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1656 Strengthening Philippine Institutional Capacity to Adapt to Climate Change Outcome 3.1 Activity 3.3

3rd Mid-Term Progress Report Training Module 3B: Capacity Building of Local Stakeholders on Community-based Climate Change Adaptations in Benguet and Ifugao: Monitoring and Evaluation of Adaptation Measures and Climate Change Mitigating Measures

UPLB Foundation Inc. Lanzones St., UPLB Campus, College, Laguna, 4031 PHILIPPINES 2nd Mid-Term Progress Report for Component 1B UPLBFI-SPICACC 3.1 Activity 3.36265 Tel:of(049) 536 3688 Fax: (049) 536

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Module Prepared by

Team Leader: Prof. Nelita A. Lalican Team Members: Prof. Liza N. Comia Prof. Joyce DL Grajo Prof. Ma. Kristina C. Sembrano Prof. Lea E. Rotairo

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Table of Contents Titles

Page

A.

Introduction

1

B.

Review of Monitoring and Evaluation

2

1. A quick guide for monitoring and evaluation. 2. Monitoring and evaluation tips. 3. Criteria of a good M&E design 4. Importance of Monitoring and Evaluation

C.

The Types of Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E)

4

1. Technical/Infrastructure Monitoring System 2. Cost or Financial Monitoring System 3. Input Delivery ME system 4. Project Benefit ME System

D. Project Benefit Monitoring and Evaluation Systems (PBMES)

4

1. Monitoring of Key Indicator Sub-System (KISS) 2. Evaluation SS (ESS) 3. Information User SS

E.

PBME Administrative module

14

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F.

Review on Basic Statistical Concepts

18

1. Different sampling methodology 2. Determining appropriate sample size 3. How to construct a box whisker plot 4. When is the result statistically significant?

G.

Review on scaling and indexing.

29

H.

Steps to be followed in conducting factor analysis using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS)

29

I.

Recommendations

29

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A. Introduction

The upland communities should be prepared to climate change. A process of routine periodic measurement of inputs (e.g. seeds, fertilizer, irrigation, etc.) activities (e.g. pest management, irrigation, land preparation, etc.) and outputs (e.g. quantity and quality of harvest) is necessary to implement adaptation and climate change mitigation strategies. Also, there should be a process to identify the factors related to performance and effectiveness of the adaptation and climate change mitigation measures. Part of the program is the survey on local knowledge and tools for assessing vulnerability of the agricultural systems to climate change. Included in the survey are indicators used to assess possible occurrences of different events and respondents were asked which of the indicators they apply. The same questionnaire asked the farmers which adaptation/climate change mitigation strategies they applied to overcome the effects of climate change. Results of the survey will be used to compute for the possible event occurrence assessment index and adaptation index using factorial analyses. The objectives of this endeavor are to: inform the stakeholders the performance of their chosen indicators; discuss the importance of monitoring these indicators; develop the capability of the stakeholders to conduct monitoring and evaluation of adaptation measures; and assess the validity of the developed indexes.

It will be expected that after the training the participants will be able to conduct monitoring and evaluation of the different measures of assessing vulnerability and climate change mitigating measures. They will be provided with a manual of operation as their guide in the conduct of monitoring and evaluation.

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B.

Review of Monitoring and Evaluation 1.

A quick guide to monitoring and evaluation Monitoring is about observing what is going on, and evaluation involves reflecting on your observations and responding to opportunities and challenges. Appropriate monitoring provides critical information that can help make better decisions about how to run a project. There are many resources available to help develop a monitoring and evaluation process that suits the group and project. To get started, here’s a simple four-step guide. a. Set your objectives It is important to work out exactly what the project is trying to achieve. People will have different opinions on what the problem is, the best way to tackle it, and who should be involved. An open discussion in developing the project plan will allow all project group members to share their thoughts. As a group, develop a project plan that everyone agrees to. At this early stage it’s also critical to consult our regional body to ensure project complements the priorities for the area. The regional body can be a very useful resource, so establish dialogue early in the process b. Prepare your plan Once the agreement on what are to be achieved have been reached, planning needs to be done. Remember to build in monitoring at this early stage. This will provide crucial information that will tell if the approach needs changing, or if the project has had the desired impact. c. Monitor your progress Ongoing monitoring will help ensure that the project produces the desired changes. It involves keeping records of activities (the outputs), and measuring the results of those activities (the outcomes). At the end of the project, it will help a lot to evaluate the success of the project and learn from experiences. And importantly, useful information can be shared with others. d. Evaluate how every project is a learning experience – for the individuals participating in the project, for the group as a whole, for funding source(s) or sponsors, and for others who may be looking to implement a similar approach. Reviewing the results of monitoring throughout the project will help to continually evaluate the progress. At the end of the project a full evaluation must also be done to incorporate the lessons into the next project.

