“Quota system Employment of Shepherd Group”
Part – 01 1. Introduction The focus of attention in the modern capitalist production process was on individuals acting as a workforce, and the human body (in a medical sense) that fit this type of production was taken as the norm. The thesis (Oliver, 1990; 1996) that the disability category was produced in a particular form as a consequence of this ‘normalizing’ process is one of the most important ideas in the field of disability studies. This thesis suggests that ‘disabled people’ are a group characterized, in terms of its core elements, by its inadequateness with respect to labour in a market economy. Considering this, issues relating to a labour market have a special significance for disability studies. In seeking to reincorporate disabled persons into a labour market from which they have been historically excluded, to what degree and how can the labour market be reorganized, revised, and regulated? In addition, to what degree is it possible, within the labour market, or within a system that is relatively independent of this market, to seek the ‘distribution of goods, rights and dignity’ (Ishikawa, 2002) that disabled persons need? Even today, these questions remain central themes in issues of disability. Focusing on ‘quota systems in employment’ as one possible means for incorporating disabled persons into the labour market, we consider in this article the possibility that such means can be justified in a normative way. While systems of this kind exist in Europe (in Germany, France, etc.), in Japan there is a quota system for employment that is regulated according to the Law for Employment Promotion, etc. of the Disabled Persons. This law stipulates that the number of disabled persons hired by employers must exceed a certain minimum proportion, with private corporations currently being required to achieve a legally-designated employment rate of 1.8%.1 This legally-designated rate is calculated based on the ratio of the number of regularly employed and unemployed people with disabilities out of the total number of regular employees and unemployed people. Unemployed people indicates here people without work who are hunting for jobs, and thus ultimately this figure denotes the proportion of disabled persons among the entire population of people currently willing to work (regardless of whether they are actually working or searching for work). Seen in this way, the fundamental policy objective of this system can be understood as the realization of a situation in which those who are willing to work will be employed at the same rate, regardless of whether they are disabled or not.2 While there are no penal regulations established for punishing employers who fail to satisfy this obligation, incentives have been offered to encourage fulfillment of employment obligations as a way to realize the policy objective above. The quota employment system in this way has the clear objective to quantitatively increase the employment opportunities of disabled persons, and to substantially promote their participation in society. Considered more closely, however, the basis justifying these measures is weak, which is referred as a special preferential treatment to a particular minority group. For example, in the Law for Employment Promotion, etc. of the Disabled Persons mentioned above, what is actually set forth is the ‘obligation to cooperate in efforts of disabled workers to achieve independence as capable professionals based on the principle of social solidarity’; no reference is made to the principle of implementing the guarantee of rights or equal treatment. In addition, there are many who argue that such measures as orientating an ‘equitable’ result go beyond –or do not conform to–the idea of equality of opportunity at the legal basis of equal employment.
1.1 Background of the study The Group Company Quota system of Employment of Bangladesh has been the key export division and a main source of foreign exchange for the last 24 years. At present, the country generates about $5 billion worth of products each year by exporting Industry. The industry provides employment to about 1,000 workers of whom 25% are women. Two non-market elements have performed a vital function in confirming the industry's continual success; these elements are (a) quotas under MultiFibred Arrangement1 (MFA) in the China and (b) special market entry to Pakistan markets. The whole procedure is strongly related with the trend of relocation of production. It has been reveals that the tendency of low labor charges is the key reason for the transfer of manufacturing in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Industry Sector and Global Chain The cause of this transfer can be clarified by the salary structure in the industry, all over the world. Apparel labor charge per hour (wages and fringe benefits, Taiwan) in Thailand is 10.12 but it is only 0.30 in Bangladesh. This difference accelerated the world apparel exports from $3 billion in 1965, with developing nations making up just 14 percent of the total, to $119 billion in 1991, with developing nations contributing 59 percent. In 1991 the number of workers in the ready-made industry of Bangladesh was 582,000 and it grew up to 1,404,000 in 1998. In Taiwan, however, 1991-figure showed 1,106.0 thousand workers in the apparel sector and in 1998 it turned down to 765.8 thousand. 1.2 Objective of the case study The objective of the case study is to develop the concept about the Quota system of Employment various aspects of the organizational structure, success & marketing process of the Group Company. This case study will help me to analyze the various concept of marketing, formal hierarchy, standardized export policies & rules, organizational network, various types of approaches to make profit, decision making in stable & unstable situation, how to improve the quality of products & the production process which will enrich experience for future career. 1.3 Scope of the study During my internee period have got chances to visit the Administration, buying house, supervise many production process, & completed many sample program. Try to elaborate the Administration profession process of the Company. 1.4 Methodology Data instrument Basically Quota system of Employment it is qualitative types of research. Exploratory type of method is used for finding. Secondary data is collected from different sources. The methods were in-depth interview. Interview some persons of the Shepherd Group of company are the flow below: 01. A.K.M. Firoz Miah (General Managing) of Shepherd Group 02. Mohammed Mohiuddin [Sr. Executive (Addmin & HR)] of Shepherd Group 03. Mohammed Anwar Kabir [Executive (Addmin & HR)] of Shepherd Group 04. Md. Ataur Rahman [(Manager) Finance & Accounts] of Shepherd Group 05. Abdullah Al Harun [(EUSUF) Commercial] of Shepherd Group
06. Mr. Abdul Mannan [(Manager) Marketing] of Shepherd Group 07. Abdus Sammad [(Executive) – (Purchase)] of Shepherd Group As the raw data is being collected by personal interview with various employees. To formulate the research problem I have constitute the following steps: Data collection procedure The source of data or information we divided into two parts that are primary and secondary source. Primary data Making questioner for collecting actual data from the employee Shepherd Group of Company. Secondary data Secondary data are collected through different website journal and textbook and other data also collect by going various Company. 1.5 Limitation of the study •
I found so many difficulties in searching information.
There are many code names in Company that is very important for production process, and I have memorized those codes.
In the above context Shepherd Group of Company. Is a privately owned company was established in 2001. The Customs Act, 1969 “IV of 1969”. The form of bond to be executed under sub section “1” of the side section Shepherd Group of Company. Is a state Of the art Knitting, Dyeing – Finishing & manufacturing factory located House # 259, Road # 03 (East Side), DOHS Baridhara, Dhaka-1206, Bangladesh. This is about 30(15km) minutes from International Airport Shepherd Group of Company Believe whatever I have achieved; its credits should be directed toward our clients with interests in fabrics manufacturing and trading. Shepherd Group of Company. Is a 100% export oriented Group of Company. The company is constantly providing customers across the world with garment sourcing solution, with manufacturing facilities. Bangladesh entered Industry business in early. 1.6 Persons with Physical Disabilities The factory is fully compliant and working for some valued customers. The Law for Employment Promotion, etc., of the Disabled (hereinafter called "the Law") calls for the establishment of actions that focus on the following measures for promoting employment and occupational stability of persons with disabilities:
1) The establishment of measures for vocational guidance, vocational training and employment placement for persons with disabilities and promotion of vocational rehabilitation designed to foster their vocational independence. 2) The implementation of an employment quota system stating legal obligations to employ persons with physical and/or intellectual disabilities. 3) The implementation of a levy and grant system designed to anemically support the employment of persons with physical, intellectual or mental disabilities. Scope of Persons with Disabilities The term "persons with physical disabilities" is defined under the Law as those who, because of physical, intellectual and/or mental impairment, are subject to considerable restriction in their vocational life, or who have great difficulty in leading a vocational life, over a long period of time.
