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1656 Strengthening Philippine Institutional Capacity to Adapt to Climate Change Outcome 3.1 Activities 3.3

Senior Researcher: Dr. Nicomedes D. Briones Dr. Amparo M. Wagan (Analyst) Dr. Jose M. Garcia (Analyst) Component 1A:Nestor Review and Screening of Ms. Evangeline L. AlcantaraVulnerability (Research Assistant) Available Ms. Sofia A.Assessment Alaira (Research Assistant) Tools for Their Application in the Agricultural Sectors in Benguet and Ifugao

UPLB Foundation Inc. Lanzones St., UPLB Campus, College, Laguna, 4031 PHILIPPINES 536 3688 Fax: 3.1 (049) 536 6265 1st Mid-Term Progress Report for ComponentTel: 1A (049) of UPLBFI-SPICACC Activity 3.3


Prepared by

Dr. Nicomedes D. Briones Dr. Jose Nestor M. Garcia Dr. Amparo M. Wagan Ms. Evangeline L. Alcantara Ms. Sofia A. Alaira

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Executive Summary The Component 1A of the study conducted a review of available science-based vulnerability and adaptive capacity assessment tools in order to build on existing methodologies. The study identified the elements that should be in the V&A framework: Cultural practices from land preparation, harvesting, marketing and post harvest; Agricultural financing as coping mechanisms; Livestock, agroforestry, the integration of vegetable and livestock should be considered After reviewing fourteen different V&A assessment tools they concluded that the most suitable are: ADPC Based Disaster Risk Management: Field Practitioners‟ Handbook 2004, CARE Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis (CVCA) Handbook, 2009 and PRRM Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment Toolkit, 2009. The team was able to integrate the relevant factors and procedures of these tools into one V&A Tool: Agricultural System Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity Assessment (AgSys-VACA), which has a systematic approach on the different requirements and constraints with regards to upland farming in Benguet and Ifugao. It draws from a wide array of qualitative data gathering tools that investigates area‟s biophysical characteristics as well as the local community‟s exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity to different hazards.

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Table of Contents Title Executive Summary

Page iii

I.

Introduction

1

II.

Objectives

2

III. Methodology 1. Collection of reference materials vulnerability assessment 2. Setting of criteria for screening the vulnerability assessment tools; 3. Review and examination of assessment procedures in terms of relevance and applicability to climate change vulnerability of the agriculture sector; 4. Development of a proposed vulnerability assessment framework and methodology for the agricultural sector of Benguet and Ifugao.

2 2 2

IV.

3

V.

Review and examination of available hazard/risk and vulnerability assessment procedures Proposed Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity Assessment for the Agriculture Sector of Benguet and Ifugao A. B. C. D.

Purpose of the assessment Basic features Conceptual framework Procedure to conduct the assessment 1. Organize the team 2. Study the area 3. Describe climate-related hazard 4. Describe vulnerability 5. Identify vulnerable groups and capacities 6. Hazard mapping 7. Identify/assess current adaptation measures 8. Conduct Hazard Mapping 9. Identify & Assess Current Adaptation Measures E. Analysis of results F. Validation of results with the community

VI.

Summary and Conclusion

2

3

6

7 7 7 8 10 10 10 10 11 11 13 15 15 15 15

16

Cited Literatures

17

Annex 1: Websites on Vulnerability Assessment Annex 2: Reference materials and detailed review in terms of applicability for Benguet and Ifugao agriculture

19 20

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I. Introduction Climate change is happening and is considered to be one of the most serious threats to sustainable development, with adverse impacts expected on the environment, human health, food security, economic activity, natural resources and physical infrastructure. The surging impacts of climate change will touch everyone in some way, but those who stand to suffer most are the poor. These people already live on the edge of subsistence; they have limited resources with which to adapt to climate change and variability. Most of the worldâ€&#x;s poor have livelihoods that depends directly upon highly climate sensitive resources such as farm fields, forests, fisheries, and other natural assets, climate change will make these resources less reliable in many places, limiting the prospects for many poor communities to escape from poverty. The Philippines is a developing agricultural country that has started to see some of the worst manifestations of climate change. According to the Global Climate Risk Index (GermanWatch 2006), it ranks as the 4th most vulnerable country in world. As a developing archipelago, with widespread poverty and difficult access to vital resources, it has a low adaptive capacity and a lower chance to cope with disasters brought about by various climate change impacts. Yet, even with the emerging trends of global warming and climate variability, many provinces in the Philippines are still unaware that they are vulnerable and have to contingencies to prepare and cope with its impacts. The topic of climate change has been around for almost 20 years and scientific climate risk and adaptation assessment tools have been developed to predict global to national level scenarios of climate change and its impacts. These assessment tools, which are largely based on biophysical and social criteria, are yet to be tested for their applicability to local conditions and in the context of highland agriculture in the Philippines. The study aims to review available vulnerability assessment tools and select or develop a framework and appropriate tool that can be used to assess the vulnerability of the agricultural sector particularly in the provinces of Benguet and Ifugao.

1st Mid-Term Progress Report for Component 1A of UPLBFI-SPICACC 3.1 Activity 3.3


II. Objective To review available vulnerability assessment tools and select or develop a framework and tool appropriate for assessing climate change vulnerability and adaptive capacity of the agriculture sector particularly highland agriculture of Benguet and Ifugao provinces.

