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CON EMBARGO SIN EMBARGO

CON EMBARGO SIN EMBARGO is an instance of high speculation about the territorial potentials of massive tourism in a Cuba post embargo. CON EMBARGO SIN EMBARGO promotes the production of creative scenarios for a highly specific territory with a strong socio-political identity that would change drastically after the lifting of the economic restraints of the embargo. The topic will be explored in multiple locations and scales promoting studies and proposals that varied from prototypical to the particular, from the abstract to the concrete. CON EMBARGO SIN EMBARGO considers Cuba as a laboratory of advanced tourist urbanism; an exemplary case for other enclaves worldwide of linear tourism development due to its huge potential of growth for the coming years. CON EMBARGO SIN EMBARGO is an international residence that took place in the Advanced Architecture Institute of Catalunya (IAAC) from the 1st to the 13th of September of 2008. IAAC address: Pujades 102 Baixos, Poble Nou, 08005 Barcelona, Spain. CON EMBARGO SIN EMBARGO is a project of Supersudaca in the context of their research of Caribbean tourism. CON EMBARGO SIN EMBARGO is greatly supported by IAAC (Advanced Architecture Institute of Catalunya). IAAC was also a kind supporter of Supersudaca for Sudapan competition. Supersudaca also has the generous support of The Prince Claus Fund under the program Network Partnership. (www.princeclausfund. nl)

BUYING CUBA

Nenad Simic, Raul Leymonie


Buying CubaCON / EMBARGO SIN EMBARGO

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+ How will Cuba change its tourist branding in a SIN-EMBARGO scenario? + How will it mutate its current spatial segregation strategy between locals and tourist in a SIN-EMBARGO scheme? + What will be the territorial impacts in a Cuba SIN-EMBARGO that admits cruise ship tourism? + What is the emerging territorial paradigm of Sun and Beach in Cuba´s current CON-EMBARGO situation? Will it change in a SINEMBARGO context? + Will the regulation culture and environmental management remain the same in a ‘liberalized’ Cuba SIN-EMBARGO? + How will Cuba react spatially to the opening of the massive market of second residences for American pensioners in a Cuba SINEMBARGO?


004 005

PRESENTATION CONCEPT

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INDEX

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CONTEXT

019 020 026 032 044

CON EMBARGO Buying Cuba by Raul Leymonie and Nenad Simic Selling Cuba by Raul Leymonie and Nenad Simic Black Tourism by Laurent Troost and Diego Perez American Tourism by Annaik Deceuninck and Mateja Zivadinovic

059 060 072 084 102 114

SIN EMBARGO Cuba Cruzing by Annaik Deceuninck Cubatopia by Mateja Zivadinovic Social+Landscape Networking by Diego Perez Cuba in Cuba by Nenad Simic I Love Gitmo by Laurent Troost

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THANKS! & CREDITS


INDEX


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CON EMBARGO SIN EMBARGO


CON EMBARGO SIN EMBARGO

CONTEXT Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Cuba has been forced to restructure deeply its tourist industry during the so called ‘periodo especial’ by reforming its planning schemes, incrementing its economic efficiency allowing more foreign investments and managing in parallel one of the strictest environmental policies in the Caribbean and perhaps in the world. Yet all of this has implied to put into question if not contradict its own revolution political message.

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The Cubans had to accept as a pragmatic reality that the tourist is more profitable when he is away from the locals, in places where they speak only English and where another currency (CUC) is used. This new generation of tourist developments also keeps the locals at bay by spatial segregation methods, but also with the alibi that the sites are so fragile to accept more people in them. Is in this type of enclaves like Cayo Coco and Cayo Largo where it is very likely that the perfect model of tourist investment-return is being consolidated at this moment. A model that the hypercapitalist countries will no doubt will try to emulate soon.


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Through several interviews with local experts in Cuba Supersudaca has perceived the hunch of the government itself that is currently doubting where to evolve in its near future. It has to learnt to be prepared for a Cuba with an enduring embargo (CON EMBARGO) and one that can suddenly be challenged drastically when the embargo falls and perhaps even communism also (SIN EMBARGO).


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CON EMBARGO SIN EMBARGO

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It is precisely here, in a SIN EMBARGO context that Cuba needs to be ready to confront the big challenges of massive tourism coming from the U.S.A. Not only hundreds of thousands of American spring breakers but also a huge amount of second residences for baby-boomers retirees which could find in the famous Cuban health care system a perfect formula for affordable retirement. Then there is also the giant cruise ship market (the Caribbean holds now 50% of the market) which could reform drastically the way some existing ports operate and can also anchor in new ones. All of this will bring certainly challenges to a Cuba famous for its planned and predictable outcomes; it will bring scenarios of a high degree of uncertainty that for many people could sound apocalyptical.


