Impact Of Technology
1. Introduction For over two decades, the use of personal computers has pervaded our society. Their value as a tool for information management, science, mathematics, graphics and business is now widely recognized. With this technology has come a new and different set of spatial and environmental constraints that must be recognized and incorporated into our buildings to allow the effective use of this equipment. Spaces that once were designed for pen and paper, chalkboard and lecture are not the same as those that are needed for microcomputers or integrated voice, data and video communications. This publication should be used in conjunction with the STS-1000 Telecommunications Wiring Guidelines and the North Carolina School Technology Plan and other materials listed in "References for Further Reading" at the end of this publication. The emphasis of the STS-1000 is on network infrastructure and the emphasis of the North Carolina Instructional Technology Plan is upon the use of technology in schools and the specific equipment to support those uses. The material presented in this publication has a different emphasis -- that of building needs to accommodate this technology equipment. Many types of equipment, building systems and innovative ways of teaching or communicating can be included under the broad label of "technology." Aspects of technology in schools include such items as classroom-to-administration intercom systems, master TV systems, telephone and voice mail, personal computers, integrated communication systems, energy control systems, fire alarms, security systems, etc. Many choices are available to school systems for these types of technology; however, this publication deals primarily with the impact of personal computers and their interconnectivity. Future publications are planned that will examine other aspects of technology, as well as modifications resulting from future advances in technology.
1.1 Technology in 1970s Science and technological innovations, have not only brought prosperity to our lives, but have also given us a new vision. The credit for today's exponential growth in technology goes to the 1970s decade.
The foundation of technological advancements that we see today was laid long back in the 1970s. It was the beginning of a new era in computer development as well as space exploration. The car industry was learning from its mistakes, while the inventions like microwave ovens and cassette tapes reached the heights of unprecedented popularity. A New Beginning The 1950s and 1960s saw frequent face-offs, between those who supported technological development and those who were against it. But it was the '70s decade that witnessed the convergence of technology and commerce. Computers, cars, space exploration are only a few of the numerous technologies that developed and improved tremendously in these 10 years. Some of the notable inventions of this decade are the Microprocessor chip, Personal computer, Cellular mobile phone and the E-mail. Computers With the development of Intel 4004, the world's first microprocessor, progress in the field of computers gained speed. Personal computers were manufactured as a result of large scale integration in microprocessor chips. These were used in maintaining financial data, playing games, etc. Some of the important brands of personal computers released in this period were Apple II, Commodore PET, etc. in USA and the NEC PC-8001 in Japan. Personal computer was a totally new concept at that time. It led to the development of networking. Optical fiber - made of plastic or glass was another pathbreaking technology, useful for sending data at high bandwidths. Moreover the signals carried by these fibers were capable of traveling long distances without much loss. Cray Research, Inc. proved to be a pioneer in the development of supercomputers as it released 'Cray-1' - world's first supercomputer. Automobiles The 1970s saw the advent of small cars in the automobile sector. Japan scored in the area of developing small cars than any other country. The Japanese and German companies developed cars that were light in weight, fuel-efficient and also environment friendly. They also made their presence felt by bringing in the concept of Alternate Fuel Vehicles - which used fuels other than petroleum. Space Exploration The major step taken in this field was the setting up of space stations on 19th May 1971 and 14th May 1973 by Russia and USA respectively. The 'Salyut' was Russia's space station while USA named its station as 'Skylab'. The 1970s witnessed co-operation in space research between these super powers. These were possibly, the signs of the end of 'Cold War' between the two countries.
Microwave Oven Microwave ovens became popular in this decade because their prices fell, as well as they became more compact. Though, the development of these ovens started long back in the 1940s, Percy Spencer an engineer first discovered, the use of microwaves for the purpose of cooking around 1947. Cassette Tapes These are magnetic tapes used for recording the sound. Cassette tapes gained popularity because of their capability to store songs. Originally developed for dictation purpose, improvement in the quality of sound recording, made it possible to record songs as well. Some Major Technological Inventions â€˘ Dr. A. Jacques Beaulieu in 1970 invented a laser called 'TEA Co2' with the help of a research team from the defense forces. This laser, used in gas lasers, needed high power. â€˘ In 1973 the first Black Box playback - a mechanism to record flight information, started. This system was established at the Ottawa airport in Canada. â€˘ Canada developed the most effective satellite system of that time in 1976, known as Hermes. Today's advanced technologies, like the Internet, wouldn't have reached this far, had it not been the invention of personal computers, networking, etc. Technology, thus, developed in the 1970s opened a whole new avenue for a new beginning in the field of computers, space technology, automobiles and a wide range of other fields. 1.2 The Social Impact of Technology There is no doubt that technological change brings about social change. The Industrial revolution saw many people displaced from their land, to find work in crowded city factories. Serfdom was abolished and the population shifted from villages to the cities. Strong family ties, self sufficiency and the right to occupy land were replaced with uncertain tenancy of land, dependency on trade and a weakening of the family unit. Economically, goods and money abounded, and trade flourished. The merchant class profited from the wealth that was generated on the backs of the displaced population of urban workers. Children were sent to work in factories, in order for families to make enough money to live. The peasant class worked long hard hours in poor conditions with no security. The Industrial revolution led to the alienation of the working class and although many union battles have since led to the adoption of better working conditions, the effects of the Industrial revolution remain. The family unit is even more vulnerable today with soaring divorce rates, high rates of teenage suicide, most of society are either heavily mortgaged to banks or paying high rents, and no one can be self-sufficient in a world governed by free wheeling free trade. Advances in technology, is generally not equitably shared within society. People with money have more opportunity to acquire technology, which enables them to acquire even more wealth. It is also important to remember that war has been and will continue to be the driving force for technology and innovation. Power and wealth are intrinsically tied together. Technology leads to greater social economic division. Laborers are viewed as commodities and expendable. Technology leads to alienation because it can create jobs that require no specialist knowledge. To date, since the industrial revolution we have seen technology used to the detriment of society. The right to occupy land has become a privilege that must be worked for and earned and now the battle is
on to control all the world's food and textiles through genetically modified seeds and animals. The insidious part of GM is that there is no recall once it is released into the environment. Salmon that will grow ten times faster than normal salmon will destroy river systems, as their unfair genetically modified advantage will see all smaller life forms extinguished and genetically modified crops that are dependent on pesticides will contaminate organic, heritage seeds that have sustained people for thousands of years. Seeds will no longer be able to be harvested and replanted but the farmer will have to buy new seed every year from GM seed makers. This fight is more important that the fight over open source because it involves the right of people everywhere to have clean, safe food that has not been genetically altered. Essentially GM is a tax on everyone because a patent will be on every seed and seeds are made to be sterile the following year. This is something to become angry about. The greedy corporations and individuals that want control over our food, water and land, do not care about the irreversible damage to the environment. People and animals that they cause. We have the right to eat tomatoes that are free of fish DNA, meat and milk that is free of human DNA, pigs that haven't been grown to harvest anthrax antibodies. They will never be able to prove the safety of GM food and no long term studies have been done. Nor will GM solve the problem of soil erosion, and pollution of rivers from artificial fertilizers and pesticides. Only a return to responsible organic and biodynamic farming practices will solve these problems. The 50 harmful effects of GM food Courts are not keen to pursue pesticide makers for poisoning farmers, or GM seed makers for monopolizing the world's seeds through patents, (through genetic engineering that not only renders the seed worthless for replanting the next year but also contaminates non-GM crops by cross pollination. Already the majority of the world's seed stock is controlled by a handful of corporations see http://www.cqs.com/50harm.htm and http://www.seedsavers.net ) The internet in its current form was developed as a free exchange of information, unregulated by any one government or owned by any one person or company. In its raw form it was the playground of hackers and computer geeks, who challenged the status quo. It brings about a new era, the technological revolution. The free flow of information has brought about technological advances at an unprecedented rate and has made many rich and brought companies who failed to adapt to a standstill. How will this technological revolution impact on our society? If the industrial revolution is any thing to go by, there will be winners and losers to technological revolution. E-commerce will affect the middle man and allow direct trade with consumers. Efficiency brings about lower prices for the consumer, but it is more accurate to argue that efficiency brings about greater wealth for shareholders, directors and owners. The intrinsic weave of social interactions of trade, can be disentangled and made into a horizontal supply chain. E-commerce will create efficiencies that effectively remove the need for a long supply chain but at the expense of social relationships. The effect of e-commerce and the internet will impact on every society on the earth. Already, the barriers of trade between individuals in different countries are non-existent. Company contact details are searchable through powerful search engines, and trade can commerce between two individuals who would otherwise never have met. The internet dissolves national boundaries, and the consequences for cities that have developed as centers of administration and trade will be disastrous, if they do not embrace the technological advances in communication and trade that the internet brings. While at the same time, free trade means fierce competition without the protection of award wages. People are reduced to consumers and suppliers. Resisting the tide of technological change is impossible. Of course it is possible to do business without a website or email or mobile phone or a fax machine. People have been doing business well before any of these gadgets were invented. But business today is about competition, and technology is about leverage. Technology can lead to alienation if it is not widely dispersed in society. The Industrial age saw the concentration of technology in the hands of the rich and powerful, allowing
them to dominate and subdue the population into harsh working conditions and the social impact of the internet and computers is only just beginning, will it challenge the status quo or will it lead to greater population control? The latter is probably more likely, and many will look on this time as the golden age of the internet. Already technology like digital TV is being pushed in the guise of better quality but the benefits to those who own the systems is that they will be able to track what you watch, when you watch it, whether or not you switch off an ad, and perhaps even whether that pizza ad makes you pick up the phone and call for a pizza. Knowledge is power, and with access to tapping phone lines, reading emails, reading your credit card statements, knowing by GPS where you are by tracking your mobile phone, it can be a scary world, if all that knowledge and power were to be used to oppress and control. On the upside, technology has made the developed world a richer place to the detriment of the environment. Machines have allowed people to move away from physical work, so that now in Australia there is 100,000 accountants and 85,000 farmers. Perhaps, technology has gone too far, and there are more people counting beans than growing them! 1.3 Impact of technology on government The legal system is dependent on local jurisdictions under common law. Historically, one has to remember that before the age of the internet, airplanes and telephones, the vast majority of business was done locally. Technology has rapidly changed the way people do business but there has not adapted to the changes. There is no one body that governs international trade. If you buy a product from a local supplier in your State, and it turns out that the item is faulty, you can go back to your supplier to work out repair or replacement and if they don't help you, you can take the matter to local Trades office or file legal action in your state. If however, you buy a product outside your jurisdiction, you must file a claim in the State, where the supplier is located. You can only use a lawyer in the State where you file your action; your local lawyer can only act as a consultant and has no authority to represent you in court or to serve papers. Therefore, we have a world which is governed by local laws and yet the businesses and individuals are now actively trading outside of their local area. Governments are trying to make laws about content on the internet but have no jurisdiction to enforce those laws. This has created havens in small developing countries, that are happy to accept companies that want to run online gambling websites that may be outlawed in their jurisdiction or companies that wish to reduce their tax liabilities by opening up bank accounts in developing countries. We see arising now a homogenizing of local laws on issues like SPAM, and even sending a international letter from anywhere in the world involves the completion of almost identical forms, Governments are making agreements, in an attempt to be relevant in a world where people are able to trade more freely and where digital communication has enabled businesses to work, almost without physical boundaries. Business names and the Internet In the beginning, it was easy to start a new business. You would go to your local business registration office in your State and apply for a business name. If it was taken, you would choose another name. Most people do not realize that a business name is only valid for the State that it is registered in and the only way to protect your business name is to incorporate a company. In Australia, you would lodge forms with ASIC to incorporate a company and you then have rights to use your business name exclusively in Australia and its territories.
