The rest of the orders were represented by one species each. Families Dicaidae and Columbidae were the most represented with 3 species each. It was followed by families Cuculidae, Laniidae, and Raliidae Alceniidae with two species each. Some of bird species 30


encountered in Batad, Banaue by Bajit and Sutcliffe (2005) were also found in Kiangan and Mayoyao. Family Dicaidae includes species of flower peckers known to play vital role in the pollination of plants. The Columbidae family of birds includes doves and pigeons which are fruigivorus and are known to be good agents for seed dispersal. Species belonging to Cuculidae, Laniidae, and Raliidae are insectivorus and plays a great role in balancing insect population in the ecosystems where they are found. Of the 35 birds identified species out of 57 recorded in Ifugao, 16 out of 35 (46%) species are endemic to the Philippines. This implies that almost half of the species identified are found only in the Philippines. Based from the IUCN-Red List, the Philippine Eagle-owl (Bubo philippensis) is the only vulnerable species while the White-breasted Waterhen, Red Jungle Fowl, Chestnut Munia, Colasisi, Blue-headed Fantail, Large-billed crow, Orange-bellied Flower pecker, were considered nearly as threatened species. Vulnerable species are those at high risk of endangerment in the wild, while nearly threatened are those species likely to become endangered in the near future.

Species Distribution The distribution of bird species in the three barangays is shown in Table 13. Barangay Nagacadan, Kiangan, Ifugao had the highest number of species with a total of 30; Barangay Namnama, Alfonso Lista and Barangay Bato-Alatbang in Mayoyao had 26 and 21 species, respectively. There were 3 species (Lonchura mallaca,, Centropus sinensis, Centropus viridis) found to be present in the three barangays and are considered common. Eleven (11) species were recorded common to Nagacadan and Bato-Alatbang, 5 species common to Nagacadan and Namnama, and 7 species common to Bato-Alatbang and Namnama. There were 34 species that were recorded in a single site only, 15 species in Nagacadan, 9 in Bato-Alatbang and 10 in Namnama.

31


Table 13. List of Avian Species and Number of Individuals Recorded in the 3 Barangays Nagacadan, Kiangan No. 1 2 3 4

Species Bubo philippensis

No. 1

Bato-Alatbang, Mayoyao

Namnama, A. Lista

Species Phapitreron amethystina Bfatotan

Species Chalcophalps indica

Phapitreron amethystina Chalcophalps indica

4 2

Lanius schach

Microhierax erythrogenys Dicaeum pygmaeum

2

Zoothera dauma

No.

No. 2

4 Passer montanus

12

4

Lonchura mallaca

14

Amaurornis phoenicurus Fisod

2

4

3

6

Stachyris whiteheadi

6

Microhierax erythrogenys Periparus elegans

4

Gallus gallus

6

7

Nectarinia jugularis

2

Lonchura mallaca

26

Haggatang

4

8

Periparus elegans

3

Cho-og

1

Hala-hala

1

9

Lonchura mallaca

16

Ardea purpurea

3

Centropus sinensis

1

10

Ardea purpurea

2

Amaurornis phoenicurus Gallus gallus

Actenoides lindsayi

2

4 Halcyon chloris

2

Lachuwit

4

3

Loan

10 6

5

4

4

2

13

Corvus macrorhynchos Hypsipetes philippinus Centropus sinensis

3

Hala-hala

14

Rhripidura cyaniceps

2

Centropus sinensis

2

Lanius validirostris

15

Zosterops montanus

7

Rhripidura cyaniceps

4

Martines

4

16

4

Oogoy

2

5

Eumyias panayensis nigrimentalis Zosterops montanus

2

17

Loriculus philippensis Kulkultit

3

Polo

2

18

Kuplawit

3

Kwachang

4

Potapot/potta

4

19

Kutiw

2

Ledlechunay

2

Turnix worcesteri

6

20

Lanius validirostris

6

Lele-ep

3

Amaurornis olivaceus

2

21

2

Ole

Centropus viridis

2

4

Hirundo tahitica

23

Dicaeum trigonostigma Dicaeum aeruginosum Collocalia esculenta

12

Potapot/Potta

5

24

Cettia seebohmi

3

Centropus viridis

4

25

3

Titotot

26

Amaurornis olivaceus Centropus viridis

4

Sterna albifrons

27

Sterna albifrons

2

28

Tugtug

3

29 30

Udane Phapitreron leucotis

4 4

11 12

22

2

1 5

Haggatang 4

3 8

4 2

32


The observed species are a mixture of fruit-eaters, insectivorous, nectivorous and fishers, and/or combinations of the above. The presence of species in an area depends on the availability of the source of their food. The good vegetation cover in Nagacadan forest, the dense undergrowth in nearby areas undergoing regeneration and the availability of fruit-bearing tree species may explain the presence of greater number of species in the area. Of the 34 species, which appeared to be in their restricted range as they were recorded in a single site only, the Philippine Eagle-owl (Bubo philipensis) was one of the avian species observed in Nagacadan, Kiangan where there are closed canopy vegetation that suit its habitat. Other important species observed only in

Nagacadan include the Colasisi (Loriculus

philippensis) which is being trapped and sold as bird pet, the Corvus macrorhynchos, a black crow, Phapitreron leucotis a dove species being trapped for food, and some small bird species commonly called â&#x20AC;&#x153; Botyagâ&#x20AC;? that belongs to flowerpeckers or sunbirds. Two species of kingfishers (Actenoides Lindsay and Halcyon chloris) were observed only in Namnama. This can be explained by the presence of a large creek/river that transect the Barangay serving as their fishing ground. The Pugo or Luzon Buttonquail (Turnix worcesteri), was also found only in Namnama due mainly to its preferred habitat which is grasslands. This kind of bird is found on grassland areas and flies when disturbed but was never seen on to drop of a tree. The long-tailed shrike (Lanius schach) was observed only in Bato-Alatbang. This could be explained by its high-altitude habitat preference. Avian Species Similarity The species similarity index of the three barangays is shown in Table 14. The figures are quite low implying that only few species are common to each barangay. Barangay BatoAlatbang and Barangay Namnama had an index of similarity of 39.29% while Nagacadan and Namnama and Bato-Alatbang and Namnama had a similarity index of 19.68% and 29.79& respectively. The difference in terms of elevation, habitat types present and type of vegetation present in each area could explain the low similarities between barangays. Nagacadan forest has a mean elevation of 947 m above sea level (asl) is between low and high elevation with wider forest of good vegetation compared to the other two barangays. The forest of Bato-Alatbang, Mayoyao is considered of high elevation (1292m asl) and may support other species of birds. Namnama on the other hand has the lowest elevation of 369, has only several hectares of remaining secondary forest

may support avian species that thrive on narrow habitats. 33


Namnama however, had wide grassland area and a good river which is expected to support other kinds of birds. This could explain its low similarity compared to the other barangays. Similarity of avian species present in different sites could be attributed to the difference in habitat types and structural complexity. Type of sub-ecosystems present in each site, altitudinal range, type of vegetation, canopy cover and degree of human disturbances are some of the factors that may affect the presence of avian species (Patindol, 2003). Table 14. Avifaunal Similarity Indices of the Three Barangays in Ifugao Nagacadan, Kiangan Nagacadan

Bato-Alatbang, Mayoyao 11

Bato-Alatbang

39.29%

Namnama

19.68%

Namnama, Alfonso Lista 5 7

29.79%

The similarity in terms of habitat types and vegetation cover could explain the higher similarity index between Nagacadan and Bato-Alatbang compared to Namnama. These sites were composed mainly of forested areas with patches that are undergoing regeneration. Below the forest areas are rice terraces and small patches of grasslands. Such combination of habitats could support the growth of fruit-bearing plants and diverse insect population that could ensure adequate and quality food source to bird species. Mammalian and Herpetofaunal Species A total of 8 mammal species were recorded in the three barangays of Ifugao (Table 15). These belong to 4 orders and 5 families. Except for wild pig (Sus philippensis), which was discerned from ethno-biological interview, the other species were observed during the field survey. Of these 8 mammals, 4 (44%) are endemic to the Philippines. The Philippine warty pig (Sus philippensis) was considered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as vulnerable. Taxon is Vulnerable when it is not Critically Endangered or Endangered but is facing a high risk of extinction in the wild in the medium-term future. This specie is suspected to be still present in distant forests areas of Kiangan as claimed by key informants. The same species as claimed by key informants from Barangay BatoAlatbang are still present but in the thickly forested areas farther from the Barangay and towards Mount Amuyao.

34


Table 15. List of Mammals & Herpetofaunal Species Recorded in the Selected Barangays Local Name A. Mammal Laman, Alingo

Common Name

Paniki (large bat)

Philippine Flying Fox

Philippine Wild Pig

VU

LC

Bongtot (Pure black)

Scientific Name

Family

Order

Sus philippensis**

Suidae

Artiodactyla

Pteropus vampyrus

Pteropidae

Chiroptera

Pteropus sp.

Pteropidae

Chiroptera

Kalangkang (brown)

Lesser Musky Fruit Bat

Ptenochirus minor

Pteropidae

Chiroptera

Kalungingi (smelly) Amunin

Smaller Rufous Horseshoe Bat Philippine Tree Squirrel

Rhinolophus subrufus Sundasciurus philipinensis**

Pteropidae

Chiroptera

Scuiridae

Rodentia

B. AMPHIBIANS Gando payo

Philippine Field Rat

Rattus mindanensis**

Muridae

Rodentia

Bakbak (edible)

Giant Philippine frog

Bufonidae

Anura

Tukak (Field frog)

Green Paddy Frog

Limnonectes magnus Rana erythraea**

Ranidae

Anura

Por-por/pal-pal Karag

Giant American Toad

Bufo marinus*

Bufonidae

Anura

Malayan Fresh-water Turtle

Cuora amboinensis

Emydidae

Chelonia

Tokko/Kallulu Amulilit

Common Gecko Common House Gecko

Gekko gecko Hemidactylus frenatus**

Gekkonidae Gekkonidae

Sauria Sauria

Tokko

Common Flying Lizard

Draco spiloptera**

Agamidae

Sauria

Baniya/banyas Biklat

Malay Monitor Reticulated Python

Varanus salvator Python reticulatus

Varanidae Boidae

Sauria Serpentes

Uleg-kobra

Cobra

Ophiophagus hannah

Elapidae

Serpentes

C. REPTILES Pag-ong

LC

Ulog1 (worm-like) Ulog2 (water snake) Note: **Endemic to the Philippines

Serpentes Rhabdophis *Introduced VU â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Vulnerable

Serpentes LC â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Least Concern

35


The Philippine Field Rat and the common Philippine Forest Rat were observed in Nagacadan. Three individuals of the former were caught through live trap set near areas of active cultivation. Field rat is a common problem to farmers because they destroy their rice crops. The presence of Philippine tree squirrel in Nagacadan were indicated by fecal matters observed in some transect routes used in the avifaunal survey. Key informants revealed that perhaps only a few number of this specie remain in the forest areas due to trapping of this specie for food. Three bat species belonging to the family Pteropidae were observed in Barangay Nagacadan. Key informants revealed that the number of larger bats, like the Pteropus vampyrus were being trapped for food. Five species of amphibians belonging to two families were observed in the three barangays in Ifugao. The introduced species (Bufo marinus) was observed only in Namnama. The locally known Bakbak, which is as big as or bigger than the Bufo marinus, is found in creeks and is a good source of protein for residents. The Common Tree Frog (Polypedatus leucomystax) occupies a wide variety of habitats from open areas near cultivation to forest interior. Nine species of reptiles belonging to six families were recorded from the different barangays. Of the 9 species, only the Cobra and Reticulated Python species were not encountered during field observations but is claimed by residents of Barangay Namnama to be present in the area. Two of the reptile species recorded (Hemidactylus frenatus, Draco spiloptera) are endemic to the Philippines. The Malayan Freshwater Turtle was found under the possession of one of the residents in Namnama and is claimed to be present in creeks and rivers in the area. Key informants however revealed that a number of the species was probably introduced in the area several years ago as pet but was able to escape and multiply. This specie is associated to bodies of water from highly disturbed areas near cultivation to the forest interior. The Malayan Monitor Lizard (Varanus salvator) was observed in Nagacadan and Namnama and was also confirmed to be present in Bato-Alatbang. This specie of reptile is often hunted for food.

36


Water Quantity of the Creeks found in the Pilot Sites Table 16 shows the stream flow and land area that can be irrigated by the Creeks located in the pilot barangays. Nagawa Creek found in Nagacadan Ifugao drains the highest quantity of water with 0.3455 cubic meter/sec. It can irrigate 230.30 hectares of land. Meanwhile Mabanutan Creek drains 0.1013 cubic meters per second and 0.0304 cubic meters for Namnama, 0.0624 for Buyayao Creek, 0.0111 for Monlanghi Creek, 0.0059 for Bato-Alatbang, 0.0014 for Andotmog creek and the least is Balo-o Creek with 0.0001 cubic meters per second. The findings seem to indicate that the watershed of Nagawa creek is wider and with abundant vegetation while Balo-o Creek has the least area of watershed. Table 16. Stream Flow and Land Area that can be Irrigate by the Creeks Municipality Alfonso Lista Kiangan

Mayoyao

Creek

Stream Flow (cu.m/sec)

Area to be Irrigated (ha)

Mabanutan Namnama Nagawa Andotmog Monlanghi Balo-o Bato-Alatbang Buyayao

0.1013 0.0304 0.3455 0.0014 0.0111 0.0001 0.0059 0.0624

67.53 20.27 230.3 1.07 7.4 0.07 3.933 41.6

Water Quality of the Creeks found in the Pilot Sites The result of the water quality analysis reveals that the water samples from the streams has normal pH level except for Mabanutan Creek which is slightly alkaline (pH is 8), but it is still favorable to the growth, development and reproduction of different kind of crops and fresh water fish species. Table 17. pH Status of Creeks found in the Pilot Barangays Creeks/ Water Resource Andotmog creek Munlanghi creek Nagawa creek Buyayao creek Balo-o creek Namnama creek Mabanutan creek

pH 7.0 7.5 7.0 7.5 7.5 7.5 8.0

As for the ammonia level, all creeks show that it is within the desirable and ideal range which obtained a value ranging from 0.2-0.4. The finding shows that the level of ammonia favors the growth, multiplication, and reproduction of most plants and animals. 37


The change in climate may not directly cause biodiversity loss but the consequences of such change will adversely affect biodiversity. For instance prolonged drought will lead to forest burning and strong rain damages landscape Table 18. Ammonia Content of Creeks found in the Pilot Barangays Creek Andotmog creek Munlanghi creek Nagawa creek Buyayao creek Balo-o creek Namnama creek Mabanutan creek

Ammonia 0.2 mg/L 0.4 mg/L 0.3 mg/L 0.3 mg/L 0.4 mg/L 0.2 mg/L 0.4 mg/L

Soil Analysis Conducted for the Selected Barangays Table 19 shows the soil chemical analysis for grassland soil from the pilot barangays. The soil samples for Barangays Namnama and Bato-Alatbang showed a strongly acidic pH while the soil sample for Barangays Nagacadan showed medium acidity. With this pH range, some of the nutrients become unavailable to plants thus crop production is still possible but will require additional input in terms of fertilizers. Table 19. The Result of the Soil Chemical Analysis conducted for Grassland Soil Samples. Location Namnama, Alfonso Lista Nagacadan, Kiangan Bato-Alatbang, Mayoyao

Elevation (m asl)

pH

OM (%)

Total N (%)

Available P (ppm)

307.8 956.3 1152.8

5.2 5.7 5.1

1.48 2.17 3.11

0.04 0.07 0.09

40.5 38 10

In term of the organic matter content in percent, Barangay Namnama showed low OM content while soil samples from Barangay Nagacadan and Bato-Alatbang tested medium. As for the total nitrogen content of the soil samples from the pilot barangays tested very low. This is due to the past history of the areas where it was formerly used as kaingin. As for the available phosphorous, soil sample from Barangay Bato-Alatbang tested medium while the Barangays Namnama and Nagacadan have high exchangeable phosphorous. On the other hand, Table 20 shows the chemical soil analysis conducted for forest soil samples. It is important to consider the pH of the soil since some plant species found in the forest cannot thrive in acidic soils. However, the results indicate that soil samples from Barangays Namnama and Bato-Alatbang showed a strongly acidic pH while Barangay Nagacadan tested slightly acidic pH. 38


As for the percent organic matter, all the pilot barangays have medium organic matter content as compared to the grassland area. This is due to the accumulation of organic residue in the forms of leaves, decaying trunks and other debris. Although the OM content was quite high, the results showed a soil sample from Barangay Namnama has very low total nitrogen while Barangays Bato-Alatbang and Nagacadan have low total nitrogen content. Table 20. Summary Result of Soil Analysis for Forestland Soil Samples Location Namnama, Alfonso Lista Nagacadan, Kiangan Bato-Alatbang, Mayoyao

Elevation (m asl) 398 957 1356

pH 6.5 4.9 5.0

OM (%) 2.49 3.47 3.32

Total N (%) 0.10 0.10 0.07

Available P (ppm) 50 23 10

As for the available phosphorous, soil samples from Barangay Namnama showed a low exchangeable phosphorous while soil samples from Barangays Nagacadan and Bato-Alatbang have high exchangeable phosphorous. Table 21 shows the result of the pH of the soil samples from the transected agricultural land in the pilot sites. Table 21. The pH of the Soil Sampled from the Ricefield of the Pilot Barangays Land Unit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Namnama (Low Elevation) Elevation pH (m asl) 302 5.8 302.6 5.7 301.1 5.7 299.8 5.5 298.8 5.5 296 5.6 295.3 5.8 294 5.4 294.3 5.9 292.7 5.8 291.2 5.8 289.7 5.7 287.6 6.3 286 5.9

Nagacadan (Medium Elevation) Elevation pH (m asl) 900.5 5.4 899.5 5.2 898.93 5.1 897.43 5.1 896.23 5.1 894.23 5.0 892.67 4.9 891.1 4.1 890.5 4.4 887.5 4.6 882.5 4.8 878 5.1 873 4.5 -

Bato-Alatbang (High Elevation) Elevation pH (m asl) 1101 5.6 1106 5.5 1109 5.3 154.5 5.1 1071 4.9 1066.79 4.9 1060.75 5.1 1055.81 5.0 1047.75 5.1 1040 5.5 1101 5.6 -

Rice production requires an optimal pH range of 5.5-7.5 (Sys et. al., 1988). Chemical characteristics of most of the land units are in the optimal range. Usually at the optimal pH range, most of the nutrients are in their available form. The other land units may have lower pH as compared to the others but there is tendency for the pH to increase up 6.5-7.0 after several weeks of submergence (Ponnamperuma, 1955). 39