III. Methodology The following steps were followed to achieve the objective: 1. Collection of reference materials on vulnerability assessment and on topics related to assessing climate change effects, mitigation and adaptation in developing countries. The materials were sourced from the internet, published and unpublished reports by individuals, local and international institutions, and journal articles (Annex 1). Materials containing vulnerability assessment procedures were thoroughly reviewed. Nine vulnerability assessment tools were analyzed for their relevance and applicability for Benguet and Ifugao. 2. Setting of criteria for the screening the vulnerability assessment tools. In order to determine the applicability of the tools for the agriculture sector of Benguet and ifugao, a set of criteria was formulated: a) The assessment addresses vulnerabilities to hazards due to climate change; b) The assessment must be at the community level; c) Emphasis of the assessment should be on the agricultural sector ; d) The assessment must have a holistic view of the communityâ€&#x;s agricultural sector considering the biophysical, economic, sociocultural, and political components; e) The assessment should be practical and easy to follow, particularly the data collection; and f) The assessment must seek to integrate agricultural indigenous knowledge system with scientific and technical concerns. 3. Review and screening of the vulnerability assessment tools in terms of their applicability to the agriculture sector of Benguet and Ifugao provinces. The assessment tools were evaluated in terms of their strengths and weaknesses on the following aspects: purpose, framework, scale/level, methods, and agriculture-related data requirements. The strengths refer to the positive features and applicability of the tool for the conditions in Benguet and Ifugao.

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4. Development of a proposed vulnerability assessment framework and methodology for the agricultural sector of Benguet and Ifugao. This was done by integrating the strengths of the different tools that were reviewed.

IV. Review of the Existing Vulnerability tools for Their Applicability to the Agriculture Sector of Benguet and Ifugao Provinces A total of nine vulnerability assessment tools were reviewed and screened (please see Annex 2). Most of the tools reviewed were designed mainly (or at least a part of the tools) to assess vulnerability and adaptation to natural hazards, including hazards due to climate change. Among the tools reviewed, only three dealt specifically with vulnerability to climate change: PRRM & DENR (2009); Daze, A., K. Ambrose and C. Ehrhart (2009); and Hamill, A., B. Riche and N. Clot (2007). Generally, the reviewed assessment tools include hazard assessment, vulnerability assessment, and adaptive capacity assessment but they differed in the degree of assessment and on assessment methods. Some of the reviewed assessment tools were focused on peopleâ€&#x;s vulnerabilities and their livelihoods (CARE, 2002; VCA-IFRCRCS, 2007; CVCA-OCIEP, n.d.) Some also considered agriculture as a major livelihood or activity but little was mentioned about agriculture in the assessment. Hence, very limited agricultural data were specified and were mostly assumed to be collected in the assessment process. One assessment model, the PRRM-DENR tool, however highlighted agriculture along with other sectors like water & forestry sectors, coastal sector and health sector. In terms of data collection, a wide range of methods and techniques were used by the different assessment tools. These include collection of secondary data, formal interviews, and a range of participatory data collection techniques. Most of the reviewed assessment tools employed and described in detail participatory data collection techniques. Presented in table 1 is the list of the available vulnerability assessment tools that were reviewed for their applicability for the agriculture sectors of Benguet and Ifugao provinces and an overview of the evaluation done on each tool. (Detailed review is presented in Annex 2).

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Table 1. Overview of the evaluation made on the different vulnerability assessment tools. Vulnerability Assessment Tool

General Comments

Applicability to the Agriculture Sector of Benguet and Ifugao

Vulnerability and Adaptation (V & A) Assessment Toolkit. Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement (PRRM) and Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR)

While it considers climate change scenarios and changing socio-economic scenarios with changing climate change, the methodology is maybe difficult to implement at the community level

The tool is not applicable at the community level assessment but some variables can be used. The method for assessing current adaptation measures can be adapted for Benguet and Ifugao

Household Livelihood Security Assessments: A Toolkit, CARE USA

The tool is not designed for assessment of vulnerability to climate change

Not applicable for the agricultural sector of Benguet and Ifugao

Community-wide Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment (CVCA), Government of Canada

The tool is not specific for climate-related vulnerability on agriculture.

Not applicable for the agricultural sector of Benguet and Ifugao

Community-based Disaster Risk Management : Field Practitionersâ€&#x; Handbook, Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC),

Although the tool is for the assessment of climate change-related vulnerabilities at the community level, it is not specific for agriculture. It has a broad scope and agriculture is not highlighted

Procedure for participatory disaster risk assessment can be adapted for assessing vulnerability to climate change

VCA Toolbox With Reference Sheets, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

Not specific for vulnerability of agriculture to climate change. Climate change is just one of the hazards being mentioned

Tools on household vulnerability assessment, neighborhood vulnerability assessment, livelihood and coping could be adopted

How To Do a VCA, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

Same as VCA Toolbox With Reference Sheets (previous tool in the list)

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Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis Handbook, CARE International,

Although the tool is for analyzing vulnerability and capacity to adapt to climate change at the community level, agricultural data to be collected were not mentioned. Only guide questions were provided for the national, local government/community, and household/individual levels on resilient livelihoods, disaster risk reduction, capacity development, and addressing underlying vulnerability.

Combining local knowledge and scientific data could be adopted for Benguet and Ifugao i.e. anecdotal experiences and observations requires scientific explanation

Community-Based Risk Screening Tool – Adaptation and Livelihoods (CRiSTAL), IISD, IUCN, SEI-US and Intercooperation

The tool is intended for project planners and managers to better understand the links among climate change, livelihoods and their work. No indicators were mentioned but guide questions.