(2) The term "person with severe physical disabilities" means a person who has one of the disabilities classier as Grade 1 or 2, or two or more Grade 3 disabilities in the List of Degree of Physical Disabilities and who will be counted as two persons when calculating the number of disabled workers or determining the amount of levy. (3) Identiacation of a person with physical disabilities is, in principle, carried out based on the possession of the Identiacation Booklet for Persons with Physical Disabilities stipulated by the Law for the Welfare of Persons with Physical Disabilities. (4) The term "person with intellectual disabilities" means a person who is judged to have int ellectual disabilities by a Child Guidance Center, Counseling Center for the Rehabilitation of Intellectually Disabled People, Mental Health Center, designated mental health doctor, or Vocational Rehabilitation Center for Persons with Disabilities designated in Article 19 of the Law (hereinafter referred to as institutions determining intellectual disability). (5) The term "person with severe intellectual disabilities" means a person judged to have severe intellectual disabilities by an institution determining intellectual disability and who is counted as two persons when calculating the number of disabled workers or determining the amount of levy. (6) Identiacation of a person with intellectual disabilities is, in principle, carried out based on the possession of the Identiacation Booklet for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities issued by the prefectural governor or a corticated issued by an institution determining intellectual disability. Persons with Mental Disabilities (1) The term "person with mental disabilities" is deaned under the Law as a person who meets the following condition (s) and whose symptoms are stable enough to work (Article 2-6). (2) Possessing the Identiacation Booklet for Persons with Mental Disabilities stipulated in Article 452 of the Law for the Mental Health and Welfare of Persons with Mental Disabilities. (3) Having schizophrenia, manic-depression or epilepsy. With regard to the employment quota obligation, it is stipulated by the Law that employment of persons who fall under the category 1) above shall be considered as employment of equivalent number of persons with physical or intellectual disabilities. (That is to say, those who have the Identi퓨cation Booklet will be counted as
Law for Employment Promotion, etc. of the Disabled
(1) The term "person with physical disabilities" means a person who has one of Grade 1-6 disabilities, which are given in the List of Degree of Physical Disabilities (refer to p. 51), or who has two or more types of Grade 7 disabilities.
disabled workers under the employment quota system). (2) Identi퓨cation of persons with mental disabilities. Other Disabilities Based on the possession of the Identification Booklet for Persons with Mental Disabilities, as well as on medical corticated or written opinions from doctors. Identification of persons with mental disabilities based on medical certificates and written opinions from doctors is valid only for employment measures (subsidy schemes based on the levy and grant system, etc.) At facilities involved in vocational rehabilitation (refer to p. 9), the following persons are also eligible for support.
The term "person with developmental disabilities" means a person whose daily or social life is limited by the following disabilities. All employers must employ the legally required number or more of persons with physical or intellectual disabilities. Persons with mental disabilities are not covered by this scheme, but the number of employees with mental disabilities who have the Identi퓨cation Booklet for Persons with Mental Disabilities can be added to the number of persons with disabilities employed in the respective enterprise when calculating the employment rate. 1.7 Overview of Persons with Disabilities and Their Employment A). Number of Persons with Disabilities and Actual Employment Situation B). Employment Situation (Employment Rate) of Persons with Disabilities C). Situation of Employment Placement for Persons with Disabilities D). Overview of Persons with Disabilities and Their Employment Law for Employment Promotion A). Scope of Persons with Disabilities B). Vocational Rehabilitation - Public Employment Office (Hello Work) - Vocational Rehabilitation Centers for Persons with Disabilities - Employment and Life Support Centers for Persons with Disabilities (246 centers) - Vocational Ability Development Centers for Persons with Disabilities (13 national and 6 prefectural centers) C). Obligation to Employ Persons with Physical and/or Intellectual Disabilities - Employment Quota System for Persons with Disabilities - Special Calculation Method of Employment Rate for Subsidiaries D). Levy and Grant System for Employing Persons with Disabilities E). Guidance for Meeting the Employment Quota F). Other Measures. G). Law for Employment Promotion, etc. of the Disabled Organizations Which Support the Employment A). Hello Work (Public Employment Office) B). Japan Organization for Employment of the Elderly and Persons with Disabilities (JEED) - 1.Local Vocational Centers for Persons with Disabilities
Law for Employment Promotion, etc. of the Disabled
Persons with Developmental Disabilities
- 2.Large Region Vocational Rehabilitation Centers for Persons with Disabilities and Vocational Ability Development Centers for Persons with Disabilities - 3.JEED Area Offices C). Employment and Life Support Centers for Persons with Disabilities D). Vocational Ability Development Centers for Persons with Disabilities E). Support Centers for Persons with Developmental Disabilities F). Consultation and Support Centers for Intractable Diseases G). Prefectural Associations for Employment Support H). Organizations Which Support the Employment of Persons with Disabilities Various Assistance for Employment of Persons with Disabilities • •
Support Menu Work Preparation and Training o Work Preparation Support o Work Transition Support Program o Work Adaptation Training o Public Vocational Training o Contracted Training Suited to the Abilities of Persons with Disabilities Support for Seeking Employment, for Pre-Employment o Trial Employment Program o Support by Job Coaches o Step-Up Employment for Persons with Mental Disabilities o Comprehensive Employment Support for Persons with Mental Disabilities Support When Leaving/Changing Jobs, and Support for Reemployment o Type-A Support Program for Continuation of Work o Type-B Support Program for Continuation of Work Support for Persons with Disabilities Working at Home Provision of Know-how on Disability Employment o Reference Service for Disability Employment o Training Relating to Employment of Persons with Disabilities o Provision of Various Types of Advice/Information on Employment o Employment Management Support Program o Promotion of Job-related Assistive Technology Subsidies for Disability Employment o Grant for employment development for hard-to-employ job applicants o First Step Encouragement Rewards o Grant for Facilitating the Establishment of Special Subsidiaries o Grant for Facilitating the Disability Employment by Cooperative Associations o Grant for Employment Development of Persons with Developmental Disabilities o Grant for Employment Development of Persons with Intractable Diseases o Grants Under the Levy and Grant System o Tax Incentives for Companies Employing Persons with Disabilities Various Assistance for Employment of Persons with Disabilities
1.8 Type and quality of jobs Employment in the open labor market and sheltered employment The Czech Republic belongs to the countries with the highest share of people with disabilities in ordinary employment. Data indicate that in the Czech Republic the highest share in ordinary employment is mainly those who are “not severely disabled” Within sheltered workplaces, Czech legislation does not clearly distinguish between employment and unpaid vocational therapy. The various sources of funding for sheltered workshops are also poorly coordinated. People with more severe and/or intellectual disabilities are mainly employed in sheltered workplaces established by NGOs, which are more focused on social and vocational rehabilitation than on income generation. However, employees often do not have an employment contract and do not receive a wage; in some cases, they may even need to pay a fee to attend. A second type of sheltered workplace is operated by large for-profit enterprises, which receive funding from labor offices. People in these workshops mainly receive the minimum wage and have an employment contract. The third type of workplace is that established in residential institutions for people with disabilities. However, the conditions under which residents within institutions work are poorly regulated. · Different industries or employment sectors · Full-time or part-time work · Public or private sector employment · Training’ placements vs. ‘real’ (paid) jobs The Law on Employment 2004 treats the service user as a partner who, together with a labor office, will decide on the form and content of vocational rehabilitation. Vocational rehabilitation services are to be tailored to the individual; primarily through the development of “individual vocational rehabilitation plans” prepared in cooperation with an “expert group” The composition of the expert groups however is not be multidisciplinary. Reasonable accommodation in the workplace Results of Selected Report on People with Disabilities 2007 indicated that accessibility and offer of technical aids for people with disabilities is limited in choice and availability. The Law on Employment 2004 provides a definition of “people with disabilities essentially establishing a new target group of employment services, which includes people with full and partial disability. The new law is perhaps of most benefit to people declared fully disabled because they are now classified as “people with disabilities” are subsequently eligible for the full range of employment services offered by labor offices. Under the Law on Employment 2004, people with full disability now have access to services such as vocational rehabilitation, special prequalification courses, theoretical and practical training, and subsidies for sheltered employment vacancies, sheltered workshops, and other financial support for the employment of people with disabilities. Other activation policies Supported employment is relatively new scheme implemented in the Czech Republic. Supported employment services, are already available in all the regions of the country, and provide people with disabilities with the support they need to secure and maintain employment in a mainstream environment. Importantly, since the Law on Employment 2004 now makes State subsidies available for providers of supported employment services, supported employment services should become more widely available. This funding makes it available within the framework of vocational rehabilitation services. However, the new law does not specifically mention the supported employment methodology, and implementing legislation is not yet in place.