Another very important soil chemical characteristic that was considered was the percent organic matter contain in the soil. The soil organic matters contain macro minerals and micro minerals needed by plants. It also improves the soil structure that the crop will grow better and water drainage will be improved. As observed in the Barangays Nagacadan, Viewpoint and Bato-Alatbang, most farmers do not apply inorganic fertilizers thus they depend on the OM content of the soil for the supply of the much needed nutrients. Table 22. The % Organic Matter of the Soils Sampled from the Rice field of the Pilot Sites Land Unit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Namnama (Low Elevation) 1.70 1.9 2.06 2.13 2.18 2.18 2.06 2.13 2.24 2.18 2.41 1.91 1.48 1.53

Nagacadan (Medium Elevation) 2.46 1.7 2.06 2.06 2.06 3.23 2.51 3.23 2.79 3.44 3.61 3.84 2.96 -

Bato-Alatbang (High Elevation) 3.34 3.6 3.51 3.18 3.61 3.44 3.73 3.73 2.96 3.51 3.34 -

Table 22 showed that the organic matter content of most of the land units from the pilot barangays tested is from low to medium levels. However some of the areas tested has a low in percent organic matter content because the decomposition of the organic matter in waterlogged condition is \slower. The microbial population present in such condition consists only of facultative and obligate anaerobes. These types of anaerobes have lower energy requirement thus they cannot process the organic matter at a higher rate. Decomposition of the organic matter determines the release of nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorous and other nutrients. As for the total nitrogen content of the organic matter, it usually ranges from 3-6% which can be equated to the low to very low total nitrogen content of the land units from the pilot barangays as shown in Table 23. Most of the land units identified have very low organic matter. The nitrogen in the submerged soil is usually characterized by absence of nitrate and accumulation of ammonia (Ponnamperuma, 1955). The loss of nitrate was brought about by the assimilation of plants, leaching and de-nitrification

40


Table 23. The % Nitrogen of the Soils Sampled from the Rice field of the Pilot Sites Land Unit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Namnama (Low Elevation) 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.09

Nagacadan (Medium Elevation) 0.07 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.10 0.08 0.10 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.12

Bato-Alatbang (High Elevation) 0.10 0.11 0.11 0.10 0.11 0.10 0.11 0.11 0.90 0.11 0.10 -

13 14

0.04 0.05

0.09 -

-

. SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILING Respondents Demographic Profile Age Figure 1 shows that majority of the respondents from Barangay Namnama are within age bracket of 29-38 years. Meanwhile, majority of the respondents of Nagacadan age are within 59 years and above. Most of the respondents from Barangays Viewpoint and BatoAlatbang are within 39-48 years of age. Though the respondents in Barangay Namnama are mostly farmers, they are relatively younger than 38 years old. Still the data indicates that most farmers in the pilot sites belong to the 39 years and above. This means that most of the respondents are still in their peak years of doing farming activities and are potential partners for any rural development activities particularly in improving the environment

Figure 1. Respondents Distribution by Age 41


.Gender Majority of the respondents were females. This is attributed to the fact that during the conduct of the actual interview using the questionnaire, the people who were left in the houses were the farmersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; wives. Their husbands were in the field doing the farm work. However, women through observation and records show that they too are playing major roles in the farm since they do similar activities as the male respondents.

Figure 2: Respondents Distribution by Gender Civil Status Figure 3 reveals that most of the respondents were married. This could be related to the age of the respondents. According to Havighurst at age 20-40 years old, an individual begins with a partner and have family that is why most of the respondents were married.

Figure 3: Respondents Distribution by Civil Status Religious Affiliation Majority of the respondents of Namnama, Viewpoint and Nagacadan are Roman Catholics.

However, Barangay Bato-Alatbang had more Born Again Christians. The other

religious affiliation includes Ispiritista, 7th day Adventist, Jehovahâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Witnesses, Methodist, Iglesia Ni Cristo, CDCC and UCCP. 42


This implies that most of the respondents belong to a religious group. This a good indicator that they were willing to undertake activities that would promote the preservation and improvement of the environment that God has entrusted to them.

Figure 4: Respondents Distribution by Religious affiliation Tribal Affiliation Figure 5 shows that most of the respondents in Bato-Alatbang belong to the Ayangan Tribe while the Tuwali Tribe are dominant in Viewpoint and Nagacadan. On the other

hand Barangay Namnama was dominated by Ilocanos. Other tribes existing are the henanga, Gaddang, Igorot/Kankannaey and Bisaya. This further shows that the Ifugao province is not a solid community comprising of pure Ifugao tribes. This could be due to the intermarriages among Ifugaos and other tribes coming in the community. The cultural practices, traditions, dialects and beliefs differ among the tribes. However, thier capacity and willingness to undertake rural development change is common..

Figure 5: Respondents Distribution by Tribal Affiliation

43


Educational Attainment Figure 6 shows that majority of the respondents were elementary and secondary graduates. Others were secondary graduates and college graduates. There is however one who finished postgraduate studies. This implies that majority of the respondents were equipped with sufficient educational background to actively participate in any government and non-governmental organization programs intended to uplift the socio-economic status of the community.

Figure 6: Respondents Distribution by Educational Attainment Respondents Occupation Figure 7 reflects the occupation of the respondents from the pilot sites. Results show that majority of them were farmers with 74.31%. Namnama is recorded the highest to have number of farmers, followed by Nagacadan, Viewpoint and Bato-Alatbang. Majority of respondents in Viewpoint were carvers. This is due to the fact that Barangay Viewpoint is one of the tourist destination preferences in the province making wood carving a lucrative source of livelihood and economic activity of the people.

Figure 7. Distribution of the Respondents by Occupation 44


As for fishing, Namnama and Bato-Alatbang had 6 and 4 respectively. This occupation is observed in these two places because of the geographic location as having sufficient source of water, favorable temperature thus favors them to engage in inland fisheries production productively. Annual Income Earned by the Respondents In terms of the annual income obtained by the respondents in their occupation, the distribution is presented in Figure 8. It shows that majority of the respondents belong to the poverty level and their annual income ranges from 15,000-30,000 pesos or a monthly income of 1,500-2,500 pesos. There is only however, one respondent whose annual income is 250,000300,000 pesos.

Figure 8. Annual Income Earned by the Respondents. This shows that these are the group of people with meager income and who need urgent support from the government and non-governmental organization to increase their income through viable and sustainable environment friendly livelihood projects. Respondents Farm Size Figure 9 reveals that respondents from Namnama have the biggest farm sizes since there were 76 farmers who own farm lands ranging from 1-7 hectares. On the other hand, Barangays Viewpoint, Nagacadan and Bato-Alatbang respondents own and cultivate farms that have limited areas.

45


Barangay Namnama is a low elevation area of the four pilot sites thus; most of the land areas are nearly flat to slightly rolling and are utilized for aquaculture, crops and animal production. The limited area owned by the respondents who occupy the medium and high elevation is due to the nature of terrain whose slope ranges from 30 to 50% to 0 to 3%.

Figure 9. Farm Size of the Respondents in the Pilot Barangays Economic Related Factors Crops Raised by Respondents Indicated in Table 24 were the crops raised by the respondents. Majority of the respondents in Barangay Namnama are engaged in corn production as shown by the number of respondents which is equivalent to 66.77%. The low lying farm areas of the site contributed much to the commercial scale production of corn which in turn make the province one of the best grain quality and biggest producers of the commodity in the Cordillera region. Table 24. Kinds of Crops Raised by Respondents.

Rice Corn Vegetable Root crops

Namnama f % 50 29.41 113 66.47 5 2.94 2 1.18

Viewpoint f % 151 94.38 5 3.12 4 2.50 0 0.00

Nagacadan f % 71 54.62 1 .77 38 29.23 9 6.92

Bat- Alatbang f % 87 72.5 1 .83 24 20 8 6.67

Meanwhile the three barangays, Viewpoint, Nagacadan and Bato-Alatbang mostly grow native rice. This is due to the favorable climate and existence of the rice terraces that favors the production of the Ifugao traditional variety of rice. Root crops like â&#x20AC;&#x153;taroâ&#x20AC;? and sweet potato ranked the lowest which is 3.27% since the crop is only planted as secondary commodity in the four pilot sites. 46


Fruits Raised in the Pilot Barangays Respondents also engage in planting fruits trees that they sell to augment their meager income. Table 25 shows that banana and mango are the main fruit raised in barangays Namnama, Viewpoint and Bato-Alatbang.

Rattan fruit also known as “Littuko” and pomelo

ranked 3 equivalent to 1.03%. Betel nut or also known in the local dialect as “moma” ranked the least with 1.90%. Pomelo is produced in all the sites involved in this study. However, only Kiangan is producing in a commercial scale while the rest are for consumption purposes only. As to the yield of the different fruits raised, it is presented in Tables 25-29. Generally the production of these fruit is for consumption of the respondents only. Table 25. Kinds of Fruits Raised in the Pilot Barangays Kinds of Fruits Banana Mango Rattan fruit Pomelo Betel Nut

Namnama f % 27 15.88 18 10.58 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00

Viewpoint f % 4 2.5 1 .63 1 .63 4 2.5 0 0.00

Nagacadan f % 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 1.54 2 1.54 11 8.46

Bato – Alatbang f % 13 10.83 4 3.33 3 2.5 0 0.00 0 0.00

Table 26 reveals that 44 respondents are engaged in banana commercial scale where Namnama had 27 banana growers of which 15 of them produced 600-3,000 kg and 12 produced 3,060–6,000kg. Viewpoint had 4 while Bato-Alatbang had 13 banana producers. No farmers in Nagacadan produced banana for commercial purposes. Table 26. Yield of Banana in kilogram Namnama

Viewpoint

Bato - Alatbang

Total

f

%

f

%

f

%

f

%

600-3,000 kg

15

.55

3

.75

8

.62

26

.59

3,060-6,000 kg

12

.45

1

.25

5

.38

18

.41

Table 27 shows the yield of mango commercially produced in kilograms. The biggest production is contributed by Barangay Namnama with 72% producing 600 to 3,000kg while 5 farmers produced 3,060-6,000kg. One (1) farmer from Viewpoint produced 3,060-6,000kg while Bato-Alatbang 4 farmers produced 3,060-6,000kg. The data obtained confirmed that mango is a tropical fruit that thrives best in the lowland areas with warm climate like in Alfonso Lista, Ifugao

47


Table 27. Yield of Mango in kilogram Namnama

Viewpoint

Nagacadan

Bato - Alatbang

f

%

f

%

f

%

f

%

600-3000 kg

13

.72

1

1

0

0

4

1

3,060-6,000 kg

5

.28

0

0

0

0

0

0

Table 28 shows that Bato-Alatbang has 3 producers of rattan fruits; Nagacadan has 2 and 1 from Viewpoint. No farmer- respondent from Namnama has engaged into rattan fruit production. This is attributed to the warm climate and topography of the place which is not suited to grow rattan. Table 28. Yield of Rattan Fruit in kilogram

500-3,000 kg 3,001-5,000 kg

Namnama f % -

Viewpoint f % 1 1 -

Nagacadan f % 2 1 -

Bato - Alatbang f % 3 1 -

Table 29 shows the yield of pomelo fruits obtained in kilogram. Viewpoint had 2 farmers producing 600 – 3000kg while 2 produce 3,060-6,000kg.

Nagacadan also has 2 farmer

producing 3,060 to 6,000kg. While Namnama and Bato-Alatbang produced pomelo for family consumption only. Table 29. Yield of Pomelo in kilogram

600-3000 kg 3,001-6,000 kg

Namnama f % -

Viewpoint f % 2 1 2 1

Nagacadan f % 2 1 -

Bato – Alatbang f % -

Meanwhile Table 30 reveals the yield of commercially grown betel nut by the farmers. Eleven (11) farmer-respondents of Nagacadan are commercial producers of betel nut. Eight of them produce 3,060 to 6,000 kg while the remaining 3 produced 3,060-6,000kg. Although the Ifugaos are known as beetle nut chewers and the plant abounds in the landscape except for Namnama, they do not consider it yet as a potential income source. Hence, most often nuts are shared free to the neighbors. Table 30. Yield of Betel Nut

600-3000 kg 3,060-6,000 kg

Namnama f % -

Viewpoint f % -

Nagacadan f % 8 .72 3 .28

Bato – Alatbang f % -

48


Animals Raised in the Pilot Sites Table 31 showed that majority of the respondents raised native chicken and native pigs extensively because these are the kinds of animals that are used during big celebrations like festivals, thanks giving, weddings, burials, baptism and other important rituals. However other animals like, carabao, hybrid swine, muscovy ducks, goat, broiler, turkey and cattle are raised sparingly even as they augment the meager income of the respondents. Table 31. Kinds of Animals Raised Namnama Swine Native Pig Goat Cattle Carabao Native Chicken

f 16 42 6 43 71

% 55.17 42.00 6.00 95.56 33.02

Broiler Chicken Duck

1 6

33.33 33.33

Viewpoint f 1 1 0 44 -

% 3.44 1.00 0.00 20.47 -

Nagacadan f 1 19 1 51 12

Bato - Alatbang

% 3.44 19.00 2.22 23.72 66.67

f 11 38 0 1 1 49

% 37.93 38.00 0.00 1.00 2.22 22.80

2 0

66.67 0.00

Table 32 reveals the number of heads of swine raised by the respondents. It appears that Barangay Namnama has recorded the highest number of heads of swine raised with 15 heads per farmer. Bato-Alatbang has 9 and Viewpoint and Nagacadan has 1 each. The table shows further that only Barangay Namnama engaged much in the production of hybrid swine since they believe that raising more heads of swine increase income of the family while the other barangays consistently raise

native pigs since these are the most

preferred breeds by majority of the respondents as these are used in performing various rituals. Table 32. Number of Heads Raised (hybrid swine). # of Heads 1-5 6-10 11-15 16-20

Namnama f % 15 1

4.71 .59

f

Viewpoint %

1 -

.63 -

Nagacadan f %

Bato - Alatbang f %

1 -

9 2 -

.77 -

7.50 1.67 -

Table 33 reflects the number of heads of native pig raised by the respondents in the pilot sites. It shows that 98 or 16.90 percent raises 1-5 heads of native pigs while there is only 1 is engaged in a semi-commercial raising of native pigs. The data likewise shows that all the respondents are raising native pigs except for Viewpoint where only one raises pigs beacaue the area is congested hence sanitation is a problem. 49


Table 33. Number of Native Pigs Raised. # of Heads

Namnama

Viewpoint

Nagacadan

Bato - Alatbang

f

%

f

%

f

%

f

%

1-5

40

23.53

1

.63

19

14.62

38

31.67

6-10

1

.59

-

-

-

-

-

-

11-15

1

.59

-

-

-

-

-

-

Table 34 shows that there are only 6 respondents from Barangay Namnama who are engaged in goat production. This could be due to the suitability of climate for goat raising in the place. The three other barangays are not raising goats since the place is located in a medium to high elevation with low temperature that is not favorable for the animal to grow. As for cattle production, only one respondent from Barangay Bato-Alatbang is engaged in cattle raising with 51-55 heads. However, the farm is not located in Bato-Alatbang but in the municipality of Aguinaldo. There are only six from the respondents in Namnama are raising goat. This shows that the industry is still growing and is confined in the lowlands due to the availability of pasture areas and favorable climatic condition for goat raising. Table 34. Number of Goat & Cattle Raised. No of Heads

Goat - Namnama Only f %

1-5 6-10 41-50 51-55 56-60

6 -

3.53 -

Cattle- Bato â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Alatbang Only f % 1 -

1.00 -

Indicated in Table 35 is the number of heads of carabao raised by the respondents. It appears that Barangay Namnama has recorded the highest number of carabaos raised with 43 heads. Carabao is much raised in this barangay since it is used in the farm in the absence of mechanized equipment (tractor). The extra heads that are produced are sold to augment the income of the family. Table 35. Number of Carabaos Raised No of Heads 1-5 6-10 11-15

Namnama f % 43 100 0 0.00 0 0.00

Viewpoint f % 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00

Nagacadan f % 1 100 0 0.00 0 0.00

Bato â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Alatbang f % 1 100 0 0.00 0 0.00

50


Meanwhile Barangays Nagacadan and Bato-Alatbang raised only one carabao while Viewpoint do not carabaos because the steep slopes of the terraces prohibits the use of carabao to tilling. With regards to the number of native chickens raised majority of the respondents in the pilot sites raise chicken as gleaned in Table 36. The number of heads of chickens raised range from 5 to 30. This means that every family has a number of chickens raised in their homes. The popularity of these animals as raised by every respondent has something to do with the various rituals conducted in the Ifugao community. This is why every home raise chicken for the performance of rituals. In particular, these animals are raised organically in a free range environment. Table 36. Number of Native Chickens Raised. No of Heads 1-5 6-10 11-15 16-20 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-50 51-55

Namnama f % 16 9.14 28 16.47 7 4.12 11 6.47 3 1.77 3 1.77 0 0.00 1 .59 1 .59 0 0.00

Viewpoint f % 17 10.63 19 11.88 5 3.13 2 1.25 1 .63 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00

Nagacadan f % 29 22.31 14 10.77 5 3.85 0 0.00 2 1.54 1 .77 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00

Bato - Alatbang f % 34 28.33 9 7.50 5 4.17 1 .83 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00

Table 37 shows that only Barangays Namnama and Bato-Alatbang are engaged in broiler chicken production with one respondent raising 5 heads and another respondent raising 25 heads. This could be due to the lack of technical knowhow and marketing aspect of the industry, and they could not possibly compete with the contract growers that abound in Alfonso Lista and in the lowlands. Table 37. Number of Broilers Raised No of Heads 1-5 6-10 11-15 16-20 21-25

Namnama f % 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 0.59 0 0.00

f 1 0 0 0 0

Viewpoint % 0.63 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Nagacadan f % 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00

Bato â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Alatbang f % 0 0.00 2 1.67 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00

51


With regards to duck production, Table 38 shows that Barangays Namnama and BatoAlatbang are raising ducks with 15 respondents raising five heads while there are three respondents who raised 6-10 heads. These could be due to the inadequate information especially on the technical knowhow of raising the animals. Table 38. Number of Ducks Raised Namnama f 5 1 0

No of Heads 1-5 6-10 11-15

Bato â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Alatbang

% 2.94 .59 0.00

f 10 2 0

% 7.69 1.54 0.00

Shown in Table 39 is the income obtained by the respondents from swine production. It appears that 4 or .70% of the respondents realized an income of 16,000 to 20,000 while 2 or .35% of them claimed an income of 1,000 to 10,000. On the other hand, two respondents did not claim any income proceeds of their swine production hence it was either used for consumption or other purposes. Table 39. Income Obtained from Swine Raising Namnama

Viewpoint

Nagacadan

Bato - Alatbang

f

%

f

%

f

%

f

%

Below 1,000

0

0.00

0

0.00

0

0.00

0

0.00

1,000-5,000 6,000-10,000 11,000-15,000 16,000-20,000 Others, specify Consumption

1 1 0 1

.59 .59 0.00 .59

0 0 0 0

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

0 0 0 0

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

1 1 1 3

.83 .83 .83 2.50

0

0.00

1

.63

1

.77

0

0.00

Presented in Table 40 is the income earned by the respondents through native pig raising. It shows that 74 or 12.76 % did not earn income in raising pigs. However, 15 or 2.57% obtained an income of P6,000 to P10,000 while 5 or .86% derived an income of P11,000 to P15,000. On the other hand 3 or .52% earned 1,000 to 5,000 and another 3 respondents with 16,000 to 20,000 respectively. Marketing is not a problem since the animal is highly in demand during special occasions and in the performance of various Ifugao rituals related to the customs and beliefs of the respondents. This is the reason why majority of the respondents are not recieving income out of the animals raised.