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The Cuba post Fidel Castro has realized that it was time to adjust some of the current policies related to tourism, and has approved laws that were deemed unthinkable two years ago, for example now private taxis can operate on one side and the ‘foreign’ hotels are at least theoretically now open to all Cubans. Besides this a potential victory of Obama in U.S.A. has encouraged optimism in both sides of the island, and perhaps signals that an irreversible change towards a Cuba SIN EMBARGO is around the corner.


CON EMBARGO


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BUYING CUBA

Nenad Simic, Raul Leymonie

Would you rather go to Cuba or to any other Caribbean destination for the same price?


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Andalucian Spanish Girl


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Mexican Guy


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Catalonian Man


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Israeli Couple


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French Girls


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SELLING CUBA Nenad Simic, Raul Leymonie

Why would you offer us Cuba instead of other Caribbean destinations?


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BLACK TOURISM Diego Perez, Laurent Troost


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AMERICAN TOURISM

Anna誰k Deceuninck, Mateja Zivadinovic


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SIN EMBARGO


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CUBA CRUZING

Annaïk Deceuninck

For old car enthusiasts, Cuba is one large open-air museum. Barely a travel article about Cuba is published without a mention of the vintage 1950s Chevrolets, Fords, Plymouths and Buicks that add so much color and tourist appeal to the island. Since the Embargo no American cars have been imported in to the country. At the same time, Cuba contains a vast network of wide, and above all, empty roads leading the occasional tourist through beautifull landscapes. For the Americans, this diamond in the rough is yet to be explored. Because Americans love their cars. And who can blame them! Having one of the most largest countries in the world, Americans spend quit some time in their 4wheelers... although mostly in traffic jams. The Antique Automobile Club of America already counted 50,000 members in 1985 and is still growing every year. For them, once the embargo falls, Cuba might just turn out to be the next best thing... having the road all to themselves, they can finally indulge in to the ultimate road trip. Nostalgic sentiments and romanticism galore! Hold on, it gets even better. As it seems to be a matter of national pride to keep their American cars running, Cubans have turned into real masters of inventiveness.

For the real car lover this is the perfect opportunity to exchange know-how, learn new secrets, or have it’s own car fixed up. All the tourist has to do, is just stop by a Cuba Cruzing Centre Point, also known as a CCCP. These points are scattered all over the country, on the nodes of the existing transportation network. They function as true meeting points, but also carry out an even more exciting philosophy: the Car Exchange Program. At every node the tourist is able to trade his rented vintage car for another type. Thus always experiencing new thrills and sensations in these spacious vehicles! Cubans, in the mean time, have started alternative commerce at the CCCP’s. You can find minimarkets, local restaurants, a motel maybe... Everything to make the road trip even more worthwhile and at the same time triggering business opportunities for the locals. So in short, Cuba Cruzing is all about the road, making dreams come true and keeping a vibrant national heritage alive...


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CUBATOPIA Mateja Zivadinovic

Baby Boom Tourism The Baby boom generation lived the American way of life: speed, consumption... They experienced the richest years of American history. This project considers the retirement of this generation. Focusing on that group allows us, not only, to predict their needs, but also the lasting of tourism that consider that group. Layering the maps of U.S. with data about retirement destinations, temperature and general income, I came to the conclusion that combination of climate and low cost of living is the winning combination for most of the retirement people in the U.S. As desires of this group are quite higher than the previous generations it is obvious that usual retirement living will not satisfy them. The idea is to create an AFFORDABLE AMERICAN WAY OF LIFE in Cuba.

Why Cuba? Considering that Cuba is undeveloped country on only 140km from U.S.A., with unused tourist potentials, giving us a reason to believe that Baby boom generation will have it’s place were it will be able to live a life with old habits without need to earn more money than they did . So they will live their own CUBATOPIA as place to retire.


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Social+Lanscape NETWORKING

Diego Perez

¿Es posible mirar el territorio cubano -esperando el sin embargo-, sin sentir escalofríos, conociendo la historia reciente de sus vecinos? ¿Existe en sus relaciones sociales, posibles redes a ser re-descubiertas como un potencial turístico? Y puede el turismo, potenciar el desarrollo local? ¿Pueden estas redes, construir un nuevo paisaje, potenciando el soporte geográfico? Es claro que existe una oportunidad, de consolidar reformular un paisaje latente, y aprovechar estas estrategias de autogestión y organización como la maquinaria de un nuevo paisaje cubano Teniendo como referencia ciertas tendencias turísticas emergentes, asociadas al consumo cultural, al paisaje y a las excentricidades, entendemos esta compleja estructura de relaciones (heredera de su condición post-comunista) es una gran oportunidad, para activar un territorio que de otra manera se pierda detrás de los strips all inclusive. NETWORKING: es una estrategia de lectura y manejo (gestión) del territorio “profundo”mediante el uso de las redes sociales, el paisaje y el potencial de un turismo calificado (superturismo) como materia aglomerante. Comunicación, Comunidad, cooperación