Basic framework for Ifugao and Benguet should be guided by key questions focusing on agricultural sector. Can be adapted for to evaluate whether existing government programs are contributing to enhance adaptation of agricultural sector to climate change

Methodological Framework for Vulnerability Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Forest-based Development Sectors, Europe aid, CIFOR and CATIE

The tool is designed not for the agricultural sector

Not applicable for the agricultural sector of Benguet and Ifugao but the coupled environmenthuman system and the dynamic interaction between the two should be considered

Risk Management Benchmarking Tool, Government of Sta. Lucia, Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States and USAID

The tool focuses on evaluating the adequacy of current disaster risk management tools, readiness and capability of local national institutions to deal with the risk of disaster rather than climate change.

Not applicable for the agricultural sector of Benguet and Ifugao

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While the reviewed assessment tools each have their own strengths and weaknesses in terms of purpose, framework, scale or level of assessment, methods and techniques for data collection ( see Annex 2), not one is solely appropriate to be used for assessing vulnerability to climate change of the agriculture sector, specifically that of Benguet and Ifugao provinces. Most of the reviewed tools are designed for assessing a community in general and the effects of natural hazards and disasters including that of climate-related disasters. Almost all do not even include collection of agriculture-related data. If agriculture was cited, suggested data requirements are not at the community level or data requirements for agriculture are very limited, if not defined at all. The following subsection discusses a proposed community-based climate change vulnerability and adaptive capacity assessment for agriculture, where data requirement specific for the highland conditions in Benguet and Ifugao provinces are incorporated.

V. Proposed Community-Based Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity Assessment Tool for the Agriculture Sector Benguet and Ifugao A new tool was developed that is suitable for Benguet and Ifugao by integrating the relevant features of the tools that were reviewed. This proposed Community-based Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity Assessment of the Agricultural Sector for Benguet and Ifugao are further described below. The framework for the vulnerability and adaptive capacity assessment was developed based on the definition of vulnerability as the degree to which a system is susceptible to, or unable to cope with, adverse effects of climate changed, including increased variability and downside risk (IPCC 2001) and the adaptive capacity as the ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope with the consequences (IPCC WGII). The general procedure was adapted from Kuban, R. and H. McKenzie-Carey (n.d.) but the conduct of vulnerability assessment was patterned from the Participatory Disaster Risk Assessment procedure of Abarquez, I. & Zubair Murshed (2004) which includes hazard assessment, vulnerability assessment and capacity assessment. The suggested data requirements were based on several sources including journal articles. Some data collection methods, i.e. community-based and participatory data collection techniques were taken from the rest of the reviewed assessment Component 1A of UPLBFI-SPICACC 3.1 Activity 3.3

6


tools. Since the reviewed assessment tools lack information on the agricultural sector, other data on agriculture to be collected and the methods of collecting the data were added. Several of the agricultural data were adapted from Garcia and Wagan (2010).

A. Purpose of the Assessment: To determine the vulnerability and adaptive capacity of the agriculture sector thus be able to provide a basis for planning and prioritizing adaptation measures for the agriculture sector of Benguet and Ifugao province at the provincial, municipal and community level.

B. Basic Features of the Assessment Tool: a. The approach is community-based; b. Anchored on the definition that climate change vulnerability is the result of the interaction and interrelation of three major factors: hazard, exposure and adaptation; c. It views agriculture as a holistic system with biophysical, economic, socio-cultural, and political components d. Two major components of the assessment: 1. Climate change variables and their Impact on the different components of the agricultural system, 2. Capability of the system to cope with adversities and further develop into a resilient production system

C. Framework for the Assessment Tool Dealing with climate change will also include dealing with disasters. Natural hazards by themselves do not cause disasters, but the combination of an exposed, vulnerable and ill-prepared population or community with a hazard event that results in a disaster. Climate change will affect disaster risks in two ways firstly through the likely increase in weather and climate hazards, and secondly through increases in the vulnerability of communities to natural hazards, particularly through ecosystem degradation, reductions in water and food availability, and changes to livelihoods. Together, they reduce the capacities of communities to cope with natural hazards (ISDR 2008; 2009). Climate change is said to result from different abnormalities in the climate. These abnormalities will have different effects on the community and the natural resources. A community may have different populations, and different and living in different environmental conditions, hence, the same community may have different levels of vulnerability to different types of natural hazards. Vulnerability Component 1A of UPLBFI-SPICACC 3.1 Activity 3.3

7


of a community to the different abnormalities will also differ. The vulnerability to climate change is determined by the nature of the natural hazard, the exposure level, and the adaptive capacity of the affected community (EEPSEA, 2008) (Figure 1). In assessing therefore for the vulnerability of a community, it is important to first identify the type of climate abnormalities that climate change could bring. The adaptive capacity to climate change is defined as the ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope with the consequences (IPCC WGII).

Figure 1. Conceptual Framework for understanding vulnerability (Smith et al. 2001).

D. Procedure in the Conduct of the Assessment There are three major phases of the assessment with several activities in each phase, listed as follows: a. Pre-assessment and planning phase 1. Organizing the vulnerability and capacity assessment team. 2. Study of the area through secondary information 3. Planning and preparation for the field work

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b. Actual assessment 1. Site reconnaissance 2. Describe climate-related hazards in the community (types, location, frequency, seasonality, impacts, and magnitude of damage). 3. Describe vulnerabilities and capacities of the community. 4. Conduct hazard mapping 5. Identify and assess current adaptation measures c. Post-assessment phase 1. Systematize, analyze and interpret the data 2. Validate the data with the community The following subsection describes in detail the steps in the conduct of the proposed vulnerability and adaptive capacity of the agriculture sector in Benguet and Ifugao. A stepwise illustration of the conduct of the proposed assessment is illustrated in figure 2:

Figure 2 An illustration of the conduct of the proposed community level climate change vulnerability and adaptive capacity assessment for the agriculture sector of Benguet and Ifugao. Component 1A of UPLBFI-SPICACC 3.1 Activity 3.3