52


Table 40. Income Obtained from Native Pig Raising

Below 1,000 1,000-5,000 6,000-10,000 11,000-15,000 16,000-20,000 Others specify Consumption

Namnama f % 0 0.00 2 1.18 13 7.65 5 2.94 1 .59

Viewpoint f % 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 .63 0 0.00 0 0.00

Nagacadan f % 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00

21

0

19

12.35

0.00

14.64

Bato â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Alatbang f % 0 0.00 1 .83 1 .83 0 0.00 2 1.67 34

28.33

As to the income derived for ruminant production, the data show that only respondents in Namnama claimed to have earned 6,000 to 10,000 from sales of the goats. No data was obtained from the other pilot sites since the animals could not thrive well in this cool and high elevation area. Meanwhile the lone respondent from Bato-Alatbang receives an income of above 51,000. However, there were 4 respondents who raised these animals for consumption or for performance of rituals only. Table 41. Income Derived from Carabao Raising

Below 1,000 1,000-5,000 6,000-10,000 11,000-15,000 16,000-20,000 21,000-25,000 26,000-30,000 31,000-35,000 36,000-40,000 Others, specify Consumption

Namnama f % 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 3 1.76 3 1.76 0 0.00 5 2.94 0 0.00 2 1.17

Viewpoint f % 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00

Nagacadan f % 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00

30

0

1

17.64

0.00

.77

Bato - Alatbang f % 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 1

.83

Table 41 shows that only respondents from Namnama claimed to have an income derived from of raising carabao. Five respondents said that their earnings range from 26,000 to 30,000 while six of them earn P11,000-20,000 and two said that their income is as high as 36,000 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 40,000. This income is earned when the animal is used in the farm as draft animal, sold as meat or when it is used in significant celebrations, weddings, and rituals observed by the family.

53


Table 42. Income obtained from Native Chicken Raising Namnama

Viewpoint

Nagacadan

Bato - Alatbang

f

%

f

%

f

%

f

%

Below 1,000

0

0.00

0

0.00

0

0.00

0

0.00

1,000-5,000

13

7.65

0

0.00

0

0.00

6

5.00

6,000-10,000

8

4.71

0

0.00

0

0.00

0

0.00

11,000-15,000

1

.59

0

0.00

0

0.00

0

0.00

16,000-20,000 Others, specify Consumption

0

0.00

0

0.00

0

0.00

0

0.00

49

28.82

44

27.50

51

39.23

42

35.00

As shown in Table 42, majority of the respondents raised native chickens for family consumption with 186 or 32.07%. Although there were respondents from Namnama and BatoAlatbang who claimed to have generated an income out of selling native chickens with 19 or 3.28% equivalent to an income earned of P1,000 to P1,500, and 8 or 1.38% earned 6,000 to 10,000. There was only 1 or .17% who obtained an income of 11,000 to 15,000. It can be noted that the income derived from native chicken raising is not that much since most of the chickens raised are for consumption and are used in performing various rituals that are part of the culture and belief.. Table 43. Income derived from Broiler Raising. Namnama

Bato - Alatbang

Total

f

%

f

%

f

%

Below 1,000

0

0.00

0

0.00

0

0.00

1,000-5,000

0

0.00

0

0.00

0

0.00

6,000-10,000

0

0.00

2

1.67

2

1.67

11,000-15,000 Others please specify Consumption

0

0.00

0

0.00

0

0.00

3

0.59

0

0.00

3

0.59

As to broiler production, two respondents from Bato-Alatbang claimed to have realized an income of P6,000-P10,000 out of this endeavor while three respondents used it for home consumption. The pilot sites are not really engaged in broiler production since they prefer to raise native chickens which require least cost and less intensive management is required.

54


Table 44. Income Derived from Duck Raising

Below 1,000 1,000-5,000 6,000-10,000 11,000-15,000 Others specify Consumption

Namnama f %

Bato - Alatbang f %

3 3 0

1.76 1.76 0.00

0 0 0

0.00 0.00 0.00

0

0.00

12

9.23

Table 44 shows that ducks are only raised for commercial purposes in Barangay Namnama and the income ranging from P1,000 to P10,000.00 pesos. However, respondents from Nagacadan registered the most number of raisers with 12 or 9.23%. Hence, the income is undetermined since they only raise ducks for family consumption. Inland Fish Production in the Pilot Sites Table 45 reflects the number of respondents who were engaged in fish production. It appears that barangays Namnama and Bato-Alatbang are engaged in fish production. Majority of them raised tilapia. However, Barangay Namnama raised other species like panggasius and other fast growing species. The topography prevailing in these two barangays paves the way for the respondents to engage in tilapia production. Added to this, is the acceptability and preference of this species of fish among consumers, availability of water, technology and market outlet. These contribute to the popularity of raising this kind of fish species in the Barangays. Table 45. Income obtained from Native Chicken Raising Namnama Type of Fish Raised f % 11 6.47 Tilapia 0 0.00 Carp 2 1.18 Panggasius

Bato â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Alatbang f % 4 3.33 0 0.00 0 0.00

Table 46 shows the number of cropping seasons undertaken in raising tilapia by the respondents. Almost 70% of the fish farmers from Namnama raised tilapia twice a year while 75% in Bato-Alatbang raised tilapia only once a year. This could be due to the location since tilapia fish grow faster in warmer lowlands than in the cooler highlands.

55


Table 46. Cropping Season for Fish Production Namnama f 4 9

1 crop per year 2 crop per year

Bato â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Alatbang

% 30.76 69.239

f 3 1

% 75% 25%

Table 47 shows the yield of fish produced by the respondents. Thirteen fish farmers in Barangay Namnama produced fish ranging from 500 kg to 3,000kg compared with BatoAlatbang with only 3 raisers producing from 1,000 to 5,000 kilograms. The table shows further that there are more fish farmers in Barangay Namnama than in Barangay Bato-Alatbang. Likewise the volume of produced tilapia in Barangay Namnama is significantly higher compared to Barangay Bato-Alatbang since the production is twice a year. Table 47. Yield of Fish Produced (kg) Namnama f 4 1 4 2 2 0

500-1000Kg 1000-1500kg 1500-2000kg 2000-25000kg 2500-3000kg 4500-5000kg

Bato-Alatbang

% 2.35 0.59 2.35 1.18 1.18 0.00

f 0 3 0 0 0 1

% 0.00 2.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.83

Indicated in Table 48 is the income obtained by fish farmers in Barangay Namnama and Bato-Alatbang. It appears that 3 respondents obtained an income of P200,000 and above while 4 respondents whose income obtained an income ranging from P30,000 to P50,000. The income obtained from fish production is seen as a potential livelihood and source of income of the respondents as compared with the other enterprises that the respondents are undertaking. Table 48. Income Obtained from Fish Production Namnama

Bato-Alatbang

30,000 - 50,000 50,000 - 70,000 70,000 - 90,000 90,000 - 120,000

f 4 0 1 4

% 2.94 0.00 .59 2.94

f 0 3 0 0

% 0.00 2.5 0.00 0.00

120,000-140,000 140,000-160,000 160,000-180,000 2000,000- and above

0 0 2 2

0.00 0.00 1.47 1.47

0 0 0 1

0.00 0.00 0.00 .83

56


Socio-Related Factors Number of Meals Taken by Respondents The findings revealed that all the respondents in all barangays eat three times a day despite the fact that majority of them earned meager income. This indicates that even with a low income, parents made sure that their family eats three times a day. Table 49. Number Meals taken in a Day. No of times one meal a day two meals a day three meals a day Total

Namnama f % 0 0.00 0 0.00 170 100 170 100%

Viewpoint f % 0 0.00 0 0.00 160 100 160 100%

Nagacadan f % 0 0.00 0 0.00 130 100 130 100%

Bato-Alatbang f % 0 0.00 0 0.00 120 100 120 100%

Type of House/Dwelling Owned by the Respondents The respondents from the Barangays Viewpoint, Nagacadan and Bato-Alatbang showed that majority of them owned semi- permanent houses. The walls of the houses were made of wooden/ bamboo walls with galvanized roofing. This is due to the low cost of the materials and their availability in the place. On the other hand, respondents from Namnama have more or less equal distribution of the type of houses as to temporary, semi permanent and permanent shelter. The accessibility of the location for transporting materials for permanent shelters such as cement, hollow blocks and steel bars have made the respondents opt for permanent dwelling while those of semipermanent and temporary houses was mainly because the income status of respondents and their preferences.. Table 50. Type of House/Dwelling Owned by the Respondents Namnama f Temporary (cogon/bamboo roofing and walls) Semi-permanent (wooden/bamboo walls with galvanized roofing) Permanent (galvanized roofingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s with hollow block walls & cemented floors) Total

59

% 34.71

52

30.58

59

34.17

170

100

Viewpoint

Nagacadan

f

%

f

0

0.00

11 2

48 16 0

Bato-Alatbang

%

f

%

29

22.31

2

1.66

70

63

48.46

86

71.67

30

38

29.23

32

26.67

100

130

100

120

100

57


Presence of Electricity in the Household Table 51 shows that majority of the respondents from the selected barangays have electricity installed in their houses. The improvement of electric connection was though the program of the Local Government Unit to provide electricity in all barangays. The presence of electricity in Barangay Viewpoint will eventually improve the production capacity of wood carvers of their finished product hence, will increase income and will make people busy. Other barangays would be benefited of the advantage of having electricity in order to improve information updates and to develop undertakings of the government that are related to climate change and for which these respondents can be active partners in the implementation. Table 51. Presence of Electricity in the Household

With electricity W/o Electricity Total

Namnama f % 153 90 17 10 170 100

Viewpoint f % 139 86.88 21 13.12 160 100

Nagacadan f % 117 90 13 10 130 100

Bato-Alatbang f % 99 82.50 21 17.50 120 100

Household Appliances Owned by the Respondents A majority of the respondents own radio and/or television. These appliances are usually used to obtain information on technology, weather conditions and news from local, national and international spheres. Even in the areas where there is no electricity, the presence of radio is common since it can be operated with batteries. This indicates that people in the four pilot areas are very willing to be updated on what is happening in the environment. Table 52. Household Appliances Owned by the Respondents F Appliances Radio/Cassette Player Television DVD player Refrigerator Gas range Washing machine Electric Fan Bread toaster Piano Pressure Cooker Food Processor Computer others, specify: O Blender

Namnama f %

Viewpoint f %

Nagacadan f %

Bato-Alatbang f %

108 85 51 34 3 25 50 1 2 6 0 6

63.53 50 30 20 1.76 14.71 29.41 0.59 1.18 3.52 0 3.52

80 32 21 1 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0

50 20 13.12 0.63 0.00 3.75 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

57 71 24 19 1 15 5 0 0 1 0 0

43.85 54.62 18.46 14.61 0.77 11.54 3.85 0.00 0.00 0.77 0.00 0.00

48 67 38 18 3 25 12 3 2 3 1 11

40 55.58 31.67 15.00 2.50 20.83 10.00 2.50 1.67 2.50 0.83 9.17

0

0

0

0.00

0

0.00

2

1.67

58


In Barangay Namnama, majority of the respondents have refrigerators and electric fans unlike in the three other municipalities which either do not have refrigerators and fans or have only few. This is due to the temperature and weather condition of the place. Namnama is located in the lowland indicating hotter temperature compared to the temperature of Viewpoint, Nagacadan and Bato-Alatbang that are situated in the highland and have cooler temperature. Gas range is not commonly owned by respondents since majority used firewood for cooking. The presence of washing machine on the other hand particularly in the medium and high elevation having cooler temperature is used for drying for clothes. These areas usually experience few hours or minimal time of sun hence, they need mechanical drier for their clothes.

Communication Facilities Owned by the Respondents Majority of the respondents from the four barangays owned cellular phones as a means of communication as indicated in Table 52. This implies that the presence of cellular phones among the respondents is a necessity not only for personal and family use but also indicates their willingness to be updated of the information around them and active participation in any rural development undertakings that are to be implemented. However, those who do not have cell phones are those who do not have the means to buy communication equipment and who do not see the importance of communication facilities. Table 53. Communication Facilities Owned and Used by the Respondents. Namnama

Viewpoint

Nagacadan

f

%

f

%

f

%

f

%

153

90

127

79.38

89

68.46

94

78.33

Icom

5

2.91

2

1.75

0

0.00

3

2.50

None

12

7.05

31

19.38

41

31.54

33

27.5

Total

170

100

160

100

130

100

120

100

Gadget Cellular phone

Bato-Alatbang

Transportation Used by Respondents Majority of the respondents of Namnama, Nagacadan and Bato-Alatbang used tricycle as a means of transportation especially when they go to the poblacion

or centers except

Viewpoint. However, when they go to farther places, they ride on a public utility bus while others ride in a public utility jeepney. On the other hand those who owned motorcycle used them as a means to travel either for short or long distance 59


The kind of transportation used by the respondents is dictated by the terrain and availability of the kind of transportation in the place. Table 54. Transportation Used by the Respondents Namnama

Viewpoint

Nagacadan

Bato-Alatbang

Type of Vehicle

f

%

f

%

f

%

f

%

Public utility jeepney

39

22.94

84

52.5

46

35.38

7

5.83

Public utility bus

6

3.53

106

66.25

8

6.15

103

85.83

Public tricycle

137

80.59

0

0

92

70.77

35

29.17

Owned motorcycle

34

20.00

0

0

13

10.00

7

5.83

Owned jeepney

2

1.18

0

0

4

3.08

1

0.83

Others, specify

0

0.00

0

0

0

0.00

1

0.83

Leisure Activities of the Respondents Table 55 shows that the most common leisure activity of the respondents in the pilot barangays is watching television with 300 or 51.72%. This is followed by listening to drama using radio with 136 or 23.45%. On the other hand, others play cards, engage in jueteng, cockfighting, internet gaming and these are done only when they are not in their farm. Table 55: Leisure Activities of the Respondents

Cockfighting Playing cards Watching TV shows Listening to radio drama Engaged in Jueteng Internet gaming Outing

Namnama f % 4 2.35 39 22.94 149 87.65 86 50.59 3 1.76 3 1.76 1 0.59

Viewpoint f % 0 0 2 1.25 51 31.87 7 4.37 1 0.62 0 0 0 0

Nagacadan f % 0 0.00 27 20.77 37 28.46 19 14.62 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00

Bato-Alatbang f % 1 0.83 3 2.50 63 52.50 24 20.00 2 1.67 0 0.00 0 0.00

This means that while most of the respondents are farmers they prefer watching television and listening to drama. These are usually undertaken after a whole dayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s work in the farm. These leisure activities would relieve them from the tiresome work in the field an d would update them of the news, weather conditions and other information related to agriculture. In terms of sports activities, Table 56 shows that only few respondents showed interest in sports. Playing chess is the most popular sport played in all the pilot sites. This is followed by basketball, volleyball, boxing (bultong) and taekwondo. This implies that while the respondents are farmers, they enjoy these activities during weekends 60


Table 56: Sports Activities of the Respondents

bultong/boxing Basketball Volleyball Chess Taekwondo

Namnama f % 0 0.00 3 1.76 10 5.88 10 5.88 4 2.35

Viewpoint f % 6 3.75 34 21.25 8 5 26 16.25 3 1.88

Nagacadan f % 0 0.00 3 2.31 7 5.38 5 3.85 0 0.00

Bato-Alatbang f % 7 5.83 0 0.00 7 5.83 3 2.5 0 0.00

Table 57 shows that the respondents from the pilot barangays are all involved in religious activities in their community. Majority of them participate in prayer meetings with 322 or 55.52%, while 86 or 14.83% attend bible study. On the other hand, respondents joined cooperatives as manifested by the figures 38 or 6.55%, conducted social works by helping the sick is 10 or 1.72%. This implies further that the respondents are very active in religious activities while the others too are involved in some social activities, cooperatives, voluntary work for the environment through tree planting and membership to NGOâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s. Table 57. Activities and Programs of the Community Participated by the Respondents. Namnama f % Prayer meetings Bible study Social works (helping the sick ) Cooperatives Tree planting NGO member/officer

Viewpoint f %

Nagacadan f %

Bato-Alatbang f %

102 63

60.00 37.06

83 6

51.88 3.75

53 6

40.77 4.62

84 11

70.00 9.17

3 15 1 1

1.76 8.82 0.59 0.59

7 2 0 0

4.38 1.25 0.00 0.00

0 9 0 0

0.00 6.92 0.00 0.00

0 12 1 1

0.00 10.00 0.83 0.83

AGRI-LIVELIHOOD PROFILING Livelihood Activities of the Respondents. Figure 10 shows the existing agri-livelihood of the respondents. Barangay Namnamaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s major livelihood project includes agricultural production, swine raising and carabao raising. These can be attributed to the lowland to hilly terrain and the relatively warm weather suited for production. Besides, the barangay is so accessible. It is easily visited by the technicians of the Department of Agriculture who give training for a wider access to livelihood opportunities.

61


Figure 10. Respondents Livelihood Activities The respondents from Viewpoint were involved in agricultural crop production (51.88%), carving (11.88%) and native attire weaving (8.13). The respondents from Barangay Nagacadan and Bato-Alatbang focus more on agricultural crop production and buy and sell of agricultural products. There are only limited choices for agri-livelihood programs due to the colder climates and hilly to mountainous terrain. Livelihood Assistance Availed by the Respondents As gleaned in Table 58, most respondents from the different barangays claimed to have availed training to enhance their knowledge and skills in managing their projects. Some respondents from Namnama and Viewpoint obtained assistance through trade credit or middlemen and their harvested products serve as their collateral. Table 58. The type of livelihood assistance availed by the respondents. Namnama f

Viewpoint

Nagacadan

BatoAlatbang F % 14 10.61

10

% 7.30

F

Loan

6

% 4.20

F 10

% 7.81

Grant Training others, please -Trade Credit

0 127

0.00 72.70

10 112

6.99 78.32

11 107

8.59 83.59

20 98

33

19.41

17

10.63

2

1.54

0

Total F 40

% 7.41

15.15 74.24

41 444

7.59 82.22

0.00

0

2.78

Respondents of Barangay Namnama attended training related to raising different animals such as swine, goat, tilapia and pangasius. Others had training in mushroom production, handicraft making and food processing. These trainings were attended since the 62


respondents see it to have a market outlet and a source of income for the family since the return of investment in a shortest time. Table 59. Trainings Availed by the Respondents Trainings Attended Handicraft making Mushroom production Goat, swine, panggasius & tilapia raising Food processing Planting tissue cultured banana SD Student Farming School

Namnama f %

Viewpoint f %

Nagacadan f %

Bato-Alatbang f %

2 1

1.18 .59

110 12

68.75 7.5

91 1

70 .77

17 0

14.67 0.00

115

6.75

22

13.75

2

1.54

28

23.33

16 12 1

9.41 7.05 59

0 0 0

0.00 0.00 0.00

4 0 0

3.08 0.00 0.00

1 0 0

.83 0.00 0.00

With regards to the respondents in Barangay Bato-Alatbang, they attended training related to raising different animals such as swine, goat, tilapia and pangasius (23.33%) and handicraft making (14.67%) to augment their meager income. The limited livelihood projects partipated in were due to the restricting topography of the area preference and interest. Barangays Viewpoint and Nagacadan invested in handicraft since their area is often visited by foreigners as well as local visitors who serves as their costumers serves as their market.