2.

Monitoring and Evaluation Tips a. Keep it simple – think about what to monitor to show that the project is working. Focus on a few key aspects so that results will not be complex and demanding.

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b. Ensure it’s relevant – think carefully about whether those aspects chosen to monitor are going to provide the information needed to make decisions and adjust the way of the work. c. Make the most of the resources – remember to design monitoring into the project from the start. Are there people that can be asked to take on this role as part of their contribution to your project? d. Review similar projects – learn from the successes and mistakes e. Promote the results – everyone likes a good news story. Local media are often interested in projects, especially those that involve the community. Bulletin boards and newsletters are also good ways of promoting the project to others who may be interested. f. Ensure sustainability – remember to plan for long term 3.

Good monitoring and evaluation design has five components: a. Clear statements of measurable objectives for the project and its components, for which indicators can be defined. b. A structured set of indicators, covering outputs of goods and services generated by the project and their impact on beneficiaries. c. Provisions for collecting data and managing project records so that the data required for indicators are compatible with existing statistics, and are available at reasonable cost. d. Institutional arrangements for gathering, analyzing, and reporting project data, and for investing in capacity building, to sustain the M&E service. e. Proposals for the ways in which M&E findings will be fed back into decision making.

4. The Importance of Monitoring & Evaluation The major challenge of monitoring and evaluation lies in measuring impact. It can be difficult to determine exactly what impact a project has had on the social and economic wellbeing of a community. However, the flip side of this challenge is that if, as a project manager, impacts through M&E can be seen with significant returns. Demonstrable outcomes open up channels of communication with stakeholders and thus contribute to transparency and accountability, create opportunities for improved management of your project, and provide learning that an be applied to future projects. The diagram below outlines a broad step-by-step process for M&E.

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MONITORING & EVALUATION FRAMEWORK

C.

Types of Monitoring and Evaluation 1. Technical/Infrastructure Monitoring System (TIME) – This ME is well developed and is used by construction/water engineers and any types of flow charts and analyses are available to handle this ME component. Example: Project Provision of water tanks Small scale livestock raising

planned actual planned actual

M1 1 1 3 1

M2 1

1

M3 1 1 3 1

M4 1 1 1

M5 1 3 1

M6 1 1 1

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M7 1 1 3 1

Total 7 5 12 7

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2. Cost or Financial ME (CFME) – Governments and International Funding and Development Institutions (IFDI) have developed the CFME in terms of the accounting and auditing functions. This ME is well developed and is the source of the cost streams (Ck) in the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) framework. Example:

Project Mini impounding pond Rehabilitation of river banks using bamboo

Q2

Q3

planned actual planned

Q1 14,800 5,000 50,000

5,000

4,800

actual

10,000

10,000

10,000

Q4

Total 14,800 14,800 50,000

10,000

40,000

3. Input Delivery ME (IDME) – In area and agriculture development, water, pesticides, fertilizer, extension services and training facilities, etc. must be delivered in the right quantity and at the right time to the recipients (small farmers) in the project area e.g. demonstration plots. For irrigation water, the canals must be properly laid out and the water entering the paddy fields must be measured. Similar control systems must be instituted. The Project Manager may create such a section to develop IDME which should not be confused with Project Benefit Monitoring and Evaluation Systems (PBMES). ME systems, TIME, CFME and IDME will consider the M3, men (personnel/staff), money (budget) and machines (equipment, etc.).