LANSCAPE NETWORK Cuba quizás más que otros destinos del caribe, presente una sofisticada red de paisajes naturales, culturales. Playas, Manglares, Campos, Arrecifes, Cerros, Selva tropical así como paisajes construidos testimonios de la historia pasada y reciente de Cuba. Esta red, relativamente bien irrigada es una oportunidad para el desarrollo turístico de la isla, más allá de la postal caribe. COMUNAS NETWORK Las comunas son un modelo organización social-económica, que funciona como estrategia alternativa de desarrollo local, funcionando en red. Por otro lado las comunas son el elemento físico de materialización de los nodos de esta red. Condensadores de flujos, siempre específicos vinculados al paisaje de soporte. Pueden existir tanto readaptando infraestructura existente (edificios, pequeños poblados, infraestructura militar en desuso) como de nueva fundación . WEB BRIGADES La forma de consolidar esta red es mediante organización web, cuba está permanentemente aumentando su numero de servidores. De esta manera la “nueva red” pueda tener proyección global. Muchas personas del mundo pretenden conocer cuba, su identidad , su paisaje así como colaborar en su desarrollo. La www y las redes sociales son realmente una herramienta fantastica tanto para consolidar estructuras, como –por que no- para activar territorios.


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escenario


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preguntas


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herramienta01


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cuba postembargo


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CUBA IN CUBA Nenad Simic

The project deals with the complexities that come as a result of a post-embargo scenario in Cuba – the pressure of global mass tourism industry and the need to protect the authentic local places and communities. The concept of isolation was chosen as a starting point for creating a network of small Cubas within Cuba protected, preserved historical, cultural, governmental, military, etc. areas that would act as a counterpart to the much larger territory which would be opened to the world market. This could be achieved by introducing the unique asymmetrical, hybrid model of territorial management with a sharp focus on what can really make a difference for Cuba in a global market play. Something like an inverted Chinese model. And then, when the major part of the Cuban territory becomes “The World”, a generic place occupied by the aggressive forces of the global mass tourism industries, ever changing non-place of countless theme parks and resorts, what is unique actually becomes a new form of the authentic theme park with real places occupied by real people. In future, these places would become an experience hotspots for new generations of the 21st century space and time travelers.


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I LOVE GITMO Laurent Troost

Cuba is a major destination for sex tourism. Cuba is located in the middle of Springbreak ultimate spots. Cuba is the attractive ‘illegal’ destination for american tourists that love to try to sneak in. Cuba is ‘the’ place of fake cigars, fake rhum and other black markets. Cuba is now surrounded by countries rivalizing in casinos, and used to be the major destination for gambling and alcohol in the 50’s when those were illegal in the US. It would be non-sense to erase this image linked with vices and prohibition. But the current cuban political situation doesn’t allow anymore the flourishment of features that are illegal in the US. Not only the US authorities, but also candidates Mc Cain and Obama, are seriously considering to shut down Guantanamo’s Detention Center. For the first time since its creation, the US Army is officialy speaking of reconversion. Guantanamo is the perfect location for a combination of political systems in one place where all vices could simultaneously coexist! The dual destination Guantanamo-Santiago could counterbalance the other dual destination of the island,

Habana-Varadero. Guantanamo is a very scenic place. The existing Guantanamo has the settings to receive mass tourism : 3 international airports, naval infrastructure for cruise ships, efficient roadsystem, 1 golf and a bunch of fastfoods. But the main interest is the possibility of combining political systems in one place, which would lead to cultural cohabitations never-seen before. Guantanamo also has a strong potential for territorial on-land and off-shore developments, plus an inherent potential for tourism development : bunkers, 6-inch battery, training camps, X-Ray rooms, museums, etc. The negative image of the place has to be forgotten. Therefore, a branding strategy will promote ‘GITMO’ (nickname used by US soldiers). The branding of GITMO is easy in the sense that it gathers all what american tourists look for : excess, vices, ‘illegality’, etc combined with the ‘typical’ cuban tourist features. And the place has an additional strong selling feature : its military history!


