The Major Players of Israel and Palestine Historically Relevant (Israel) David Ben-Gurion (1886-1973) Hometown: Plonsk, Poland Positons Held:Founder of Histadrut trade union Head of the Labor Party 1948-53 Prime Minster 1955 Defense Minister 1956-63 Prime Minister Memeber of the Knesset Importance: One of the leading Zionists and activist for formation of Israeli state Golda Meir Hometown: Kiev, Ukraine Positions Held: Knesset 1956 Foreign Minister 1969 Prime Minister Importance: Third female prime minster in the world. The Yom Kippur War took place during her time as Prime Minster.
Historically Relevant (Palestine) Yasser Arafat Hometown: Cairo, Egypt Positions Held: Chairman of the Palestinian Liberation Organization Khaled Mashaal Hometown: Silwad in West Bank Positions Held: Leader of Hamas Currently Influential (Israel)
Binyamin Netanyahu (1949-present)
Hometown: Tel Aviv, Israel Positions Held: 2009 prime Minister Importance: First Prime Minister to be born in the state of Israel Ehud Barak(1942-present) Positions Held: 1999 prime Minister leader of the Labour Party Minister of Defense Deputy Prime Minister 3 Binyamin Netanyahu
Tzipi Livni(1958-present) Hometown:Tel Aviv, Israel Positions Held: leader of the Kadima opposition party Minister of Regional Co-Operation Minister of Immigration Absorption
Currently Influential (Palestine) Mahmoud Abbas Hometown: Safed Positions Held: President of the Palestinian National Party President of the â€œState of Palestineâ€? Ismail Haniyeh (1963-present) Hometown:Al-Shati refugee camp in the Gaza Strip Positions Held: Senior Political Leader of Hamas Prime Minister of Palestinian National Authority
If you are interested in learning more about the leaders and their peace efforts or their beliefs check out these videos: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3QQLSWhp-i0 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IzXulGX4aMo
FATAH stands for Harakat al-Tahrir al-Watani alFalastini – the Palestinian National Liberation Movement. Leader: President Mahmoud Abbas Established: 1950’s by Yasser Arafat and other Palestinian nationalists. Fatah is the larger of the two main Palestinian political parties.
HAMAS stands for Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiya – Islamic Resistance Movement. Leader: Prime Minister Ismail Haniyah Established: 1987 during the first Palestinian uprising. Hamas is the smaller of the two main Palestinian political parties. Hamas has been in control of the Gaza Strip since June 2007.
PLO stands for Palestine Liberation Organization.
Labour – Israeli Labour Party (ILP)
Leader: Yasser Arafat
Leader: Ehud Barak
Established: 1964…ended in 2002
PLO at one point was the only legitimate representation of the Palestinian people. It ended with Yasser Arafat’s death in 2002 and the Hamas victory in the 2006 elections.
Labour has 13 seats and is a center party. They are now against many socialist ideas but used to be very left-center. Before 2006, ILP was a major opposition party.
Likud - The Consolidation
Kadima - Forward
Leader: Benjamin Netanyahu
Leader: Tzipi Livni
Established: 1973 by Menachem Begin
Established: November 21, 2005
Likud has 27 seats and is a center-right party. They support a free market capitalist and liberal agenda. Their victory in the 1977 elections was a turning point and the first time the left had lost power.
Kadima has 28 seats and is a center party. Many moderates from Likud joined this party. Founded by Prime Minister Sharon after he broke away from the Likud party.
Leader: President: Mahmoud Abbas
Founded: 2002 by the Spanish Prime Minister Aznar
Prime Minister: Salam Fayyad Established: May 4, 1994 Population: 4,136,540 People The Gaza-Jericho agreement led to the creation of this. It governs part of the Gaza Strip and West Bank.
The Quartet on the Middle East is also known as the Diplomatic Quartet or Madrid Quartet. It is a foursome of nations: The United Nations, The United States, The European Union, and Russia. They make efforts to keep peace and resolve the Israel-Palestine conflict.
Arab League founded which strongly opposed the Jewish state of Palestine.
British encourage British encourage the Arab the Arab Hashemite tribe Hashemite tribe to rebel against to rebel against the Ottoman the Ottoman Empire. They Empire. They pledge to offer to pledge to offer to support them in support them in their efforts. their efforts.
The President of Egypt nationalizes the Suez Canal, which was privately owned. Israel, Britain and France attack parts of the peninsula and canal. The US avoids this conflict to avoid beginnings of Cold War.
Haj Amin al-Husseini, Grand Mufti of Jerusalem gets getsexiled exiled out of his own country by Britain.