Example:

Project Potato seed production in greenhouse Seeds Pesticide Fertilizer Labor

M1

M2

M3

M4

M5

M6

M7

Total

planned actual planned actual planned actual planned actual

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4. PBME System – This will refer to the measurement and evaluation of the level, pace and direction of impacts on the social and economic life (improvement of the quality of life) of the recipients of the project. PBMES could also monitor the institutional changes and input delivery systems from the point of view of the recipients. A general Management Information System (MIS) may integrate ME systems TIME, CFME, IDME and PBMES into a holistic approach (Onate, 1982). Example Millennium Development Goals Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Achieve universal primary education Ensure environmental sustainability Develop a global partnership for development

D.

target actual target actual target actual target actual

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90%

Project Benefit Monitoring and Evaluation Systems (PBMES) The pioneering work of Onate (Revised 1982) incorporates the experiences obtained mostly from several Seminar/Workshops on PBMES conducted in more than 10 countries in Asian region and the views presented in numerous regional and international conferences on this subject. The issues on PBMES are presented in capsulized form and are discussed in conjunction with the manpower, programs and services, organization, data generation and processing, aggregation functions of the National Statistical System (NSS). PBMES to be effective must be guided with objectivity, integrity, and independence. The PBME Unit must be independent (political or otherwise) from the Executing Agency (Administrator) and should not be directly involved in the planning and/or execution of any components of the Project (say, transitional progress of water and outlay of canals, and other input delivery systems). The other criteria are continuity (in monitoring in a time series and/or other similar projects), competence (knowledgeable, capable and properly motivated), available (at the right time and place), and accountability (accountable to higher Project Management and not to Project Manager). The Unit must undergo periodic training to maintain and preserve its competence and to attain a career-structure for minimum turn-over of staff. These criteria are also guidelines of the NSS which must also be well understood by project officers (Executing Agency and other institutions) who have had very little experience and knowledge about the workings and function of the NSS.

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1. Monitoring of Key Indicator Sub-System (KISS)- This phase should be as simple as possible and must be operationally project oriented. The contents of KISS are 1) demographic aspect of recipients, 2) economic efficiency, 3) social impacts, 4) participation/observation of recipients on input content and delivery systems and institutions, 5) special features including environmental aspects. Indicators used in assessing possible occurrences of an event (Study 1b). The indicators used by the farmers in assessing the occurrence of a climate change hazard: a. Drought About 160 respondents were asked on what are their indicators that a drought is forthcoming. Several answers were solicited, there are biotic and abiotic factors. Forty eight percent answered when they can see that the soil cracked, 45% stated that flowering of bamboo, hablang, filao, bikar and sunflower, changing water level in the watersheds (29%) and if they experienced hot temperature (27%) would mean a drought is coming. Others mentioned seeing dead fishes in the ricefield, migration of sea birds from lowland to highland, movement patterns of ants/termites among others. b. Floods There will be flood if there is movement of dark clouds, heavy rains, it is too cold in November to January, there is change in migration pattern of birds like killing, ti-way aladong or siyet, and there is lightning and thunder in the evening. c. Rainfall A rainfall is coming if there will be nimbus cloud formation( 41%), movement of dark clouds (37%), intensified wind movement (15%), movement patterns of ants and termites (11%), and sun crowning (9%). Other signs used were outbreak of cut worms/giant worms, shape of the moon, and sneezing of carabao. d. Typhoon Farmers used the following as signs of a coming typhoon; intensifying wind velocity (32%), movement of dark clouds (27%), sun crowning (8%), and change in migration pattern of birds like killing, Tiway, Aladong or Siyet (6%). Others mentioned sounds of frogs, unusual barking of the dogs, appearance of many dragonflies, and the sky turned orange hue. Adaptation strategies employed by the farmers to overcome the effects of climate change caused by: a. Drought The mitigating measures used by the farmers adjustment of planting dates (34%), find other water source and set up irrigation (24%), change of variety (12%), and change crop/crop rotation (11%). Other biotic and abiotic factors mentioned are exercising zero tillage in the farm, deforestation, use of organic fertilizer, establishment of catch basin, and avoid burning plant residues.