9


1. Organizing the Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment Team. A minimum of five members will be sufficient to conduct the vulnerability assessment. The team should include representatives of the following groups: the municipal agricultural office, municipal development planner, and municipal disaster coordinating council, response organizations (e.g., police, fire, and peopleâ€&#x;s organizations. While not all of these are required on a continuous basis, they should all provide an input in the determination of “vulnerabilityâ€? and in the development of a meaningful solution to the problem. These may include emergency medical services (EMS), local utilities, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), social services, and key volunteer organizations (i.e., those representing or those servicing vulnerable populations). 2. Study of the area through secondary information. Collect secondary data regarding the target community from various sources. The data to be collected and sources may include the following: Data Requirements

Possible Sources

Climate Statistics (Rainfall, temperature, humidity, wind, tropical cyclones, drought occurrences, changes in climate)

PAG-ASA, local weather stations (e.g., state colleges and universities, research centers), comprehensive land use plans (CLUPs)

Agricultural Data (Land use, production areas, soil types/characteristics, farming systems, crops planted, cropping patterns and schedules, nutrient and pest management, support services, crop yields, damages, production inputs and losses, pests and diseases, livestock production, forest cover, government programs/projects)

Municipal Agricultural Office, Bureau of Agricultural Statistics, state colleges and universities, research centers, comprehensive land use plans (CLUPs), Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Provincial and Municipal Environment and Natural Resources Office

Community Map

Barangay development plans

3. Planning and preparation for the field work. The Team should attempt to define the boundaries of what they will strive to achieve, how they will work to do so, for how long, with what resources, and so on. 4. Site reconnaissance. An ocular observation of the area is necessary prior to the conduct of any other field activity. This will enable the team to observe the resources in the area, biophysical and socioeconomic resources, as indicated in the secondary data. A transect walk and photo documentation will provide Component 1A of UPLBFI-SPICACC 3.1 Activity 3.3

10


opportunity to closely observe the various components of the agricultural systems and the resources that are critical for food production. Preparation of guide questions for key informants will be an advantage in getting as much information during this first visit and field activity in the area. 5. Description of climate-related hazards in the community (types, location, frequency, seasonality, impacts, and magnitude of damage), as follows: Step

Data to be collected (Indicators)

Output

Method

a. Identify climaterelated hazards in the community. List down and describe the nature of hazards in terms of its recurrence, seasonality, location

 Type of hazards  Seasonality  Location

 List and nature of hazards  Seasonal occurrence of hazards

 Timeline (hazard history and significant events that happened in the community)  Seasonal calendar (seasonality of the hazards and activities)

b. For each of the hazards, determine how frequent the community is exposed to the hazard, what were affected and their impacts

 Frequency of exposure to the hazards  What were affected  Magnitude of the damage (e.g. effects on crop yields)  Observed trends

 Prevalence and severity of the hazards

 Historical transect (how much natural resources have been affected by the hazards)  Matrix ranking (determine hazard that has most serious impact on the community

6. Describe vulnerabilities of the community. The following is the procedure: Step

Data to be collected (Indicators)

 Flood-prone areas  Steep areas prone to soil erosion or landslides  Drought and dry spell sensitive Component 1A of UPLBFI-SPICACC 3.1 Activity 3.3 a. Identify high risk areas (harsh environments)

Output

 Location of “high risk” areas

Method

 Key informant interview  Community mapping  Transect walk

11


areas b. Identify vulnerable farming systems  Identify major farming systems (crops livestock, fish)  Determine sensitivity of crops and livestock to extreme climate conditions (severity of impacts of crops and livestock)  Map areas devoted to climate-sensitive crops and livestock

 Areas planted to annual crops (rice, corn, vegetables)  Areas with large number of livestock  Areas devoted to aquaculture

 Vulnerable farming systems

 Secondary data (area planted to crops, sensitivity of crops to climate change)  Transect walk  Seasonal calendar (rainfall, cropping pattern and farm activities, seasonality of income)

c. Map high-density areas

 High density areas

 High population density map

 Social mapping

d. Identify operational sectors of the community

 Operational sectors (e.g. residential, farms, industrial, etc.)

 Operational sector map

 Operational sector mapping

e. Describe socioeconomic condition of the community

 Population  Sociochange economic resilience of  Age structure the  Dependency rate community  Household income level  Sources of income (including onfarm, off-farm, and non-farm)

 Secondary data  Key informant interview  Wealth ranking

f. Identify “most vulnerable” groups

 Most vulnerable groups

 Matrix ranking considering Identifying those living in harsh environments, low income, dependent on agriculture for

Component 1A of UPLBFI-SPICACC 3.1 Activity 3.3

 List of “most vulnerable” groups

12


source of income, children, disabled  Analysis of all types of livelihood assets (human, physical, financial, social, natural capital) g. Describe climate hazard preparedness of the community

 General knowledge of the hazards  Presence of early warning system  Access to information/ communication facilities  Presence of adaptation measures

 Climate  Key informant hazardinterview preparednes  Focus Group s Discussion information

Note: The procedure in the conduct of the different participatory tools could be taken from Abarquez, I. and Zubair Murshed. 2004. Community-based Disaster Risk Management: Field Practitioners’ Handbook. Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC), Klong Luang, Pathumthani, Thailand.