During these years, Jewish and Arabs do not get along well and they fight. The first fight was in 1929 over Jerusalem's Western Wall and the second major outbreak in fights was in 1936 to stop Jewish immigration.
The UN Passes Resolution 194. It says that all refugees should be able to return at the earliest date possible.
The Arab League approves the Khartoum Resolution. "No peace with Israel"
Population of Jews in Palestine reaches 1.2 million.
Arab- Israeli War.
"No recognition of Israel"
19 19 46
Hitler introduces Nuremberg Race Laws which cause Jews to flee to Palestine and The Balfour Declaration spurs Jewish immigration and lays the foundation for the eventual establishment
Mandate Period Diplomacy and Diplomacy and Radicalization Radicalization
British troops move out and fights break out. WWII: many Jews flee from Europe to Palestine to avoid being a victim of the Holocaust.
The British propose a two state solution. One Jewish state and one Arab state. Approved by the Jews but not the Arabs.
The Palestine Liberation Organization is founded by the AL and declares the Balfour Declaration null and void.
Israel Knesset passes the Law of Return allowing Jews to become automatic citizens of Israel.
The Arab-Israeli War Diplomacy and Intifada
Terrorists demand the release of Palestinian Prisoners ate the Munich Olympics.
Sheikh Ahmed Yassin creates Hamas which is a violent offshoot of Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood. The organization calls for Muslims to liberate the territory through violent jihad.
PLO Extremists hijack a flight out of Tel Aviv airport. They demand for the release of Palestinian prisoners in Israel.
U.S. President Bill Clinton hosts two weeks of intense Israeli-Palestinian negotiations at Camp David. Palestinian President Arafat does not accept the deal.
A suicide bomber detonates a van filled with explosives in front of the U.S. Embassy. This was the beginning works of Hezbollah.
U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger employs "Shuttle Diplomacy", serving as a mediator between hostile states.
After Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, the U.S. enters the Persian Gulf War. Iraq fires missiles at Israeli population centers and U.S. bases.
The 9/11 terrorist attacks on the United States force Washington to rethink its posture toward the Middle East. Israel begins construction of a barrier separating Israel from the West Bank.
Jordan’s King Hussein cedes to the PLO all his country’s territorial claims. US officials help end hostilities between Lebanon and Israel.
Israel begins withdrawal of nine thousand Jews from settlements in Gaza.
The Oslo Accords is a treaty between the PLO and Israel resulting in each side officially recognizing the other and renouncing the use of violence. Oslo II is created in 1995.
After twenty-seven years in exile, Yasir Arafat returns to Gaza, where he takes rein once again.
Israel invades Lebanon because of the raids on Israel by the PLO. The Palestinian National Council and the PLO ratifies a ten-point political program aimed at establishing a Palestinian State.
Israel mounts an incursion into the Gaza Strip.
Intifada: The first Palestinian uprising begins throughout the occupied West Bank and Gaza. They attacked Israeli Defense Forces and these acts became symbolic for the Palestinians.
Anwar Sadat from Egypt and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin meet at Camp David and begin to set the stage for and Egypt Israeli peace Treaty the following year.
PLO terrorists invaded an Italian cruise ship named the Achille Lauro. They killed a Jewish U.S. tourist and demanded the release of Palestinian prisoners.
George W. Bush becomes president and announces he will not appoint a Middle East envoy.
Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin is assassinated.
The Madrid peace conference establishes a framework for Israel-Jordan and Israeli-Palestinian peace agreements. Israel and Jordan agree to work together toward a “just, lasting and comprehensive peace.”
U.S. President George W. Bush hosts a conference aimed at restarting
Mahmoud Abbas is appointed Palestinian prime minister. Bush outlines a "Road Map for Peace" which outlines specific benchmarks for progress.
8 Yasir Arafat falls ill and Palestinians elect Mahmoud Abbas. Created By: Louis Yorey
Location: Eastern Coast of Mediterranean Sea Area: 139 Square Miles Population: 1.5 Million People The Gaza Strip was created in 1949 as a result of the Arab-Israeli War in 1948. It was originally intended to be part of a new Arab state. At first, it was under Egyptian control but after the six-day war, Israel took over. In 1994, Palestinian Authority took over and today,
Hamas is in control
Location: Land Locked; Eastern part of Palestinian Territories Area: 5,640 Square Kilometers Population: 2,345,000 People Before WWI, the West Bank was under the Ottoman rule. In 1920, due to the San Remo conference, the British Mandate of Palestine gained control of this area, including modern day Jordan and Israel. After the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, Jordan took control. The six day war led to Israeli control but, with the exception of East Jerusalem, Israel did not annex the area.