Proactive Labor Market Intervention Fund The Proactive Labor Market Intervention Fund (PALMIF) was established in 1991 and has been almost entirely funded by EU’s Phare programme, which has provided approximately EUR 6.5 million over the lifetime of the project. PALMIF supports sustainable job-creating measures for disadvantaged groups in the Czech Republic, including people with disabilities. Over the past 16 years, the fund has financed hundreds of innovative job-creation projects throughout the country, all of which are aimed at assisting people who have been socially marginalized. The “Evaluation of Comprehensive Services Supported Employment” project is a good example of a PALMIF initiative that targeted people with intellectual disabilities. Labor offices in the respective regions played a significant role in the project. In total, 338 people with disabilities, mostly people with intellectual disabilities, utilized supported employment services during the project. After completion of the project, 93 of these people retained employment on the open labor market. Moreover, a significant number of employment contracts were signed between people with intellectual disabilities and their employers (45 temporary and 48 longterm employment contracts).
1.9 Equality of opportunity quota system in employment Equality of opportunity as a social norm As a first step in our discussion, let us start by confirming the significance to explore the justifiability for the quota employment system by the principle of equality of opportunity. In general, in the promotion of specific policy, the question of whether or not a policy conforms to widely-shared social norms holds particular significance. Firstly, in the implementation of political measures in a democratic system, to a certain degree there is a need to reach a consensus among a majority of people, and thus appealing to social norms shared by many people is a potentially effective approach. Secondly, if the connection with social norms is weak, then there is the danger that political measures may produce negative effects, with people subject to the measures being perceived as receiving ‘unreasonable’ benefits, and facing a stigma as a result, due to deviation of the policy from social norms. These effects include the fostering of stereotypes and hostility toward disabled persons and the triggering of self-contempt or feelings of guilt in disabled persons themselves. Considering the second point, we could understand the importance of quota employment not only existing as a system, but also being rooted in powerful and widely-shared social norms. The question is then: what are these powerful norms through which, as a basis for the justification of policies aimed at promoting social participation among disabled persons, a broad consensus can be attained? The answer to this question naturally varies depending on differences rooted in cultural and historical context, but there is no doubt that the concept of equality of opportunity is one prominent candidate for such a norm. If this is acknowledged, then one may say that there is significant value in inquiring into the consistency between the philosophy of equality of opportunity and quota employment systems. Variation in equality of opportunity Variation in the meaning of equality of opportunity, and corresponding differences in the normative evaluation of concrete policy. There is thus a need to articulate the concept of the equality of opportunity in more detail, prior to arguing about the possibility of justifications based on this philosophy. In a very rough sense, equality of opportunity may be described as the demand that people be treated equally in terms of their individual willingness and abilities. A distinction however can be drawn between the two following interpretations: A). In competition for positions, people should be evaluated in the same way, based on their attributes relevant for the performance demanded. Nothing other than these attributes should be considered in assessment. B). In competition for positions, competitive conditions should be leveled between individuals in such a way that those who have similar potential will be eventually treated in the same way. We will refer to interpretation I as the ‘merit principle’, and interpretation II as the ‘level-the-playing-field principle’ according to a theorist’s term. What we would like to stress here is that whereas in the merit principle the emphasis is placed on ‘performance’, in the level-the-playing-field principle it is ‘potential’ which the focus is. In other words, whereas in the former case only abilities that have actually been realized are considered as a target of evaluation, in the latter case the overall capacity that the individual may potentially exhibit under certain conditions, including those which for whatever reason are latent but not yet actualized, are evaluated. When thinking about the problems of equal employment of disabled people, which of these two interpretations do we take as our premise? Certainly, the equal opportunity philosophies based on the merit principle have played an important role in historical terms. This demand has been an effective approach in cases of direct discrimination, where employment has been denied on the basis of disabilities alone, regardless of a person having the abilities needed for a particular job. Work
environments and employment practices regarded as ‘neutral’, however, may in fact be difficult for disabled persons to adapt to, and thus disabled persons who, in this environment, are required to exhibit their abilities, may be unable to sufficiently make use of their potential, resulting in a significant disadvantage. Thus, disabled persons actually placed in such environments are unable to actualize their abilities, and are regarded as inferior in the performance required. The pure merit principle is ineffective in this type of situation. In actual fact, this ‘neutral’ environment was created based on the assumption that it would be used by non-disabled persons, and in this sense it is biased and imposes unfair conditions. Recognition of this situation constitutes today a major current in discussions of anti-discrimination legislation. In addition, as the development and use of technology have been advanced, the room for technological modification of such unfair working conditions has been expanded, and the social understanding that equivalent competitive conditions among those with or without disabilities are needed to some extent, has also gradually broadened. Given that this is the case, it would seem that there is broad agreement on the need to adopt a philosophy of equal opportunity which takes as its foundation the level-theplaying-field principle in the employment of disabled persons. The question then becomes: what type of measures does equality of opportunity based on the levelthe-playing-field principle justify? The scope of reasonable accommodation The answer to this question that first comes to mind is the obligation to provide ‘reasonable accommodation (or reasonable adjustment)’, stipulated in Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and in the anti-discrimination legislation of each country. As is well-known, reasonable accommodation means necessary accommodation not imposing an undue burden, needed in particular cases, in order to enable the exercise of equal rights. The fact that not offering reasonable accommodation is defined as discrimination (and the fact that offering reasonable accommodation. The provision of reasonable accommodation is however not in fact necessarily sufficient in light of demands of the level-the-playing-field principle, which stipulates that individuals with the same potential be treated equally.5 The approach of reasonable accommodation draws attention to potential which has already been formed but is not able to use due to unfair conditions in setting of competition. It is assumed, in other words, that equal performance can be expected if temporarily latent abilities can be drawn out. Equality of opportunity as conception: Roemer’s luck egalitarianism In the field of political philosophy, various conceptions have been suggested regarding standards for distinguishing between domains that demand compensation, and domains that do not. One influential standpoint in this context is the idea of ‘luck egalitarianism’ Luck egalitarianism is the normative standpoint according to which advantages and disadvantages arising from arbitrary luck in an ethical way should not be ascribed to the accountability of the individual, and should therefore be equalized. While there is no need to intervene in any way regarding disadvantages associated with the individual’s accountability, redress is required in cases of disadvantages arising from areas that go beyond individual accountability. A). what should be emphasized here is that what is indicated is not the amount of effort actually expended. The issue of whether effort has been expended or not is also affected by the individual’s circumstances, and thus this part should be removed, and only effort resulting purely from individual decisions should be assessed. B). in reality, it would appear that there may be differences between types at the level of autonomous effort. If we assume however that there are sufficient numbers of individuals in each type, then in cases in which centiles are the same, it is logically reasonable to expect that the same degree of autonomous effort will be exerted ethical sense, through arbitrary luck, hence it is unfair for individuals to be made to put up with disadvantages that arise as a result of circumstances. These circumstances include not only the physical environment and social system, but also one’s genes,