LOCAL KNOWLEDGE ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE Observed Effects of Climate Change Agriculture Table 60 indicates the observed effects of climate change on agriculture. Respondents from Namnama observed that with the changing weather conditions, the prices of agricultural products become unstable (39.94%), their crops and livestock were stunted growth (30.59%) and rice shortage in rice have also occurred (28.23%) . Meanwhile respondents from Viewpoint observed shortage in rice (35.62%) and unstable prices of agricultural products (31.25%) as a direct effect of extreme weather conditions. Respondents from Nagacadan and Bato-Alatbang agreed that the most significant effect of extreme weather were unstable prices of agricultural product and shortage of produce rice.

63


Table 60. Locally Observed Effect of Climate Change to Agriculture Namnama

Viewpoint

Nagacadan

Bato-Alatbang

Observed Effects food shortage in rice unstable prices of agriculture products Stunted growth of crops and livestock Higher mortality rate in livestock ,fisheries and force majeure of crops

f 48

% 28.23

f 57

% 35.62

f 88

% 69.69

f 51

% 42.5

56

39.94

50

31.25

89

68.46

52

43.33

52

30.59

23

14.37

71

54.71

54

45

20

11.76

11

26.25

3

2.31

36

30

Higher production input Poorer quality of agricultural produce Lesser income due to high input and low output others, please specify Greater risk in agri-business

7

4.11

7

4.37

1

0.76

30

25

38

23.35

14

25.65

24

40

44

36,67

2532

18.82

12

7.5

4

3.08

23

19.17

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0.83

Health Respondents from Barangays Viewpoint, Nagacadan and Bato-Alatbang agreed that the most significant effect of climatic changes is frequent occurrence of cough and colds and occurrence of skin diseases. These areas have medium to high elevation and relatively colder temperature. For the low elevation area like Barangay Namnama, the table also indicated frequent cough and colds (52.94%) and heat stroke causing the death of old aged (20.59%). The low elevation of the area would subject the barangay to higher atmospheric temperature as compared to the medium and high elevation areas. Table 61. Locally Observed Effects of Climate Change to Health Observed Effects Occurrence of skin diseases Frequent cough & colds Heat stroke causing death of old aged Loss vowel movement due to water contamination Others, specify Allergy Dengue Typhoid Amoebiasis

Namnama f % 25 14.71

Viewpoint f % 44 30.62

Nagacadan f % 13 10

90

52.94

58

36.25

104

80

79

61.67

35

20.59

24

15

8

4.71

13

10.83

24

14.12

10

6.25

6

4.62

23

19.62

2 0 0 0

1.17 0 0 0

0 6 16 13

0 3.76 10 8.13

0 9

0 6.92 0.69 0

1 0 0 0

0.83 0 0 0

1 0

Bato-Alatbang f % 40 33.33

64


Water Resource Respondents from Barangays Namnama, Viewpoint and Bato-Alatbang observed that the potential water source becomes inadequate to sustain the irrigation water to maintain agricultural productivity and the source of potable water supply becomes scarce. Table 62. Locally Observed Effect of Climate Change to Water Resources Namnama f %

Observed Effects Scarcity of potable water supply Inadequacy of potential water sources to sustain agricultural productivity There is unpredictable weather condition that destroys cropping pattern Others, please specify Fish kill due to high water temperature

Viewpoint f %

Nagacadan f %

Bato-Alatbang f %

48

28.23

22

13.75

92

70.76

48

40

54

31.76

95

59.37

45

34.62

49

40.83

49

28,82

16

10

20

15.38

34

28.33

8

4.71

0

0

0

0

1

0.83

Meanwhile Barangay Nagacadan considers that the scarcity of potable water supply (70.76%) and inadequacy of water supply (34.62%) as the immediate

results of climatic

change. The recent El Nino phenomenon last summer (2009) worsened the decreasing water resources of the Barangays. Forest and Natural Resources Most of the respondents perceived the rampant occurrence of wild fire due to prolonged drought to be an effect of climate change. Most of these fires come from kaingin or slash and burn farming practices of the farmers. Flash floods occur very often and newly planted trees grows to be stunted. They perceived these to be effect of climate change as soil cover decreases and changes in environment affect the growth of plants. The data however, fails to show any distinct difference across elevations as far as the locally observed effects of Climate Change are forest and natural resources. Table 63. Locally Observed Effects of Climate Change to Forest and Natural Resources

wild fire/burning of forest trees is very rampant flash floods and soil erosion is very often growth of trees newly planted are stunted

Namnama f %

Viewpoint f %

Nagacadan f %

Bato-Alatbang f %

42

28.70

80

50

25

19.23

54

45

85

50

72

45

92

70.77

69

57.5

32

18.82

7

4.38

5

2.78

28

23.33

65


Species and Natural Resources Respondents from Barangay Namnama and Nagacadan observed that with the changing weather condition, more pest and diseases affect the growth of plants and farmer were forced to use excessive herbicides to control the growth of weeds. The long dry season as well as the prolonged rainy season is favorable for the occurrence of pest and disease. The excessive use of herbicides will kill weeds leaving the ground bare thus causes soil erosion especially during the rainy season. On the other hand, respondents from Barangay Viewpoint and Bato-Alatbang agreed that the occurrence of pests and diseases is due to the loss of their natural habitat and is an effect of the erratic weather conditions the barangays experienced. Table 64. Locally Observed Effects of Climate Change to Species and Natural Resources Namnama f % Occurrence of more pests & diseases Natural habitat of pests and diseases are destroyed by wild fires Excessive use of poisonous materials in combating pests and diseases kills friendly insects/vectors which hinders there multiplication Excessive use of pre-emergence herbicides causes soil erosion Others, specify Rapid growth of unwanted weeds

Viewpoint f %

Nagacadan %

105

61.76

38

23.75

93

16

9.41

24

15

26

15.29

21

38

28.35

0

0

Bato-Alatbang f % 54

45

15

71.59 11.5 4

23

19.16

13.12

11

8.46

17

14.6

15

9.37

22

16.92

17

14.6

0

0

0

0

2

1.66

Fisheries Twenty seven percent of respondents from Barangay Namnama and 32% of the respondents from Barangay Bato-Alatbang believed that the decrease in the productivity of the marine ecosystem was a result of the erratic weather changes which usually causes the increase of the temperature. The decrease of productivity can also be associated with fish kill and increased mortality rates of fishes (21.17%) which in turn can decrease the potential income of fisher folks. Meanwhile respondents who were engaged in aquaculture from Barangay Viewpoint agreed that fish kill and the increase of the mortality rate (32.5%) and occurrence of diseases (32.5%) were the result of the extreme warm or cold weather conditions decreasing the potential income of fisher folks. On the other hand, respondents from Barangay Nagacadan believed that

66


the ultimate effect of climatic changes was the decrease in the income of fisher folks (36.92%) caused by occurrence of diseases and fish kills. Table 65. Locally Observed Effects of Climate Change to Fisheries

Fish kill and increased mortality rate Occurrence of diseases Decreased marine ecosystem productivity Lesser income of fisher folks

Namnama f % 36 21.17 26 15.29

Viewpoint f % 52 32.5 52 32.5

Nagacadan f % 4 3.08 16 12.31

46 36

28 28

12 48

27.06 21.18

17.5 17.5

9.23 36.92

Bato-Alatbang f % 14 11.66 19 15.83 31.6 38 7 7 5.83

Practices Adopted to Overcome the Effects of Climate Change Agriculture To mitigate the effects of climate change, most respondents from Barangay Namnama, Viewpoint, Nagacadan and Bato-Alatbang have shallow water pump irrigation and small water impounding to sustain agricultural production. They also tried shifting to other livelihood projects that will thrive even with the erratic changes in climate. Some respondents shifted to using bioorganic fertilizers and botanical pesticides to further lessen the cost of production. Table 66. Overcoming the Effect of Climate Change in Agriculture.

Adaptation Practices established shallow water pump irrigation and small water impounding to sustain agriculture productivity shifted to other livelihood activities with lesser risk to climate change applied bioorganic fertilizer and botanical insecticides improved quality of produce through organic farming

Namnama

Viewpoint

f

%

f

55

32.35

52

45

24.47

52

30

17.69

28

14

8.23

12

%

Nagacadan

Bato-Alatbang

f

%

f

%

32.5

46

35.38

32

26.67

32.5

35

29.92

32

24.62

17.5

34

26.15

28

21.54

7.5

27

20.77

19

14.62

Health Respondents from Barangay Namnama, Viewpoint, Nagacadan and Bato-Alatbang avoided using contaminated water and ate more fruits for them to remain healthy and to combat the effect of the abrupt change in weather condition.

Deep wells were established as a safer

source of potable water since the natural spring dries up especially during summer months. Planting more trees in the surrounding was deemed important since it can serve as shade for farmers and at the same time prevents soil erosion. 67


Table 67. Overcoming the Effect of Climate Change to Health. Namnama Adaptation Practices avoid using contaminated water Eat more fruits rich in vitamin C as a preventive measure to cough and cold infection Planted more trees in the backyard to reduce the immediate impact of hot temperature established deep well and reduce taking water from the spring as source of potable water

Viewpoint

Nacacadan

Bato-Alatbang

f

%

f

%

f

%

f

%

60

35.29

52

32.5

96

73.84

49

40.83

55

32.35

54

33.75

83

63.84

42

35

38

22.35

48

30

30

23.08

24

20

22

12.94

21

31.12

27

20.77

25

20.83

Water Resource Respondents from Barangay Namnama, Viewpoint, Nagacadan and Bato-Alatbang usually established deep wells, tapped natural springs and participated in watershed development to ensure availability of water. Purified water from refilling station is used for domestic purposes when safe potable water is not available. They also tried to develop cropping system hoping that it will be successful Table 68. Overcoming the Effect of Climate Change to Water Resource. Namnama Adaptation Practices Established deep well & tap spring Bought purified water from refilling station for domestic use Participated in watershed development program to sustain agricultural productivity Develop cropping system through trial and error practice.

Viewpoint

Nagacadan

Bato-Alatbang

f

%

f

%

f

%

f

%

57

33.53

50

31.25

49

37.69

43

35.83

15

8.82

52

32.5

31

23.85

10

8.33

57

33.53

21

13.12

34

26.15

56

46.67

16

8.82

2

1.25

13

10

11

9.17

Species and Natural Resources Respondents from Barangay Namnama, Viewpoint, Nagacadan and Bato-Alatbang are aware that different species of plants and animals are slowly deteriorating due to mismanagement of the natural ecosystems. They felt that there is a need to preserve the natural habitat of these species to sustain their survival.

68


Table 69. Overcoming the Effect of Climate Change to Species and Natural Areas

Adaptation Practices Break the cycle of pest by crop rotation Preserved the natural habitat of pests and diseases to balance the ecosystem Reduce the excessive use of pesticides in controlling pests and diseases Reduced the excessive use of pre-emergence herbicides that causes soil erosion during heavy down pour of rain

Namnama

Viewpoint

Nagacadan

Bato-Alatbang

f

%

f

%

f

%

f

%

22

12.49

26

16.25

31

23.84

22

18.33

50

29.91

28

17.5

47

36.15

31

25.83

31

18.23

54

33.75

15

11.54

16

13.33

45

26.47

23

14.37

43

33.07

26

21.67

Reduction of excessive use of pre-emergence herbicides is important since this chemical kills the grasses up to their roots exposing the soil bare open for soil erosion during strong rains. The judicious use of the chemical is recommended only if it cannot be avoided. It is also important to diversify crops as a means to control pest infestation to disperse pest population

Forest and Natural Resources All the respondents recognize the importance of the forest in their daily lives especially for the wood carvers and farmers. The trees in the forest will hold the soil in times of strong typhoons and can serve as raw materials for houses and furniture. It also serves as water shed cover for irrigation purposes.

Thus they will protect the forest by stopping the practice of

burning and cutting of trees. They will also participate in restoring the denuded forests. Table 70. Overcoming the Effect of Climate Change to Forest and Natural Resources. Namnama Adaptation Practices Promote the advocacy of not burning and illegal cutting of trees Participate in planting of more trees to restore rainforest.

Viewpoint

Nagacadan

Bato-Alatbang

f

%

f

%

f

%

f

%

51

30

47

24.38

75

57.69

44

36.67

45

26.47

51

31.87

24

18.46

38

30

69


Fisheries Respondents from Barangay Namnama, Viewpoint, Nagacadan and Bato-Alatbang usually establish water pump irrigation to sustain their aquaculture projects and it is imperative for the benefit of the consumer to ban the sale of dead fish. Table 71. Overcoming the Effect of Climate Change to Fisheries. Adaptation Practices Establish water pump irrigation Drain water and frequent change of water to the fish ponds Planted aquatic plants useful for the marine animals Process the fish produce to improve the nutritive value and price of fish products. Band the marketing of dead fish in the market to protect the safety of the consumers. Others, please specify Shifted from monoculture to polyculture

Namnama f % 45 26.97

Viewpoint f % 36 22.5

Nagacadan f % 43 33.08

Bato-Alatbang f % 47 39.16

31

18.23

26

16.25

10

7.69

21

21

12.36

22

13.75

20

15.38

11

20

11.76

22

13.75

34

26.15

31

63

37.05

11

6.87

20

15.38

31

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

17.5 9.17

2.58

25.83

8.33

Another important practice to note is the draining and frequent change of water to remove pollutants for the fisher folks to achieve good quality of produce and command higher price. Added to these, processing is also important to get additional income for the family

OBSERVED ADAPTATION MEASURES TO CLIMATE CHANGE: Planting of Trees and Conservation of the Forest Ifugao has been known for its â&#x20AC;&#x153;pinugoâ&#x20AC;? that is a mini forest where each household has to maintain as a source of lumber, firewood and fruits. If this could be maintained and improved it could be an adaptation measure. Hence, it boils down to soil and water conservation, specie diversification, and an agri-livelihood. The province is known in the region as the watershed cradle of the north supplying water for the generation of the Magat Hydro Electric Power Dam and irrigation water for the Magat River Irrigation System for lowland rice production. It is the main tributaries of 13 rivers all ending to the Magat river (DENR, 2003). Its vast forest land resource that covers an area of 110,585 hectares of forest cover dominated by brush land, pine and dipterocarp forest that houses the 191 macrofloral species and 57 avian species identified in this study. If these could 70


be maintained, improved and protected it could be a great adaptation measure to climate change. In the socio-economic and agri-livelihood survey, it is noted that the main livelihood source for the people was monocropping of rice and corn. Other source of livelihood is fruit trees, animal raising and fisheries. However it is noticeably small scale with income ranging only from 5,000.00 – 40,000.00 and most of the respondents raise animals and fruit trees for home consumption only. If only these could be increased and improved, they offer a good income source, thus, an adaptation option. Raising of Animals The data obtained both from secondary and on site source showed the possibility of animal production in the province. The abundance of grassland in Alfonso Lista and Aguinaldo offers a good opportunity for cattle raising. Data show that respondents raise animals ranging from native chickens, pigs, ducks, goats, cattle and carabao but only on a small scale ranging from 5–20 heads that are basically for family consumption. Commercial raising of animals is an adaptation measure to move away from the monocrop farming of rice and corn. Scarcity of animals in the community is a good market opportunity considering the urgent need when these animals are used in family celebrations and the practice of traditional rituals. Organic native pigs and chickens are highly in demand as well because of their palatability and their being free from inorganic substances ideal food for health conscious consumers.

Multiple Cropping and not Mono Cropping Crop diversification is highly possible in the province evidenced by the total flora and fauna species identified. The ambient temperature ranging from 16 to 20 degrees celcius all throughout the year except for Alfonso Lista and the abundance of water for irrigation offers a good opportunity for vegetable production. Kiangan has gone on a commercial vegetable production supplying cabbage and beans in Nueva Vizcaya. However, the maintenance of the rice terraces which is an inheritance and a traditional landscape of the province tied them with native rice growing. Vegetables like winged beans are planted commercially on the dikes of the terraces. After harvest, the planting of vegetables like cabbage, pechay, spring onions in a mound made called “pinkol” at the middle of the rice paddies is ideal for multiple farming practice. This must be enhanced by training and assistance hence, a good adaptation practice. 71


Fish Production as other Source of Income (Tilapia, rice eel, mudfish, and panggasius) Inland fish raising of tilapia and panggasius is a growing entrepreneurial endeavor in the province. However this is only true in the low elevation areas of Alfonso Lista and Lamut. High elevation areas however could raise tilapia, mudfish and rice eel which thrive in the cool waters just like the case of Mayoyao. In Alfonso Lista fish farmers grow their fish in fish cages particularly in the Magat Dam. In other places water impoundment called fish ponds were constructed. The abundant water either from creeks and rivers or from the irrigation canals are the sources of free flowing water for the ponds. The data obtained from Mayoyao and A. Lista shows that fish raisers mostly are mostly engaged in raising only once a year with fish yields from 500 to 5,000 kilos. Only if the number of cropping is increased will the fish yield double then fish farming is an adaptation option. Practice of Sloping Agricultural Land Technology (SALT) This farm practice originated in the province since the time when the rice terraces were made by the Ifugao ancestors. Terracing is the ultimate goal of the SALT and is more appropriate on sloping areas like the province with slope steep mostly from 15-30%. The practice of the technology will result to crop diversification in the farm as it enables the planting of several crops which would augment income from the main crop. The practice of establishing contour lines and planting alley crops is very appropriate in steep and rolling lands to conserve soil fertility and minimize soil erosion. Practice of Organic Farming Rice farming in the terraces of Ifugao is basically producing organic rice, using traditional seeds for planting, relying on compost and green manuring for fertilizer, and zero use of inorganic pesticides. Improvement of such practice to increase farm yield at low cost and the produce to be sold at higher price is an adaptation measure to climate change since these are organic products Awareness to Environmental Changes Advocating awareness of environmental changes is an important habit the residents must possess; taking abreast of available sources of weather forecast from radio, television, and newspapers would avoid untoward eventualities in the workplace. Knowledge on the readings and interpretations of weather data obtained from the Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) installed on sites are tools needed to avoid damage from environmental changes. The 72


data on vulnerability shows that sloping and steeper areas with less vegetative cover are more vulnerable to soil erosion. Changes on Farming Practices The need to adapt farming practices to the changes in climate is a must and is inevitable. The existing planting calendar is no longer reliable since the change in climate is highly unpredictable. Some of the recommendations of the respondents to adapt to climate changes include, planting early to cope with price changes. Farmers observed that those who harvest first and market their product before the peak harvest are those that command the better market price as prices starts to decrease day by day as supply increases. Synchronized planting in clusters is likewise recommended to disperse the damage caused by the increasing plant pests and diseases.