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b. Floods To mitigate the effect of floods, farmers widen the outlets of rice, following the barangay disaster management plan , building of dikes and drainage construction. c. Rainfall Farmers will drain water from their paddies, will build dikes, rip rapping and will adjust their planting dates. Others mentioned the need to use organic fertilizer and to avoid burning of plant residues. d. Typhoon In case of typhoon, farmers adjust their planting dates, repair dikes and find other source of income. 2. Evaluation SS (ESS) – The contents, targets, strategies, assumptions and policy implications, assumptions and policy implications in the feasibility study will serve as basis for the evaluation phase which is the natural sequence of the analytical procedure following the KISS (Monitoring Phase). Ifugao Indicator Index  PCA1  PCA2 where : PCA1  0.730  Changein migration patternof birds   0.710  Suncrowning  PCA2  0.752  Cold  like symptoms inchicken   0.735  movement patterns of ants / termites 

Adaptation and Mitigation Index  PCA1  PCA2 where : PCA1  0.884  Adjustment of planting dates   0.725  Exercise zerotillageinthe farm  PCA2  0.787  Applying thebarangay disaster management plan 

PCA RESULTS STILL IN PROCESS AND WILL BE INSERTED HERE. 3. Information User SS – It is important to note that the different levels of Management hierarchy have been involved in the preparation of the plan. The views of this Management group should also be obtained by the PBME Unit with regard to the contents of KISS and the areas of interest to be evaluated. The PBME Unit must be trained to solicit views of Management so that the PBME results should be of maximum interest and usefulness to them. The Input, Output, Effect and Impact Continuum indicate the type of information which is relevant to particular user:

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Input--- Impact Continuum

Management Hierarchy

Input---- Output Input----- Output-- Effect Input----

Project Manager (in Site) Project Director (DG in Department)

Output- Effect- Impact

Planner (Planning Agency)

EVALUATION OF PCA RESULTS WILL BE INSERTED HERE

E.

PBME Administrative Module

Different administrative modules have been adopted by different countries to implement PBMES for agricultural rural development projects. The basic constraints are the lack of the required experts-mix and knowledge on concepts, definitions and methodology on PBMES.

F.

Review of Basic Statistics ( Lifted from UPLB Statistics 1 Laboratory Manual) 1. Determining appropriate sampling methodology – FOR COMPLETION 2. Determining sample size 3. How to prepare box whisker plot 4. Determining statistically significant result.

G.

Review on Scaling and Indexing (Lifted from Patrick De Leon’s 2010 unpublished class report in Social Research Design) An index is the combination of two or more items or indicators that yields a composite measure (Nachmias and Nachmias 2007). In constructing indexes, these four major problems are involved: (1) defining the purpose of the index; (2) selecting the sources of data; (3) selecting the base for comparison; and (4) selecting the methods for aggregation and weighting. To address these problems the following should be considered: (1) the phenomena to be measured are broad concepts, and since no single indicator will cover all the dimensions of a concept, a number of indicators for each concept must be selected; (2) ascertain that the data strictly pertain to the phenomena being measured; (3) express the indexes in proportions or percentages for purposes of comparison; and (4) depending on the purposes of the indexes, compute simple or weighted aggregates.

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Example1: Job performance index of a bpi branch assistant manager The purpose of this index is to have a basis for evaluating the performance of an assistant manager in any branch of the Bank of the Philippine Islands. The performance of BPI officers and staff is evaluated each year and is the basis of their promotion and payment of their performance bonus. Fifty percent of the assistant manager’s performance rating comes from the branch audit rating and fifty percent comes from the bank’s mystery client survey. Needless to say, the sources of data would be the internal audit report and the mystery client survey report. To facilitate comparison of job performances of assistant managers in the different branches, performance rating shall be expressed in percentage. Since performance is evaluated each year and the previous year’s performance rating has no bearing in the current year, there is no need to select a base year. In addition, since there are only two indicators – audit rating and mystery client survey rating, simple aggregation shall be performed to come up with the performance index. Indicator Audit Rating Mystery Client Survey Rating Simple Aggregate Value Performance Rating or Index (%)