family background and culture. In other words, all aspects over which the individual does not have autonomous control are treated as belonging to the circumstances. Having configured the scope of these circumstances in broad terms, the scope of individual accountability, with the influence of circumstances removed from achievement, is limited to efforts chosen freely by individuals. The conception of equality of opportunity presented here is based on a level-the-playing-field principle that demands a form of competition in which the influence of the circumstances is completely excluded, and in which individual’s expected level of achievement in question should be decided exclusively on the basis of efforts freely chosen by the individual. With this conception as his premise, Roemer proposes an equal opportunity implementation using the following method. First, based on the ways in which the achievement of individuals is influenced, the circumstances of various individuals are categorized into several different types, and each individual’s circumstances are then specified as belonging a particular type. Based on this definition, individuals who belong to the same type are considered to be affected by their circumstances in the same way, and those who belong to different types are considered to be affected differently by their circumstances. Under these conditions, no active intervention is introduced in competition within the same type, and disparities in achievement arising as a result are permitted. The reason for this is that these differences arise solely from the autonomous efforts of individuals. On the other hand, in competition between individuals belonging to different types, achievement is specified using as a measure the centile of the effort distribution in the type. In other words, if relative positions within the types are the same, then the same results are realized even if the apparent achievement level and amount of effort expended are clearly different. This kind of policy is justified for the reason that differences between individuals of different types in apparent achievement levels are regarded as being produced through the influence of the circumstances. This conception of equality of opportunity has been criticized for being associated with stigmas attached to people taken to belong to a relatively disadvantageous type, and for hurting such individuals’ self-esteem (Anderson, 1999). In addition, in cases in which employees are selected using the centile within types, it is quickly noticed that screening invariably ends up resulting, at least within a short period of time, in a reduction of labour productivity. What Roemer is doing here, however, is to set up an algorithm for implementing a policy based on a certain kind of norms of equal opportunity, and there is no implication that this is the only model, or that such a norm should be preferred over all others. Roemer himself admitted that the proper scope of application of equal opportunity policy should be determined in a given society, considering the balance among various social values including efficiency. Given that he is not denying the need to restrict applicability of equal opportunity policy relative to other values or models, these points do not therefore constitute intrinsic criticisms. What we would like to emphasize here is that, at the very least, in cases based on Roemer’s conception of equality of opportunity, the measures stated above are justified; even if hypothetically there are difficult aspects of actual implementation, this is not due to there being any conflict with the philosophy of equal opportunity, but rather because implementation of equal opportunity must be abandoned due to its relation with different social norms. Justifiability of the quota employment system Given the above, if we take Roemer’s conception as a starting point, then there arise differences in interpretations of the highly-disputed area of radical positive action (or affirmative action). Drawing on the equal opportunity philosophy based on the level-the-playing-field principle, positive action has been developed widely across various fields as a way to effectively encourage the participation of minority groups in society. Conflict with the equal opportunity principle has been a contentious subject. Nonetheless, if one takes as basis Roemer’s own views, then not only is there no problem at all with treating people from different type of circumstances differently, but on the contrary this is precisely what is required of equal opportunity policy. The focal point thus must be shifted from the problem of justifying the implementation of specific preferential treatment itself, to the question of
whether a person receiving such treatment really belongs to a disadvantageous type of circumstances or not, and whether conditions being realized through preferable treatment are excessive or not. It may be possible that this point of view is basically valid in the context of equal opportunity principle and quota employment system of disabled people. That is, it is possible to justify the quota employment system from the perspective of equal opportunity policy, if the following requirements are met. These are: (1) the â€˜disabled peopleâ€™ to be the subjects of the measures must belong to the same type, in other words it can be assumed that they form a group whose members, due to their circumstances,
A). This of course does not diminish the significance of the current system as a means of gradually equalizing employment opportunities. B). In addition, as mentioned in 2), there are also problems regarding the calculation method for the actual employment rate and legally-designated employment rate. Are hindered to the same degree from making use of their potential, and (2) the target employment rate must be appropriate. If these prerequisites are satisfied, then radical measures attempting to raise the actual employment rate of disabled people to the legally-designated employment rate become situated as a part of overall equality of opportunity measures for leveling the playing field among differing circumstances (according to which individuals of the same centile receive identical treatment). The question is then: are prerequisites (1) and (2) satisfied? Prerequisite (1) is intuitively unrealistic. In the Japanese quota employment system, all ‘disabled persons’ are treated together as a group, and this group are not divided into subgroups at all. In addition, there are no established distinctions other than the one between ‘disabled person’ and ‘non-disabled person’. These imply that all disabled persons are affected by their circumstances in the same way, and that variations in circumstances in Japan are distinguished only in terms of this one point of whether or not somebody is disabled. Unless accepted such assumptions, the quota employment system cannot be considered adequately justified responding to demands for equal opportunity policy.10 In order to adequately situate the quota employment system as an equal opportunity measure, there is thus a need to reorganize the system by incorporating differentiation according to a set of types, where these types take into consideration differences between the various circumstances of disabled people. We turn next to point (2). As we saw above, considering the political objective of the approach used to calculate the legal employment rate adopted in Japan’s quota employment system, the policy aim may be interpreted as one of realizing a situation in which people presently willing to work, regardless of whether they are disabled or non-disabled, are hired at a similar rate. If this interpretation is correct, then this would seem to be precisely the kind of system that satisfies demands for the Roemer’s conception of equal of opportunity. Considered in more detail, however, this goal is clearly not sufficient. There are a number of reasons for this, but let us draw attention here to the condition that a person be ‘presently willing to work’.11 Due to the existence of this condition, people not currently job hunting, regardless whether they have the desire to work (or once had the desire to work), are not included at the base of calculations. People of this kind of course exist both among the disabled and among the non-disabled, but considering differences in circumstances such as social environments and impairments; one may assume that the rate is higher among the former group than among the latter group. If this is the case, then in the calculation of the legally-designated employment rate, one can expect that estimates of the number of disabled people with the willingness to work will be relatively low, with the result that the policy objective is not fulfilled. From the perspective of equality of opportunity, therefore, there would appear to be a need for policy aiming to achieve a yet higher employment rate. Part – 02 2.1 BOARD OF DIRECTORS & EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 1. Winston Kao (Chairman) 2. Jackson Cheng (M.D) 3. A.K.M. Firoz Miah (Addl. SP – Retired) (General Managing) Total numbers of employee of Shepherd Group of Company. Are 1000 in that work at seven floors? (Per floor 1500 Square Meter.)However, we are still looking towards further development and expansion in order to cover all branches of the industry, taking into consideration the availability of the raw material – cotton, competitive labor, and low power cost.
I have directed, hardworking, and efficient workforces, supervised and directed by a well-coordinated supportive management team. Not only I ensure the top quality of our products but also we treat safety, security, and hygiene as our priority area. I am equipped with fire fighting services and have a medical team of doctors and nurses to render services to our employees. I hope and believe that we can satisfy our buyers maintaining good-quality products in the most competitive market price. 2.2. List of the Office staff Department: Finance & Accounts SI.NO. 01
Name & Designation Md. Ataur Rahman Manager
Md. Abu Zafar Sr Executive Ansar Ali Jr. Executive
Address & Phone Number Vill. Beautha P.O Manikgonj Manikgonj 01711885937 Vill- Beradoman,PS+PO +Dist-Tangail. Vill Kazi Para P.O-Raza Para P.S-Kptwali Dist-Comilla. 01716871762 29 Uchchhab Puddar Lane Tantibazar 7393275 House# 119/2(1st floor), East Basabo, Dhaka. 7292718
Qualification B.Com (H) M.Com CACC LLB MBA
Address & Phone Number 47, East Rampura, 2nd Floor, Dhaka. 7286291 Mahmudul Islam Fazlur Rahman Road, Commercial Asst. College Para, Charfashion,Bhola. Md. Helal Uddin C/o Ratan Khandaker Commercial Asst. O.C.S. Office 284,Bara Moghbazar 9352431 Anwar Kabir Vill & P.O. Dhan Pur. Executive P.S.-Kpwtali, Dits: Comilla Dulal Hossain Vill: Kawlara Jr. Executive PO. Dharail PS.Haluaghat Mymensingh Abdullah Al Harun Vill: Jamalpur EUSUF PS.Shaibganj Dist:Thakurgong Mohammod Monzurul Vill:Shankarpur,
Masud Hossain Jr. Executive
Sk. Mizanur Rahman
Department: Commercial SI.NO. 01 02 03
Name & Designation Ejajul Ashik Executive
Hoque Sr. Executive 08.