Planting when localized weather is favorable disregarding the

planting calendar is one adaption measure practiced by the corn farmers of Alfonso Lista. Thus corn raising is observed at various stages all throughout the year. Cooperation among Residents One good and outstanding practice observed among the residents in the sites is their strong cooperation and assistance to one another. They have organized cooperatives to support them financially on farm needs. They strongly support their group leaders and elders providing them vantage bargaining power to any external group. Residents are trying to increase their source of livelihood. Data shows that 74% of the respondents are farmers; the remaining 26% are engaged in non farming livelihood that is supportive to the needs of the farmers. Livelihood style of the residents is likewise changing from mere producer and consumer to become an entrepreneur. Evidence to this is their seeking financial assistance from LGU, GOs and NGOs for training, loan and technical know-how in their livelihood be it agriculture, commerce and industry.

73


SUMMARY OF FINDINGS BIODIVERSITY AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION Macro Floral Biodiversity of Pilot Sites In Ifugao 1. Survey of macro flora species revealed 70 families 131 genera and 216 species. Of the 216 species, 191 species were trees and shrubs, 6 species were palm and palm-like, 11 species of ferns, and 9 species of grasses, herbs and vines. The results imply that forest areas in Ifugao are still rich in floral diversity and serve as a vital resource for in situ and probably ex situ biodiversity conservation in the province and the region while adapting and mitigating climate change. 2. Of the 191 species of tree and shrubs Namnama, Alfonso Lista that has the lowest elevation showed the highest species richness or number of species (89) followed by Nagacadan, Kiangan and Bato-Alatbang, Mayoyao with 86 and 74 species, respectively which could be attributed to its lower elevation and warmer climate that is favorable to the growth of more species. The results imply that plant species are adaptable to certain area or elevation and thus it is important to consider site adaptability of plants when used as planting material. It also suggests that it is much safer to use plant species found in the locality as planting material rather than exotic species. 3. Species density is highest in Nagacadan, Kiangan with medium elevation followed by Namnama, A. Lista (low elevation) and Bato-Alatbang, Mayoyao (high elevation) which can be explained by the “muyong” system of forest ownership and management widely practiced in the area. “Muyong” or private woodlot owners ensure that their respective “muyong” are adequately stocked with trees, shrubs and other perceived important plant species. Land tenure instrument is thus an important incentive in the proper management of fragile forest ecosystems as in the case of Ifugao. 4. Species with high importance values include Lithocarpus ovalis, Dysoxylum arborescens, Laportea sp. and Canarium asperum. These species are recommended to be used for assisted natural regeneration of forest areas where the species are found as a means of mitigating climate change. 5. Species similarity indices are relatively low in which only 10 species are common to the three sites and 32 out of 191 species can be found in two of the three barangays. It further revealed that species found in Kiangan are more similar to species found in Mayoyao than they are compared to Alfonso Lista which could be explained by the 74


lower difference in elevation (313m) compared to A. Lista (>500m). The findings support further the use of indigenous species found in the locality as planting materials and species which are adapted to wide range of elevation were identified. 6.

Ethno-botany survey of the communities revealed 36 food plants, 30 species of medicinal/pesticidal plants, 26 species with sociocultural importance, and 121 tree species with economic importance such as: species use for housing construction (67), handicrafts (53), firewood (110), lumber (53), furniture (35), charcoal (51), fence (16) and source of fiber (5). Floral species with socioeconomic importance are therefore available in the area that can be used to develop potential sustainable livelihood options as additional sources of income to community members and as climate change adaptation measure.

7. Local threats to floral biodiversity include continued utilization of resources, slash and burn agriculture, forest burning, limited capabilities of barangay local government, and lack of sustainable livelihood and additional sources of income leading to dependence of some community members to natural resources. Sustainable livelihood options and additional sources of income should be designed and implemented. 8. Potential sustainable livelihood options that would promote biodiversity conservation while mitigating and adapting to climate change were identified to include: seedling production of fast growing indigenous tree species for assisted natural regeneration for climate change mitigation, and agroforestry that involves organic farming of wild food vegetables as cash crops and multistory agro forestry of tree species with economic value as long term crops as climate change adaptation measures.

Macro Faunal Biodiversity of Pilot Sites in Ifugao 1. There were 57 bird species, 8 mammal species, 5 species of amphibians and 9 species of reptiles recorded from survey results conducted in Nagacadan, Kiangan, Bato-Alatbang, Mayoyao, and Namnama, A Lista, in Ifugao province. Sixteen (16) out of 35 (46%) bird species identified are endemic to the Philippines. Eight (8) species of birds are included in the IUCN Red List Category, one (1) Vulnerable and seven (7) are considered nearly threatened. Four species of mammals and two reptile species recorded are endemic to the Philippines. 2. Highest number of faunal species was recorded in Nagacadan, Kiangan, Ifugao which could be attributed to the good forest cover and presence of diverse fruit-bearing trees 75


in the area favoring the presence of faunal species. The findings imply that good forest vegetation cover is vital in supporting wildlife population suggesting a need to rehabilitate the denuded forest areas in the province not only to support wildlife conservation but to mitigate climate change. 3. Species similarity between inventory sites is relatively low. The difference in terms of degree of disturbance, elevation and habitat types, and type of vegetation present in each area could explain the low similarities between barangays. Nagacadan forest with a mean elevation of 947 m above sea level (asl) is between low and high elevation with wider forest of good vegetation compared to the other two barangays. The forest of Bato-Alatbang, Mayoyao is considered of high elevation (1292m asl) and may support other species of birds. Namnama on the other hand with the lowest elevation of 369 had only several hectares of remaining secondary forest which may support avian species that thrive on narrow habitat. Namnama however, had wide grassland area and a good river which is expected to support other kinds of birds compared to the other two barangays. This factor could explain its low similarity compared to the other barangays. 4. Faunal species population is decreasing and the rate of decrease is increasing. Faunal biodiversity loss is aggravated by climate changes like prolonged drought which makes the forest areas susceptible to forest burning. Local threats to faunal biodiversity loss include hunting for food and market, habitat destruction or combination of both. The decline in population of large-size fauna is being aggravated by the use of air rifle, and bird nets that trap all kinds and all sizes. There is therefore an urgent need to plan and implement measures to reduce if not totally halt the loss of faunal biodiversity. 5. Any biodiversity conservation measure that can also mitigate climate to be implemented must integrate economically viable and socially acceptable livelihood alternatives for the local communities in order to lessen their dependence on their floral and faunal resources. It should also consider the concept of allowing the utilization of resources without depleting their natural population. That is, the use of biological resources for sustainable livelihood should at the same time serve as an in situ and/or ex situ conservation strategy for the conservation of the remaining biodiversity in various ecosystems.

76


Water Analysis 1. Eight (8) important creeks were identified in the pilot sites. Nungawa creek in Nagacadan, Kiangan drains the highest quantity of water at 0.3455 m3/sec and can irrigate 230.30 hectares of land. This is followed by Mabanutan creek that drains about 0.1013 m3/sec of water. The other creeks drain less than 0.1 m3/sec of water. The volume of water flowing from creeks is highest in Nagacadan compared to the other barangays which can be explained by relatively intact forest vegetation as its watershed. 2. Water quality analysis reveals that the water samples from the creeks has normal Ph level except for Mabanutan creek in Namnama, Alfonso Lista which is slightly alkaline (Ph is 8) but does not adversely affect growth, development and reproduction of crops and fresh water fish species. 3. The level of ammonia in all creeks ranges from 0.2 to 0.4 which is still on the ideal range for most plants and animals. Soil Analysis 1.The soil series found in barangay Bato-Alatbang, Mayoyao Clay Loam and Undifferentiated Mountain Soil while barangay Nagacadan soils were classified as Longa Silty Clay Loam and Undifferentiated Mountain Soil. Barangay Namnama land area was classified as Santa Maria Soil Series while soil from barangay Viewpoint remains undifferentiated. 2. The soil Ph of samples from grassland areas in barangays Namnama and BatoAlatbang were strongly acidic while those from barangay Nagacadan showed medium acidity. Low soil organic matter content was found from grassland in barangay Namnama while medium OM contents were recorded from barangay Nagacadan and BatoAlatbang. 3. The soil Ph of samples from forest areas in barangays Namnama and Bato-Alatbang were strongly acidic Ph while those from barangay Nagacadan showed slightly acidic Ph. All soil samples from the forest areas of the three barangays showed medium organic matter content. 4. Most of the soil samples from the transected agricultural lands are within the optimal Ph range for rice production which is 5.5-7.5. For the organic matter content most of the transected agricultural lands (rice fields) are low to medium and the total nitrogen content was low to very low. 77


SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERIZATION Respondents Demographic Profile 1. Majority of the respondents are females with 291 or 50.17 % than males with 289 or 49.83 % where most of them are married with 427 or 73.62%. Only 138 or 23.79% of the respondents were single while there are only 2 or 0.35% who were separated. 2. Most of the respondents are elementary undergraduates with 122 or 21.03% and there is only 1 respondent who finished postgraduate studies. Thus the chance of shifting from farming to attractive job may not be possible because of the low level of educational attainment of the respondents. 3. Majority of the respondents from Namnama, Viewpoint and Nagacadan were Roman Catholic with 276 or 47.59% while Born Again Christians dominate Barangay BatoAlatbang. 4. Ilocano dominates all other tribes present in Barangay Namnama with 127 or 74.71 % as shown in while Tuwali recorded the largest number of respondents in Viewpoint and Nagacadan

with 235 or 40.52%. However, Ayangan tribe seems to be most

numbered respondents in Bato-Alatbang of Mayoyao 116 or 96.67%. 5. As for annual income, majority of the respondents are within the poverty level with an annual income of PhP 15,000 to 30,000 or with a monthly earning of PhP1,500 to 2,500. Only one respondent had an annual income of PhP 250,000 to 300,000. Socio Related Factors 1. The major source of potable water of the respondents from Namnama which is low elevation area come from deep wells while Barangays Nagacadan, Viewpoint and Bato-Alatbang which have medium and high elevation area use water that come from natural springs. 2. Majority of the respondents from the Barangays Viewpoint, Nagacadan and Bato Alatbang have semi permanent houses and most of them claimed that they owned their houses as discussed in the key informant interviews conducted. The walls of the houses are made of wooden or bamboo walls with galvanized roofing. While respondents from Barangay Namnama have equal distribution for temporary, semi permanent and permanent shelter. 3. Majority of the houses of the respondents from Namnama, Viewpoint, Nagacadan and Bato-Alatbang have electricity installed in their dwellings. Thus with the 78


presence of electricity, it follows that the respondents have different appliances in their homes. The most common appliance the respondents have is the radio since even the house where there is no installed electricity installed can use one that is battery operated. Television is common for the houses with electricity. Refrigerators and electric fans are also common in Barangay Namnama unlike the three other municipalities due to higher temperature and warm weather condition of the place. 4. Majority of the respondents from the selected barangays use cellular phones as a means of communication. This can be attributed to the presence of cellular sites in all the municipalities. 5. Tricycle is the main transportation of the respondents from Barangays Namnama while the common transportation for Barangays Viewpoint and Bato-Alatbang are jeepney and buses. 6. Relaxation after a hard day work is important thus majority of the respondents from pilot barangays watch television and listen to drama from their radio. 7. Sports can be an activity to improve the camaraderie of farmers, however only few respondents showed interest in sports. The respondents from Namnama showed interest in volleyball and chess while the respondents in Viewpoint are involved in basketball and chess. Meanwhile, the respondents from Nagacadan and BatoAlatbang showed interest in volleyball. 8. It can be gleaned from the profile of the four barangays that most belong to Roman Catholic, Pentecostal or Protestant where Bible studies and prayer meetings were usually conducted. The results showed that the respondents from the pilot barangays are inclined to participate in religious activities in their community. Economic Related Factors 1. As to the crops planted in the selected barangays, intensive corn production is done in Barangay Namnama because it is also suited to the climate of the area. On the other hand Barangays Viewpoint, Nagacadan and Bato-Alatbang grow native rice. Root crops like â&#x20AC;&#x153;taruâ&#x20AC;? and sweet potato are planted as secondary commodity in the four barangays.

79


2. Fruits raised in the selected barangays are generally for home consumption and areplanted near the houses of the residents. Banana is the main fruit raised in the pilot sites with 7.58%, Mango was also observed in Namnama and Bato-Alatbang, while some respondents from Kiangan raise rattan fruit known as “Littuko” and pomelo. Betel nut or also known in the local dialect as “moma” was observed to be planted in all four barangays as the betel nut is considered important since this fruit is part of the Ifugao culture. 3. Raising of animals is also practiced in the selected barangays to augment their income. Native chicken and native pigs were raised to be used in cultural rituals. Animals like hybrid swine, Muscovy ducks, goat, broiler, turkey and cattle are raised sparingly to augment the meager income of the respondents. 4.

Barangays Namnama and Bato-Alatbang are engaged in inland fish production where majority of them raise tilapia. However, Barangay Namnama raised other species like panggasius and other fast growing species.

5.

Farm equipment generally make farmers work easier thus in Barangay Namnama the equipment and machineries used by the farmers are tractor, rice and corn thresher while, Bato-Alatbang, Nagacadan and Viewpoint respondents used shovel, rake and bolo in land preparation.

6. In terms of government support that can can empower the farmers and fisher folks, it appears that only the respondents from Barangays Namnama and BatoAlatbang received seeds subsidy and availed of fertilizer subsidy. AGRI-LIVELIHOOD PROFILING 1. The result indicates that majority of respondents in the four pilot barangays are engaged in agriculture livelihood projects. However some of the respondents engaged in wood carving, weaving and other activities to augment their income. 2. Majority of the respondents choose to engage in these livelihood activities since they believe that it generates income. Some also reasoned out that their product is easier to market and the project is easier to manage. While others, consider as an alternative source of income in times of crisis. 3. These livelihood activities were mostly funded by the respondents themselves or with the help of their family members. These shows the most respondents from the pilot

80


barangays do not receive full support from the government. Only few respondents opted to avail loan from the government or private agencies via credit. 4. As for the mode of payment chosen by the respondents, it usually varies in the different barangays. Majority of the respondents from Barangays Namnama, Viewpoint and Bato-Alatbang prefer to pay their loan for one year to pay amortized equally. On the other hand, majority of respondents from Nagacadan choose to pay their loan after harvesting crops or after selling animals raised. AGRI-LIVELIHOOD PROFILING 1. Fifty seven percent of the land area of Barangay Namnama falls under the medium vulnerability index with flooding as the possible problem in the area. 2. Seventy nine percent of the Barangay Nagacadan land area falls under low vulnerability index. 3. Fifty five percent of the land area of Barangay Viewpoint was found to be under the medium vulnerability category while 44% fell under the high vulnerability category. 4. Eighty four percent of the land area of Barangay Bato-Alatbang is highly vulnerable to climate change hazard particularly to rainfall-induced landslide. LOCAL KNOWLEDGE ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE Observed Effects of Climate Change 1. Majority of the respondents in the pilot sites observed that the effect of climate change to agriculture were food shortage in rice and unstable of prices of agricultural products. 2. In terms of the effect to health condition, respondents from the selected barangays noted that with erratic changes in weather cough, and colds frequently occur as well as the occurrence of skin diseases. 3. As for the water resource, majority of the respondents from the selected barangays said that with the climatic changes the potential water sources are inadequate to sustain agricultural productivity and source of potable water supply becomes scarce. 4. The respondents from the selected barangays agreed that observed effects for species and natural resources was the occurrence of more pests and diseases in crops and animals. The long wet season is favorable for the occurrence of diseases while the long dry season can affect water supply. 81


5. Flash floods and soil erosion were observed in the pilot barangays as effects of the changing weather conditions to forest and natural resources. This is brought about by the practice of cutting trees to be used for wood carvings and burning of forest as part of the kaingin practices of farmers. 6. The effect of climate change on fisheries is more evident in Barangay Namnama. Majority of those who are engaged in aquaculture believed that the increase in temperature of water affects the productivity of marine ecosystem. Practices Adopted to Overcome the Effects of Climate Change 1. To mitigate the effects of climate change in agriculture, majority of the respondents from the pilot sites established alternative source of water like shallow water pump irrigation and small water impounding to sustain agriculture production. 2. Preventive measures are important to health when there is a sudden change in climate. Majority of respondents in the pilot sites avoid using contaminated water and instead try to eat more fruits to boost their immune system. Deep wells were also established as a safer source of potable water since the natural spring dries up especially during summer months. 3. As for water resource, the respondents from the pilot barangays usually established deep wells, tapped natural springs and participated in watershed development to ensure availability of water for irrigating their water. Purified water from refilling station is also used for domestic purposes when safe potable water is not available. 4. The judicious use of the chemical was also recommended to maintain plant and animal species and the natural resources like as the soil. 5. In term of species and natural resources, majority of the respondents from the pilot felt the need to protect the forest by stopping the practice of burning and cutting of trees and to participate in restoring the denuded forest. 6. Majority of the respondents from the pilot municipalities usually establish water pump irrigation to sustain their aquaculture projects and it is imperative for the benefit of the consumer to ban the sale of dead fish.