However, with the birth of the internet, your Australian company name may be the same as the name of a company overseas. This has resulted in legal action being taken, as companies tussle of business names and the rights to use those names and a court system that is unable to deal effectively with international disputes over business names and has resulted in greater costs to people who want to start a business as they must register multiple domain names, take about international trademarks and find a name that has not already been taken. Even if they contact lawyers to register all the domain names and trademarks to avoid disputes (both local and international), legal action can still be taken against them. And when it comes to justice, money wins almost every time, unless companies want to relocate to safe havens in developing countries where they cannot be pursued in court. 1.4 Impact of Technology on Our Society Think of the days when there were no computers and no modern means of transport. Human life was highly restricted due to the unavailability of technological applications. Daily life involved a lot of physical activity. The life of the common man of those times was not as luxurious as that of the modern times, but he was more active. Daily exercise was integrated in the routine physical activities. It was contrary to the lifestyle of today, which carries no time slot for rigorous exercise and carries laze and inactivity. We think of technology as a boon to society. I am afraid; this is not completely true. The Internet has bred many unethical practices like hacking, spamming and phasing. Internet crime is on the rise. The Internet, being an open platform for expression, lacks regulation. There is no regulation on the content displayed over websites. Internet gambling facilities have brought casinos, a click away. Exposure to the Internet technology from an early age has resulted in children and youngsters addicted to it. Think of the days when there were no online messengers, no emails and no cell phones. Indeed the cellular technology created the miracle of enabling communication over the wireless media. The communication facilities provided by the Internet worked wonders in speeding long-distance communication but also deprived mankind of the warmth of personal contact. Emails replaced handwritten letters and communication lost its personal touch. With the means of communication available a few clicks away, the tendency of taking pains to reach the loved ones has vanished. Moreover, we have become excessively dependent on technology. Is so much of a dependency desirable? Is it right to rely on machines? Is it right to depend on computers rather than relying on human intellect? Computer technology and robotics have almost replaced human brains. With the developing technology, we have started harnessing artificial intelligence in many fields. Where is this digital divide going to take us? How will our ‘tomorrow’ be? ‘Machines replacing human beings’ does not portray a rosy picture. It can lead to severe issues like unemployment and crime. An excessive use of machines in every field can result in an under utilization of human brain. Due to under utilization of intelligence for a prolonged period of time, man may lose his intellectual abilities and may not even be able to think. Think… One can cherish an accomplishment only if it is a result of pain and effort. But everything has become so easily available due the advancing technology that it has lost its value. There is a certain kind of enjoyment in achieving things after striving for them. With the developments in technology, we may be able to enjoy all the pricey luxuries but miss out on the little priceless joys of life.
1.5 Importance of Technology Understanding the importance of technology is a must for young as well as senior citizens. This article has information on importance of technology in education and business. Read on to know more... Man has worked hard to improve technology consistently to do various tasks fast and effectively. Many nations have succeeded in building great infrastructure and achieve stupendous progress due to developing of advanced technology before the other nations. Today, every nation strives to get the latest technology for the benefit of its citizens. Technological progress is vital in the fields of business, education as well as health care. Let us discuss the importance of science and technology in the classroom in the next paragraph. Importance of Technology in Education Technological advancement has helped to introduce many positive changes in the educational sector. New methods of learning and teaching have made the process simple and more interesting. Computer technology in schools and colleges has helped explain subjects properly and in detail and this has reflected in the overall performance of the students. The Internet technology has been a revolution for the educational sector as it is an ocean of information. Students can search for the concepts which they learn in the books on the Internet and find out more information on the same. This will increase the depth of their knowledge. Distance learning programs have become possible only because of the Internet. Students who cannot attend colleges due to financial reasons or sue to traveling problems can sit at home and study using the online learning methods. Many examinations these days are conducted online which has helped bring in more transparency in the scoring system and complete the tests quickly. The slide shows meant especially for students, are a great way of learning things. Importance of technology in physical education cannot be sidelined. Now, having understood the importance of technology in schools, let us know more about the importance of technology in business in the next section. Importance of Technology in Business Advanced technology developed by some of the best scientists and researchers in the world have totally changed the way businesses function. Machines have helped product manufacturing companies to produce quality products at low cost and in huge quantities. This has increased their total turnover and also the profit margins. Due to the growing demand, these companies are hiring employees on a large scale thus reducing the number of unemployed people substantially. The various software packages available and developed by software giants have made day to day working of firms belonging to all sectors very easy and highly professional. Technology has also helped reduce losses and meet the security demands of business houses. Development in the communication and telecoms sector has helped business houses stay connected at any given time, thus increasing their efficiency to a great extent. Maintaining the important records of things related to the business has become easy due to the accounting software available in the market. Why technology is so important today will give you relevant information. Importance of Technology in Health Care Importance of technology in health care sector has helped us develop many ways of diagnosing dangerous diseases. The vaccinations, drugs and medicines developed with great amount of research have helped to save the life of millions of people across the globe. This has increased the survival rate in all parts of the world. The building of hi-tech hospitals, clinics and health care centers equipped with all modern amenities has also improved the business scope of companies operating in the health care field. The invention of devices and technologies for the diagnosis of various diseases and disorders has helped many patients to get the best possible treatment at the right time, thus saving
many lives. Technological advancement in field of medicine has helped patients from backward nations get good health care facilities. Positive effects of technology on society are evident from the progress made in the last few decades. Importance of Technology in Defense Peace and stability are essential for the progress of any nation. To maintain this peace, a nation should be very powerful on the defense front. It should have the ability to protect its land from foreign invasions. This is possible only due to improvement in technology of army weapons, missiles, fighter planes, choppers and nuclear power. Making the defense system hi-tech is possible only by replacing the weapons working on old technology with the new ones. History suggests that nations having advanced defense equipment only emerge victorious in wars and hence it has become imperative for all countries to increase their naval, military and air force strength. However, the use of this technology should be done for self defense purpose and not for destruction of life. Being aware of the importance of technology is imperative because technology helps us in all walks of life. We cannot imagine our life without technologically advanced thing such as phones, computers, cars, machines, etc. So, we conclude that it is our responsibility to continue the development in technology for the benefit of the entire society. 1.6 Impact of Technology on Education Technology has certainly changed the way we live. It has impacted the different facets of life and redefined living. Undoubtedly, technology plays an important role in every sphere of life. Several mundane manual tasks can be automated, thanks to technology. Also, many of the complex and critical processes can be carried out with ease and efficiency with the help of modern technology. Thanks to the manifold positive effects of technology, the fields of education and industry have undergone a major change and sure, they have changed for the better Computers and the Internet technology have revolutionized the field of education. The importance of technology in schools cannot be ignored. In fact, with the onset of computers in education, it has become easier for the teachers to render knowledge and for the students to grasp it. The computer technology is used to add a fun-element to education. And it goes without saying that the Internet has endowed education with interactivity. The computers offer an interactive audio-visual media. PowerPoint presentations and animation software can be used to render information to the students in an interactive manner. The visual effects provided by the animation and presentation software result in inviting greater interest from the students. Moreover, these softwares serve as visual aids to the teachers. Overhead projectors and screens facilitate a simultaneous viewing of information by a large number of students. These audiovisual teaching aids have brought about marked improvements in student attendance and attentiveness. Interactive media have proven to be useful in enhancing the concentration levels of students. This underlines the importance of computer teaching against textbooks. The web is a huge information base. The Internet can be used an effective tool for acquiring knowledge. All a web user needs to do is to key in search queries to search engines, which are prompt to present him/her with millions of search results. There are several informative websites and web directories that offer information on a wide variety of subjects. Students can use the Internet to gain all additional information they need to enhance their knowledge base. Today, computer education is a part of school and college curricula. Considering the wide range of applications of the computer technology, it is necessary for each one of us to befriend computers. Considering the advantages of the Internet technology, it is important for each of us to gain a basic knowledge of Internet access and connectivity. We live in a technology-age and hence, it is extremely
important for us to introduce ourselves to the new inventions and discoveries that have made a difference to our daily life. Online education and distance learning have given a new dimension to the field of education and higher learning. Today, students do not necessarily need to be physically present in classrooms. Many educational institutes offer online courses to their students. Most of the schools and colleges offer online assignment submission facilities. Students can submit their homework and test assignments through the Internet. Many universities offer online education programs wherein the students can interact with their teachers over the web, access reference material from the University website and earn degrees online! The importance of science and technology in education cannot be stressed enough. The introduction of technology in the educational field has made the process of learning and knowledge sharing, an interactive and fun-filled activity. Technology is indeed one of Godâ€™s greatest gifts to mankind. 1.7 ISO OSI Model International Standards Organization (ISO) developed a proposal for OSI model as a first step towards international standardization of the protocols used in the various layers. The model is known as the ISO OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Reference Model because it is related with connecting open systems i.e. systems that are open for communication with other systems. The OSI model includes seven layers. The basic principles that were applied to arrive at the seven layers are as follows: 1) When different level of abstraction is 2) Each layer must follow a well defined function.