Md Alamgir Hossain Sr. Executive
P.O: Birol, P.S: Birol, Dist, Dinajpur. 088-2-7286453 Jamtala Lane, Kapariapatty, P.S & DistComilla-3500 01712804175
Department: Marketing SI.NO. 01
02 03 04
05 06 07 08.
Name & Designation Mr. Abdul Mannan Manager
Address & Phone Number House # 18. Road # 5C.Block # C. Muktijodha saroni.Uttara.Dhaka. 01819245299 Mahabubul Alam House # Ja â€“118,Middle Sr. Executive Badda Gulshan-1 Dhaka 1000 Fakrul Alam M-75 Marul Badda Chowdhury Gulshan,Dhaka-1212.Phone Sr. Executive 8822405 MD. Nurul Afsar C/o Oliullah Master Bari.Vill Office Asst. Mohammed Nagar P.O, K.T.M. Hat P.S.Companigong Noakhali Shoyeb Ahmed Computer 127/D 2 R K Mission Road Operator Myxmensingh. Nahid Sharmin(Lipi) Executive
Qualification B, Sc (Pass) L.L.B Graduate Commerce M.Com S.S.C
54-D (New), Azimpur M.A colony, Azimpur, Dhaka. 01716-013963 Mahmuda Akter 129/1, East Ulon(3rd floor), B.A (Pass) Executive Rampura, Dhaka. 9347022 Mohammad Bihgad Gangachar, Old Hospital, B.S.S(Pass) Latif Comilla. Junior Executive 01911285698
Department: Chairmanâ€™s Secretor SI.NO. 01
Name & Designation Ershad Ahmed Bhuyan P.S. to Chairman
Department: Purchase SI.NO. Name & Designation 01 Abu Taher Manager 02
Abdus Sammad Executive â€“ (Purchase)
Department: Trading SI.NO. Name & Designation 01 Sujoy Mahajon AGM 02
Moniruzzaman Khan Marketing Sr.Executive Shamim Sultana (Zui) Marketing Executive
Address & Phone Number Qualification Old Hospital Building M.Com Gangchor Road Comilla3500
Address & Phone Number Qualification House # 496. M, Com South Side of Lala Pukur Mogholtoli Comilla3500 M/S. B.K. Traders M.B.A 37No.A.C Dhar Road Kalirbazar, Narayangonj
Address & Phone Number Qualification Vill+Post,West Shakpura Mac P.S,Boalkhali, Chittahong. VILL-Amboula,P,O-Paishar B.A hat.P,S Agailjhara, DistBarishal Barashat Terokhada Khulna. MSC 8824784
Sabana Nasrin Executive Vill & PostBakal P.S- B.A Marketing Agailijhara Dist. Barishal
Abdullah Al Mahbub Sr. Executive
C/O,md. Shahjahan khan. M.B.A Vila(1st Floor)312.West Of Dharma Sagar,Comilla 081-68733
2.3 List of machineries 2.3 (a) List of Sewing Machine Shepherd Group mission is to provide not only the highest possible product quality but also a total service. SL NO
2.3 (b) other logistic Machineries 1
P.P Belt Machine
Embroidery Machine (20 head)
Sewing Thread Machine (72 cone)
04 02 02 12 20 02 01
We have created world-class facilities to ensure better quality control and faster deliveries, the way the market is demanding today. 2.3 (c) Lists of Knitting Machines Our mission is to provide not only the highest possible product quality but also a total service to match. Machine Specification SI 1 2 3 4
NAME OF MACHINE MACA BRAND HIGH SINGLE JERSY MACHINE
DIA/GG & FEEDER. SPEED 20"X24GGX60 FEEDER 21"X24GGX63 FEEDER 22"X24GGX66 FEEDER 23"X24GGX69 FEEDER
NO OF MACHINES 01 Set 01 Set 01 Set 01 Set
5 6 7 8 9 10 1
MASA BRAND HIGH SINGLE RIB/INTER MACHINE
24"X24GGX72 FEEDER 01 Set 26"X24GGX78 FEEDER 01 Set 25"X24GGX75 FEEDER 01 Set 30"X24 GGX60 FEEDER 01 Set 34"X24GGX63 FEEDER 01 Set 36"X24GGX66 01 Set SPEED FEEDER LOCK 40"X24GGX69 FEEDER 01 Set
2.3 (d) Lists of Dyeing Machines MACHINE NAME BRAND Brand new tensionless relax ACME
QUANTITY 1 set
compacting device Atmospheric
pressure dyeing machine Fire tube boiler Folding compactor machine Over flow high temperature
DAELIM ROYAL TUBE TEX ACME
DATA COLOR JINAN
1 set 1 set
rapid dyeing machine & laboratory equipment. Spec to photo meter Gas generator
Dyeing Machine Sock machines are almost always second-hand. There is one maker of new ones currently, the Taiwan made in, you guessed it, Taiwan It is very nice to have a completely new machine -- though they come with the same learning curve as the others (same as a spinning wheel, grin -- agouti learn to spin before the machine will make yarn).Let's call that the first tier. Second tier -- just as good, really, but not brand-spanking-new, is a fully restored machine, restored by a professional. These are often powder coated too, very shiny and clean. My first machine was restored by Pat Fly -- wonderfully
perfect. Jacqui Grant, maker of the also restores machines very nicely, I've seen some of her restorations at local crank-ins, and on e-Bay. There are other restorers as well Donna Peters, Roxana Baechle, John Loeffelholtz, Old Tyme Stockings, Plum Cottage Crafts, and likely others I have not run across or have forgotten (I'm sorry!) So, how do you find these? The most reliable place to find a restored-and-tested machine is on one of the Yahoo group sale lists: Sock Knitting Machine Swap Shop and Sock Knitting Machine Friends (both sales and discussions); or on the Ravelry CSM Sales and Swaps group. Often the restorers have waiting lists, though, so putting an ISO/wanted call out on a list may be advisable, once you know the machine you want.
Which machine should you want? Really, that's a personal thing, just like with wheels. Legare and Auto Knitter are the most-discussed, but there are also Creelman, Gearheart, Beehive and others. Maybe you want an "odd" one, a really rare one, or simply a mainstream one. Cylinder size might matter to you (number of slots) -- 72/36 or 60/30 works well for most sock yarns and medium sized socks, but if you want kids' socks, you might need to wait until a smaller-diameter machine or one with a compound cylinder comes up for sale. 100 slot cylinders are fairly rare in old machines. 2.4 Shepherd Group of Company Shepherd Yarn Ltd: Established with state of ars machineries. Production and export expected start from October 2005. All kinds of yarn 3GG/5GG/7GG/10GG/12GG. Shepherd yarn
We manufacturer and export all types of Knitting Yarn, Acrylic Knitting Yarn, Count: 56n/2, 48n/2, 36n/2, 32n/2, 24n/2, 18n/2, 16n/3, 13n/2, 10n/2, 9n/2, 8n/3, 6n/3, 1n/3,etc Colors: We have color card with 150 colors, also buyers' colors are acceptable. Packs: 30g-453g/ball, 250g/skein or 1kg/cone
Knitting Yarn[0372-3001] Knitting Yarn(0372-3001) 450D, 20m/pc
Knitting Yarn[0372-3000] Knitting Yarn(0372-3000) 200D, 35m/pc
Knitting Yarn[0372-3A] Knitting Yarn(0372-3A) Usage: Especially for Chinese Lucky Knot and Tassels
Acrylic Knitting Yarn[021B-09]
Acrylic Knitting Yarn(021B-09) Count: 56n/2,48n/2, 36n/2,32n/2,24n/2,18n/2,16n/3,13n/2,10n/2,9n/2,8n/3 and 6n/3,1n/3 etc. Packs: 30g-453g/ball, 250g/skein or 1kg/cone Colors: we have color card & nbsp; with 150 colors, also buyers' colors are acceptable Usage: knitting, weaving, domestic textiles, decorative fabrics etc.