7. Identify capacities of the ‘vulnerable groups’ of the community. A list of capacities by „vulnerable groups‟ can be made. The following are some of the capacities that can be identified: Type of Capacity

Description

Data to be collected (Indicators)

Influence on Adaptive Capacity

Physical capacity

The quality of being physically capable

 Number of disabled individuals

The presence of significant number of disabled individuals decreases adaptive capacity

Cognitive ability and linguistic capacity

Cognitive ability is the ability to quickly and efficiently process information while linguistic capacity is the ability to comprehend key

 Literacy rate

High literacy rate generally have high adaptive capacity

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messages Resource availability

Resources that can be used in reducing negative effects of climate change

 Access to transportation

Lack of access to transportation decreases adaptive capacity

Communication system

The system by which information on climatic change is channeled and imparted from the source to the community.

 Presence, effectiveness and efficiency of a communication system

Absence of an effective and efficient communication system reduces adaptive capacity

Degree of isolation

Isolation from physical, political or cultural areas

 Location and access

Isolation decreases adaptive capacity

 Presence of support systems (e.g. neighbors, community self help, family, NGOs, or service providers, agricultural support (shelter for livestock, rehabilitation support)

Availability of support services increases adaptive capacity

Income

 Income level

High income level increases adaptive capacity

Sources of income

 Diversity of income sources (to include onfarm sources of income)

Dependency on onfarm sources of income decreases adaptive capacity

Cost of climaterelated adaptation

 Cost of adaptation

High cost of adaptation reduces adaptive capacity

Knowledge of technology that can reduce negative impacts of climate change

 Knowledge of technological adaptation

Lack of technological knowledge decreases adaptive capacity

Strength or availability of support systems

Economic capacity

Technological ability

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The data can be collected through Venn diagramming, key informant interview and Spider diagram for livelihood assets by group. 8. Conduct hazard mapping. From the previous step, capture the hazards, vulnerability, natural resources and facilities in community and/or digitized maps. Identify intersection or overlap of “high risk areas” and “most vulnerable groups”. These are areas at risk from specific hazards and vulnerable members of the community. The hazard mapping could be done for different seasons. 9. Identify and assess current adaptation measures. For each of the hazards that the community has experienced, identify what adaptations the community has done to lessen the impact of the hazards. Assess each of the adaptation qualitatively by determining their prevalence among livelihoods in the community (few, common, majority), effectiveness of the adaptation for the specific hazard (low, medium, high), and the length of time the action is effective (short, medium, long), benefits to the livelihoods, the costs and benefits (low, medium, high), the availability of credit for the adaptation, and the presence of institutional, legal, socio-cultural, economic and technological barriers to the implementation of the adaptation measures. E. Systematize, analyze and interpret the data. Systematize the data by putting them into a format that will allow better analysis and interpretation. Enter the large quantity of raw data into charts and cleaning up diagrams and drawings for easy understanding. Once systematized, present the data to the team members for analysis and interpretation. This may take time but team members‟ skills will improve with practice. It is essential to include one or two members of the community because they know their reality and are best able to clarify issues and put them into context. To give credibility the observations and conclusions, use triangulation by looking for at least three sources to support the interpretations. With the analysis of the data, understanding of the community‟s situation will be based on coherent evidence. The information can then be used as basis for planning, prioritizing and developing adaptation measures for the agriculture sector of the target provinces (IFRC & RCS. 2007). F. Validate the Data with the Community. Present the findings to the community in a format that is accessible to everybody. Use visual aids and appropriate language. The presentation should be dynamic but give the community the opportunity to voice their opinions and questions. Take down notes so that conclusions can be modified (IFRC & RCS. 2007).

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VI. Summary and Conclusion The provinces of Benguet and Ifugao are among the highly vulnerable areas in the country primarily because of its geographic location and dependence of its people and its local economy on agriculture. Interviews with stakeholders in these provinces (as reported in project Component 2A) highlighted their awareness about climate change, the climate change–related hazards they are facing and some impacts of climate change especially on their agricultural systems. While it necessitates today a region-wide vulnerability assessment of the entire Cordillera region, the uniqueness of agricultural systems and diversity of practices by different ethnic groups in the region, a community-level vulnerability assessment to climate change, is more appropriate. It is at this level of assessment that effective adaptation measures might be determined.

This project component attempted to provide a simplified vulnerability assessment tool which is community-based and can be used by the local development planners and decision –makers in the provinces of Benguet and Ifugao. It is an easy to use tool for identifying vulnerable agricultural areas and farming communities and be done in a quick but organized manner. This tool being a product of the integration of agriculture variables, often used for describing agricultural systems and designing appropriate interventions, and actual experiences and observations about agriculture in Benguet and Ifugao Province may provide reliable conclusions as to what agricultural areas and communities in the province need immediate and appropriate adaptation measures. Likewise this tool, having considered both technical and indigenous knowledge about the area will provide results that are important inputs to computer-based models for predicting climate change impacts (Project component

2B)

on

the

agriculture

Component 1A of UPLBFI-SPICACC 3.1 Activity 3.3

sectors

of

Benguet

and

ifugao.