Value of Indicator 0.45 0.40 0.85 85.00

The preceding table shows that the hypothetical assistant manager got a performance rating of 85%. This means he or she would be given a performance bonus equivalent to his or her one month salary. If his or her rating puts him or her to the top 10% of the total number of assistant managers in the country, he or she is likely to be promoted to manager. Example 2: Literacy index of 1st grade pupils in Casupanan elementary school Literacy is the ability of a person to read and write. Through a literacy index, an elementary school teacher for instance, will be able to determine how many or what percentage of his or her total number of pupils are able to read and write. If most 1st grade pupils of Casupanan Elementary School were unable to read and write even after half of the school year had past, perhaps parents should send their children to kindergarten before enrolling them to elementary school. Source of data would be the class records of 1st grade teachers in Casupanan Elementary School. To facilitate comparison of literacy of 1st grade pupils in the different schools in the District of Hermosa or even the Division of Bataan, the literacy index shall be expressed in percentage. Weighted aggregation shall be performed to come up with the literacy index. Indicator No. of Pupils Able to Read No. of Pupils Able to Write Weighted Aggregate Value Literacy Index (%)

Frequency (N = 200) 150

Proportion

170

0.85

N/A

0.80

N/A

80.00

0.75

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In the above example, the total number of 1st grade pupils is 200 (N = 200). Equal weight was given to the ability to read and the ability to write (ability to read 50%, ability to write 50%). The computation of the weighted aggregate value is as follows: Able to Read: 150/200 = 0.75 x 0.50 = 0.375 Able to Write: 170/200 = 0.85 x 0.50 = 0.425 Weighted Aggregate Value: 0.375 + 0.425 = 0.80 Literacy Index: 0.80 x 100 = 80.00 Note that there are slightly more pupils who are able to write but unable or have difficulty to read. This means that 1st grade teachers should spend more time giving reading exercises or drills. Since 80% of the 1st grade pupils in Casupanan Elementary School are literate, parents are not compelled to send their children to kindergarten. An alternative interpretation would be, the local kindergarten was effective in preparing 5- or 6-year old children for elementary school. Example 3. Empowerment index of women in Little Baguio, Palihan, Hermosa, Bataan The very essence of empowerment is of course – power. In fact, a person becomes more powerful when the person grows in the subjective sense of feeling able to do the things hitherto out of reach, when a person develops the ability to do the things which were not previously within the person’s competence, and when doors of opportunity, which hitherto were closed, swing open to allow access to information, influence, and opportunity According to Cook’s development cube (1993) as cited by Ugbomeh (2001), a person’s development or empowerment has three dimensions or sides – objective power, competence, and subjective power. For the purpose empowerment is defined as acquisition of competencies and gaining access to information, influence or decisionmaking, and employment and other opportunities. The purpose of this empowerment index is to have a basis for measuring the perceived improvement in the competencies, access to information, access to credit, access to employment opportunities, and exertion of influence or decision-making over household matters of the women of Little Baguio, Palihan, Hermosa, Bataan, who were beneficiaries of the Grameen Credit Cooperative. The source of data will be the survey conducted by the Grameen Credit Cooperative in Little Baguio in 2009 – a year after the provision of credit. For purposes of comparison, the index shall be expressed in percentage. Weighted aggregation shall be performed to come up with the empowerment index. Each of the five indicators of empowerment carries a weight of 0.20 or 20%. The combined weight of the five indicators is 1.0 or 100%.