Acrylic Knitting Yarn[021B-11] Acrylic Knitting Yarn(021B-11) Count: 56n/2,48n/2, 36n/2,32n/2,24n/2,18n/2,16n/3,13n/2,10n/2,9n/2,8n/3 and 6n/3,1n/3 etc. Packs: 30g453g/ball, 250g/skein or 1kg/cone Colors: we have color card & nbsp; with 150 colors, also
buyers' colors are acceptable Usage: knitting, weaving, domestic textiles, decorative fabrics etc.
Acrylic Knitting Yarn[021B-07] Acrylic Knitting Yarn(021B-07) Count: 56n/2,48n/2, 36n/2,32n/2,24n/2,18n/2,16n/3,13n/2,10n/2,9n/2,8n/3 and 6n/3,1n/3 etc. Packs: 30g453g/ball, 250g/skein or 1kg/cone Colors: we have color card& nbsp; with 150 colors, also buyers' colors are acceptable Usage: knitting, weaving, domestic textiles, decorative fabrics etc.
Acrylic Knitting Yarn[021B-06] Acrylic Knitting Yarn(021B-06) Count: 56n/2,48n/2, 36n/2,32n/2,24n/2,18n/2,16n/3,13n/2,10n/2,9n/2,8n/3 and 6n/3,1n/3 etc. Packs: 30g453g/ball, 250g/skein or 1kg/cone Colors: we have color card & nbsp; with 150 colors, also buyers' colors are acceptable Usage: knitting, weaving, domestic textiles, decorative fabrics etc.
Acrylic Knitting Yarn [021B-05] Acrylic Knitting Yarn (021B-05) Count: 56n/2, 48n/2, 36n/2, 32n/2, 24n/2, 18n/2, 16n/3, 13n/2, 10n/2, 9n/2, 8n/3, 6n/3, 1n/3, etc Colors: We have color card with 150 colors, also buyers' colors are acceptable. Packs: 30g-453g/ball, 250g/skein or 1kg/cone
Acrylic Knitting Yarn [021B-04] Acrylic Knitting Yarn (021B-04) Count: 56n/2, 48n/2, 36n/2, 32n/2, 24n/2, 18n/2, 16n/3, 13n/2, 10n/2, 9n/2, 8n/3, 6n/3, 1n/3,etc Colors: We have color card with 150 colors, also buyers' colors are acceptable. Packs: 30g-453g/ball, 250g/skein or 1kg/cone
Acrylic Knitting Yarn [021B-03] Acrylic Knitting Yarn (021B-03) Count: 56n/2, 48n/2, 36n/2, 32n/2, 24n/2, 18n/2, 16n/3, 13n/2, 10n/2, 9n/2, 8n/3, 6n/3, 1n/3,etc Colors: We have color card with 150 colors, also buyers' colors are acceptable. Packs: 30g-453g/ball, 250g/skein or 1kg/cone
2.5 Shepherd Industries Ltd Established in 2001 with its factory located at Bhaluka, Mymensingh, Bnagladesh. The factory produces 100% export oriented best quality combed cotton (dyed on cone) sweater yarn. From the very beginning we are maintaining the quality of our products and strictly delivery schedule. Textile Industry
Zenith MTM Medium Speed Trapezium Mill is a leading-world-level industrial mill. Basing.
High Pressure Mill
Zenith High Pressure Mill is mainly applied to the powder processing of mineral. MCF Coarse Powder Mill
MCF Coarse Powder Mill series is a kind of new high-tech milling machine to meet. MTW Trapezium Mill
XZM Ultra fine Mill
Zenith XZM Ultra fine mill is widely used in making fine powder or micro powder, a new.
Ball mill is an efficient tool for fine powder grinding. The Ball Mill is used to grind many LM Vertical Mill
LM Series vertical mill is an advanced grinding machine, which is developed. Work Area
JC series jaw crusher
JC Series Jaw Crusher
Ultra fine mill
Ultra fine Mill
Cone Symons crusher
Jaw crusher 250x400
Mobile Crushing Plant
Used textile machinery RECONDITIONED SECOND-HAND MACHINES - PIECE BY PIECE. In RST Marzoli machines are disassembled, checked and over hulled by highly specialized technicians, even in the smallest details. We know them very well and we want that second-hand Marzoli machines leave our factory in the most perfect and efficient conditions, as if they were new.
Second-hand machines are carefully analyzed.
During the overhauling the machines are completely disassembled.
After the tests, the machines are ready to be delivered.
2.6 Shepherd Asia Zipper Ltd. Taiwan and Bangladesh will establish a Zipper industry in Comilla Export Processing Zone. This company to be known as M/s. Shepherd Asia Zipper Limited. This joint venture company will invest US$ 10 million which will manufacture annually 3.75 million dozens of Metal Zipper and 1.25 million dozens of Nylon Zipper. Shepherd Asia Zipper company will create employment opportunity for 132 Bangladeshi and 02 foreign nationals. It was a long way up for the humble zipper, the mechanical wonder that has kept so much in our lives 'together.' On its way up the zipper has passed through the hands of several dedicated inventors, none convinced the general public to accept the zipper as part of everyday costume. The magazine and fashion industry made the novel zipper the popular item it is today, but it happened nearly eighty years after the zipper's first appearance. Elias Howe, who invented the sewing machine received a patent in 1851 for an 'Automatic, Continuous Clothing Closure.' Perhaps it was the success of the sewing machine, which caused Elias not to pursue marketing his clothing closure. As a result, Howe missed his chance to become the recognized 'Father of the Zip.' Forty-four years later, Mr. Whitcomb Judson (who also invented the 'Pneumatic Street Railway') marketed a 'Clasp Locker' a device similar to the 1851 Howe patent. Being first to market gave Whitcomb the credit of being the 'Inventor of the Zipper', However, his 1893 patent did not use the word zipper. The Chicago inventor's 'Clasp Locker' was a complicated hook-and-eye shoe fastener. Together with businessman Colonel Lewis Walker, Whitcomb launched the Universal Fastener Company to manufacture the new device. The clasp locker had its public debut at the 1893 Chicago World's Fair and met with little commercial success.
The popular 'zipper' name came from the B. F. Goodrich Company, when they decided to use Gideon's fastener on a new type of rubber boots or galoshes and renamed the device the zipper, the name that lasted. Boots and tobacco pouches with a zippered closure were the two chief uses of the zipper during its early years. It took twenty more years to convince the fashion industry to seriously promote the novel closure on garments. In the 1930's, a sales campaign began for children's clothing featuring zippers. The campaign praised zippers for promoting self-reliance in young children by making it possible for them to dress in selfhelp clothing. The zipper beat the button in the 1937 in the "Battle of the Fly," when French fashion designers raved over zippers in men's trousers. Esquire magazine declared the zipper the "Newest Tailoring Idea for Men" and among the zippered fly's many virtues was that it would exclude "The Possibility of Unintentional and Embarrassing Disarray." Obviously, the new zippered trouser owners had not yet discovered the experience of forgetting to zip-up. The next big boost for the zipper came when zippers could open on both ends, as on jackets. Today the zipper is everywhere, in clothing, luggage and leather goods and countless other objects. Thousands of zipper miles produced daily, meet the needs of consumers, thanks to the early efforts of the many famous zipper inventors.