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Cited Literatures Abarquez, I. and Zubair Murshed. 2004. Community-based Disaster Risk Management: Field Practitioners‟ Handbook. Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC), Klong Luang, Pathumthani, Thailand. www.adpc.net CARE. 2002. Household Livelihood Security Assessments: A Toolkit prepared by TANGO International, Inc., Tucson, Arizona for CARE USA, PHLS Unit, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 2002. www.care.org, mccaston@care.org Daze, A., K. Ambrose and C. Ehrhart. 2009. Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis Handbook, CARE International. www. careclimatechange.org EEPSEA. 2008. Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation, and Policy in South East Asia. Economy and Environment Program. Proceedings of the Climate Change Conference, Bali, Indonesia, 13-15 February 2008. Garcia, JNM, and A.M. Wagan. 2010. Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity Assessment of Agricultural Systems at the Community Level (VASTAgro): Methodology Development. Progress Report. Agricultural Systems Cluster, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College, Laguna. Hamill, A., B. Riche and N. Clot. 2007. Community-Based Risk Screening Tool – Adaptation and Livelihoods (CRiSTAL), IISD, IUCN, SEI-US and Intercooperation. 37 pp. www. Proventionconsortium,org. IFRC & RCS. 2007. How To Do A VCA, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Geneva, Switzerland. www.ifrc.org IFRC & RCS. 2007. VCA Toolbox with Reference Sheets, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Geneva, Switzerland. www.ifrc.org ISDR 2008. Climate change and disaster risk reduction. Briefing note 01. International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. United Nations, Geneva Switzerland. September 2008. www.ipcc.ch, www.unfccc.int, www.unisdr.org, www.preventionweb.net, www.emdat.be, www.un.org/climatechange/. ISDR 2008. Adaptation to Climate Change by Reducing Disaster Risks: Country Practices and Lessons. Briefing note 02. International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. United Nations, Geneva Switzerland. November 2009. www.ipcc.ch, www.unfccc.int, www.unisdr.org, www.preventionweb.net, www.emdat.be, www.un.org/climatechange/. Component 1A of UPLBFI-SPICACC 3.1 Activity 3.3

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Kuban, R. and H. McKenzie-Carey. n.d. Community-wide Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment (CVCA), Office of Critical Infrastructure and Emergency Preparedness. Government of Canada, Ottawa. www.ocipepbpiepc.gc.ca Nkem, J., C. Perez, H. Santoso and M. Idinoba. 2007. Methodological Framework for Vulnerability Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Forest-based Development Sectors, Europeaid, CIFOR and CATIE. www.cifor.cgiar.org/trofcca/attachment/second_annual_report.pdf Opadeyi, J. and B. Spence. 2007. Risk Management Benchmarking Tool, Government of Sta. Lucia, Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States and USAID. www.stlucia.gov.lc/nemp/general/btoolreport.pdf PRRM & DENR. 2009. Vulnerability and Adaptation (V & A) Assessment Toolkit. Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement (PRRM) and Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), Quezon City, Philippines. Smith, T. F. 2010. Towards Enhancing Adaptive Capacity for Climate Change Response in South East Queensland. The Australian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies. ISSN: 1174-4707, Vol. 1010-1. http://www.massey.ac.nz/~trauma/issues/2010-1/tsmith.htm

Component 1A of UPLBFI-SPICACC 3.1 Activity 3.3

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Annex 1.

Websites on Vulnerability Assessment Website

Vulnerability Assessment Tool

www.adpc.net

Community-based disaster risk management: field practitionersâ€&#x; handbook. Asian Disaster Preparedness Center

www.care.org mccaston@care.org

Household livelihood security assessment : a tool kit for practitioners

www. careclimatechange.org

Climate vulnerability and capacity analysis : handbook

www.cmsdata.iucn.org

Climate change and development project, pilot phase climate change vulnerability assessment in Zambia

www.csiro.au/resources/CAFworkingpapers

Climate change vulnerability assessment: review of agricultural productivity. CSIRO climate adaptation flagship working paper No. 1

www.cses.washington.edu/db/pd f/snoveretulgb574ch9.pdf

Conduct a climate resiliency study. Chapter 9 : Conduct a climate change risk assessment

www. Proventionconsortium,org/?pagei d=39

Community-based risk screening tool – adaptation and livelihood (CRISTAL)

www.ifrc.org

VCA toolbox with reference sheets

www.cifor.cgiar.org/trofcca/attach Methodological framework for vulnerability ment/second_annual_report.pdf assessment of climate change impacts on forest-based development sectors www.stlucia.gov.lc/nemp/general /btoolreport.pdf

Risk management benchmarking tool

www.prrm.org

Vulnerability and adaptation (V&A) assessment : toolkit

Component 1A of UPLBFI-SPICACC 3.1 Activity 3.3

19


Annex 2. Vulnerability Assessment Tool Vulnerability and Adaptation (V & A) Assessment Toolkit. Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement (PRRM) and Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR)

Strengths and Weaknesses of vulnerability assessment tools reviewed for their applicability to the agriculture sector of Benguet and Ifugao Province. Criteria Purpose of the tool

Framework

Strengths  Includes enhance capacity and support the development and implementation of an assessment of vulnerability and adaptation to climate change  For development plans to achieve sustainable and climate-resilient communities  Identification of climate change scenarios to understand consequences of climate change  Development of socioeconomic scenarios with respect to baseline conditions, to understand how vulnerability changes  Develop agricultural V&A assessment  Develop detained description of historical and current impacts of climate on agricultural production – baseline scenario  Assessment of current adaptation measures  Determine future vulnerabilities  Determine potential adaptation measures

Component 1A of UPLBFI-SPICACC 3.1 Activity 3.3

Weaknesses (Limitations)

Other Concerns

 No specific climate scenario model specified  Validity of computergenerated climate scenarios  Does not include identification of „most vulnerable‟ groups  Validity of computergenerated socioeconomic scenarios  Agricultural V&A does not include identification of high-risk areas (floodprone areas, landslide risky areas, drought sensitive areas, etc.)  Suggested equation for characterizing climate risk and vulnerability may not be applicable

 Need to clarify how to characterize vulnerability in terms of severity of impact

Remarks, Observations

20


Scale/level

 Philippine setting

 Province, municipal, city

Methods

 Use of climate change models, socio-economic scenario model,  Survey and assessment of adaptation measures  Timeframe specified  Includes a matrix for prioritizing adaptation measures  Good methods of integrating results with other sectors in the analysis  Includes description of agriculture  Climate statistics  Several agricultural data