The computation is as follows: Improvement in competencies: 20/30 = 0.67 x 0.20 = 0.134 Greater access to information: 25/30 = 0.83 x 0.20 = 0.166 Greater access to credit: 30/30 = 1.00 x 0.20 = 0.200 Greater access to employment: 22/30 = 0.73 x 0.20 = 0.146 Exertion of influence at home: 15/30 = 0.50 x 0.20 = 0.100

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Indicator

Improved competencies Greater access to information Greater access to credit Greater access to employment Exertion of influence at home Weighted Aggregate Value Empowerment Index (%)

Frequency (N = 30)

Proportion

20

0.67

Weight of Each Indicator 0.20

Weighted Value of Each Indicator 0.134

25

0.83

0.20

0.166

30

1.00

0.20

0.200

22

0.73

0.20

0.146

15

0.50

0.20

0.100

N/A

N/A

1.00

0.746

N/A

N/A

100.00

74.60

Multiplying the proportions by 100 will yield percentages that are more meaningful for discussion. For instance, 83% of the women in Little Baguio felt that they gained greater access to information after receiving credit from Grameen Credit Cooperative. However, only 50% of the beneficiaries felt that they exerted greater influence at home. Overall, about 75% of the respondents felt that were empowered because of the credit from Grameen.

The Guttman scale was designed to incorporate an empirical test of the unidimensionality of a set of items within the scale-construction process (Nachmias and Nachmias.2007). If the items comprising the scale tap the same attitudinal dimension, they can be arranged on a continuum that indicates varying degrees of one underlying dimension. Guttman scales more explicitly, are unidimensional and cumulative. This further implies that the researcher can order the items by degree of difficulty. Example 4. Job performance of a BPI branch assistant manager Earlier, it was shown that a BPI branch assistant manager is evaluated based on his or her branch’s audit rating and the rating given by the mystery client. The former checks the ability of the branch assistant manager – also called the branch operations head, to implement the bank’s operations and control procedures. The latter on the other hand, checks the ability of the branch assistant manager to implement the bank’s Total Quality Program.

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Audit Rating Respondent

Audit Team Leader Member 1 Member 2 Member 3

Item 1: Observes joint custody and dual control of cash in vault. (-)

Item 2: Performs surprise count of teller’s cash in box.

Item 3. Checks supply and issuance of accountable forms.

Total Score:

(-)

+

1

(-)

+

+

2

+

+

+

3

+

+

+

3

Note that (-) indicates disagreement, while + indicates agreement. In this case, the audit team leader believes that the assistant manager was unable to observe joint custody and dual control of the cash in vault, and failed to perform surprise count of the teller’s cash. But he or she thinks that the assistant manager was able to check the supply and issuance of accountable forms such as time deposit certificates. In terms of degree of difficulty, item 1 in the scale is the most difficult to implement, while item 3 is the easiest to implement. This of course, is based on this student’s experience.

Mystery Client Survey Rating Respondent Item 1: Finishes a transaction within 15 minutes. Mystery + Client 1 Mystery (-) Client 2 Mystery (-) Client 3 Mystery (-) Client 4

Item 2: Greets clients warmly.

Item 3: Smiles at clients.

Total Score:

+

+

3

+

+

2

(-)

+

1

(-)

(-)

0

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Item 1 in the scale is relatively the most challenging for any branch officer or staff, and item 3 is relatively the easiest. Mystery client 1 feels that the branch assistant manager or his or her staff was able to accomplish items 1-3. Mystery client 4 feels otherwise. Example 5. Literacy Of 1st Grade Pupils In Casupanan Elementary School Respondent Item 1: Pupil Item 2: Pupil Item 3: Pupil Total Score: reads English reads English reads English paragraphs sentences phrases well. well. well. Pupil 1 + + + 3 Pupil 2 (-) + + 2 Pupil 3 (-) (-) + 1 Pupil 4 (-) (-) (-) 0

The above table illustrates only the reading component of literacy. Item 1 in the scale is relatively the most difficult for pupils, while item 3 is relatively the easiest.

Example 6. Empowerment Of Women In Little Baguio, Palihan, Hermosa, Bataan Respondent Item 1: Exerts Item 2: Has Item 3: Has influence at greater greater access home employment to information opportunity Woman 1 + + + Woman 2 (-) + + Woman 3 (-) (-) + Woman 4 (-) (-) (-)

Total Score

3 2 1 0

It appears that woman 1 is empowered for she exerts influence at home, has greater employment opportunity, and has greater access to information. Item 1 in the scale is relatively the most difficult to gain, while item 3 is relatively the easiest.