Location: Sharing borders with Israel and Syria Area: 1,800 Square Kilometers Population: 117,900 People Formerly known as the Syrian Heights. ¾ of the area is controlled by Israel and the rest by Syria. Israel has had control since the six day war. In 1981, Israel's Golan Heights Law made it so Israel’s "laws, jurisdiction and administration” applied to Golan Heights. UNSCR 242 stating that Golan Heights is Israeli occupied still applies today.
Location: Borders Israel, West Bank and Jordan Area: 41,650 Square Kilometers Also Known As: The Salt Sea
The Dead Sea’s surface and shores are the lowest on Earth’s surface on dry land. It gets its water from the Jordan River. It is one of the largest and saltiest bodies of water on Earth. This makes it impossible for any 9 thing to live in it, hence its name.
Location: Southwest Asia, flows to Dead Sea Area: 156 Miles Long The Jordan River is one of the most sacred rivers on Earth. In Christian tradition, Jesus was baptized here. In Judaism, the river is the eastern border of “The land of Israel.”
Location: between the Sinai and Arabian peninsulas Area: 13 Kilometers Wide
The Straits of Tiran are narrow sea passages that separate the Gulf of Aqaba from the Red Sea. They provide Jordan’s only seaport of Aqaba and Jordan’s only Indian Ocean Seaport. During the Suez Crisis and The Six Day War, the Egyptian’s blockade of the Straits for Israeli ships was a catalyst to the wars.
Location: Israel Location: Southern Israel
Area: 125.1 Kilometers Squared
Area: 13,000 Square Kilometers
Population: 763,800 People
85% of the Negev Desert is used for training purposes by Israeli Defense Forces. The rest is for civilian purposes. A 1,500 square kilometer area is now a protected nature reserve.
Many consider Jerusalem the capital of Israel. In 2000, there are 1204 synagogues, 158 churches, and 73 mosques within the city. The Church of the Holy Sepulcher, The Western Wall, and The Al-Aqsa Mosques are all in Jerusalem. Jerusalem is the third holiest city in Islam. For Judaism, Jerusalem has been considered sacred since King Solomon declared it his capital. It also was the site of Solomon’s temple and the Second Temple. Fro Christianity, according to the New Testament, Jesus was brought here shortly after his birth. Also,10the Cenacle, the site of Jesus’s last supper is located on Mount Zion.
Location: 10 Kilometers North of Jerusalem Area: 16.3 Square Kilometers Population: 27,460 People
Ramallah Literally means “Height of God.” Ramallah residents were some of the first joiners of the First Intifada. Yasser Arafat’s West Bank headquarters were located in Ramallah. Currently Ramallah is the capital of the Palestinian National Authority.
Area: Appr. 1,500 Square Kilometers Population: 393,900 People Tel Aviv is accepted capital of Israel. Goverened by a 31 – member elected council. Any Israeli citizen over the age of 18 is eligible. It was founded in 1909 and is the second largest city in Israel. Interesting (and surprising) fact: “Named by Out Magazine "the gay capital of the Middle East", Tel Aviv is considered a liberal and accepting city in the region for LGBTs.”
Location: Gaza Strip Area: 45 Square Kilometers Population: 410,000 People
Location: Egypt Area: 60,000 Square Kilometers
Gaza City is a Palestinian city in the Gaza Strip. It is the largest of the Palestinian cities. It was originally under Ancient Egyptian rule. Then the Romas took over. After WWI British forces took over and it became part of the British Mandate of Palestine. As a result of the six-day war, Israel took control but in 1993 the city was given to Palestinian National Authority. In 2007 Hamas took over.
Population: 1.3 Million People The Sinai Peninsula is the only part of Egypt located in Asia instead of Africa. It lies between the Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea. It serves as a bridge between Africa and Asia. It was, at one point, controlled by the Ottoman and British empires. Also, Israel conquered and occupied the Sinai Peninsula twice: Once after the Suez War and once 11after the sixday war.
Works Cited http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaza_Strip http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Bank http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golan_Heights http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dead_Sea http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jordan_River http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerusalem#Religious_significance http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negev http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramallah http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tel_Aviv http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaza http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sinai_Peninsula http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/organizations/f/fatah_al/index.html http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/organizations/h/hamas/index.html http://www.cfr.org/publication/8912/israels_political_system.html#p3 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Likud http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Israeli_Labor_Party http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palestinian_National_Authority#Officials http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quartet_on_the_Middle_East http://www.zionism-israel.com/bio/biography_david_bengurion.htm
http://www.cfr.org/publication/13850 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Ben-Gurion http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golda_Meir http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yasser_Arafat http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khaled_Mashaal http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binyamin_Netanyahu http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ehud_Barak http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tzipi_Livni http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahmoud_Abbas http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ismail_Haniyeh