 Not participatory  Models may not be available at the community level

 Timeframe for assessment is necessary

 Data requirements may not be available at the community level

 Agricultural data to be collected for Benguet and Ifugao has to be clearly specified

Agriculture related data requirements Others:

Component 1A of UPLBFI-SPICACC 3.1 Activity 3.3

 Matrix for assessing current adaptation measures be adapted for Benguet and Ifugao

 Documentation of best practices is recommended because there are a number of Indigenous and farmer-initiated practices that help Ifugao and Benguet adapt to climate change.  Cross cutting issues (e.g. infrastructure, nonagricultural livelihood as affected by climate change ) must be assessed in relation to agricultural systems

21


Household Livelihood Security Assessments: A Toolkit, CARE USA

Purpose of the tool

Framework

 To provide a framework to analyze and understand the web of poverty and people‟s mechanisms for dealing with it  To enhance understanding about local livelihood systems – livelihoods, economic, sociocultural and political systems and the constraints, vulnerabilities, marginalization, and risks of poor families living within this context – and important differences among types of households and among members within the household.

 Not designed for assessment of vulnerability to climate change

 Not a framework for vulnerability assessment to climate change

 Regional

Scale/level Methods

 Does not include vulnerability assessment of agriculture to climate change

 Rapid rural appraisal or participatory rural appraisal methods  Good reference for describing community level and participatory data gathering technique

Component 1A of UPLBFI-SPICACC 3.1 Activity 3.3

 Not specific for agriculture though assumes agriculture as a major livelihood

 Adapt PRA methods for assessing vulnerability of agricultural systems to climate change  Some suggested data to collect and data collection methods in other sectors included in this tool (i.e. water resources and forestry sector, coastal sector and health sector) may also be considered for inclusion in assessing

22


vulnerability, but in relation to the agricultural systems of Ifugao and Benguet Agriculture related data requirements

 Major and minor livelihood strategies  Sources of income  Farm and off-farm employment  Seasonal and permanent migration

 Limited agriculturerelated data

 To enhance existing hazard or risk analysis approaches by providing context and tools for incorporating a perspective of vulnerability and capacity as it relates to population segments.  Identification of the community‟s most vulnerable groups, where they reside and capacity to respond or recover.

 Not specific for climate change-related vulnerability

Others:

Community-wide Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment (CVCA), Government of Canada

Purpose of the tool

Framework

 Municipal

Scale/level Methods

 Hazards include those not related to climate change

 Collection of secondary data, mapping, scaling, scoring, other methods of collecting the data were not specified

Agriculture related data requirements Others:

Component 1A of UPLBFI-SPICACC 3.1 Activity 3.3

 Methods of collecting the data not well-defined

 Timeframe for assessment not given importance  Terminologies used are uncommon

 Not defined

23


Community-based Disaster Risk Management : Field Practitioners‟ Handbook, Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC),

Purpose of the tool

Framework

Scale/level Methods

Agriculture related data requirements Others:

VCA Toolbox With Reference Sheets, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

Purpose of the tool

 To reduce vulnerabilities and to strengthen peoples‟ capacity to cope with the disaster risks they face  Participatory Disaster Risk Assessment (PDRA), which is a diagnostic process to identify the risks that the community faces and how people overcome those risks. The process involves hazard assessment, vulnerability assessment and capacity assessment. People‟s perception of risk is considered.  Community  Good reference for describing participatory techniques for collecting data  Every step in the procedure is guided by key question  Off-farm and agriculturebased jobs mentioned but variables not defined  Good definition of terms  To assess the risks that people face in their locality, their vulnerability to those risks, and the capacities they possess to cope with a hazard and recover from it when it strikes  Clear and straight forward

Framework

Component 1A of UPLBFI-SPICACC 3.1 Activity 3.3

 Not specific for agriculture

 Procedure for participatory disaster risk assessment can be adapted for assessing vulnerability to climate change

 Broad scope, agriculture not highlighted

 Agriculture-related data limited

 Not specific for vulnerability of agriculture to climate change. Climate change is just one of the hazards being mentioned

 Clear objective of the aim of the assessment to provide clear direction of activities to be conducted and data to be gathered

 No framework. The material will serve as a guide presenting the process, tools, methods

24


involving in collection data for planning purposes to reduce risk  Agriculture is considered as the major livelihood yet not much data about agriculture that should be collected not provided in detail. Scale/level Methods

 Community  Various participatory tools presented  Coping strategies presented  Good sample matrix that can be used as pattern for collating data gathered and analyzing so that data collected can be useful in identifying and planning to adaptation measures

Agriculture related data requirements

Community baseline data contains:  Physical description of community (location is mountainous, includes floodplain or flash flooding hazard, coastal, elevation above sea level, ease and ability to access this community during floods, landslides, post-hurricane damage  Climatic conditions, including extreme events and changes in climate  Demographics of the community (total adults,

Component 1A of UPLBFI-SPICACC 3.1 Activity 3.3

 Most of the tools presented are not geared towards assessing vulnerability to climate change  Vulnerable people not well defined  Examples of vulnerability assessment not for agriculture  Coping strategies not for agriculture  Limited agriculturerelated data (farming systems, crops, and livestock not included)

 Tools on household vulnerability assessment, neighborhood vulnerability assessment, livelihood and coping could be adopted