82


REFERENCES Alcala, A.C. 1986. Guide to Philippine Flora and Fauna: Amphibians and Reptiles. University of the Philippines. 10:1-195. Bantayan, N. C., M.M. Calderon, J.T. Dizon, A.J.U. Sajise, M.G. Salvador. 2009. CommunityBased Mapping of the Rice Terraces Inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List (A component study of the project entitled “Towards the Development of a Sustainable Financing Mechanism for the Conservation of the Ifugao Rice Terraces”). Available online at: http://www.eepsea.org. Cruz, R.V.O. and N.C. Bantayan. 2009. Draft GIS Atlas for the Project “Mainstreaming Adaptation in the Philippines and Asia Pacific”. Unpublished PowerPoint presentation presented during a workshop on November 25, 2009 at CAR DENR Regional Office, Baguio City. Culhi, L.M, 2009. Native Rice Production Practices in Ifugao. The Upland Farm Journal. January 2009 Issue. Vol. XVIII, No.1 Daniels, Jose G. 2008. Solid Waste Management Practices of Implementers in the Province of Ifugao. Unpublished Dissertation. NVSU, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya. FAO-GIAHS, 2009. Ifugao Rice Terraces (Philippines) - Detailed Information. http://www.fao.org/nr/giahs/pilot-systems/pilot/ifugao-rice-terraces/ifugao-rice-terracesdetailed/en/ Lannaon, W.J. 2007. Characterization of Ifugao Native Pigs. The Upland Farm Journal. January-December Issue. Vol. XVII, No.1 Patindol, T.A.,2003. Faunal Inventory of Bulosao Watershed forest Reserve, Lawaan, Eastern Samar, Philippines. Pramojanee, P., C. Tanabud, C. Yongachalerchai and C. Navanugraha. 2001. An Application of GIS for Mapping of Flood Hazard and Risk Area in Nakorn Sri Thammarat Province, South of Thailand. URL: http://www.itc.nl/ha2/suslup/Thema5/198/198.pdf (accessed June 2010). Ponnamperuma, M. E. and Bandyopahya, A. K. 1989. Soil Salinity as a Constraint on Food Production in Humid Tropics. IRRI, Los Baños Rabor, D.S. 1986. Guide to Philippine Flora and Fauna: Birds and Mammals. University of the Philippines. 2:1-284 Rene, B. and L. Sutcliffe, 2005. Birding Batad, Banaue, Ifugao. www.birdwatch.ph/html/trip/trip20050507.html Rondolo, M. 2000. The Changing Ifugao Woodlots: its Implications for Indigenous Plant Knowledge and Biodiversity. Ph.D. dissertation, Australian National University. Canberra, Australia. 83


Razal, R.A. and Palijon, P.M.2009. Non-wood Forest Product of th Philippines. UPLB Colleges of Forestry and Natural Resources, College, Laguna 4031 Romero, M.R., Snelder D., Van der Zanden, E.H. and Maguilin G. 2009. Surviving the Floods: Coping Mechanisms of Households in a Continuing Exposure to Floods in Cagayan Valley, Philippines. In. Changing Landscapes. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Environment and Development. Eds. Masipique単a, A.B., Van Weerd, M. and Udto, R.G. CVPED, 2009. Selliers, J. Ed.,2005. Facts on Biodiversity. www.millenniumassessment.org Taguiling, N. K., 2009. The Taxonomy of Macro Floral Resources in the Rice Terraces Watersheds. Terminal Report. ISCAF Research, Development and Training. Urlanda, R. Jan.2008. Monthly Agriculture Magazine. Vol.XII.No.1. P.O.Box Manila bulletin Building Murrala Corner Recoletos, Intramuros, and Manila. Yalcin, G. and Z. Akyurek. 2004. Analysing Flood Vulnerable Areas with Multicriteria Evaluation. International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Paper. XXth ISPRS Congress, 12-23, Istanbul, Turkey.

84


ANNEXES Annex 1: Location Map of the Selected Barangays.

85


Annex 2: Sample Survey Questionare

Interview Schedule Respondent No. ___________________________

Date__________________

Interviewer________________________________

Barangay: _____________

Municipality:_______________________________ PART I. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE 1. Age: (

)

18-28 years old

(

)

29-38 years old

(

)

39 to 48 years old

(

)

59 years old above

(

)

Male

2. Sex: (

)

Female

3. Civil Status: ( ) Single

( ) Married

( ) widow/wer

( ) Separated

4. Religion: ( ) Roman Catholic

( ) Methodist

( ) Iglesia Ni Cristo

( ) Jehovaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;sWitnesses

( ) others please specify____________________________________________ 5. Tribal Affiliation: ( ) Tuwali

( ) Ayangan ( ) Kalanguya

( ) Gaddang

( ) Ilocano

( ) Others, please specify______________

6. Educational Attainment ( )

No formal schooling

( )

Elementary undergraduate

( )

Elementary Graduate

( )

Secondary undergraduate

( )

Secondary Graduate

( )

College Undergraduate:

( )

College Graduate: Course ________________ Year Graduated _________

( )

Others pls. specify:____________________________________________

Course_______________Year: ____________

86


7. Number of Children by sex, age, educational attainment and employment, if any: Children

No. of Children

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 9-10 11-12

Male

Female

Educational Attainment

Employment

8. Source of Income: (

)

Salary

(

)

Daily Wage

(

)

Farming

(

)

Business

9. Employment Type: ( )

Employed

(

)

Resigned/Retired

( )

Unemployed

(

)

Returning OFW

( )

Displaced Worker

(

)

Others, pls. specify

( )

Self-employed

__________________

10. Employment Status ( )

Contractual

(

)

Casual

( )

Job Order

(

)

Temporary

( )

Permanent

(

)

Others, pls. specify _______________

(

)

Government employee

(

)

Private Employee

PART II ECONOMIC RELATED FACTOR 1. What occupation are you engaged in? ( )

Farming(crops/animals)

( )

Carpentry

( )

Carver

( )

Fishing(fishpond, fish cage)

( )

Others please specify: _________________________________________

2. How much annual income do you earn? ( )

15,000 to 30,000

( )

200,000 to 250,000

( )

30,000 to 45,000

( )

250,000 to 300,000

( )

45,000 to 60,000

( )

300,000 & Above

( )

100,000 to 150,000

( )

150,000 to 200,000 87


3. If you are engaged in farming, what is the size of your farm lot? Particulars

Low Elevation Hectares Hectares Hectares Hectares

Medium Elevation Sq m Sq m Sq m Sq m

High Elevation Sq m Sq m Sq m Sq m

4. What are the kinds of crops raised the size of farm utilized and the yield per cropping. Crop Rice Corn Vegetables Root crops Tobacco Coffee Others specify:

Yield

Season

Low

Medium

High

5. What are the fruit trees raised and the yield obtained per harvest? Kinds of fruit trees Banana Mango Rattan fruit Others specify:

Yield(kg)

Income(P)

Low

Medium

High

6. What are the kinds of livestock raised, the size and income obtained? Animals raised

Income Obtained

Low Elev.

Medium Elev.

High Elev.

Swine Native Pig Goat Cattle Carabao Native Chicken Broiler Chicken Others please specify 7. What are the kinds of fish raised, size and income obtained? Kinds of aquatic raised Tilapia Carp Panggasius Jojo fish Hito Others please specify:

life Yield(kg) Income(P)

Low

Medium

High

88


8. What are the farm equipment and machineries do you use in the farm? ( )

Four wheel tractor

( )

Plow

( )

Hand tractor

( )

Harrow

( )

Rice and Corn thresher

( )

others, please specify:

( )

Rice and Corn mill

_________________________

9. What services do you receive/avail from the Municipal Agriculture Office/different government line agencies? ( ) Material support: _____ Seed Subsidy _____ Fertilizer ( ) Machineries/Infrastructure ______ Tractor Services ______ Solar Drier ______ Small Water Impounding Project/Irrigation ( ) Technical support ______ Production guides for agriculture ______ Trainings/seminars (

) Others pls. specify ________________________________________________

PART III. SOCIO RELATED PROFILE A. Health and Nutrition 1. When you and your family needed medical assistance, what measures did you undertake ( ) Consulted a quack doctor or herbolaryo? ( ) brought him/her to the nearest barangay health center? ( ) Consulted a physician in the nearest clinic or hospital? ( ) Brought him/her in to the medical specialist outside community? 2. How many meals a day do you take? ( )

one meal a day

( )

two meals a day

( )

three meals a day

3. What is the source of your potable water supply? ( )

Spring

( )

Deep well 89


( )

Gravity or Spring development

( )

Shallow wells

( )

Delivered by mobile tankers

( )

Water refilling stations

( )

Others, pls. specify _____________________________________________

B. Shelter 1. What type of house/dwelling, do you own? ( )Temporary (cogon//nipa/bamboo roofing and walls) ( )Semi permanent (wooden/bamboo walls with galvanized roofing) ( )Permanent (galvanized roofingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s with hollowblock walls with cemented floors) 2. Is your household connected with electricity? _____ Yes _____ No. If yes, please state the average monthly bill ___ P100-P200 ___ P201-300 _____ P301 & above C. Household Appliances 1. Which of the following household appliances do you own? ( )

radio/Casette Player

( )

bread toaster

( )

Television

( )

Piano

( )

DVD player

( )

Pressure Cooker

( )

refrigerator

( )

Food Processor

( )

Gas range

( )

Computer

( )

washing machine

( )

Others please specify:

( )

Electric Fan

____________________________

2. What communication facilities do you own and household members used? ( )

Cellular Phone

_____ Smart ____ Globe _____ Sun Cellular ____ Others

( )

Radio Icom

( )

Others, please specify ________________________________________

D. Which of the following do you use as your means of transportation? (

)

Public utility jeepney

(

)

Public utility bus

(

)

Public tricycle

(

)

Owned motorcycle

(

)

Owned jeepney

(

)

Others, pls. specify ____________________________________________ 90


E. How many of your children were in the school? ( )

Not studying

( )

Elementary undergraduate

( )

Elementary graduate

( )

Secondary undergraduate

( )

Secondary graduate

( )

College undergraduate

( )

College graduate

Course: __________________ Year: __________

Course: _________________Year Graduated: _____

F. Recreation and sports 1. What are your leisure activities? ( )

Cockfighting

( )

Watching TV shows

( )

Playing cards

( )

Listening to radio drama

( )

Internet gaming

( )

Engaged in Jueteng

( )

Others please specify; __________________________________________

2. What are your sports activities? ( )

bultong/boxing

( )

basketball

( )

volleyball

( )

chess

( )

basketball

(

others please specify: ___________________

)

G. What activities and programs are you involved in the community? ( )

Prayer meetings

( )

Bible study

( )

Cooperatives

( )

Tree planting

( )

Social works (helping the needy sick)

( )

NGO member/officer

( )

Others please specify: __________________________________________

PART IV. LIVELIHOOD 1. Do you have existing livelihood projects? If YES, what? ( )

food processing

( )

baking

( )

meat & fish processing

( )

sewing

( )

cogon weaving

( )

buy and sell of agri-products

( )

goat raising

( )

swine raising

( )

tilapia raising

( )

Bigasan project

( )

native attire weaving

( )

tissue cultured banana

( )

Mushroom production (volvariellavolvacea)

( )

Others, please specify _____________________________________ 91


2. When did you avail/start this livelihood project? ( )

2000-2005

( )

2006-2010

( )

Others, please specify _____________________________________

3. Who or what agency funded your livelihood project? How much? ( )

LGU

- PhP____________________________________________

( )

Congressional â&#x20AC;&#x201C; PhP____________________________________

( )

Others, pls. specify ______________________________________

4. What is/are your reason/s for choosing this kind of livelihood project? ( )

easier to manage

( )

marketing is not a problem

( )

income-generating

( )

alternative source of income in times of crisis (e.g. el nino)

( )

environment-friendly

( )

others, pls. specify ________________________________________

5. What type of livelihood assistance have you availed? ( )

Loan

( )

Grant

( )

Training

( )

Others, pls. specify _______________________________________

6. Have you availed any of the livelihood training? If yes, what training in particular? (

)

Handicraft making (Zero waste management)

(

)

Mushroom production

(

)

Goat, swine, panggasius and tilapia raising

(

)

Food processing

(

)

tissue cultured banana planting

(

)

Others, pls. specify ________________________________________

7. If the assistance is loaned, what is the loan amortization scheme agreed? ( )

One year to pay amortized equally

( )

Two years to pay amortized equally

( )

Others, pls. specify

92


8. Prior to the release of your applied loan for agricultural-related purposes, what are the requirements asked of you by your funding agency/person? ( )

Provision of land and labor as equity

( )

Provide land, housing and labor as equity

( )

Secure environment compliance report

( )

Practice zero waste management practices

( )

Conversion of waste materials to organic fertilizers

( )

Planting of fruit trees within the vicinity to the project like piggery

9. What did you observe as to the effect of CLIMATE CHANGE as to : AGRICULTURE ( )

food shortage in rice

( )

unstable prices of agricultural product

( )

Stunted growth of crops and livestock

( )

Higher mortality rate in livestock, fisheries and force majeure of crops

( )

Higher production input

( )

Poorer quality of agricultural produce

( )

Lesser income due to high input and low output

( )

Others, please specify _________________________________________

HEALTH ( )

Occurrence of skin diseases

( )

Frequent cough and colds

( )

Heat stroke causing death of old age

( )

Loss vowel movement due to water contamination

( )

Others, please specify __________________________________________

WATER RESOURCE ( )

Scarcity of potable water supply

( )

Inadequacy of potential water sources to sustain agricultural productivity

( )

There is unpredictable weather condition that destroys cropping pattern

( )

Others, please specify _________________________________________

SPECIES AND NATURAL AREAS ( )

Occurrence of more pests and diseases to plants e.g. Corn Plant hopper

( )

Natural habitat of pests and diseases are destroyed by wild fires thus, they destroy crops

( )

Excessive use of poisonous materials in combating pests and diseases kills 93


friendly insects/vectors which hinders there multiplication ( )

Excessive use of pre-emergence herbicides causes soil erosion during heavy down pour of rain

( )

Others, please specify _________________________________________

FOREST AND NATURAL RESOURCES (

)

wild fire/burning of forest trees is very rampant

(

)

flush floods and soil erosion is very often

(

)

growths of trees newly planted are stunted

(

)

Others, please specify __________________________________________

FISHERIES (

)

It causes heat stroke and increases mortality

(

)

Extreme heat and cold causes occurrence of diseases

(

)

It affects marine ecosystem productivity

(

)

Low cost of produce due to earlier harvesting because ponds are dried up

(

)

Died fish are sold in the market which may cause illness to consumers

(

)

Others, please specify__________________________________________

10. What did you do to overcome the effects of climatic change? AGRICULTURE ( )

Established shallow water pump irrigation and small water impounding to sustain Agriculture productivity

( )

shifted to other livelihood activities with lesser risk to climate change

( )

Applied bioorganic activities with lesser risk to climate change

( )

Improved quality of produce through organic farming

( )

Others, please specify___________________________________________

HEALTH ( )

Avoid using contaminated water

( )

Eat more fruits rich in vitamin C as a preventive measure to cough and cold infection

( )

Planted more trees in the backyard to reduce the immediate impact of hot temperature

( )

Establish deep well and reduce taking water from the spring as source of potable water

( )

Others, please specify ________________________________________ 94


WATER RESOURCE ( )

Establish deep well and tap spring

( )

Brought purified water from refilling station for domestic use

( )

Participated in watershed development program to sustain agricultural productivity(like rivers, creeks and springs are dried up)

( )

Develop cropping system through trial and error practice

( )

Others, please specify___________________________________________

SPECIES AND NATURAL AREAS ( )

Break the cycle of pest and disease due to climate change

( )

Preserve the natural habitat of pest and diseases to balance the ecosystem

( )

Reduce the excessive use of pesticides in controlling pest and diseases

( )

Reduced the excessive use of pre-emergence herbicides that causes soil erosion during heavy pour of rain

( )

Others, please specify __________________________________________

FOREST AND NATURAL RESOURCES ( )

Promote the advocacy of not burning and illegal cutting of trees

( )

Participate in planting of more trees to restore rainforest

( )

Others, please specify ___________________________________________

FISHERIES ( )

Establish water pump irrigation

( )

Drain water and frequent change of water to the fish pond

( )

Planted aquatic plants useful for the marine animals

( )

Process the fish produce to improve the nutritive value and price of fish product

( )

Band the marketing of dead fish in the market to protect the safety of the consumers

( ) Others, please specify _________________________________________

95


Annex 3: Topographic Map of Barangay Namnama Alfonso, Lista, Ifugao.

96


Annex 4: Topographic Map of Barangay Nagacadan, Kiangan, Ifugao

Map Scale = 26,400 Map Scale = 26,400

97


Annex 5: Topographic Map of Barangay Viewpoint, Banaue, Ifugao.

Map Scale = 33,800

98


Annex 6: Topographic Map of Barangay Bato-Alatbang, Mayoyao, Ifugao.

Map Scale = 12,800

99


Annex 7: Slope Map of Barangay Namnama, Alfonso Lista, Ifugao.

Map Scale = 1:13,600

100


Annex 8: Slope Map of Barangay Nagacadan, Kiangan, Ifugao.

Map Scale = 26,400

101


Annex 9: Slope Map of Barangay Viewpoint, Banaue, Ifugao.

Map Scale = 33,800

102


Annex 10: Slope Map of Barangay Bato-Alatbang, Mayoyao, Ifugao.

Map Scale = 12,800

103


Annex 11: Soil Series Distribution of Barangay Namnama, Alfonso Lista, Ifugao

Map Scale = 1:13,600

104


Annex 12: Soil Series Distribution of Barangay Nagacadan, Kiangan, Ifugao

Map Scale = 26,400

105


Annex 13: Soil Series Distribution of Barangay Viewpoint, Banaue, Ifugao

Map Scale = 33,800

106


Annex 14: Soil Series Distribution of Barangay Bato-Alatbang, Mayoyao, Ifugao

Map Scale = 12,800

107


Annex 15: Land Use Map of Barangay Namnama, Alfonso Lista, Ifugao.

Map Scale = 1:13,600

108


Annex 16: Land Use Map of Barangay Nagacadan, Alfonso Lista, Ifugao.

109


Annex 17: Land Use Map of Barangay Viewpoint, Banaue, Ifugao.

Map Scale = 33,800

110


Annex 18: Land Use Map of Barangay Bato-Alatbang, Mayoyao, Ifugao.

Map Scale = 12,800

111


Annex 19. Master list of macroflora species found in Ifugao

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Local Name Ulahi Atingol (bl) Pangimbulawon Hana'-ti Poh-wi (bl) Langahinga Alim Alinaw Arnos Anga-ang Analdung Ngarusangis Kurdadannum Marasili Tobak Buhila (bl) Huyaput Apla Spotted leaf Atolba Kutbabangul Podpod Adawe Dir-an Balite Ihit Balakawon Falehangay Putukan Fuloh/Atingol (sl)

Common Name Alagasi Alagau-gubat Alas Alatin Albon Alilaua Alim Alinau Alnus Amamali Anabiong Aniatam-initlog Anongo Anot-ot Anubing Apaipai Apanang Aplas Arinaya Atalba Bagauak Bagnang- laparan Bakani Balakat Balete Baleteng linis Baliag/Phil. Maple Balinghasai Balitahan Baloiboi

Scientific Name Leucosyke capitellata (Poir.) Wedd. Premna integrifolia Blanco Micromelum curanii Elm. Deutzia pulchra Vid. Pittosporum ramosii Merr. Villebrunea trinervis Wedd. Mallotus multiglandulosus Hurus. Grevia setacea Merr. Alnus japonica Leea aculeata Blume Trema orientalis (L.) Blume Cleistanthus ovatus C. B. Rob. Turpinia ovalifolia Elm. Claoxylon purpureum Merr. Artocarpus ovata Blanco Canthuim subcapitatum (Merr.) Merr. Neotrewia cumingii Pax & K. Hoffm. Ficus irisana Elm. Syzygium ebaloii Merr. Viburnum luzonicum Rolfe Clerodendrum minahassae Binn. Glochidion gigantifolium (Vid.) Merr. Elaeocarpus argenteus Ziziphus talanai (Blanco) Merr. Ficus balete Merr. Ficus glaberima Blume Acer laurinum Hassk. Buchanania arborescens Blume Bridelia glauca Blume Baccaurea philippinensis Merr.