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American Massive Invasion Tourism for Springbreak


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/ I LOVE GITMO

Gambling Tourism, Sex Tourism and Springbreakers Movements


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Prohibition Aura


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Politics

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Guantanamo’s Detention Center to be shut down


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Competitive Dual Destination

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Far from the typical image displayed on TV, Guantanamo is scenic


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Advantages of the existing conditions

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Guantanamo’s Mac Donald


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Cohabitation of two political systems

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Existing US-Cuban border


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Potentials for Development

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Branding a new name


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Branding Gitmo

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Branding Springbreak 2009 in Gitmo


To all the people of the IAAC -Vicente, Lucas, Areti, Laia and specially Eli- for receiving us in Barcelona. To the invited lecturers -Francesc Muñoz and Raul Alcauter- and jury members -José María Ezquiaga and Joan Roig- for sharing their knowledge and views with us. To Ariadna Cantis for always lending a hand. To Prins Claus Fund for its generous support To Stefan (the silent dutch guy) for his help and understanding. To the friends that visited us during the past 10 days of intense work.


THANKS! INDEX & CREDITS


CON EMBARGO SIN EMBARGO is a project of Supersudaca in the context of its research of Caribbean tourism. It was coordinated by Felix Madrazo (MEX-NL), Martin Delgado (Uruguay) and Stephane Damsin (Belgium) www.sinembargo.org www.supersudaca.org

SUPERSUDACA

During the CON EMBARGO SIN EMBARGO Residence, Supersudaca teamed up with the following awarded participants of Sudapan Endless(s)trips competition (www.sudapan.org):

Annaik Deceuninck, Belgium While studying Civil Engineer Architect at the University of Ghent, Belgium, she was credited for her critical research on various topics: Belgian typologies, the conception of space and territory by the Inuit, architectural notions in the work of Manfred Pernice, architecture and slowness… After obtaining her degree, she took a Master in Business Administration and wrote a thesis on the influence of scale effects on an architectural office. Now, aged 25, she has been working as an intern in a Belgian office, DEVOLDER Architecten, for approximately one year. Together with some friends, she co-founded the group EPIC-architects and received a special mention in the finals of SUDAPAN, Endles(s)trips. naikdec@hotmail.com

Mateja Zivadinovic, Serbia Master Student at the Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade. Architectural Assistant for the Bachelors students, University of Belgrade. In September 2008, he participated on the COST C23 conference considering the Strategies for a Low Carbon Urban Built Environment. Last year, he was working on Planning Scenarios in Urbanism. His project for the “National Observatory on Kalemegdan Fortress in Belgrade” has been awarded the “1st Prize - Best graduating work about Belgrade”. The competition was organized by Belgrade’s City Library. viver06@gmail.com


Diego Pérez, Uruguay Project Teacher (Taller Danza) and Assistant at the Visual Communication IdD in the Architecture Faculty of the Universidad de la República. He has won prizes and mentions in national and international competitions in the fields of architecture, urbanism and grafic design. He recently won the 1st Prize at the International Competition for the Costa de Oro de Canelones, the 1st Prize at National Competition for the Parque Artigas, and the 1st Prize at the Sudapan Endless(S)trip Competition in Mexico. All of the above are works by the Collective Fábrica de paisaje (thinktank of landscape, architecture & urbanism), of which he is a co-founder. Currently, he works as a Project Manager for the practice Carlos Arcos Arquitectura, developing projects in Uruguay and Brazil. dperezmail@gmail.com

Nenad Simic, Serbia He is a graduate student (MArch) at the Faculty of Architecture - Belgrade where he also completed his undergraduate studies (BArch). He has taken part in international architectural competitions and has won several awards (International Federation for Housing and Planning (IFHP) Honorable mention, Yourope - Design of a European Embassy Competition Award and Sudapan Endless (S)trips Competition Special Mention). His works are exhibited at the World Architecture Biennale in Venice as a result of collaboration with Phd prof. Ljiljana Blagojevic. He is the father of eight years old Christian Simic. nndsmc@gmail.com

Laurent Troost, Belgium After his graduation, in 2001, he received the Lambot & Serrure Prizes, and in 2002, the FBB & BSG-FIV Awards. Since then, he has been collaborating with various practices in Belgium, Spain, Brazil and the Netherlands (among others, Rem Koolhaas - O.M.A. from 2004 until 2007). In 2008, he co-founded the multidisciplinary structure of culture and architecture ‘zerOgroup’ based in Brazil/Belgium. Lately, zerOgroup has been awarded in several international competitions and prizes.He is vice-president of the SADBr (Société des Architectes Diplômés de la ville de Bruxelles) since 2002. He has been a guest jury in several universities of Belgium. laurent@zerogroup.org



CON EMBARGO SIN EMBARGO (beta)