3) The role of each layer should be preferred with an eye towards defining internationally standardized protocols. 4) The layer interfaces should be selected to reduce the information flow across the interfaces. The OSI model itself is not network architecture because in each layer it does not define the exact services and protocols to be used. It just tells function of each layer. However, ISO has also created standard for all the layers, although these are not part of the reference model itself. Each one has been defined as separate International standards. Different layers of ISO OSI model are as follows 1) Physical Layer The physical layer is related with delivering raw bits over a communication channel. The design issues have to do with making sure that when one side sends a 1 bit, it is received as a 1 bit by the other side but not as a 0 bit. The design issues here largely related with mechanical, electrical and procedural interfaces and the physical communication channel which lies below the physical layer. 2) Data Link layer The important function of the data link layer is to take raw transmission facility and deliver it into a line that appears free of undetected transmission error to the network layer. It achieves this task by having the sender break the input data up into data frames then transmit the frames sequentially and process the acknowledgement frames sent back by the receiver. Since the physical layer takes and
delivers a stream of bits without any concern to meaning or structure it is data link layerâ€™s function to create and determine frame boundaries. This can be achieved by attaching special bit patterns to the start and end of the frame. If in the data these bits appear accidentally, special care must be taken to ensure these patterns are not incorrectly interpreted as frame delimiters. On the line a noise burst can destroy a frame completely. If frame is destroyed the data link layer software on the source machine can retransmit the frame. However, multiple transmissions of the same frame cause the possibility of duplicate frames. If the acknowledgement frame from the receiver to sender were lost then duplicate frame could be sent. It is function of this layer to solve the problems caused by damaged, lost and duplicate frames. The data link layer provides number of different service classes to the network layer, each of a different quality and with a different price. Another design issue that takes place within data link layer is how to keep a fast transmitter from drowning a slow receiver in data. Some traffic control mechanism must be applied to let the transmitter know how much buffer space the receiver has at the moment. Frequently, this flow control and the error handling are incorporated. Broadcast networks possess some additional issue in the data link layer: how to control access to the shared channel. The medium access sub layer, a special sub layer of the data link layer related with this problem. 3) Network Layer The Network layer is designed for controlling the operation of the subnet. An important design issue of network layer is determining how packets are routed from one route to another route. Routes are dependent upon static tables that are "wired into" the network and rarely changed. At the start of each conversation routes are determined. They can be highly dynamic, being determined additionally to reflect the current network load for each packet. If in the subnet too many packets are present at the same time, they will get in each otherâ€™s way, forming bottleneck. The control of such congestion of packets is done by the network layer. When a packet travel from one source to another destination many problems may arise. The addressing used by the first network may be different from the destination. The destination may not accept the packet at all because it is too large. The protocol used may differ and so on. It is function of network layer to overcome all these problems to permit heterogeneous networks to be interconnected. In Broadcast network, the routing provided is simple, so the network layer is often thin or even nonexistent. 4) Transport Layer Its main function is to take data from the session layer and divide the data into smaller units and pass these to the network layer and check that the pieces all arrive correctly at the other end. Transport layer perform all this function efficiently and in such way that separates the upper layers from the inevitable changes in the hardware technology. The transport layer creates a distinct network connection under normal condition for each transport connection required by the session layer. If the transport connection needs a high throughput then the transport layer might create multiple network connection, dividing the data among the network connection to improve throughput. On the other hand if creating or maintaining a network connection is expensive then in order to reduce the cost the transport layer might multiplex several transport connections onto the same network connection. It makes the multiplexing transparent to the session layer. It also determines what type of services to provide to upper session layer and indirectly to users of the network. The transport connection must be an error free point to point channel that transports message
or bytes the order in which they sent. Other transport services are delivery of isolated messages with no guarantee about the order of delivery and broadcasting of message to multiple destinations. It is a true end to end layer from source to destination. 5) Session layer The session layer permits users to establish session on different machines. A session permits ordinary data transfer as does the transport layer but it also offers enhanced services useful in some applications. A session is used to permit user to log into a remote timesharing system or to transfer a file between two machines. Session layer also provide a service to manage dialogue control. Sessions permit traffic to go in dual directions at the same time or in only one direction at a time, the session layer also keeps track of whose turn it is. Token management is another session service. It is vital that both sides do not attempt the same operation for some protocol at the same time. The session layer provides tokens to manage these activities that can be exchanged. Only the station having token may perform the critical operation. Synchronization is important session service. The session layer offers a way to insert checkpoints into the data stream so that after a crash only the data transferred after the last checkpoint have to be repeated. 6) Presentation Layer The presentation layer carry out certain functions that are requested sufficiently often to warrant finding a general solution to them, rater than letting each user solve the problems. It deals with syntax and semantics of the information transmitted. It manages abstract structure and converts from the representation used inside the computer to the network standard representation and back. 7) Application Layer The application layer consists of number of protocols that are commonly required. It performs the function of file transfer. Different file systems represent different file naming conventions and different way of representing text lines. Application layer transfer a file between two different systems which requires handling incompatibilities. It also provides electronic mail, job entry, directory lookup and various other general purpose facilities. 2.1 Positive Effects of Technology on Society Technology runs in the veins of society. It is the fuel that drives our lives. It is an integral part of daily life. It has definitely benefited society. It has brought luxury in the life of the common man. The automation brought about by technology has saved human effort and time to a large extent. It has brought distant places closer and simplified information access. Let us look at some of the important areas, where technology has brought about a positive change. Positive Effects of Technology on Society Technology has automated many of the critical processes in the industry as well the household. The electronic gadgets that have entered the homes of the common man have saved him from the daily household work. The automobile industry and technology are almost interwoven. Times have witnessed this industry
evolve from mechanical scooters to automated aircrafts. Animals were the only modes of transport in the olden days. Technology was the driving force behind the creation and design of the modern-day automobiles. Bicycles evolved into scooters and sports bikes. The idea of having four-wheeled modes of transport gave rise to the creation of cars. Modes of air and water transport came up, thanks to technology. Machines have automated many of the crucial industrial processes. Machines are now taking up many of the mundane jobs that were once executed by human workers. Technology has evolved to an extent where machines can perform tasks that are physically inaccessible to man. The use of advanced technologies like robotics and artificial intelligence has proved helpful in life-risking tasks like mining and space exploration. The computer technology, needless to say, has changed the face of the world. Computers can store, organize and manage huge amounts of data. They can process large amounts of information. Computers have given rise to the software industry, one of the most progressive industries of the world. The Internet that seeded from the computer networking concepts is the most effective communication platform and the largest information base existing today. The Internet has brought an important positive change to the entertainment and advertising industry. Advertisements can reach the masses within seconds over the Internet. The entertainment media has progressed only because of the advancements in technology. The digitization of information has made it possible for us to store it in a compact form. Digitization enriches the quality of information storage. Digital voice and digital images are of a higher quality. Digital cameras and digital television provide their users with an enriched picture quality, thus bettering their experience with technology. Cellular communication has revolutionized the communication industry. The conventional telephone, also a piece of technology, was one of the earliest technological developments in communication. Mobile phones have broadened the horizons of communication by enabling convenient long-distance calling. Satellite communication is another important dimension of technology. Satellite TVs and satellite radios have eased the broadcasting of events across the globe. These were only a few of the fields influenced by technology. It is almost impossible to enlist all the positive effects of technology on society. This was just a glimpse of the real big picture. 2.2 Technology So Important Today Considering the pace at which technology is advancing, it has become necessary to understand the importance of technology so that we can keep up with the racing time. Technology has become important in the fast life of today. It is technology, which has sped up our lives; it is technology, which has brought distant locations closer and made the world a smaller place to live. After the discovery of electricity, technology was employed to bring electricity to households in every corner of the world. The world could light up in the dark, thanks to the effective generation and distribution of electricity. The application of technology led to the use of renewable energy resources for the production of electricity. Hydropower, solar energy, wind energy and other natural sources of energy started being used. It was due to the advancements in technology that water from natural water resources could reach homes through robust water storage and transmission systems. It was due to technology that food
could be processed and preserved. It became easy for us to satisfy our basic needs because of technology. We can lead a luxurious life, thanks to technology. Technology brought a huge change to civil engineering and architecture. Underwater civil structures and tall buildings scraping the sky could be built, thanks to technology. The different types of constructions like mobile homes, earthquake-resistant buildings and modular homes could be created due to advancing technology. Businesses, small and big, need technology to be part of their infrastructure. Expansion by companies takes place by means of technology. Technological development gives organizations the strength to spread their wings far and wide. Technology coupled with human intellect gives businesses the strength to leap ahead of time. Technology has revolutionized communication. Communication systems have evolved from pigeons carrying messages across countries, right up to emails and instant messages that travel long distances in seconds. Cellular technology and satellite communication has taken the place of the conventional landline connections. Computer networking has facilitated an easy exchange of information across the globe. The Internet has turned out being an excellent communication platform. You may like to read about the history of communication. Satellite communication has brought about a positive change to the entertainment industry. Channels from all over the world are now available on television sets in the nooks and corners of the world. Television shows and films in different parts of the world can reach the masses within minutes after their release. Radio communication has made it possible to broadcast programs that can reach to radios in the remotest households. The Internet hosts an enormous information base. Technology has made it possible for this information to reach far and wide. Online education has set in, making it possible to render knowledge to students inhabiting remote locations on Earth. It is due to the World Wide Web that the information could reach one and all over the computer networks. Technology has brought in automation. Thanks to technology, many of the critical and timeconsuming processes have been automated. Machines have begun executing laborious, repetitive tasks. People do not have to slog to the extent they did before the advent of technology. Automation of processes has brought about efficiency and speed. Speedy performance of tasks has saved human effort and time. Robotics, nanotechnology and artificial intelligence are the relatively recent additions to the field of technology. They are expected to bring a bright future for technology. Technology has the potential of changing the face of the world. 2.3 MIS â€“ Technology Mis - tech - nology means Mistaken or Misused Technology. The article tries to bring readers attention towards crime involving today's latest technology.
By profession, I'm a designer, working for hours on my computer and communicating mostly through the Internet and mobile phone. I have always kept writing the positives of technology and how it helps our society in various ways. But that is about to change because more and more cyber crimes and
frauds are appearing out in the news, which shows us the dark side of how technology can be usedâ€Ś or misused. Mobile phones are already causing disorders in children and newborn babies. The waves emitting from mobile phones and their receptors can cause harm to your heart, brain and reproduction system in turn bringing to life children with disorders. Mobile virus has already occupied its share of newspaper space. Now there are even softwareâ€™s available, which load on your mobile, you make a call and someone else pays your bill. Seems interesting? Then why not circulate porn MMS within your circle of friends. As per the rumors, it takes just $5 for anyone to download such a movie on your handset. Why not use different mobile phones for single mobile card making it unable for you to be tracked down for bills? Do you feel already out of place? Wait, there's moreâ€Ś In a recent case in India, a 32 year old man, living in a posh suburban area in Delhi, was arrested for conspiring a neatly orchestrated plan, whereby he demanded $2 million from 3 parties and communicated everything through his mobile and internet. He told these parties, how and where to deposit the amount through online banking, send him the passwords, etc. Failure to deposit money by any party would result in the death of his/her son/daughter. In another case of technology becoming cheaper for common people, a person was arrested for keeping hidden cameras in rooms meant for hostel girls. Cameras nowadays are very cheap and affordable, making it possible for him to hide them in various places of the girls' room. Predictions are already being made, that the next world war would not be waged in open fields and water and air, but will be organized and played on the Internet. Hackers would be generals, commandants and captains. Keyboards and screens, their ultimate weapons. Your borders will be servers that the other country would try to hack upon. Once you lose control of your servers, you lose the battle. Instead of multi-million dollar deals involving tanks, guns and missiles used for defense, we'll have million dollar deals with Anti-Virus and Anti-Cracking companies. Might sound like imagination gone wild, but taking into consideration the speed at which the technology is changing the world around us, this sort of future seems much closer than expected. Beware of the Digital Virus. 2.4 Important is Technology in Education There is a seemingly endless debate in the educated society about how important is technology in education. Read this write up and get your answers.
The mere fact that technology is the order of the day is sufficient to highlight the question, 'how important is technology in education'. It's probably scary to imagine a life without all the technology around us, as we're so much habitual to it. Using technology in education has become an intense topic
of debate, as many scholars and experts are concerned that teaching computer and technology to school going students can give them access to inappropriate material and they may become over dependent on technology to learn new things. On the contrary, some believe what if they're not taught the advancement in latest technological developments they will be unable to compete in the information and communication dominated age. The solution to this debate will clear up after you have read the importance of technology in education, in this article. Importance of Technology in Education In case, you're wondering, 'how important is technology in education', then take a look at our past generations and compare the life we're living today. Had our forefathers not made revolutionary discoveries and produced series of technological breakthroughs, would our life had been same as it is today? Would it had been possible for us to gain so much knowledge and exchange information with everyone across the globe? And as our world is developing and global communication is taking a new dimension, technology has a great impact on our society, environment and life. Without making our children adapt to these growing technological advancements, won't we make a grave mistake? Since our children are the builders of tomorrow, they must be in sync with the pace with which our society is transforming. When we focus on the history of technology in education, we find that children who have basic computer literacy and are aware about fundamentals of technology, perform better in their college and graduation years. It is a misconception that technology should only be studied by students who are studying technology related subjects. The mere fact is that use of technology in education has spread in every sphere of subjects, be it arts, commerce or science. And while a computer science engineering student needs to be aware of computer programming, an art student is not expected to know computer programming but certainly the art student has to be aware about using computers easily. Moreover, to understand how important technology in education is, one has to understand that technology provides rich and varied experiences to students. Online education has become possible only due to the extensive use of technology in schools and colleges. Obtaining online degree programs has become easier by signing up for some simple certificate courses. A study conducted by an educational organization suggests that interaction with technology for students in the early years of life is better, as kids have an inherent ability to understand and grasp things faster. Moreover, reading, writing, analytical and visual skills of children have been found to improve after they've been trained in technology. The importance of technology in schools can be attributed to the fact that through interactive video lectures, power point presentations and live explanation of science topics, kids have been able to develop a better understanding of various subjects. Video conferencing has made it easier for various schools to help their kids listen to important lectures by their teachers if they are not physically present in classrooms. Special education has become easier after introduction of technology in educational system for candidates who are unable to be taught some subjects due to physical limitations. How important is technology in education? This answer can be best answered by considering the fact that the advent of technology in schools has made the administration process simpler and less ambiguous. School records, attendance and school data base maintenance has become very simple, allowing the schooling system to be simpler. Lastly, how important is technology in education can be understood by the fact that it has become a need in today's scenario. Every job profile in today's work environment demands use of technology. There are both sides of the use of technology in schools but if we analyze pros then they certainly outweigh the cons, because ultimately technology is a necessity in today's life. What are your views? Share them with millions of readers by using our platform, right here in the comments column.