25


youth, children, infants, toddlers and young children, average family size, gender make-up of the community  Physical vulnerability of the community (trees, heavily wooded, mixed wooded and open agricultural areas, mainly open areas with only occasional tree cover, situation of community on or near streams that do or may flood, river bank, not elevated structures, river bank, but with elevated structures, flood plain, high ground  Food (typical food stocks/type consumed, how families acquire their food, typical food distributed for short-term emergency, food reserves at family level, food reserves at community)  Good reference in conducting participatory tools for collecting data

Others:

How To Do a VCA, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

Purpose of the tool Framework Scale/level Methods Agriculture related data requirements Others:

Same as VCA Toolbox With Reference Sheets (previous tool in the list)

Component 1A of UPLBFI-SPICACC 3.1 Activity 3.3

26


Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis Handbook, CARE International,

Purpose of the tool

Framework

Scale/level Methods

 To provide a framework for analyzing vulnerability and capacity to adapt to climate change at the community level, prioritizing local knowledge on climate risks and adaptation strategies in the data gathering and analysis process.  Analyzing vulnerability to climate change and adaptive capacity at the community level; Combining community knowledge and scientific data to yield greater understanding about local impacts of climate change  Very clear definition of terms  Community  Uses analytical tools as secondary research, institutional mapping, policy analyses, key informant interviews for the national, local government/community, and household/individual levels; with some participatory tools  Applicability of the results of the analysis well presented

Agriculture related data requirements Others:

Component 1A of UPLBFI-SPICACC 3.1 Activity 3.3

 Combining local knowledge and scientific data is important for Benguet and Ifugao i.e. anecdotal experiences and observations requires scientific explanation  Agricultural data to be collected not mentioned

 Guide questions were provided for the national, local government/communit y, and household/individual levels on resilient livelihoods, disaster risk reduction, capacity development, and addressing underlying vulnerability

 Not defined; Assumes agriculture data will be collected in the process

27


Community-Based Risk Screening Tool – Adaptation and Livelihoods (CRiSTAL), IISD, IUCN, SEI-US and Intercooperation

Purpose of the tool

Framework

 To develop a decision support tool that helps project planners and managers better understand the links among climate change, livelihoods and their work.  Uses two modules: (Synthesizing Information on climate & livelihoods, and Planning & managing projects for adaptation)  Guided by key questions

 Focused on project‟s adaptive capacity to climate change  Basic framework for Ifugao and Benguet to be guided by key questions focusing on agricultural sector

Scale/level

 Community level

Methods

 Different participatory tools such as stakeholder and community consultations, participatory workshops, and interviews are introduced to assist project planners and managers to gather information

 Not participatory

Agriculture related data requirements

Synthesizing Info on climate & livelihoods What is the climate context?  What are the anticipated impacts of climate change in the project area?  What climate hazards are currently affecting the project area?

 Agriculture-related data not well-defined

Component 1A of UPLBFI-SPICACC 3.1 Activity 3.3

 Necessary to evaluate existing government programs if they are contributing to enhance adaptation of agriculture sector to climate change  Likert technique of ranking could make the entire assessment procedure simple, easier to follow

28


 What are the impacts of these hazards?  What are the coping strategies used to deal with the impacts? What is the livelihood context?  What resources are important to the livelihoods in the project area?  How are these resources affected by the current climate hazards?  How important are these resources to coping strategies? Planning & managing projects for adaptation What are the impacts of project activities on livelihood resources that…  Are vulnerable to current climate hazards?  Are important to local coping strategies? How can project activities be adjusted to reduce vulnerability and enhance adaptive capacity? Others:

Component 1A of UPLBFI-SPICACC 3.1 Activity 3.3

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Methodological Framework for Vulnerability Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Forestbased Development Sectors, Europeaid, CIFOR and CATIE

Purpose of the tool

Framework

Scale/level Methods

 To outline the procedural approach in undertaking vulnerability assessment of the forest ecosystem and the ecosystem goods and services they provide for livelihoods and national development categorized here in sectors, in response to climate impacts.  Methodology for vulnerability assessment must represent and highlight the coupled environment–human system and the dynamic interaction between these components.  Assessment of the forest ecosystem services connected to different sectors with great emphasis on how climate change impacts on forests may affect these ecosystem services and consequently the different sectors.  Regional or country

 Not for agriculture

 Not for agriculture

 Multi-stakeholder participatory approach

Agriculture related data requirements Others:

Component 1A of UPLBFI-SPICACC 3.1 Activity 3.3

 None

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Risk Management Benchmarking Tool, Government of Sta. Lucia, Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States and USAID

Purpose of the tool

Framework

Scale/level Methods

 To improve the ability of national governments, civil society organizations, and the private sector to proactively plan and implement effective and efficient actions that would reduce their vulnerability to natural disasters and create greater economic resilience when they do occur.  Focus on six risk management activities: risk Identification, risk mitigation, risk transfer, disaster preparedness, emergency response, rehabilitation and reconstruction  Sourcing of relevant documents, use of questionnaire, scoring of results

Agriculture related data requirements Others:

Component 1A of UPLBFI-SPICACC 3.1 Activity 3.3

 Focuses on evaluating the adequacy of current disaster risk management tools, readiness and capability of local national institutions to deal with the risk of disaster  National and Regional  Not participatory

 No agriculture-related variables mentioned  A easy to use and understand survey instrument for evaluating the adequacy of current disaster risk management tools, readiness and capability of local, national institutions to deal with the risk of disaster

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1st Mid-Term Progress Report for Component 1A of UPLBFI-SPICACC 3.1 Activity 3.3

Component 1A  

Review and Screening of Available Vulnerability Assessment Tools for their Application in the Agricultural Sectors in Benguet and Ifugao

Component 1A  

Review and Screening of Available Vulnerability Assessment Tools for their Application in the Agricultural Sectors in Benguet and Ifugao

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