Family Name Urticaceae Verbenaceae Rutaceae Saxifragaceae Pittosporaceae Urticaceae Euphorbiaceae Tiliaceae Betulaceae Vitaceae Ulmaceae Euphorbiaceae Staphyleaceae Euphorbiaceae Moraceae Rubiaceae Euphorbiaceae Moraceae Myrtaceae Caprifoliaceae Verbenaceae Euphorbiaceae Elaeocarpaceae Rhamnaceae Moraceae Moraceae Aceraceae Anacardiaceae Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae 112


31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63

Hoghog Faloy Anitap (bl) Bangar Ludjungan Rafe Fallangfang (nt eaten) Balanti/Bfalanti Faluy (bl) Kunakun/Faluy (sl) Koloklong (bl) Bakallung Halong Alim (like) Alimit (like) Arusip Marabugnay Lobhatan (bl) Samak Anablon Duple/Dalayon Ngititan Bultik (orig) Busbusilak Palahipa Koloklong Layjon Payyukut Dao Dogwe Fugi Talanak Kala-otet

Balokbok--gulod Baluha Banato Bangar Banilad Basikong Bayangbong Bayanti Bayok Bayok-bayokan Bayoktoan Benguet Dungaw? Benguet pine Betis Betis Bignai- pogo Bignai-gubat Bigus-silangan Binunga Binungang-pula Bogaiat Bolong-eta Bultik Busbusilak Butli Curran lipote Dalunot Dalupang Dao Deguai Digeg Dungau Duyok-duyok

Symplocos luzonensis Rolfe Phyllanthus curanii Mallotus Philippinensis (Lam.) Muell.-Arg. Polyalthia elmeri Merr. Sterculia philippinensis Merr. Ficus botryocarpa Miq. Medenilla clementis Aglaia llanosiana C. DC. Pterospermum diversifolium Blume Pterospermum niveum Vid. Ardisia castaneifolia Mez Palquium sp. Pinus insularis Endl. Madhuca Betis (Blanco) Macbr. & Merr. Madhuca Betis (Blanco) Macbr. & Merr. Antidesma pentandrum (Blanco) Merr. Allophylus macrostachys Radlk. Goniothalamus trunciflorus Merr. Macaranga tanarius (l.) Muell.-Arg. Macaranga sinensis Garcinia rhizoporoides Elm. Diospyrus pilosanthera Blanco Syzygium santosii (Merr.) Merr. Ervatamia ecarinata (Merr.) Pich. Ficus gul Laut. & K. Schum. Syzygium curranii Pipturus arborescens (Link) C. B. Rob. Urena lobata Linn. Dracontomelon dao (Blanco) Merr. & Rolfe Sauraia bontocensis Merr. Memecylon lanceolatum Blanco Astronia williamsii Merr. Manilkara merillianna H. J. Lam

Symplocaceae Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae Annonaceae Sterculiaceae Moraceae Melastomataceae Meliaceae Sterculiaceae Sterculiaceae Myrsinaceae Sapotaceae Pinaceae Sapotaceae Sapotaceae Euphorbiaceae Sapindaceae Annonaceae Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae Guttiferae Ebenaceae Myrtaceae Apocynaceae Moraceae Myrtaceae Urticaceae Malvaceae Anacardiaceae Saururaceae Melastomataceae Melastomataceae Sapotaceae 113


64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96

Galiwgiwon Gatasan Kuriwit Lajo Luhung Alimit Halinghingon (sl) Almumuhung Liwliw Luwit Laglagim/Mamanmanuk Latbang Ba-e Laphi (like) Kape Pewe (2) O-chogoy Alinaw (like) Akikid Apatot (2) Tobak (1) Hawili Amagong Butbuta Aplit Hala-hala Buhakal Golden fruit Umug Balakawon (2) Dol-ak/Tungtungar Banaba Bini/Kalacheng

Galiguian Gatasan Guijo Gusokan- liitan Gutung Hagimit Halinghingon Hamindang Hauili Himamau Idog Is-is Is-is maya Itom-itom Kafe Kalapak Kalimug-usa Kalimutain Kalios Kalogkog Kalulot Kalumbaya Kamagong Kamaligi Kamanigum Kangai Kangko Katong-matsin Klamagan Kulilisiau Kurutan Kusibeng Lagong buhukan

Pavetta membranacea Blanco Garcinia venulosa (Blanco) Choisy Shorea guiso (Blanco) Blume Pavetta parvifolia Vid. Vaccinium cumingianum Vid. Ficus minahassae (Teijsm. & de Vr.) Miq. Eurya amplixicaulis Moore Macaranga bicolor Muell.--Arg. Ficus septica Burm. f. Dysoxylum octandrum (Blanco) Merr. Viburnum odoratissimum Ker-Gawl. Ficus ulmifolia Lam. Ficus sp. Diospyrus longiciliata Merr. Coffea arabica L. Ficus cumingii Var. worcesteri Corner Saurauia clementis Merr. Dysoxylum arborescens (Blume) Miq. Streblus asper Lour. Syzygium calcicola (Merr.) Merr. Artocarpus rubrovenia Warb. Elaeocarpus bontocensis Merr. Diospyros philippinensis (Desr.) Gurke Mussaenda macrophylla Wall. Abarema clypeariaKoaterm. forma prainiana (Merr.) Zanthoxylum ovicennae (Lam.) DC. Aphanamixis perrottetiana A. Juss. Chisocheton pentandrus (Blanco) Merr. Litsea quercoides Elm. Machilus philippinensis Merr. Linociera philippinensis Merr. Sapindus saponaria L.forma microcarpa Radlk. Pygeum sp.

Rubiaceae Guttiferae Dipterocarpaceae Rubiaceae Ericaceae Moraceae Theaceae Euphorbiaceae Moraceae Meliaceae Caprifoliaceae Moraceae Moraceae Ebenaceae Rubiaceae Moraceae Actinidiaceae Meliaceae Moraceae Myrtaceae Moraceae Elaeocarpaceae Ebenaceae Lauraceae Leguminosae Rutaceae Meliaceae Meliaceae Lauraceae Lauraceae Oleaceae Sapindaceae Amygdalaceae 114


97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129

Bultik (bl) Liho-lihod Kamiling Atu-ang Bulinayo Churnuwan Tikom Maragawed Marakape Kaklaang Marakaburaw Buhila 2 Bakuwog Butgi/Bfogtayyon Tabfangagon Bili/Bulon Bakan Mugmugog Amugawen Udyo Dalakan/Chala-an Gopgopak Apatot Niog-niogan Uhiyan (bl) Kantong Malabutnu/Maramangga Pamiklaten Koloklong (sl) Botoptok Tempo Pakak Gugu

Lamutong-linis Lanete Ligas Lipote Lipote Litok Mabalod Maikmo Malakape Malapinya Malarayap-kutab Malasaging Malasantol Malatungaw Malugai Mangosteen Marang Matang-hipon Molave Narra Nato Nigad Nino Niog-niogan Onaba Pagsahingin Pahutan Pamintaogen Pamutul Panakitin Puso-puso Rimas Sablot

Syzygium ecostulatum (Elm.) Merr. Wrightia laniti (Blanco) Merr. Semecarpus cuneiformis Blanco Syzygium polycephaloides (C. B. Rob.) Merr. Syzygium polycephaloides (C. B. Rob.) Merr. Glochidion mindorense C. B. Rob. Timonius arboreus Elm. Celtis luzonica Warb. Canthium dicoccum (Gaern.) Merr. Talauma angatensis (Blanco) F. -Vill. Severinia retusa (Merr.) Swingle Aglaia diffusa Merr. Sandoricum vidalii Merr. Calicarpa formosana Pometia pinnata Forst & Forst Garcinaia mangostana (Wild) Litsea perrottetii (Blume) F.-Vill. Breynia rhamnoides (Retz.) Muell.-Arg. Vitex parviflora Pterocarpus indicus Willd. Palaquium luzoniense (F.-Vill) Vid. Glochidion longistylum C. B. Rob. Morinda bracteata Roxb. Ficus pseudopalma Blanco Aphania philippinensis Radlk. Canarium asperum Benth. Mangifera altissima Blanco Calophyllum whitfordii Merr. Ardisia zambalensis Merr. Sterculia brevipetiolata Merr. Neolitsea Vidalii Merr. Artocarpus communis J.R. & G. Forst. Litsea glutinosa

Myrtaceae Apocynaceae Anacardiaceae Myrtaceae Myrtaceae Euphorbiaceae Rubiaceae Celtidaceae Rubiaceae Magnoliaceae Rutaceae Meliaceae Meliaceae Verbenaceae Sapindaceae Guttiferae Lauraceae Euphorbiaceae Verbenaceae Leguminosae Sapotaceae Euphorbiaceae Rubiaceae Moraceae Sapindaceae Burseraceae Anacardiaceae Euphorbiaceae Myrsinaceae Sterculiaceae Lauraceae Moraceae Lauraceae 115


130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162

Laphi Huka Ulatton Aliguy Kurdadannum (bl) Kurdadannum (ml) Fagwaloy Lupping/Loppeng Halinghingon (bl) Chaga Bangi Bunut Tampoy Pukag Tungtungar Labfoy Tindalo Tuwol Analtop Bfenor Apnit Jessa Uhiyan (sl) Tobak (like) Kalantas (like) Igwa Bfahog Pu-agon Palegonggong Halapadon Tungtungar (2) Fitugan Prickly stem

Sagot Salagong sibat Salimai-lakihan Salinggogon Sidi Sidi-sidi Siping Tabgun Tabsik Tabul Takipan Talisai-gubat Tampui Tan-ag Tanaua Tibig Tindalo Tuai Uisak Uyok White lauan White nato

Dasymaschalon oblongatum Merr. Wikstroemia lanceolata Merr. Helicia robusta (Roxb.) Blume Cratoxylum formosum Benth. & Hook. f. Evodia benguetensis Elm. Evodia dubia Merr. Cynometra warburgii Harms Ficus ruficaulis Merr. Eurya obovata Ficus benguetensis Merr. Caryota rumphiana . var. philippinensis Becc. Terminalia foetidissima Griff. Syzygium jambos (L.) Arst. Kleinhovia hospita L. Ehretia polyantha A. DC. (Merr.) Ficus nota Afzelia rhomboidea (Blanco) Vid. Bischofia javanica Blume Neonauclea media (Havil.) Merr. Saurauia elegans (Choisy) F.-Vill. Shorea contorta (Vid.) Merr. & Rolfe Pouteria macrantha (Merr.) Baehni Aphania sp. Artocarpus sp. Chisocheton sp. Clerodendron sp Cynometra sp. Dillenia sp Diospyros sp. Dyxoxylym sp. Ehretia sp. Elaeocarpus sp. Erythrina sp Merr.

Annonaceae Thymelaeaceae Proteaceae Guttiferae Rutaceae Rutaceae Leguminosae Moraceae Theaceae Moraceae Palmaceae Combretaceae Myrtaceae Sterculiaceae Ehretiaceae Moraceae Leguminosae Euphorbiaceae Rubiaceae Actinidiaceae Dipterocarpaceae Sapotaceae Sapindaceae Moraceae Meliaceae Lamiaceae Leguminosae Dilleniaceae Ebenaceae Meliaceae Ehretiaceae Elaeocarpaceae Fabaceae 116


163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184

Attabong Upah Alimit (sl) Lobhatan (like) Flower trees Lahi Palayon/Palajon Bolwang Lachao Olaggit Like Gmelina Fallangfang (eaten) Ananaseng Red petiol tree Leaf oblong pointed Atingol (sl) Lobhong Hangachan Anitap (sl) Muh-ning Parunapin Prickly trunk(young)

Ficus sp. Ficus sp. Ficus sp. Goniothalamus trunciflorus Merr. Laportea sp. Leucosyke sp. Lithocarpus sp. Macaranga sp. Maesa lacsa Maesa sp. Mallotus sp. Medenilla pendulla Mithrepora sp. Palaquium sp. Praravinia sp. Premna sp. Semecarpus sp. Symplocos sp. Syzygium sp. Syzygium sp. Syzygium sp. Ziziphus sp.

Moraceae Moraceae Moraceae Annonaceae Urticaceae Urticaceae Fagaceae Euphorbiaceae Myrsinaceae Myrsinaceae Euphorbiaceae Melastomataceae Anonaceae Sapotaceae Rubiaceae Verbenaceae Anacardiaceae Symplocaceae Myrtaceae Myrtaceae Myrtaceae Rhamnaceae

117


Annex 20. List of economically important plants in Ifugao No.

Local Name

Scientific Name

H

WC

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Adawe Akikid Aliguy/aliguyon Alim Alinaw Almumuhung Amagong Amugawon Anablon

K/M A A

K/M A A

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Analdung Analtop Anitap (bl) Apnit Arnos Arusip Atingol (bl) Attabung Atu-ang Ba-e Bakallung Bakan Bakuwog Balakawon

Elaeocarpus argenteus Streblus asper Cratoxylum formosum Mallotus multiglandulosus Grevia setacea Macaranga bicolor Diospyros philippinensis Vitex parviflora Macaranga Dipterocarpifolia Trema orientalis Neonaucles media Mallotus Philippinensis Pentacme contorta Alnus glutinosa Antidesma pentandrum Premna integrifolia Ficus sp. Syzygium polycephaloides

Litsea perrottetii Sandoricum vidalii Acer laurinum

FW

A A A/K A/M

Lumbe r

Fu

A

K/M A A M

A/K K A/K/M K

A A

A A

A

A

M

K K/M A A A M M A M/K M/K M M A/K K K M/K K/M A/K/M K/M K K K

F

A/M K/M

A M

Fenc e

A A

K/M A A

C

K K/M A A

K/M A A

A M/K M

A A A/K

K

K

K

A/K/M K K

K K

K K

K

Tota l uses 2 4 5 1 2 2 4 5 2 2 4 4 5 3 3 4 3 3 6 2 4 7 4 118


24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47

Balakawon (2) Balanti/Bfalanti Baludibud Banaba Bangar Bfahog Bili/Bulon Bini/kalacheng Botoptok Buhakal Buhila (bl) Buhila 2 Bultik (bl) Bultik (orig) Bunut Churnuwan Dalakan/Chala-an Dao Dir-an Dol-ak/Tungtungar Duple/Dalayon Fagwaloy Falehangay Faluy (bl)

48 49 50

Fitugan Fugi Galiwgiwon

Machilus philippinensis Aglaia llanosiana Sapindus saponaria Polyalthia elmeri Cynometra sp. Garcinaia mangostana Pygeum sp. Sterculia brevipetiolata Aphanamixis perrottetiana Canthuim subcapitatum Aglaia diffusa Canthuim subcapitatum Syzygium ecostulatum Terminalia foetidissima Glochidion mindorense Palaquium luzoniense Dracontomelon dao Ziziphus talanai Pittosporum moluccanum Garcinia rhizoporoides Cynometra warburgii Buchanania arborescens Pterospermum diversifolium Memecylon lanceolatum Pavetta membranacea

K/M K A

A M

A/K A/K/M

K K/M K A A M

K K A A

A/K/M

A A A A K

A A K

A

K A A K A/K K K/M A A K

K K K/M

A A M

A/K/M K K A A K A/K K M K/M A A A/K/M K A A A

K K

K

M

K K

K

K

K

K M K/M A A

K

A A

K A A K A/K K

A A A/K/M K

A A A

K

A K

A

2 2 5 5 3 4 1 3 3 6 3 3 6 3 6 2 4 5 5 2 3 2 3 3 5 2 4 119


51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77

Gatasan Gopgopak Gugu Hala-hala Halapadon Halinghingon (bl) Halinghingon (sl)/Penalleng Halong Hana'-ti Hangachan Hawili Hoghog Huka Huyaput Kaklaang Kala-otet Kantong Koloklong Koloklong (bl) Koloklong (sl) Kunakun/Faluy (sl) Kurdadannum (ml) Kurdadannum (bl) Kuriwit Kutbabangul Lachao Laglagim

Garcinia venulosa Glochidion longistylum Entada Phaseikaudes Zanthoxylum ovicennae

K A

Eurya obovata Eurya amplixicaulis Pinus insularis Deutzia pulchra Symplocos sp. Elaeocarpus bontocensis Symplocos luzonensis Wikstroemia lanceolata Neotrewia cumingii Talauma angatensis Manilkara merillianna Canarium asperum Syzygium curranii Ardisia castaneifolia Ardisia zambalensis Pterospermum niveum Evodia dubia Merr. Evodia benguetensis Shorea guiso Clerodendrum minahassae Maesa lacsa Viburnum odoratissimum

M M K K

A A K K K A M K K A/M A/M A/M/K A/M/K

A

M

M

M K

K A

A/K A/K/M A

K/M

M M M K K K/M K

M

3 5 2 2 3 2 2

K M K

M M K

K A A A/K/M A/K/M A/K/M A K K A/K A/K A/K A/KM K/M K/M A A A/K M K/M K/M

K K A

K A A K K

A/K K/M A A/K M

M

5 2 4 2 4 2 1 4 5 3 2 2 2 5 2 3 4 2 3 3 120


78 79

Lajo Laphi

80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104

Liho-lihod Lobhatan (bl) Luhung Lupping/Loppeng Luwit Malabutnu Malabutnu Marakape Mugmuggog Muh-ning Ngarusangis Ngititan Olaggit Pakak Palahipa Palayon/Palajon Pamiklaten Pangimbulawon Parunapin Podpod Pohwi (bl) Polatton Pukag Putukan Rafe

Pavetta parvifolia Dasymaschalon oblongatum Wrightia laniti Goniothalamus trunciflorus Vaccinium cumingianum Ficus ruficaulis Dysoxylum octandrum Mangifera altissima Mangifera altissima Canthium dicoccum Breynia rhamnoides Cleistanthus ovatus Diospyrus pilosanthera Artocarpus communis Ficus gul Lithocarpus sp. Calophyllum whitfordii Micromelum curanii

M K

K/M K K A

K/M K A

A

A

A

K A

A Glochidion gigantifolium Pittosporum ramosii M Kleinhovia hospita Bridelia glauca Ficus botryocarpa

K K/M

2 2

K

M A

K K K/M A

M

K/M

A K M K/M K K A A/K M A A A M K K K/M A K A K/M M M K K/M K/M

A M

K K K/M K

K K

A M A

A

A

A

A

A M

K K K/M

K/M A K A

M K

M

A

M K/M

2 3 2 4 5 3 4 1 3 6 1 6 2 3 4 4 4 2 4 1 1 5 3 2 3 121


105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119

Samak Tabfangagon Takip-asin Talanak Tempo Tikom Tindalo Tobak Tungtungar Tuwol Udyo Uhiyan (bl) Uhiyan (red shoot) Ulatton Umug

Macaranga tanarius Pometia pinnata Macaranga grandifolia Astronia williamsii Linociera acuminatissima Timonius arboreus Afzelia rhomboidea Artocarpus ovata Ehretia polyantha Bischofia javanica Pterocarpus indicus Aphania philippinensis Syzygium ebaloii Helicia robusta Clethra luzonica Total Number of Species

A K/M K/M A A A/K K K A/K

K/M

A K A A/K K K A/K

K/M 67 H

K/M 53 HC

A K/M A K A A/K K K A/K A A K/M K/M 110 FW

K/M

K/M

A K A

A

K K A/K

K K A/K

A K/M

A K A/K A A

K/M

K/M

53 L

35 Fu

51 C

16 FP

5 F

2 5 1 2 4 3 6 3 6 5 6 2 2 4 2 121

Legends : H- for housing construction, HC- For Handicraft, FW – for fuelwood, L – for lumber, Fu – for furniture, FP – Fence post C – for charcoal F – Source of fiber A – found in A. Lista K – found in Kiangan and M – found in Mayoyao

122


Annex 21. Lists of food plant species recorded in the three municipalities of Ifugao

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Local name TREES Arusip Atu-ang Bfenor Bili/Bulon Dogwe Galiwgiwon Hawili Huyaput Kunakun/Faluy (sl) Bugnay Marakaburaw Pakak Tuwol Apatot Ukapon Bulinayo (big) Kala-otet Kape Bultik (bl) Palm Species Lituko Gatile

22 Bangi 23 Barit 24 Moma Shrubs 25 Butgi/Bfogtayyon 26 Fallangfang (eaten) Ferns 27 *Pako (sl)

Scientific Name

Food type

Municipality

Antidesma pentandrum Syzygium polycephaloides Saurauia elegans Garcinaia mangostana Sauraia bontocensis Evodia meliaefolia Elaeocarpus bontocensis Neotrewia cumingii Pterospermum niveum Antidesma bunius Severinia retusa Artocarpus communis Bischofia javanica Morinda bracteata Dillenia philippinensis Syzygium samarangense Manilkara merillianna Coffea arabica Syzygium sp.