2.5 The Cultural Impact of Computer Technology Some sociologists believe that technological innovation is the single most important source of social change. But just how does a technological advancement spur social change? What are some of the changes taking place due to the proliferation of technology in our society? In this curriculum unit we will survey some of the technological breakthroughs being made today while simultaneously exploring how these advancements are impacting our culture, our relationships and our individual lives. The content in this unit will challenge students to: ____a. understand the connection of the past to conditions today ____b. examine the relationship between innovation and the American living standard ____c. explore how the "information marketplace" has been a catalyst for change ____d. assess how the job market has evolved and will continue to evolve ____e. hypothesize on future trends and inventions in the twenty first century Societies are constantly changing. Some of these changes are subtle and barely noticeable. Other changes are blatant and abrupt. Social changes can affect the values, norms, roles and institutions within a particular community. The Industrial Revolution for example, which began circa 1750, was a true revolution or radical change for English society. Studying the effects of the Industrial Revolution on English society can help us identify patterns or similarities with the changes taking place today. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION The Industrial Revolution was a period of dynamic change and dramatic innovation in the history of human society. During this period, which lasted from approximately 1750 to 1850, new methods were adopted which forever changed the means of producing goods. The development of factories, the introduction of mass production methods, the utilization of steel and the emergence of new forms of transportation and communication - all had a profound effect on where and how people lived, worked and interacted. The long term changes ushered in during this period still resonates today. Of all the places in the world, why did the Industrial Revolution ignite in England. What domestic considerations permitted England to become the world's first industrial country? In his book, The Silent Revolution, author John Osborne warn us not to oversimplify any explanation for this historical occurrence (1). The author points to the fact that England had favorable advantages over its neighbors during the mid 1800s. First, England had a stable but not oppressive governmental system. Secondly, England benefited from a favorable geographical location. Lastly, the English had a relatively flexible class structure. Compared with other countries on the European continent England was economically and socially well off. In most of the other countries tradition smothered innovation (2). The British drive toward economic supremacy involved creating new machines and experimenting with more efficient manufacturing techniques. The greater understanding of nature, a result of scientific discoveries of the preceding century, encouraged the development of a more critical attitude toward manufacturing techniques (3). In approximately fifty years the concept of "modern production was created". This development had immediate ramifications for the "worker" of the era. The domestic worker with his simple hand tools would gradually give way to a factory worker in charge of a complicated machine powered by steam. While these changes were taking place, a tradition of private investment in promising new enterprises was growing. Britains commercial tradition, operating against a backdrop of peace and comparative prosperity provided new ventures with the investment capital, raw materials and profits which propelled the country into the forefront of the Industrial Revolution. The invention of the steam engine allowed new production techniques to be adopted. The technical success of these steam engines translated into greater productivity. Over a short span of time new production methods were adopted industry by industry. Technical know how changed the way business was conducted and altered the relationships involved. For one thing, industries utilized materials and resources which were formerly either ignored, too expensive or used locally only. Advancements in tooling and production caused a flood of quality products which dramatically
upgraded the quality of peoples lives. China clays for example, which were formed into fine pottery by craftsman, could now be made available to the rich as well as the poor. The availability of inexpensive dishes had a positive effect on peoples' health, for it could be cleaned more efficiently than the pewter previously used by the poor. Cheaply produced sulphuric acid was used in making cotton goods, soap and glass (4). Manufacturing this acid cheaply significantly lowered the price of these commodities in the marketplace. The use of gas for lighting was in itself a minor social revolution (5). Thanks to gas, the streets of London were made brighter and safer than before. As a result of these changes the insurance premiums for many buildings in London were reduced. Producing more goods more efficiently was one matter; getting these finished goods to market over a decrepit road system was another challenge. The markets opened up by increased production demanded a revitalized infrastructure and a dependable transportation network in Britain. To achieve this goal the first thing done was reformation of the bureaucratic system of funding and maintaining roads. Inspired by the spirit of innovation let loose during this era, engineers applied new road building methods and experimented with new materials. The results of the improvement were often spectacular. Travel time from London to Birmingham in the 1740's was two days; in the 1780s it was reduced to only nineteen hours (6). Better roads opened a new world of possibilities for travelers during this era. A wider range of people could now travel through England. Road improvements also led to new jobs and new opportunities, such as the traveling salesman. Better roads fostered intellectual inquiry, reduced rural dullness as well as tempting ambitious country youth to try their luck in the city. ____ By the early nineteenth century superior stage coaches were attracting passengers who demanded and got more comfortable coaches and cleaner roadside inns. This system of long distance, horse drawn travel would flourish until the advancement of the "iron horse" in the 1830's made it obsolete. ____ Between 1780 and 1840 the population of the United Kingdom doubled. What created this phenomenal growth in the population of England? (7). Was it a higher birth rate, lower death rate or some combination of the two? Eighteenth century advances in medicine and sanitation, plus a more abundant food supply, were credited with lowering the rate of mortality, particularly among infants and children. By the early 1800's uncontrolled population growth was a major concern in England. It was assumed by economists that increasing population was a cause of poverty and that everything should be done to discourage early marriages. Initially, the poor were asked to abstain from marriage until they could afford it, but after 1830 they were increasingly urged to emulate the example of the virtuous middle class (8). A new force in society was emerging: the middle class. The middle class had grown in socioeconomic power and their conduct had become the moral imperative of the poor. In earlier periods the approved pattern in marriage had been set by the aristocracy, and it was a casual one (9). Now the middle class, proud of its rising standard of living, was anxious to make the poor sacrifice so they too could climb to bourgeoisie status. ____ The increased wealth and prosperity set in motion by the Industrial Revolution caused a shift in values for many people. Materialism gave new life, hope and new meaning to many poor people during this period. As a result, materialism took on new meaning and became a "new god". Mans' increasing self reliance and preoccupation with self also raised him to the status of "god". Scientific reason and knowledge became yet another "god" with its principal agents, the scientist and the technologist. Scientists and technologists were perceived as the "high priests" of technological advancement and many people had "faith" in their power to improve the world. THE INFORMATION AGE Since the dawn of the Industrial Revolution life in industrial and post industrial societies have been characterized by a constant stream of evolving products, innovative methods of production and dynamic means of distribution. The development of the World Wide Web, for example, is a major breakthrough in the advancement of communication. Today, a few years after its introduction, the
Web has become a major cultural movement involving millions of people. One eminent computer scientist, Michael Dertouzos, head of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Computer Science, has authored a captivating book about the future of computer science. Mr. Dertouzos thoughtfully explain his vision of the future "Information Marketplace". In What Will Be, the author gives the reader an insiders preview of the advancements and inventions that will propel the information revolution in new directions. ____ The world of information that we now live in has already altered many aspects of our lives, either directly or indirectly. For example, the millions of web users, from homeowners to Chief Executive Officers, have grown in numbers at an astronomical rate, adding daily to the cumulative web of information by posting their own "home pages" that describe their own specific interests and needs (10). The computer mouse clicks of all these subscribers are opening new avenues for information retrieval, fun, commerce, and surprises at millions of web sites. The theses of Mr. Dertouzos book is that, in a quiet and relentless way, information technology is altering our world so profoundly that the movement rivals the changes brought on by the Industrial Revolution (11). The evidence of these changes is embedded in our popular culture and have ramifications for all our institutions. ____ Most people welcome the notion that increased reliance on computers and information technology will change how we work and how we play (12). But what old and new issues will advancement cause? Technology is advancing at a rate well beyond our human capacity to cope with the moral and ethical dilemmas associated with it. Technology will challenge us to re-examine aspects of our lives and how we relate to others. The march of progress will also demand that we re-think : how we receive health care, how our children learn, how the elderly remain connected to society, how government conducts their affairs, how ethnic groups preserve their heritage, whose voices are heard, even how nations are formed. Increased reliance on computers and information technology will present serious challenges: poor people might get poorer and sicker; criminals, insurance companies, and employers might invade our bank accounts, medical files and personal correspondence (13). ____ In the early 1980s the demand for personal computers was phenomenal. Buying your own personal computer was like buying a car: you would never again have to wait for the bus, much less get bumped off onto the street (14). Because of technical limitations, these independent personal computers could not easily share information. To solve this problem researchers throughout the world began analyzing how to make large scale information sharing possible. Some organizations were skeptical about the possibility of linking independent computers. International Business Machines (IBM) could not believe that the mainframe computer and its connecting terminals could be replaced by personal computers with no central authority to control them (15). Years later, IBM and other makers of large computers would be forced to lay off thousands, having steadfastly refused to recognize the worldwide shift from a few big machines to masses of small computers as a direct result of the rapid development of the microprocessor by Intel and others. The ascendancy of the personal computer shattered the notion that a centralized machine was needed to coordinate and control people at various terminals. The "Information Marketplace" is the next step (16). This marketplace will reshape our notion of "community ", this time among millions of people at powerful machines. The growth of personal computing moved us away from computer autocracy and moved us toward computer democracy. ____ Ideally the Information Revolution will repeat the successes of the Industrial Revolution, except that this time brain work instead of muscle work will be offloaded onto machines. As the technology improves there are many questions that are looming and unanswered (17). Questions worth considering include: a. Are we going to be overloaded with information, like today's web, that force our eyes and brains to do most of the sifting?
b. Will we gain greater access to needed information, along with a greater individualization of products and services, or will we drown in info-junk? c. What should software and hardware vendors of the twenty-first century offer to propel the Information Marketplace beyond its current stage? d. Will computers increase the industrial performance of the world's nations? e. What will happen to employment? f. Will our quality of life improve through cheaper, faster and higher quality health care and greater access to knowledge? g. Will the rich who can sooner afford these technologies get richer? h. Will the poor be given new leverage or will they be left further behind? i. What new gadgetry and interface might appear, and how will we use them? j. Will ordinary citizens be better heard by their government? k. Will our privacy be assured on this electronic network or will Big Brother end up knowing more about all of us? l. Should we amend our laws to protect against this new technology? m. How might war and peace be affected? n. How will human relationships be affected by the relentless progress of technology? Are today's technologies improving the quality of peoples lives? The resounding answer is yes. Todays' technologies offer a better deal for everyone (18). Individuals are acquiring greater control over their lives, their minds, their bodies even their genes, thanks to breakthroughs in medicine, communication, transportation and industry (19). These technologies are simultaneously providing social benefits and undoing some of the environmental damage caused in the past. Improved technology helps to conserve natural resources and reduce pollution. American farmers are so efficient that unneeded cropland is reverting to forests and parks (20). It is not surprising that the most high tech countries have the cleanest air and purest water. The Information Revolution is also fostering peaceful cooperation between people by decentralizing power. Today tyrants and demagogues are disempowered because their subjects can communicate directly with one another via the World Wide Web, satellite communications, etc. ____ Technology has given people the tools to do their jobs at home. People are also forging new communities in cyberspace and developing new relationships with their neighbors in real space. Arguably, technology has the potential to increase individual freedom and strengthen community even though so many people argue it does neither at the moment. ____ Since 1965, Americans have gained an average of one hour of leisure each day, according to social scientist at the University of Maryland (21). Some "experts" even believe that by the middle of the next century, the average work week in America will be shorter than 28 hours. Today men and women have more time and opportunity than ever to pursue their dreams. So why do so many people complain about modern technology? One reason is that new technologies, like computers, usually are more trouble than they are worth - at first (22). Initially, they are hard to learn and create resentment among workers particularly the unskilled ones who fear displacement and are jealous of higher paid "experts" in the new technology. ____ There is no reason to assume that personal computers will remain complicated. Gadgets become more user friendly as technologies mature and marketers appeal to the masses. Today, E-mail is a novelty that can be disruptive, but pioneers are developing techniques for coping, like automated responses when there is no time to deal with an overcrowded mailbox and filters to sift out the junk mail (23). ____ Technological progress has also raised our overall quality of life expectations. Today, the middle class demands privileges once limited to the rich, from material luxuries to cultural experiences and intellectual fulfillment (24). People feel rushed today because they have more possibilities and demand more "entertainment stimulation". With technology we've upped the ante. Instead of corresponding with 6 or 7 people we have 150 E-mail partners ." Currently, only about 40
percent of Americans have computers, but the percentage is rising as the machines become less expensive and easier to use (25). THE FUTURE The future of information technology is exciting. As we approach the twenty first century, experts in the filed hypothesize that there will be more "natural communication" between humans and computers. In order for people and computers to collaborate we must "interface" or communicate as efficiently and naturally as possible. Interfaces are important because that is where people come into contact with the machinery of the Information Marketplace. Some experts, such as Michael Dertouzos at MIT, argue that the Information Marketplace will not reach its full potential until the interaction between humans and machines become closer to human-to-human communication. Besides keyboards and mice, today's interface devices include trackballs, joysticks, hand held styluses for handwriting and drawing, microphones that pick up speech, and both still and video cameras for images. There are many other devices being developed around the world. Scientists and engineers are currently working on gloves that let the computer know the precise movement of your fingers. Experts are also working on glasses and head tracking helmets with mechanical, electromagnetic and optical gadgets that track eye and head movements so that the computer knows where you are looking. 2. Complete body suits that convey the motions of the torso and limbs are not readily available but they have been built (in clumsy forms) and will undoubtedly appear in the future. 3 These same devices will feed information back to you, flooding your senses with spoken information, three dimensional video, and audio and "bodyo"- tactile impressions that will range from the tickle of cats' whiskers to being driven into the back of your chair. These state of the art interfaces will forever alter the way we work and "re-create" in the near future. These new interfaces may allow individuals to work simultaneously with colleagues around the globe, order food from a French waiter in French, even though you don't know the language and even take dance lessons at home from an instructor across town. The application possibilities for these interface technologies is mind boggling. The ability to speak to our computers is a critical part of the interface we will end up with. This will occur for two reasons: a. speaking is natural - the majority of the time we communicate with one another simply by speaking. b. Speech is the interface technology most ready to explode for practical applications. It is clear to everyone involved that developing a system that enables computers to understand speech will dramatically expand technologies role in our daily lives. The applications for a language recognition system would be far reaching. 4. For example, a navigational-aid program in the car could help you find your way through an unfamiliar city as you drive. Another language recognition system on your home computer could guide you through a maze of potentially useful services. It would be convenient for speech systems to act as travel agents assisting consumers to book flights or make car and hotel reservations. A phone system that translates language is also within the reach of speech-understanding technology. The system would work like this: say you want to call from the United States to an associate in South Africa. After you connected with your party, you would speak into your phone in English and you would immediately hear a computer generated paraphrase of what you said, to ensure the computer understood you. At the same time, the machine would translate and present your sentence to the other party. If the computer did not understand, you would hear the incorrect paraphrase hit an abort button and try to convey your message with a different sentence. Speech understanding systems could well dominate tomorrow's interfaces. Developing a proficient system has been an engineering challenge however. For decades computers have been notoriously poor at comprehending ordinary human speech. Many skeptics have written off the possibility of genuine conversation between people and machines. Engineers, scientists and linguists are still analyzing the problem however.