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H.

Steps in Conducting Factor Analysis In SPSS (Lifted from lecture notes of Professor Marques of UPDiliman Population Institute) Open the data file Assessment of the appropriateness of factor analysis 1. The variable should be metric-level or dichotomous 9dummy-coded) nominal level variables. 2. The number of valid cases should be at least 50 (preferably, at least 100 cases). Steps: Analyze ->Date Reduction->Factor ->(Select the variables) -> Descriptives (Tick Univariate descriptives, Initial solution, Coefficients, KMO & Bartlett’s test of sphericity, Anti image)-> Extraction(Principal components) -> Rotation (Varimax) Examine the number of valid cases in the DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS TABLE output. 3. The ratio of cases to variables should be 5 to 1 or larger. Examine the DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS TABLE output. 4. The correlation matrix for the variables should contain 2 or more correlation coefficients of 0.30 or higher. Examine the CORRELATION MATRIX output. 5. The measure of sampling adequacy for each variable should be at least 0.50. Examine the ANTI-IMAGE CORRELATION output Values in the diagonal should be at least 0.5. If there are variables with MSA less than 0.50, remove these variables. 6. The overall measure of sampling adequacy should be at least 0.50. Examine the KMO & BARTLETT’S TEST output. 7. The Bartlett’s test of sphericity should be statistically significant Examine the KMO & BARTLETT’S TEST output. Derivation of a factor model 1. The no. of components should collectively explain more than 60% of the variance in the set of included variables. Examine the TOTAL VARIANCE EXPLAINED output. Compare the no. of components with eigenvalue > 1 with the no. of components with cumulative percentage of 60% or higher. 2.

The derived components should explain 50% or more of the variance in each of the variables, i.e. they should have a communality greater than 0.50. -Examine the COMMUNALITIES output. -All values under ‘Extraction’ column should be > 0.5. -If this requirement is not met, remove the variable with the lowest communality then repeat the analysis.

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3. The variables should not have a complex structure, i.e., they should not have factor loadings of 0.40 or higher in more than one component. - Examine the ROTATED COMPONENT MATRIX output - If there are several variables with loadings of 0.40+ for more than one component, remove the variable with the lowest communality among those complex structure then repeat the analysis. 4. All the components should have more than one variable in it. - Examine the ROTATED COMPONENT MATRIX output -If this requirement is not met, remove the variable then repeat the analysis.

I.

RECOMMENDATION

J.

REFERENCES STATISTICS 1 Laboratory Manual, UPLB, CAS, INSTAT Lecture Notes from Professor Maria Paz N. Marquez, Population Institute, UPDiliman De Leon, Patrick, 2010. Report on Scaling and Indexing. Paper submitted as a requirement for Social Research Design Class, 1st sem 2010-2011. Lalican, Nelita M. 2002. Measuring Impact of Agricultural Development Projects. Lalica, Nelita M. 2003. Project Benefit Monitoring and Evaluation in Sustainable Agricultural Development Project. SEARCA Professorial Chair delivered January 27, 2003 at DAERS Function Hall. Onate, Burton T. 1982. Benefit Monitoring and Evaluation System as Component of ARD Design. ADB. January 1982. Onate, Burton T. 1992. Benfit Monitoring and Evaluation in Agricultural and Rural Development Project Design. College, Laguna. Philippines. Revised Edition. Onate, Burton T. 1999.Program/Projct Benefit Monitoring and Evaluation Systems (PPBMES). Vols. 1 and 2. Part of the results and RAW DATA from Study 1b www.k4health.org/docs/Monitoring and Evaluation Guides http://www.nrm.gov.au/publications/factsheets/pubs/me-factsheet.pdf http://www.commdev.org/section/_commdev_practice/monitoring_and_evaluation#M___ E_Framework_

2nd Mid-Term Progress Report for Component 1B of UPLBFI-SPICACC 3.1 Activity 3.3

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Component 3B Module  
Component 3B Module  

Capacity Building of Local Stakeholders on Community-Based Climate Change Adaptations in Benguet and Ifugao: Monitoring and Evaluation of Ad...

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