Fruit Fruit Fruit Fruit/spices Fruit/spices Fruit Fruit Fruit Fruit Fruit Fruit Fruit Fruit Fruit/spices Fruit Fruit Fruit Fruit Fruit

A. Lista A.Lista/Kiangan Mayoyao A.Lista/Kiangan Kiangan/Mayoyao Kiangan Kiangan Kiangan Kiangan A. Lista A. Lista Kiangan Kiangan A. Lista A. Lista Kiangan A. Lista Kiangan Kiangan

Calamus Manillensis Areca macrocalyx Caryota rumphiana Mart. var. philippinensis Becc. Calamus sp. Areca cathecu

Fruit/Vegetable Vegetable

Kiangan Kiangan/Mayoyao

Vegetable Vegetable Vegetable

Kiangan/Mayoyao A. Lista Kiangan/Mayoyao

Calicarpa formosana Medenilla pendulla

Fruit Spices

Kiangan/Mayoyao Mayoyao

Diplazium esculentum

Vegetable

Kiangan/Mayoyao 123


28 Pako/apapat (bl,) Grasses/Herbs/Vines 29 Bila-u/Runo 30 *Amti 31 *Kunde/Wild petchay 32 Kallawag 33 *Luktu 34 Pinit 35 Ariwat 36 *Parya *Observed near sampling plots

Diplazium sp

Vegetable

Kiangan

Miscanthus chinensis Solanum nigrum

Vegetable Vegetable Vegetable Fruit Tuber Fruit Fruit Vegetable

Kiangan/Mayoyao Kiangan/Mayoyao Kiangan Kiangan A. Lista Kiangan/Mayoyao A. Lista A. Lista

Alpinia sp. Smilax sp. Rubus rosaefolius Vitis flextosa Momordica balsamina

124


Annex 22. List of common ailments and plant species used as remedy. No. Ailments Cured 1 Wound

2

Cough

Local name

Scientific name

Method of application

Analtap

Neonauclea media

Tikom

Neonauclea sp.

Shoots are pounded and applied directly as poultice to the wound and held with a bandage. It is replaced everyday. Pound the shoots and apply as poultice into the wound.

Akikid

Streblus asper

Decoction of bark used for disinfecting wounds.

Tibanglan

Cyathea contaminans

Udyo

Pterocarpus indicus

Akikid

Streblus asper

Cinnamon-coloured hairs are dry and pound them into a fine powder then applied into the wound to minimize bleeding. Dried stem is pounded into fine powder then applied into the wound to minimize bleeding. Use decoction of bark for disinfecting wounds.

Anitap (bl)

Mallotus Philippinensis

Poultice seeds used for wound healing.

Atu-ang/ Bulinnayo Atingol (bl)

Syzygium polycephaloides Premna odorata Blanco

Boil either the leaves or fruits and drink.

Bulon Dogwe Fallangfang Parya

Garcinia mangostana Sauraia bontocensis Medinilla sp. Momordica balsamina

3

LBM

Atingol (bl) Hala-hala Palayon

Premna integrifolia Zanthoxylum ovicennae Castanopsis ovalis

4

Internal parasite

Bulon

Garcinia mangostana

Anitap (bl)

Mallotus Philippinensis

Alim

Mallotus multiglandulosus

Boil one cup of chopped fresh leaves in two glasses of water for fifteen minutes. Separate water from residue then add juice from two pieces of calamansi and 1 tbs. sugar. Stir and intake. Eat the fruits in minimal amount. Eat the fruits in minimal amount. Eat the fruit and leaves Extract juice of young leaves and use as mucolytic for young and adults Boil ten leaves in one cup of water for 10 minutes and drink. Boil the bark for a few minutes. Drink. Boil fruits. Removed from fire when water turned to brown in color. Drink. Eat one piece of unripe fruit. The red glands of the fruit are antiherpetic and antihelminthic. Powder taken with milk for tapeworms, repeated as necessary. Decoction of leaves used as vermifuge 125


5

Kidney trouble

Fallangfang (eaten) Hanaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ti

Medenilla pendulla

Fallangfang (eaten) Hanaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ti

Medenilla pendulla

Deutzia pulchra

6

Allergy

7

Ahingon (gout)

8

Stomach ache

Hauili Kutbabangul

9

Fever

Hauili

Elaeocarpus verruculosus Clerodendrum minahassae Elaeocarpus verruculosus

10

Gulid

Tibanglan Akikid Poh-wi (lg)

Cibotium contaminans Streblus asper Pittosporum sp.

11 12

Castration Itch

Rafe Rafe

Ficus botryocarpa Ficus botryocarpa

Boil

Pukag Tikom

Kleinhovia hospita Timonius arboreus

14

Mouth sores

Liwliw Udyo Tibanglan

Ficus septica Pterocarpus indicus Cyathea contaminans

15

Scabies

Pakak

Artocarpus communis

Tuwol Udyo

Bischofia javanica Pterocarpus indicus

13

16

Amoebic dysentery

Deutzia pulchra

Mix the extract juice of stem of fallangfang and the roots of pagar in the same proportion, intake. Boil the leaves in three cups of water. Removed from fire when water in the pot is almost reduced to one cup and drink. Collect both the stem and leaves. Pound to extract the juice. Intake. Pound the leaves and apply at the affected finger. Tie it using a piece of clean clothes. Eat the seeds in minimal amount. Eat minimal amount of fruits. Boil the bark until water turn into brown color. Intake minimal amount. Apical bud is cut lengthwise and place in the forehead. Use bark as decoction. Boil the bark and use this for bathing or for washing the infected body parts. Pound the shoots and rub to the wound. Crush young leaves. Rub the crushed leaves on the affected area until relieved from itchiness Decoction of leaves used to remove skin itch. Healthy leaves are use externally as a poultice by pounding it then applied directly on the afflicted area. Use roots as poultice. Sap is applied into the affected area. Select a fresh medium size branch of a tree and put it in fire. Collect the sap usually seen at both ends. Use the sap once a day. Boil sufficient number of young leaves. Use while lukewarm by bathing or washing affected body parts. Boil the bark and use this for washing. Shredded bark is cook and the fluid is taken orally. 126


17

Skin eruption and dermatitis

Balete

Ficus stipulosa

Boil one cup of chopped bark in ½ gallons of water 10 minutes wash area with this decoction, 2 times a day

18 19 20 21

Malaria Snake poison Dysentery Sudorific

Hala-hala Akikid Akikid Alim

Zanthoxylum ovicennae Streblus asper Streblus asper Mallotus multiglandulosus

22 23

Hypertension Swellings

Anabiong Anabiong

Trema orientalis Trema orientalis

24

Fungal skin infections Ringworm Hemoptysis Dysentery Toothaches

Anitap (bl)

Mallotus Philippinensis

Boil the bark for a few minutes and drink. The bark is chewed as an antidote for snake poisoning. Use bark decoction Bark and leaves, slightly heated and applied to the skin, is sudorific Use leaf decoction. Juice obtained from macerating the soft wood is used for poulticing swellings. Pound leaves or seeds and apply on affected areas.

Anitap (bl) Samak Samak Samak Udyo Liwliw

Mallotus Philippinensis Macaranga tanarius Macaranga tanarius Macaranga tanarius Pterocarpus indicus Ficus septica

Liwliw Niog-niogan Niog-niogan Udyo Pukag Pukag Dongla Dongla

Ficus septica Ficus pseudopalma Ficus pseudopalma Pterocarpus indicus Kleinhovia hospita Kleinhovia hospita Cordyline fruticosa Cordyline fruticosa

25 26 27 28 29

Asthma 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37

Headaches Kidney stone Diabetes Sore throat Hair lice Eyewash Menstruation Pulmonary tuberculosis

Poultice leaves and bark used for skin disease. Use decoction of roots. Use decoction of bark and roots. Glue from stems applied to toothaches. Decoction of leaves use as a mouthwash for toothaches. Pound shoots of liwliw and mix to a coconut oil. Put in a handkerchief and cover it to the nose and inhale. Fresh leaves are sudorific; bruised with oil, used for headaches. Drink decoction of leaves Drink decoction of leaves Gargle decoction of leaves Pound bark and leaves, add water and used as hairwash. Extract juice of leaves and use as eyewash. Fresh leaves or dried roots are used as decoction Fresh leaves or dried roots are used as decoction

127


Annex 23. List of plant species with socioeconomic and cultural importance found in Ifugao. No.

Local name

Scientific name

1

Adawe

Elaeocarpus argenteus

Product/plant parts used Pinokkla

2

Alimit

Ficus minahassae

Sap

3

Anablon

Macaranga Dipterocarpifolia

hangdel

4

Apla

Ficus irisana

hangngut

5 6

Atingol (bl) Atingol (sl)

Premna integrifolia Premna integrifolia

Leaves Leaves

7 8

Balanti Bolwang

Aglaia llanosiana Macaranga sp.

Leaves Leaves

9

Fuloh

Baccaurea philippinensis

Leaves

10 11 12

Gali’on Hu-a Lajo

Evodia meliaefolia Wikstroemia lanceolata Pavetta parvifolia

punhib-at punhib-at pamahan

13

Ludping

Ficus ruficaulis

guyudan

Uses/Description This pinnokla is where cogon is being inserted and used during the “dallung” which is perform at the last night of a dead to drive bad spirits. -The sap is extracted from the bark of this tree and used to capture birds. This is called “pukot” by the Ifugao. -The stem of this tree is cut into a shape like chair called by the Ifugao as “hangdel” which they used to anchor the corpse of a dead person in a sitting position. -This hangut is naturally formed in a knot-shape that is used in a business believed to attract more customers. - Use to cure some illness and fruits serve as spices. -The leaves of this atingol (sl) are used as pesticide in the rice field. This is usually mixed with other pestidicdal plants and allowed to be spread though irrigation canal. -The same as above. -The leaves are used during the dallung rites, a ceremony perform to heal a sick person believed to be possessed by an evil spirit. -The leaves are burned in the kaingin farm to fumigate the planted vegetables. It is believed that the smoke releases are effective to keep the pest away. -Young shoots/leaves are mixed in the soil during seedbed preparation to serve as fertilizer. It is also placed in areas where planted rice appears yellowish and stunted. Punhib-at is a wooden stick used to beat the gongs The same as above It is a wooden bowl used for putting rice wine during the performing of baki, a religious rite. The guyudan is a hollow vessel used to carry the soil and fill it into the rice paddies. They do this before the preparation of seed bed or before planting of palay. 128


14

Poh-wi (bl)

Pittosporum ramosii

binabbuy Bark

15 16

Tabangawon Toba’ (bl)

Pometia pinnata Artocarpus ovata

lupoh-han pattung

Sap

17 18

Toba’ (1) Tuwol

Artocarpus rubrovenia Bischofia javanica

pattung tiing Wood

19

Udyo

Pterocarpus indicus

Punamhan hagabi Bulul kalluung Hapiyo

20

Lituko

Calamus manillensis

Encob Hakacha Ughat Pfalag Innanga Lechaw

A wood carving image of a pig use in rituals to cure illness The bark is used as pesticide for giant earthworm. This usually pound to easily release the sap before applied at the rice field. They use this species of tree because of the hardness and it produces loud sound. This atting is usually use in performing the “him-ung”. The sap is used in catching birds and dragon fly at the rice field. The used of this sap is suited during sunny days when the temperature is high to keep the sap sticky. The tiing is where collected bones of a dead from a family are compiled. This usually own by the wealthy family. The wood is used in making a handle of spears. These spears are named base on their designs and uses. Pun-amhan is a wooden bowl used for putting the materials needs in indigenous religious rites. This hagabi serve as chair or bed of the wealthy people indicating their high social status. This bulul is carved in siting or standing position which is serve as the protection of rice A hollow solid wood about 3 m long and 1 m wide where bundled palay is pounded. Used as shield against bolos and spears during combat fight. Square basket used during rituals in the community Used to catch fish or tadpoles from a river. Fish trap made of bamboo or rattan which is used to trap "dojo" (Japanese fish) "pikaw" in the field during night time. Used to transport harvested palay. A heddle stick used by men as rain shade during rainy season. Hat used for protection from the sun or rain. 129


Halichong Pallongan

21

Katibanglan

22

Runo

Cyathea contaminans

Buklut Gamugamun Pfolor Palangapang Halongoh

Chorteh

Pudung Ugub

24

Bangi

Caryota rumphiana

25

Palayon

Lithocarpus sp.

26

Dongla

Cordyline fruiticosa

It is used as container for carrying upland field’s crop and as a raincoat by women. Used for winnowing pounded rice to separate rice hull from the grain. Locust basket. Use to store catch of locust Birth ritual material Used during traditional rituals intended to drive away evil spirits and epidemic attack in the family and community. Ornament used by affluent people. A handle made up of runo where 7 pointed metals the size of a tie wire are attached at the end and is ssed to catch fish in the field when the palay was already harvested. It has a handle made of runo where 3 pointed metals are attached designed to catch jojo (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus). Leaves are knotted as “No trespassing symbol” Use during the Uggub ceremony to settle dispute. After a lot of prayers, two competing individuals will throw runo shoots one against another. The one hit is the sinner/offender. Use as a durable spear handle

Spears (Luddit,Gintob,etc.) Gamulang Use as Harvesting knife handle Wahe Use as a durable axe handle Leaves Use in most indigenous religious rites

130


Annex 24. List of Avian species recorded in the three barangays of Ifugao. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Local Name Akup Kulasisi Ido/ichaw Buding/Fuching Botyag2 (brown eyebrow) Botyag4 Billit-balay Inchuti Gawang Bfongag (long tail) Talibang-ag Manalatal Kuhili/Uhili Botyag3 (long bic) Papaluk

Common Name Philippine Eagle-Owl vu Colasisi nt Blue-headed Fantail nt Chestnut Munia nt Chestnut-faced Babbler

Scientific Name Bubo philippensis* Loriculus philippensis* Rhripidura cyaniceps* Lonchura mallaca Stachyris whiteheadi*

Family Name Titonidae Psittacidae Rhripiduridae Estrildidae Timaliidae

Order Stringiformes Psittaciformes Passeriformes Passeriformes Passeriformes

Elegant Tit Eurasian Tree Sparrow Island Veriditer-flycatcher Large-billed crow nt Long-tailed Shrike Luzon Bush-Warbler Mountain Shrike Mountain White-eye Olive-backed Sunbird Orange-bellied Flowerpecker

Periparus elegans* Passer montanus Eumyias panayensis nigrimentalis Corvus macrorhynchos Lanius schach Cettia seebohmi* Lanius validirostris Zosterops montanus Nectarinia jugularis Dicaeum trigonostigma

Paridae Passeridae Muscicapidae Corvidae Laniidae Sylviidae Laniidae Zosteropidae Nectariniidae Dicaeidae

Passeriformes Passeriformes Passeriformes Passeriformes Passeriformes Passeriformes Passeriformes Passeriformes Passeriformes Passeriformes

Hirundo tahitica Hypsipetes philippinus* Dicaeum pygmaeum* Zoothera dauma* Dicaeum aeruginosum* Amaurornis olivaceus* Amaurornis phoenicurus Gallus gallus Microhierax erythrogenys* Centropus viridis* Actenoides lindsayi* Halcyon chloris Phapitreron amethystina* Chalcophalps indica* Phapitreron leucotis

Hirundinidae Pycnonotidae Dicaeidae Turnidae Dicaeidae Rallidae Rallidae Phasianidae Falconidae Cuculidae Alcedinidae Alcedinidae Columbidae Columbidae Columbidae

Passeriformes Passeriformes Passeriformes Passeriformes Passeriformes Gruiformes Gruiformes Galliformes Falconiformis Cuculiformes Coraciiformes Coraciiformes Columbiformes Columbiformes Columbiformes 131

nt

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 26 27 28 29 30 31

Pepegwong Hab-u Botyag1 Bfor-it Pilukluk Tektek/teh-te' Fagit/Pfaget Habag/Hafag Bongag/Bfongag Tiguk/teggoc Kingfisher (green) Kingfisher (white neck) Balog/Bfalog (Brown) Balog/Bfalog (Green) Ut-ut

Pacific Swallow Philippine Bulbul Pygmy Flowerpecker Scaly Grund-Trush Striped Flowerpecker Plain Bush-Hen White-breasted Waterhen nt Red Jungle Fowl nt Philippine Falconet Philippine Coucal Spotted wood-Kingfisher White-collard Kingfisher nt Amthyst Brown-Dove Common Emerald Dove White-eared Brown Dove


32 Dolwak/Eg-gaw 33 Tiwad/ting-gwad 34 Pugo 35 Pipiwong 36 Bfatotan 37 Cho-og 38 Fisod 39 Hagatang 40 Hala-hala 41 Kulkultit 42 Kuplawit 43 Kutiw 44 Kwachang 45 Lachuwit 46 Ledlechunay 47 Lele-ep 48 Loan 49 Martines 50 Ole 51 Oogoy 52 Pfaget 53 Polo 54 Potapot/potta 55 Titotot 56 Tugtug 57 Udane * Endemic to the Philippines

Purple heron Little Tern Luzon Buttonquail Glossy swiftlet

vu â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Vulnerable

Ardea purpurea Sterna albifrons Turnix worcesteri* Collocalia esculenta

Ardeidae Sternidae Turnicidae Apodidae

Ciconiiformes Charadriiformes Charadriiformes Apodifformes

nt â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Nearly Threatened

132


IFSU Main Report  

Biophysical and Socio Economic Characterization for Climate Vulnerability Assessment for the Province of Ifugao

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