3.1 The positive and negative impact of technology in my life.
Unlike a few years ago it can be said that our life is based on the technology. I am surprised when I see a child of 8 0 9 years with a mobile phone. When I was 9 I had no mobile phone, and if I asked my parents, they told me to stop dreaming, that I did not need one. But nowadays all children I see on the street has one and I give an account of how increasingly technology influences our lives. But is the technology as positive as we believe? On the one hand I think the technology is positive because it is a new way to take advantage of our free time. I also believe that technology makes us work with less effort and also helps us to improve the performance of our work. In fact, thanks to technology, we have made progress in areas such as health, production, information, communication, which makes life much easier. Although I believe that above all mentioned earlier, the most positive feature of the technology is how in such a small period of time we have achieved what has not been able to secure in millions of years. On the other hand technology is a complex matter that not everyone could understand. There is a great difficulty in adapting to technology by society. For our generation, technology is something that is part of our lives since we were a child, yet for our parents is something new to what they should get used to. To sum up I believe that the technology is still in a process of development, but one thing is clear, that technology will continue to be the base of our lives in the future. 3.2 Impact of technology on Olympics
Many technology stunts have characterized recent Olympic Games notably the recent Beijing Olympic Games. The accuracy with which the opening ceremony events were conducted in terms of efficiency in transmission of the programs highlights the impact of technology on Olympics. Many viewers the world over were able to use computer and mobile phones to follow the proceedings taking place thousands of miles away. Improvements were very far-reaching in terms of the extent to which they enabled people view the events in the clarity of their television, computer and mobile phones screens. The high level of
accuracy was also evident in the procedures that were used to carry out the events. Recording of points was accurate and there was no need for controversy to arise. The passive viewed on the other of the continent followed the events just with the same sense of suspense as the people seated in the Beijing stadiums. The 8000 frames per second camera was the tool of the Olympic Games. This is the camera that tells us that a record has been broken. The normal televisions on which we watch the event have 24 to 30 frames per second speed. This is a good comparison that shows you the sense of accuracy and precision that technology has brought into the Olympic Games. It is very disgusting for someone to train for four years for a ten-second sprint only to have the results contested by an opponent. Being told to repeat the sprint would be a blow to the whole event. This is not a good thing considering the long history of success that the event has. Ultrasonically welded LZR cameras were responsible for the accuracy with which the score were counted during the many events that were on show during the Beijing Olympic Games. It is surprising the extent of the awesomeness that Chinese authorities sought to achieve and which they achieved in great measure anyway. Talk of 8 hours of cloud seeding 8hours before the event that made the whole stadium, look like scientific movie scene. This revealed the impact of technology on Olympics not only in Beijing but also elsewhere in the future. Swimming events involving underwater footage needed more than the ordinary camera. Here comes the underwater skateboard camera. This is the camera that enabled you to see with sparkling clarity those swimmers as they broke record after record in the Beijing Olympics. There was so much action going on that you could have found time to ask yourself how those photos could have been shot. This wonder Moby cam just needed to be launched on a skateboard and then driven along the swimmers who had the habit of changing themselves into half-fish. The USB Freedom Stick was the tool of convenience for journalists who had gone to Beijing to cover the Olympics Games only to find the information they were sending to their newsrooms being censored by Chinese authorities. They had to look around for this amazing gadget of technology since all you need to have your privacy guaranteed is plug kit into your computer. It enables the user to surf the internet in the comfort of his synonymy and secrecy. No more questions from agents who know not a thing about journalism. And of course this impact of technology on Olympics showed that innovation can be used to accomplish positive ends. 3.3 Rise of the Marketing Technologist Marketing must control its technological destiny. In the past few years, marketing has been flooded with a deluge of marketing technologies. The logos below provide merely a sample of the breadth of these offerings:
And more innovations are pouring in every day. Five forces in our industry have combined to create a perfect storm for marketing technology: • • • • •
the migration of money from old media to new media cloud computing and the migration from IT to SaaS the measurable nature of digital to demonstrate ROI a greenfield of opportunity for new entrants the high-velocity economics of software innovation
Taken together, this reveals a huge market — growing larger every year — with relatively low barriers to entry. It has only begun to be tapped. The result, predictably, will be an explosion of marketing technology products and services over the next 5 years. It can seem a little overwhelming. But wait, there's more... Marketing technology isn't just software you buy — it's also software you create. Web applications, widgets, Facebook apps, iPhone apps, Android apps, interactive ads, the semantic web, and even the connected features of your products are now part of marketing's realm. Digital marketing has grown far beyond the web site. As marketers, we now manage a vast, extended web that includes landing pages, microsites, social media outposts, mobile apps, dynamic ads and more. I view this as a kind of solar system model, with many platform planets orbiting your central marketing strategy. And new planets seem to enter our gravitational field every year. This year, the iPad and tablet computing are emerging as the latest satellites in orbit. Spheres of Marketing Technology All these technologies — the ones we buy, the ones we build upon — can be categorized into three overlapping spheres:
Internal technology is what we use to manage and analyze marketing operations, such as analytics, SEO auditing, competitive intelligence, and social media monitoring. External technology includes the platforms we use to reach our audience and deliver content — web sites, ads, landing pages, email campaigns, and apps of all kinds. And, in many markets, there's a blossoming new domain of product technology — features that are built into your very products and services, which directly feed into your marketing ecosystem. Social sharing features. Location features with GPS. RFID and participation in The Internet of Things. Purely digital products with inherent viral capabilities. We're talking about a lot of different technologies. Yet in the big picture of marketing, the real challenge isn't the individual components — it's how these different pieces fit together in your unique enterprise. When you connect the dots, do you get a prince or a frog? Technology Decisions in Marketing A number of people have remarked that marketing seems to be getting harder. More fun, but harder. One of the reasons it's getting harder is because of the growing number of technology decisions marketers must struggle with. It wasn't too many years ago that there were only a handful of choices — which CRM to use, which content management system (CMS) to adopt, which web analytics provider to choose.
But recently, the number of marketing technology decisions has skyrocketed. Marketers have more application and platform decisions to make than ever — bid management, campaign management, conversion optimization, attribution management, marketing automation, social media monitoring, behavioral targeting etc.
Every time a new platform or application arrives on the field, the decision space actually grows exponentially. Because again, it's not just decisions about individual components — but decisions about their interactions with each other. These decisions have significant consequences.
They determine what marketing capabilities your firm will have. They shape the experiences that prospects and customers will have with you. They impact your organizational efficiency and competition position. And they open (or close) the door to synergies with your other technology choices. In other words, technology decisions and marketing strategy are intertwined. You can't address one without impacting the other. But who makes these decisions? • • • • •
Marketers IT department Web shops Technology vendors Ad hoc
And on what basis do they make those decisions? • • • • •
Marketing vision Technical depth Right incentives Business alignment Accountability
Marketers have the vision, incentives, accountability, and alignment — but often lack the technical depth. The IT department has plenty of technical depth, but different incentives. Web shops, agencies, and technology vendors may have a good mix of marketing vision and technical depth, but their business alignment has a different vector than yours. But no one party brings all of these factors together.
Now, since each of these players has some of the pieces, it might be suggested that the solution is to bring everyone together for a big meeting and let the answer emerge from consensus. Not to sound too skeptical, but I call that the U.S. Congress Model of Decision Making. Contention doesn't necessarily lead to invention. It usually leads to deadlock or the lowest common denominator. Digital Marketing: Like IT or Product Development Speaking of contention, any discussion of marketing must address the frequently broken relationship between marketing and IT. I've written before on why marketing and IT are diametrically opposed — the tension between marketing and IT is actually quite natural given the way most organizations are structured. IT and marketing simply have different incentives and priorities. IT is primarily concerned with stability, security, economy, standardization, and functional specs. Marketing is more concerned with speed, agility, innovation, market impact, differentiation, and customer experience. It's not that IT doesn't appreciate marketing's priorities — or vice versa. It's just that their incentives cause them to value their own respective priorities more. But the relationship between marketing and IT isn't the only way to manage technology. For example, Apple has a terrific IT department. But IT didn't create the technology of the Mac, the iPod, the iPhone, the iPad. To be sure, they provided logistical support to how those products were delivered. But the creation of the technologies themselves came from the product development team. Product development and IT engineers — even though they're both technologists — are quite different in what they do and how they do it. I believe that digital marketing is more like product development than IT because it is: • • • • • •
More front-office than back-office Experienced directly by customers An engine for new revenue Integral to the brand Visible in competitive positioning A creative endeavor
And that parallel suggests a way forward for the future of technology-powered marketing. Marketing Must Lead Marketing Technology Marketing must take ownership of the technology in its domain. As marketers, you're already responsible for the outcomes based on such technology. The accountability so widely promoted in digital marketing has you in the hot seat for results. It's only sensible that you should have full control over the means and mechanisms to deliver those results. You must be the driver of marketing technology, not merely a concerned passenger. But if you don't have technical depth, who can help you navigate?
I propose a new role in the marketing department: a marketing CTO or chief marketing technologist. The mission of the marketing CTO is to provide that technology navigation.