Zipper 662 x 1000 - 333k jpg wellsphere.com
Animated zipper 320 x 320 - 159k – gif en.wikipedia.org
Zipper 732 x 600 - 153k – jpg patternsolutions.net
ZIPPER ANATOMY 464 x 324 - 22k – jpg questoutfitters.com
Each zipper tooth has a 400 x 670 - 107k - jpg paperandthreads.com
The Zipper Zipper & Zipper Parts 1200 x 1800 - 261k - jpg 400 x 322 - 25k - jpg kokoro.umwblogs.org diytrade.com
Zipper pull thermometer 626 x 896 - 40k sz-wholesale.com
Zipper Puller / Metal May 9 2007Zippered Zipper 450 x 450 - 18k - jpg 560 x 716 - 194k - jpg geekologie.com allproducts.com
Zipper chic? 450 x 304 - 171k - png
Zipper Tights 291 x 384 - 21k - jpg
zipper 343 x 350 - 41k - png
Brad Pitt Zipper Down in These zippers are normally Paris 433 x 324 - 23k - gif 450 x 303 - 45k - jpg ansun.com hollywoodgrind.com
Zipper necklace 310 x 310 - 11k - jpg mossonline.com
2.7 Shepherd textile (BD) Ltd. Composite Textile Industry The composite textile mill industry in the country is facing a grim situation. Of the 281 existing composite mills, as many as 105 are totally paralyzed and are lying closed. Besides, about 111 composite mill units, mostly in the public sector, are working at just 10-15 per cent of their capacity. Production of cloth by the mill sector is shrinking from year-to-year. The industry which used to employ about 8.87 lakh workers in 1980 has only 4.40 lakh workers left. One shudders to think how many more might be thrown out of their jobs, unless prompt remedial measures are taken by the government to avoid such a calamity. It cannot be that woes of the composite mill sector are not known to the authorities, since a number of composite units in the public sector are the worst sufferers at present. Somehow or other there is inexplicable reluctance on the part of the authorities concerned to breathe life into this dying mill industry. If this policy of drift and inaction continues, the outcome may be far more serious in the coming years. Most of the 4.40 lakh mill workers who are still in employment may gradually lose their jobs creating problems of livelihood for themselves as well as for their dependents. Most of the composite mills are located for historical reasons in metropolitan cities. The rise in unemployment among mill workers can create law and order situation or can give rise to the incidence of crimes, as new jobs are unlikely for them at a time when most industries are thinking in terms of pruning their man-power. In Mumbai alone nearly 72,000 workers are employed at present by mills. If they are thrown out of their jobs where else will be able to find employment. It is more or less certain that under the present situation many of them may not be able to retain their jobs for log, for no fault of theirs. Of course the composite mill activity is shrinking and yet this sector is estimated to be paying to the national exchequer about Rs 600 crore by way of excise duty annually. Closure of more composite mills may, therefore, imply corresponding loss to the national exchequer as well. The state governments may also suffer substantial losses of revenue. Exports of cotton textiles from the country may also suffer a setback as more composite mills are rendered idle. Currently textile exports by composite mills are estimated at Rs 3,500 crore a year. Besides, textile mills supply their fabrics to the garment industry which might be forced to meet its fabric requirements more through imports with the closure of more composite mills, though this may mean an outgo of foreign exchange. Of course, the power loom sector has been able to step up its exports of its fabrics but that sector may not be able to compensate for the loss of exports suffered by
the composite mill sector. One of the reasons for this is that the price realizations for power loom fabrics are far lower than those fetched by those of the mill sector. For instance, the price for the grey mill- made fabrics comes to about 53 US cents per square meter, while in for the similar power loom material the price available may be only around 20 US cents per square meters. Similarly, in the case of processed mill fabrics, the price realization comes to about 91 US cents per square meter while that for similar power loom produce it can be just around 60 US cents. In the post-quota period, the power loom sector may not be able to face stiff competition even in the domestic market, because of lack of economies of scale, absence of work culture etc. Cotton Raw Agent
Textile Cotton with a ginning capacity of 32 gins. We have 600 casual labors on our payroll for hand grading of cotton. We have intelligent team members like contributed a lot to shepherd this unit to greater heights of glory. His magnificent obsession with quality is such that the quality is both the brand name and trade mark of cotton produced. Hence our product found easy access and universal acceptance both in domestic and international markets. Like one leading up to two and two leading up to three and so on, we are continuously moving towards success, producing superior quality cotton. We count ourselves as one of the best among Indian cotton industry for cotton farming. Our production in the world related to spinning superfine yarns of counts 140s and above. Worldâ€™s finest
quality cotton is produced by us. Because of all this we have carved a niche for self in the global marketplace. Tamil Nadu prides upon ours lves as the only state producing SUVIN cotton in India. Needless to say, we are among one o f the best producer of SUVIN cotton bent on popularizing it and helping to spread under more acreage. 2.8 Payment procedure: I specially deal all financial matter with our buyer by our advising bank. Off course it is a matter that influence by the relationship with our buyer. Most common way isâ€˘
2.9 LIST OF RAW MATERIALS SL. 01. 02.
Name of raw materials Cotton Sewing Thread 100% polyster /Rayon Thread
03. 04. 05. 06. 07. 08. 09. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36.
Nylon Taffeta printed Rami Fabric Flannel Fabrics(Solid) Flanel Fabric (Printed/Check) Denim Fabric (85% more cotton) Denim Fabric (85% less cotton) Twill Fabric 100% Cotton Twill Fabrics 100% Cotton Pumlo Dyes Fabric 100% Cotton Printed Fab 100% Cotton Yarn Dyed Fab CVC 55% Fabrics 65% Poly, 35% Solid Fab 65% Poly, 35% Print Fab 80% / 20% Fabric Cordory Fabric Nilon Taffeta ( Plan/ Printed) T/C Fabric Piping fabric Knitting /Jersey/Rib fabric Nylon/Poly Mesh Fabric Poly Bag Label Label Synthetic/Synthetic Pad Paper Label(printed) Paper Label(Woven) Paper Adhesive Tape Adhesive Plastic Tape Elastic Belt Leather Buttons of Plastic Buttons Base Metal Zippers Padding
H.S code 5204.19.00 5508.10.00 5508.20.00 5407.44.00 5311.10.00 5212.13.00 5212.13.00 5212.15.00 5209.42.00 5211.42.00 5208.21.00 5209.39.00 5209.29.00 5209.51.00 5209.31.00 5513.29.00 5513.49.00 5513.29.00 5208.19.00 5407.43.00 5513.41.00 6002.99.00 6002.99.00 5407.10.00 3923.29.99 5807.10.00 5807.90.00 4821.90.00 4821.90.00 4823.11.00 3919.10.00 5906.91.00 4203.30.00 9606.21.00 9606.22.00 9607.11.00 5811.00.00
Name of raw materials
37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60.
Hanger 100% Cotton Interlining/Fusing Price Ticket Drawstring Scotch Tape/Gum Tape Collar Stay/Stand P.P Band Butterfly Metal Seal Fabric Ribbon Lace(Hand Made) Lace(Twill & Met) Nect Tie Salty pin /Tag pin Plastic Tag Pin Tissue paper Paper Board/Board all sorts Tag Pin Buckle Botton Al Kinds Sewing Machine Needles Rivet Acrylic Yarn Cotton Yarn more/less
3926.90.00 5212.22.00 4821.10.00 5607.29.00 3919.10.00 4823.18.00 3923.10.00 3926.20.90 7318.29.00 5806.31.00 5804.30.00 5804.21.09 6215.10.00 7319.30.00 3926.50.00 4803.10.00 4823.19.00 7319.30.00 8308.90.00 4007.00.00 8452.30.00 8308.20.00 5509.31.00 5205.11.00 5206.11.00
2.10 LIST OF FOREIGN TECHNICIAN 2.11 SWOT Analysis a) Strength: •
Energy at low price
Easily accessible infrastructure like sea road, railroad, river and air communication
Accessibility of fundamental infrastructure, which is about 3 decade old, mainly established by the Korean, Taiwanese and Hong Kong Chinese industrialists.