The marketing CTO would report to the CMO, not the CIO — although he/she would certainly collaborate with the IT department (and, increasingly, with the product development group). This person would be a technologist, with a strong background in software and technology management. But their focus, passion, and allegiance would be to the marketing mission. The marketing CTO would be perched at the intersection of those three spheres of marketing technology, providing the technical leadership to orchestrate and optimize them. 3.4 The Role of the Marketing CTO To be clear: I'm not proposing another layer of management in marketing. I believe it's a flat organization world. And I'm certainly not advocating for a new C-level position — the CMO is the right person to be the unequivocal leader of all marketing. Instead, I am suggesting that technology become one of the vertical pillars of the marketing function — with the marketing CTO as its head. Resources that used to be begged, borrowed, or bought would instead become a native part of the marketing organization. If you don't ascribe anything mystical to technology, and simply treat it as a talent and skill set of the new marketing — part of the natural shift from old media to new media — then this is a completely logical move. I do think it's better to think of this capability holistically as marketing technology, rather than breaking it down into separate specialties. Like the other facets of marketing, I believe the shift from strict silos such as search or social to a more integrated approach is important. There will always be some specialization, but the real potential is in broadly connecting the dots. Now, this new technology branch of marketing doesn't have to implement everything. It will develop some software — particularly the glue between disparate components — but it will also work with IT, the product team, outside agencies, technology vendors, and contractors.
The difference from before is that marketing will now have "positive control" over the full technical dimension of these other participants — not just at a high conceptual level, but at a technology implementation level too. Instead of marketers having to take what those other technologists say at face value — which leads to challenges when incentives and end-to-end business objectives are not perfectly aligned — the marketing CTO can provide checks and balances. Timeframes, technical specifications, architecture choices, and final deliverables can all be reviewed by an expert who is perfectly aligned with marketing's agenda. The marketing CTO is the person who combines marketing vision and technical depth to direct the entire landscape of a company's marketing technology portfolio. Ultimately, the goal of the marketing CTO is to enable the CMO to wield technology as a strategic marketing capability. This can be analogous to the relationship between a less-technical CIO and his or her CTO, or between a product CTO and the CEO. If the chemistry is right, this is a powerhouse combination. Building a Technology Culture in Marketing But while a marketing CTO can be a great change agent, catalyst, and leader for this new branch of marketing, integrating technology more deeply into the marketing function isn't a one-person show. The future of marketing is having technologists seamlessly embedded throughout the marketing department — collaborating in synchronized harmony across many teams. I'm not saying that everyone in marketing needs to be a technologist — just like not everyone in marketing has to be a "creative." But even though not all marketers have a background as a graphic designer or art director, such creative capabilities are deeply interwoven into the culture of marketing. We appreciate them and collaborate with them. A CMO doesn't need to have been a Chief Creative Officer, but he or she must know how to manage and lead such resources. That is how marketing must embrace technology — as a new fundamental building block of its DNA. Technology must become infused into marketing's culture. Arthur C. Clarke, who wrote 2001: A Space Odyssey, once said, "Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic." Any marketer who has relied on cut-and-paste scripts for web analytics or conversion optimization knows how that feels first hand. The danger with adopting such a black box approach to marketing technology — I don't know how it works, it just works, sort of, I think — is that it obscures risks and opportunities, breeds superstition, and makes it difficult to reveal and leverage interdependencies. By incorporating technologists throughout marketing, across many teams — and by embracing their talents and skills as part of the essence of new marketing — marketing can go from being in the audience of the magic show to being the magician on stage, performing feats with dextrous precision that cause your customers to "ooh" and "ahh."
Marketing Agility and the Future Speed and agility are increasingly at the heart of marketing's competitiveness. A key benefit to empowering marketing with its own technical talent will be an acceleration of the clockspeed in implementing technology-based programs. Part of this speed-up will be purely organizational — having engineers directly on your team, sitting right next to you, perfectly aligned with your mission is bound to be faster than the slow and arduous process of constantly crossing organizational boundaries and vying for the attention of people who are not 100% focused on your goals. Managing technology resources under marketing's umbrella will — to talk tech — minimize switching costs and reduce communication latencies. However, there is a deeper level at which technologists can contribute to marketing's agility: introducing agile methodologies into marketing operations and management. Just as agile software development made the process of creating software more nimble than the rigid and timeconsuming "waterfall" approaches that preceded it, agile marketing can accelerate the operational tempo of marketing.
After all, since more and more marketing is implemented through technology, it makes sense that iterative and flexible processes derived from agile software methodologies — such as the scrum approach illustrated above — will thrive in the modern marketing ecosystem. Similarly, since the trackable and malleable nature of digital marketing lends itself so well to controlled experiments, A/B testing and multivariate testing, marketing can re-interpret and leverage the concepts of test-driven development from software engineering to systematically feed continuous improvement. Even ideas from open-source software may be successfully adapted in a marketing context. The overarching vision is that the cross-pollination of marketing and technology cultures will lead to innovative hybrid models of marketing technology management that are indigenous to this new era of marketing. And the value of developing such innate technical savvy will only increase as scale and scope of marketing technology grows.
One of the most fascinating fields of research today is at the intersection of computer science and marketing. This is the emerging field of computational marketing — somewhat analogous to the revolution of computer science and finance that birthed the industry of computational finance. Computational marketing can leverage the tsunami of big data with real-time experimentation, optimization, and personalization — intertwined with human marketing expertise and judgment — to transform this industry over the next 10 years. Thanks to the economies of cloud computing, these computational marketing capabilities will not be limited to a handful of the Fortune 500. Marketers of any size will be able to utilize them — if they know how. 3.5 Marketing Technologists Today If I've persuaded you of the potential of this future, your first question may be: where do we find these mythical creatures called marketing technologists? Of course, few people have those titles today. But the talent, skill set, and experience that we're looking for does exist out there. A whole generation of web developers and web entrepreneurs have developed these commingled capabilities — out of necessity and desire. They often have a formal engineering background followed by business or marketing graduate studies or in-the-trenches experience. Many of them have already infiltrated marketing, perhaps through an interactive agency, a web development project, or search engine optimization. For many, I believe the opportunity to rise to the challenge and harness their intellect and imagination to unify and turbocharge a company's marketing technology landscape will be a compelling and inspiring mission — one that will kick-start a virtuous cycle of attracting more talent to these roles. Within the next several years, marketing technologists and marketing CTOs could be some of the hottest jobs in our industry. And that's good for everyone. It's even good for outside agencies and technology vendors. They shouldn't fear this future where marketers have more direct technology leadership. Although agencies and vendors have been trying to fill this void externally, it's ultimately hard to do from the outside — and it's not really what they do best. Agencies should focus on the creative services, outside perspective, consultative expertise, and best practices that they can bring to their clients. Vendors should focus on making their products the very best they can be. Neither should be trying to substitute for solid marketing technology leadership at their clients. On the contrary, I believe that strong marketing technology leadership at companies will actually help agencies and vendors, since it will enable those marketing departments to make technology associated decisions faster and easier — based on solid judgment, not superstition. Better yet, such technologically-savvy marketers will be better able to apply the contributions from agencies and vendors — and ultimately will have a better chance of success. Again, that's good for everyone. Are you ready to take control of your technological destiny?
3.6 Technology Improved Our Lives It's undeniable that technology brings with it many wonderful conveniences and opportunities. But has technology really improved our lives? This is a question we discuss in some of my French classes when we read francophone literature that bemoans the changes to traditionally simple lifestyles where Western civilization enters and becomes dominant. When I think about how different my life is now from when I was a child and recognize how dependent I've become on technology, it's almost startling. And if you had ever told me that I would one day work summers as a PC tech, I would have thought they were crazy! Below are some cartoons in my files about the impact of technology on us.
Is your life better because of technology? How has technology improved or diminished your quality of life? Do you have more stress or less stress because of all the gadgets and appliances in your life?
4.1 The impact of an ICT deployment The impact of an ICT deployment on heritage sites, museums and their visitors is an incremental impact. That is to say, it is an impact that occurs in addition to, and as part of the wider impact of the site. Therefore, any changes to the dynamics of the site could affect the impact that an ICT deployment has. ICT does not exist in a vacuum divorced from the heritage system. ICT is part of that system. The incremental impact of an ICT deployment cannot be viewed in isolation from the non-ICT impacts and outcomes associated with a particular heritage site. The success or failure of a particular ICT project is, more often than not, a function of factors outside of the realm of IT. Politics, design, and location amongst others play important roles in the success and failure of an ICT deployment. The success or failure of a project determines its socio-economic impact as much as the technology itself. It would be a gross simplification to think that technologies can be studied in isolation from these external factors. This is why it is necessary to understand and conceptualize the dynamics of the heritage site being studied. The model shown in Fig 1 highlights some of the factors which affect impacts and outcomes at museums and heritage sites. This provides a site ‘context’ for the following model which is specifically oriented towards the deployment of ICT (see Fig 2).
Holistic model for impact evaluation at cultural heritage Also, when studying the ‘impact of technology’ it becomes apparent that any analysis is meaningless without consideration of what makes each site unique. Different sites and museums have different strengths and weaknesses – strong brands, exceptional collections, extensive financial resources, etc. Different sites also have different rationales and objectives for deployment. If the ‘impact’ of ICT is divorced from these contextual factors then the result of any analysis can lose its full potential. This is why the model is so essential. It allows those studying sites to place them in the same conceptual framework (McLoughlin et al., 2006a, 2006b). This research is based not only on examples of ‘best practice’ but also on the analysis of examples of failure. As much, or more, information can be derived examples of technology failure as from the examples of success.
A holistic investment contingency model for technology impact evaluation at cultural heritage sites (CHS)
4.2 The Technology Impact Context Changes to the non-technology elements of the heritage site and its wider context can have wide ranging effects on the impact and outcomes of an ICT deployment. Considerable resources are devoted in the holistic site model toward determining the wider impact context that a heritage site exists in. The information derived from the holistic site model can be applied to this element of the ICT model. In this element the ‘macro technological’ context is also studied in order to establish how this affects the deployment of ICT. A number of factors affect the technological impact context, including: •
Development of ICTs: The ICT deployment in heritage sites exists within a wider ‘ICT and technology’ context. At the most fundamental level, what ICT is available is dictated by developments in the spheres of science, industry and commerce. Heritage sites do not have the resources or expertise to drive change in ICT. But the availability of ICT is the principal determinant of what can be achieved. Cost of technology: Global economic forces have acted to drive down the price of ICT hardware and software. This contextual factor affects both heritage sites and their visitors: Lower costs have made ICT technology more accessible to heritage sites which do not tend to have buoyant finances (the increasing use of touch-screens and large LCD screens at heritage sites is an obvious manifestation of this). ICT has become a commodity item in society. As more consumers have to opportunity to have increasingly sophisticated ICT in their homes, more people are becoming familiar with technology. Furthermore, many visitors will have access to technology in their workplaces. Visitors are therefore becoming increasingly familiar with ICT and so the accessibility has increased. This can also lead to increased acceptance of technology (see below). The visiting publics are driving demand.
The acceptance of technology: The acceptance of technology is determined by socioeconomic factors. The widespread use of ICT is the result of complex interactions between economic forces and user needs. Acceptance of such technology is often dictated by the penetration of ICTs in society (the internet, digital TV, mobile phones, PDAs). Acceptance of technology is relevant to both the site visitors and the site interpreters. Reliance on exiting technology solutions: Some ICT technologies and standards are wellestablished (the Internet, PC hardware, HTML, XML, etc), but others are still in the process of gaining market acceptance. Sites with potential ICT deployments that rely on cutting edge/bleeding edge technologies/standards could run the risk of the technologies used failing to gain long-term market success, however, if successful these sites could have a market leading advantage. Deploying technological solutions at the appropriate time is crucial).
4.3 Strategic Rationale for Technology Investment There has to be a strategic rationale for technology investment. This is usually closely linked to the mission and vision for the site. Strategy needs to underpin the management decision making at a heritage site. Two principal components are suitability and feasibility: Vision Vision for investment: All investment decisions usually involve some intended innovation to enhance the cultural product offer. The vision is eventually a strategic view of where the site should be and what it should offer. Once this is clearly defined the exploration of the appropriate ICT for the vision can take place. Suitability • Strategic logic: there must be a strategic logic for the deployment of ICT. At its simplest a heritage site’s strategy revolves around three questions: where is the site positioned now, where does it want to be positioned and how will it achieve that goal. An ICT-based solution may, or may not, be the most effective use of resources for achieving that goal. There have been many examples of technology-led solutions that have been deployed at heritage sites for no other reason than the technology was available. • Site mission: another key question is does the particular use of ICT fit with the mission and values of the site? It is crucial that the deployment fits the mission and values of the site. For example, the type of ICT deployed at a site whose primary aim is education might differ from one where visitor numbers are required to support the revenue stream. • Stakeholders: all investments involve opportunity costs. The potential funds that may be devoted to an ICT project can alternative uses. It is therefore essential that stakeholders support the deployment of resources. Feasibility •
Risk assessment: The installation of ICT can hold considerable risk for heritage sites. For many it is an area beyond their traditional sphere of experience so they are reliant upon external sources of consultancy and services. A typical risk factor is cost outweighing the benefits Budget: Sites have to consider if they have the budget for ICT installation and maintenance and/or the resources and capability to support such an installation. Resources and capability: The introduction of ICT requires numerous new skills. Heritage sites need to establish what resources and capabilities they have for such a deployment. Do they have any skills in house or will the entire project (or part of the project) need to be outsourced? Furthermore, ICT requires maintenance. Hardware items which requires a high
level of manual interaction such as touch-screens, trackballs, and keyboards all require upkeep. Purely electronic hardware such as processors, motherboard batteries, disk drives, can all fail. Bespoke software may have bugs. Sites have to allow for these contingencies and set aside resources at the outset for maintenance.
4.4 Management Decision Making The management decision-making element is another key component that influences impact. There are three components within this element; technology management, the financial and business models, and the marketing strategy. Technology Strategy Cultural heritage sites should have a continuous review of technology strategy (e.g. Web strategy) that can support the cultural offer. Technology Management Technology management is a multi-faceted area: •
Technology project management: There are numerous considerations to be made when managing a technology project. For example does the project meet the heritage site's vision? Is there a clear objective? As Soren (2005: 143) notes “clear objectives and values help a curator take ownership of a project, and feel responsible for whether it succeeds or fails.” It is necessary to liaise with external partners and with internal players (i.e. using human resource management for managing change). Not all heritage sites have the luxury of having full-time staff devoted to ICT management. Some have to share IT staff between sites or have staff that do IT-related tasks in addition to other jobs. These sites may have to purchase these skills from outside consultants. If the heritage site is for some reason unable or unwilling to maintain their ICT deployment then its impact may change from a positive to a negative. Furthermore, deploying ICT at a heritage site is not the end of the story. Information technology, as with all technology requires maintenance. Many sites do not have the skills to keep ICT projects running if the technology breaks down. This of course then requires external consultancy to fix any problems – but, needs to be factored into the running costs of the original business and sustainability model. The following factors are also integral with technology management: Management ‘buy-in’: Much work has been conducted in the commercial business sector that shows that the lack of senior management buy-in is one of the biggest reasons for the failure of technology projects. This is extremely important in the cultural heritage sector because there can still be reticence to the use of information technology in what is still a sector with traditional origins. Without management buy-in projects could fail before deployment or could have insufficient resources for successful deployment, leading to negative impressions by visitors. Leadership: Closely related to the above is leadership. Leadership for an ICT deployment at a heritage site exists at two levels; the strategic leadership that drives the overall conceptualization, and the IT project leadership that manages the actual day-to-day running of the project. Strong strategic and project leadership can greatly enhance its chances of success. Design, installation and implementation: When visitors come face-to-face with front-of-house ICT at heritage sites their first impression is a function of the design, implementation and installation of the technology. The design of ICT applications is a complex area that is usually beyond the experience of heritage site personnel because so many different skill-sets
are required (ICT development, graphic design, ergonomics, etc). As heritage sites have become more likely to deploy ICT to enhance the visitor experience this has created a market opportunity for organizations who design and install ICT solutions (and those who coordinate the various project specialists). Although, even today few enterprises can rely solely on the heritage sector for their business. Still heritage sites deploying ICT are now making a contribution to the business sector. The quality of the implementation drives the potential impacts: An exceptional use of technology can be let down by poor design, location, and implementation. Alternatively, lack of funding may result in poor design because shortcuts were made. This is important because considerable evidence points to cultural tourists as being increasingly sophisticated visitors. This does not imply that all visitors to heritage sites are classified as cultural tourists, but there is a tendency for museum and heritage site visitors to come from higher education backgrounds.
4.5 Financial and Business Models Financial/business models: In the past many heritage sites have been caught out by the lack of coherent, sustainable business models. Capital funds and grants have been devoted to projects but less consideration has been devoted to the sustainability of the project. There is evidence that this is slowly beginning to change – many funding bodies now require evidence of sustainability and business planning before they grant capital funds to projects. For example, in the UK funders such as the Heritage Lottery Fund and English Heritage now require sustainability plans for the projects they fund. There are numerous considerations for financial and business models, such as charging for specific exhibitions, developing exhibitions with the potential to tour and so gain extra revenue, or more imaginative models such as sharing development costs in return for a percentage of the revenue. Marketing Strategy and Target Audiences •
Marketing strategy: ICT deployments do not exist outside of a business system. If visitors are not motivated to go to the physical or virtual heritage site in the first place then the impact of the ICT deployments can be reduced. A significant investment in ICT might form the basis of a marketing campaign. This certainly increased the awareness and therefore had a considerable influence on the scale of the impacts and outcomes. User evaluation and research: Heritage sites have a long tradition of conducting research on their visitors to determine user satisfaction. Visitor surveys or interviews are and well understood by heritage sites. There is also considerable external consultancy available to sites. There is therefore a well-established mechanism that heritage sites can use to determine the socio-economic impact of technology at heritage sites. Furthermore, user evaluation can be used to support marketing research.
4.6 Specific Objectives and Appraisal of the Technology Investment Purpose of technology investment: This is fundamental for understanding the impact of ICT. ICT investment reflects cultural product innovation and can provide a basis for a ‘new offer’. There can be a wide range of reasons for the deployment of visitor-facing ICT at heritage sites. These can include: • • • • •
Enhancing the user’s experience Increase visitor numbers Increasing accessibility Enhancing educational impact, or Some combination of the above.
A key question that sites often want answered is, ‘Has the investment achieved this aim?’ The objectives of a project are key to determining what impacts should be assessed. •
Type/use of technology: The purpose for a technology investment is a key determinant for why a specific technology is chosen? This of course is tempered by the anticipated costs and benefits of such a deployment. The type of technology chosen is crucial for impact assessment. Different technologies have different potentials for impacts and outcomes. Technology that is connected to the internet may have a greater impact because of the potential for access to a larger number of people. Site-based visualizations may have a considerable impact to the visitors, but this may not be translated to a broader impact because of the localized nature of the impact. Anticipated costs and benefits: This is the essence of appraisal. The initial capital cost outlay can be estimated as can the potential social returns and benefits. The anticipated costs may be assessed through the use of Return On Investment (ROI), and Net Present Value (NPV) calculations. It is essential to consider both the capital and operating costs for a deployment. These assessments can then be compared to the potential anticipated benefits that the use of ICT may entail. Once a project is running the impact measures can be used to provide data on the actual return.
4.7 The Strategic Context for Effective Deployment of Technology Strategic decision making and effective implementation drives a heritage organization to achieve its mission, objectives and its desired impacts. The following conceptualization of the model shows how the three elements of heritage site strategy are encapsulated within the model – leading to the creation of a heritage strategy triangle (see Fig 3). • • •
The ‘site impact context’ provides information on where the site is currently positioned. The ‘strategic rationale for the investment’ in technology is the key indicator of what the site wants to achieve. The objectives and the management decision-making are the areas where sites can work on achieving their goals.
In this strategic context the socio-economic impacts and outcomes validate the strategic decisionmaking framework for the heritage site. These impacts can be used to verify if the objectives of a strategic change have been met. They are integral part of a holistic management information system which can be used to determine which strategies work and which do not in the heritage site context. The above model highlights the limitations of assuming a simplistic relationship between deploying technology and its impact. It is apparent that many factors influence social and economic impacts simultaneously with any technology impacts. The break down of the model into elements allows users to conceptualize the process of investment. This way of thinking could be called ‘heritage systems analysis’. This is to say a consistent theoretical model for heritage sites that allows the internal and external factors that influence impact to be conceptualized. If the heritage sector were to understand how various components of the system are interlinked and affect impacts and outcomes then this could become the basis for understanding impact. In this context understanding impact becomes the basis for positively influencing impact.
Fig 3: The ‘strategy triangle’ in the holistic ICT decision-making model The underling strength of this model is its versatility. The underling strength of this model is its versatility. Although the model is oriented towards the investment in, and deployment of, ICT at heritage sites it is fundamentally about understanding the process of investment and so could be modified for many investment decisions. 5.1 Technology Having on Privacy around the World INTERNATIONAL REPORT: Countries worldwide are grappling with the impact technology is having on security and privacy. The state of privacy in the 21st century is a worldwide concern, given the Internet's global reach. Although several key themes emerge when examining the impact of technology on privacy and security—including cyber crime (and crime fighting), the application of old privacy laws to new technologies, and whether companies can share customer data without consent—different countries find themselves grappling with distinct problems. China: "Human Search" Invades Privacy Over the past year or more, a concept known as "human search" (also referred to as an "Internet mob") has grown in popularity in China. Unlike the more constructive pursuit known as "crowd sourcing," where people worldwide connect to lend their creativity to some academic, artistic or business endeavor, human search involves people connecting via the Internet to track down information for one another, often to search for someone perceived as having done something wrong. A prime example of this came last week, when Chinese Internet users began a nationwide search for the father of Olympic air pistol gold medalist Guo Wenjun, who abandoned her 10 years ago and left her to the care of her coach. although the search has not yet pinpointed the missing parent, tens of thousands of Web surfers and numerous chat rooms have reportedly joined the effort. Other examples of human search are not as inspirational. Before jumping 24 stories to her death in December 2007, a distraught Chinese woman blogged about her husband's infidelity, including his
name, workplace and other personal information, according to a San Franciscoâ€“based English language blog about Chinese issues called Fool's Mountain. This information, coupled with disparaging information posted about the husband by the wife's sister helped spread the word about the circumstances of the suicide. The husband has filed a lawsuit against three Internet sites and one of his wife's friends. As of mid-August, the wife's blog posting had received more than 9,700 comments. The use of the Internet to invade privacy and commit crimes is also an important issue in China, as the country grapples with the same "phishing" scams that plague e-mail users worldwide. In April Chinese authorities arrested four men for breaking into online bank accounts using a computer virus called "graypigeon" and sentenced them to between two and a half and eight years in prison (they were also fined more than $20,000). The criminals planted the virus on various Chinese Web sites. When people visited those sites, they become infected with a covert "Trojan horse" virus that installed itself on their computers and stole user identification and passwords when these people did online banking, according to the CyberCrime & Doing Time blog. China has also been at the center of claims that it has over time launched a series of network-based attacks against the U.K., France, Germany and the U.S. Although China's own stated military goals include improving the country's ability to wage information warfare, it is unclear whether the government or independent hackers working in China are behind these attacks. Japan: Phishing and RFIDs A pressing issue concerning privacy in Japan is the distribution of so-called "phishing" e-mails that pretend to be from a legitimate source (such as a bank) but direct recipients to Web sites designed to steal their personal information. The Japanese are also concerned with the loss (either through theft or carelessness) of personal information that they have entrusted to companies. The Japanese government began enforcing its Act on the Protection of Personal Information in 2005. The law's stated purpose is to protect the rights and interests of individuals while also considering the growing value of personal information to government and industry. The act established the measures that the government and industry must take to ensure the protection of this personal data, such as obtaining consent before using personal information, ensuring it is accurate and up to date, and taking "necessary and proper measures" to protect it from being lost or stolen. The Japanese are generally not permitted to distribute personal information about citizens or clients, although there are exceptions: when this information is required by law, if it is necessary to protect someone from harm (and consent cannot be obtained immediately) or if the data are needed to improve public hygiene or protect children. The Japanese are also rapidly developing new uses for biometric and radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology. NTT DoCoMo, for example, is beginning to offer a home security system in Japan in partnership with housing developer Sekisui House that uses RFID tags built into the cell phones NTT sells, RFID Weblog reported in March. RFID terminals have been affixed at the entrance of about a dozen test houses that allow only people carrying phones with a preregistered RFID chip to gain entry. Japan is using biometrics from NEC Corporation and Daon to beef up its border security control. The companies in November installed a biometrically controlled border control system at Tokyo's Narita
International Airport. The goals of the automated border control system include the prevention of terrorism, illegal immigration and other crimes. Fingerprints and facial images are obtained from persons entering the country who are 16 years of age and older (except for those legally exempted). The Middle East: Worries about privacy In many Middle Eastern countries, most people can't afford a computer, let alone access to the Internet, so the security and privacy of information is generally not a concern. Some, however, who have access to this technologyâ€”primarily citizens of oil-rich countriesâ€”are perturbed about the security of their personal information when using the Internet. Social networks such as Facebook and MySpace are growing in popularity with young people in the region, although they are banned in some countries, such as Syria. Privacy, however, is tenuous; it is generally a risky proposition to challenge unauthorized governmental intrusion into one's computer. Although the Egyptian interior ministry in July 2002 formed a specialized unit to combat Internetrelated crimes, offenders are primarily punished according to the country's laws governing communications and the protection of intellectual property. That is the situation in most Middle Eastern countries. There is very limited use of biometric security in Middle Eastern countries, although some airports, including Israel's Ben-Gurion Airport, have for years used iris-scanning biometrics to verify the identities of employees and passengers. Russia: Cyber Attacks and Phone Tapping Amidst allegations that Russia has used its technological prowess to launch online attacks against its foes, in particular Georgia and Estonia, the dominant republic of the former Soviet Union has spent the past decade or more developing common principles and general rules that govern the use of information technology by Russia's government, businesses and citizens. In 2000 then-president Vladimir Putin approved a doctrine that acknowledged that his country's national security was very dependent on its information security. The Russian government claims through this doctrine to recognize that better development and management of its information infrastructure will help the country's overall progress. Some of the "Putin Doctrine's" stated goals are to ensure the rights and freedoms of Russians to freely (but legally) seek, receive, transmit, produce and disseminate information while ensuring the rights of personal and family privacy, confidentiality of correspondence and telephone conversations as well as postal, telegraphic and other communications. In 2006 the country adopted a law creating common standardized requirements for the collection and processing (storage, update, use, disclosure and the provision of) personal data. Despite these progressive steps, Russia's Federal Security Service (FSB), the successor to the KGB, has over the past decade conducted phone tapping using its system of operative investigative activities (SORM). The subsequent version, SORM 2, requires Internet service providers (ISPs) to install surveillance devices and high-speed links to local FSB departments which, after a warrant is issued, give the FSB direct access to the communications of Internet users, according to Privacy International, a U.K.-based nonprofit that monitors privacy-related issues
The U.K.: Advertisers, Consumers Clash One of the biggest privacy issues affecting the European Union in recent months involves Internet service providers' efforts to give customer information to advertisers. The European Union is giving the U.K. until the end of August to clarify whether Phorm, Inc., a Web traffic monitoring system based in New York City, violates European privacy laws. Three U.K. Internet service providers have already signed up to use software from Phorm, which tracks users' Web habits in order to better target ads at them. London's British Telecommunications, PLC, (BT) has already tried out the technology a couple of times on its customers without their consent or even informing them that they were under surveillance. Phorm's Webwise software matches the categories a person browses on the Web with specific advertisers. The company says its software installs a cookie in a person's Web browser that assigns a unique, randomly-generated number to that customer in order to preserve anonymity. On its Web site, Phorm claims that it is focused on "creating a new 'gold standard' for user privacy, a more relevant Internet experience, and more value for advertisers, publishers, Internet service providers and others in the online ecosystem." However, the Information Commissioner's Office—which enforces the U.K.'s Data Protection Act, Freedom of Information Act, and its Privacy and Electronic Communications Regulations and Environmental Information Regulations—ruled in May that no action would be taken against the telecom company due to the "difficult nature of explaining to consumers what [BT] was doing," the BBC reported on August 6. The commission did add that companies must get customer consent before using Phorm in the future. 5.2 PBL Lab R&D Strategy
The PBL Lab focuses on • • • • • • •
cross-disciplinary, collaborative, globally distributed teamwork knowledge capture, sharing, and reuse synchronous asynchronous mobile convergence of physical and virtual work and learning space and place impact of technology on behavior, performance, and productivity in learning and work environments
Cycle-time Impact Historically cycle times have been doubling every eighteen (18) months under Moore’s law. For this analysis Wikibon has taken a more conservative view point that increasing the number of cores per processor will have a damping effect on the improvement in cycle time. The assumption used in the analysis is that processor cycle time will increase in servers at 75% every 18 months. In 72 months, the expected impact of cycle time would be about nine times times the I/O bandwidth requirement of today’s servers. 5.3 Multi-core & L3 Cache Impact Cores have been and are forecast to be doubling every 18 months. Six-core servers are shipping in volume, and 12-core processors will probably be shipping in 2011. An additional improvement in performance is the introduction of a shared level 3 cache (L3) which is included in the chip and is read/write accessible by all of the cores. However, the impact of multiple cores on performance and total bandwidth is not linear. As a conservative rule of thumb for commercial servers, each additional processor adds half the throughput of the previous processor. For some processors used for high-performance computing, the throughput impact could be much higher. Figure 1 shows the impact on bandwidth of multi-core processors and L3 caches based on the assumptions above. In 72 months, the expected impact of multi-core and L3 cache is about 3.3 times the I/O bandwidth requirements of today’s servers.
Figure 1 – Processor Performance and I/O bandwidth Requirements as a Function of the Number of Cores Virtualization Impact Virtualization is increasing the utilization of processors very significantly. Most non-virtualized servers run at a utilization of less than 10%, and to be conservative Wikibon uses a 15% average figure. With virtualization, the utilization increases to about 50% (VMware would of course claim at
lot more, and sometimes that will be true), and with it the I/O bandwidth requirements. Wikibon assumes that the percentage increase in virtualization being adopted for new servers is about 10% every 18 months. The average increase in bandwidth over 18 months would then be given by the formula: 10% x 50% / 15% = 33%. In 72 months, the expected impact of virtualization is just over three-times the I/O bandwidth requirements of todayâ€™s servers. In addition to the I/O bandwidth increase, virtualization will continue to make the I/O more random and more varied. This is because virtualization is swapping from one workload to another, which will often have different I/O protocol requirements. 5.4 Total Impact on Server IO Bandwidth The impact of cycle-time, multi-core and virtualization are multiplicative (the trade-off of cycle-time and multi-core has already been included in the assumptions above). The overall impact on I/O bandwidth is shown in figure 2.
Figure 2 â€“ Impact of Technology on Processor Bandwidth Requirements The traditional forecast based on the I/O requirement of servers being the same as Moore's Law (doubling every 18 months) would lead to a conclusion that there would be a sixteen times (16x) increase in I/O bandwidth over the next 72 months. Figure 3 shows the Wikibon analysis compared with the "Moore's Law" forecast. The result is a difference of about 6 times (6x) the I/O bandwidth using the Wikibon model. Traditional ways of estimating I/O bandwidth for servers should be significantly revised.
Figure 3 – Expected Processor Bandwidth Requirements vs. Traditional "Moore's Law" Forecast Input and output from a server core can be categorized: •
Intra-server o Core to Core writhing a processor o Processor to Processor within the server Server to Server o Local o Remote Server to IO
For Intra-server communication, the communication transport and protocols used will balance the needs of latency, bandwidth and connectivity. As servers get more processors and cores, a significant portion of the increased bandwidth discussed above will be taken up with intra-server communication on buses, with the emphasis on latency and bandwidth. Inter Processor Communication between clusters of servers running traditional operating systems or clustered hypervisors will also require low latency and bandwidth (InfiniBand is used extensively for high-end clusters at the moment). The traditional way of provisioning I/O adapters (HBAs) has been to have separate 1GbE, FC and 10GbE adapters. The trend of shrinking the size of multi-core processors from Multiple U to 1 U to 1/2 rack 1 U implementations will continue. This will make real-estate increasing precious and heat density even more a constraint to improvement. This will lead to the imperative of consolidating I/O adapters from specific types to converged network adapters (CNAs), or to take a virtual I/O approach. 5.5 Conclusion Glaser (2003) found that ICTs have not changed the production of scientific knowledge or the social networks of scientists; but we have seen that this is not entirely true. The general structure of ISSC as described by Garvey and Griffith remains with some changes due to ICTs. There is agreement in the literature that ICTs increase the individual scientist’s efficiency by use of embedded ICTs instead of
traveling to the equipment and through use of coordination ICTs to save time in searching for information, contacting larger numbers of colleagues, and getting feedback. This immediate feedback from a large group of peers provides new crosswalks and connections in the UNISIST model. Additionally, the linear flow of communication shown in both the Garvey-Griffith model and the UNISIST model now has information flowing throughout all stages of the process and backwards and forwards to the different nodes. In other words, the messages and the participants have not changed, but channels are faster and more efficient, enabling more connections and more frequent communication. Informal Scholarly Scientific Communications Numerous studies have found that the size and geographic dispersion of collaborations have increased with the addition of ICTs. Formal communication, whether through online or print channels is still required for common ground formation through training, recognition and reward, authority and reliability outside of the primary research area, and for archiving and refinding information. ICTs have not broken down the structure of science, but have expanded participation by enabling international and interdisciplinary collaborations. In-person meetings are still preferred for knowledge transfer and for getting acquainted but ICTs allow scientists to maintain relationships and contacts previously formed. 5.6 References Becker, H.J., & Anderson, R.E. (1998). Teacherâ€™s survey: Combined versions 1-4. (Teaching, Learning, and Computing): 1998. Irvine, CA: U.C. Irvine. Bellingham Public Schools (2000). Staff Use of Technology â€“ 1999-2000 SelfEvaluation Rubrics. Bellingham, WA: http://www.bham.wednet.edu/tcomp.htm
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Expert Panel on Educational Technology (1999). Guidelines and Materials for Submitting Educational Technology Programs for Review. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Available online: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OERI/ORAD/LTD/final/app99pkg.html Friedman, E.A. (2000). Conceptual framework and organizational structure of Alliance+: A national model for internet-in education professional development. Hoboken, NJ: Stevens Institute for Technology, Center for Improved Engineering and Science Education. Fullan, M.G. (1994, September). Coordinating top-down and bottom-up strategies for educational reform. In R.J. Anson (Ed.), Systemic Reform: Perspectives on Personalizing Education. U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Available online: http://www.ed.gov/pubs/EdReformStudies/SysReforms/ Graham, K. (2000). From technologically challenged to savvy cyber teacher: Lessons learned from participating in the Alliance+ project. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA. Hargreaves, A., Moore, S., & James-Wilson, S. (1997). How teachers deal with secondary school change. In Research in Ontario Secondary Schools, 3. University of Toronto, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. Available online: http://www.oise.utoronto.ca/~fieldcen/vol3no3.htm Jonassen, D. H., & Reeves, T.C. (1996). Learning with technology: Using computers as cognitive tools. In D.H. Jonassen, Handbook of research for educational communications and technology. New York: Simon & Schuster MacMillan. Maushak, N. (1999). Showcase winners survey. (Iowa Distance Education Alliance.) Johnston, IA: Iowa Public Television. McNabb, M., Hawkes, M., & Rouk, U. (1999). Critical issues in evaluating the effectiveness of technology. Paper presented at the Secretary's Conference on Educational Technology: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Technology, Washington, DC. Available online: http://www.ed.gov/Technology/TechConf/1999/confsum.html Means, B. (2000). Technology use in tomorrow schools. Educational Leadership, 58(4), 57-61.