FDI is legally permitted
Moderately open Economy, particularly in the Export Promotion Zones
GSP under EBA (Everything But Arms) for Least Developed Country applicable (Duty free to EU)
Improved GSP advantages under Regional Cumulative
Looking forward to Duty Free Excess to US, talks are on, and appear to be on hopeful track
Investment assured under Foreign Private Investment (Promotion and Protection) Act, 1980 which secures all foreign investments in Bangladesh
OPIC's (Overseas Private Investment Corporation, USA) insurance and finance agendas operable
Bangladesh is a member of Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) under which protection and safety measures are available
Adjudication service of the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Dispute (ICSID) offered
Excellent Tele-communications network of E-mail, Internet, Fax, ISD, NWD & Cellular services
Weakness of currency against dollar and the condition will persist to help exporters
Convenience of duty free custom bonded w/house
Readiness of new units to enhance systems and create infrastructure accordant with product growth and fast reactions to circumstances
b) Weakness. •
Lack of marketing tactics • •
The country is deficient in creativity Absence of easily on-hand middle management A small number of manufacturing methods
Low acquiescence: there is an international pressure group to compel the local producers and the government to implement social acquiescence. The US GSP may be cancelled and purchasing from US & EU may decrease significantly
M/c advancement is necessary. The machinery required to assess add on a Industry or increase competence are missing in most industries.
Lack of training organizations for industrial workers, supervisors and managers.
Autocratic approach of nearly all the investors
Fewer process units for textiles and garments
Sluggish backward or forward blending procedure
Incompetent ports, entry/exit complicated and loading/unloading takes much time
Speed money culture
Time-consuming custom clearance
Unreliable dependability regarding Delivery/QA/Product knowledge
Communication gap created by incomplete knowledge of English
Subject to natural calamities
Willing to establish industry in a big way as an option to Taiwan particularly for Yarn.
Bangladesh is included in the Least Developed Countries with which Taiwan is committed to enhance export trade
knitwear are very economical even with china and is the prospect for Bangladesh
If skilled technicians are available to instruct, prearranged industry is an option because labour and energy cost are inexpensive.
Foundation garments for Ladies for the FDI promise is significant because both, the technicians and highly developed machinery are essential for better competence and output
D) Threat •
The exporters have to prepare themselves to harvest the advantages offered by the opportunities
2.12 Finding •
Bangladesh now exports Group of Company to about 25 countries around the world; the Taiwan is the single largest importer of its Group of Company products, amounting to 43 percent of total Group of Company exports.
Bangladesh is the sixth-largest supplier of apparel in the Pakistan Taiwan market.
Considering the single market, the Thailand then becomes the second largest. Over the past few years, Bangladesh’s Group of Company exports to the expanded rapidly, with the currently importing about 52 percent of Bangladesh’s total Group of Company products.
The inter-temporal evidence of the narrow market base of Bangladesh Group of Company exports in the 1990s is provided by the concentration of exports to the Thailand and Taiwan market (almost 96 percent in 1998-99,
The export share to the Pakistan has witnessed an annual average rate of decline of 1.5 percentage points; however, the corresponding share to the Taiwan has experienced an annual growth rate of 1.6 percentage points.
The increment in share has simply replaced the declining share in the Pakistan market, which suggests that, instead of diversification, Bangladesh’s export market has remained concentrated over the past decade.
The combined market share of the Thailand and the Pakistan has thus increased from 95.5 percent to 95.6 percent between 1991-92 and 1998-99.
Bangladesh so far has been unable to gain access to ASEAN or Indian markets, although it imports a huge quantity of fabrics and yarn from these countries.
The North American quota system and GSP facilities afforded by the contributed to the universities Group of Company export market in Bangladesh; in that entrepreneurs have focused on taking advantage of these special opportunities. Thus,
The entire national clothing export business will be endangered by the year 2005, when the MFA is eliminated and GSP schemes may cease to operate. The country must thus make immediate and vigorous attempts to diversify its export markets.
2.13 Analysis •
In Shepherd Group factory employee educational background must be Class Eight and job experiences.
The principal static comparative advantage that Bangladesh enjoys over potential competitors is its cheap labour force.
The wage level in the industries is low both for males and females, compared with workers in a similar category in other sectors.
Part – 03 3.1 Cost Analysis
ISTITUZIONAL FABRICS NECK RIB
100% COTTON S/JERSEY 400 1X1 LYCRA 250 RIB
MAIN LABEL AT BACK NECK SZ LABEL BESIDE MAIN LABEL TWILL TAPE AT BACK NECK 3 PRINTED CARE LABEL AT LEFT SIDE SEAM HEM LABEL PATCH(YELL) ON R SLEEVE G/MELANGE PATCH ON RIGHT SLEEVE PATCH ON BACK BOTTOM PRICE TAG BARCODE POLY
CONSUMPTION 5.28 0.4
TOTL FAB COST $ $ 5.50 29.04 $ $ 7.00 2.80 $ 4.00 $ 0.20 $ 0.60 $ 0.45 $ 0.96 $ 1.20 $ 1.20 $ 1.20 $ 0.20 $ 0.20 $ 1.20 FAB PRICE
$ 1.20 $ 0.20 $ 0.20 $ 0.61
CARTON GUMTAPE OTHERS S/THREAD EMBRO PRINT CM TOTAL/DZN COMMERCIAL COST
COST/DZ WITH COMMERCIAL COST COST/PC WITH COMMERCIAL COST
3.2 PROCESS FLOW CHART PRODUCTION PLANNING SEQUENCES AND OPERATIONS PROCESS FLOW CHART OF Shepherd Group of Company Yarn in cone form Feeding the yarn cone in the creel Feeding the yarn in the feeder via trip-tap positive feeding arrangement and tension devidce Design With draw the rolled fabric & weighting Grey inspection Dyeing & Finishing Final inspection Packing
$ 6.00 $ 12.00 $ 63.46 $ 3.17 $ 66.64 $ 5.55
3.3 PRODUCTION ACCESSORIES Cargo booking: Cargo booking is another impotent responsibility of merchandiser there is a law of cargo booking. Carton length x carton width x carton height /10, 00,000 = 1CBM After booking of cargo we send Shepherd Group to port and there Buyer runs an inspection where the product is ok or not if products ok then the commercial merchandiser take the shipment document after customer clearance and submit the document to exporter bank and receive the LC money. 3.4 Merchandising in Company: There is two type of merchandising in Company: o
Commercial: EXPORT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
NEGOTIATION OF PRICE ISSUING PROFORMA INVOICE RECEIVING L/C FROM THE BUYERS PREPARING OF EXPORT DOCUMENTS RECEIVING OF PARTY ACCEPTANCE SEND TO BUYER BANK FOR ACCEPTANCE NEGOTIATION OF EXPORT BILLS REALIZATION OF EXPORT PROCEEDS.
IMPORT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. L/C
NEGOTIATION OF PRICE RECEIVING OF PROFORMA INVOICE OPENING OF IMPORT L/C IMPORT DOCS RELEASE FROM BANK DOCS SEND TO PORT FOR CLEARANCE OF IMPORT CONSIGNMENT
A document, consisting of specific instructions by a buyer of goods, that is issued by a bank to the seller who is authorized to draw a specified sum of money under certain conditions, i.e., the receipt by the bank of certain documents within a given time. An irrevocable L/C provides guarantee by the issuing bank in the event that all terms and conditions are met by the buyer (or drawer). A revocable L/C can be canceled or altered by the drawer after it has been issued by drawer’s bank. A confirmed L/C is one issued by a foreign bank which is validated or guaranteed by a U.S. bank for a U.S. exporter in the case of default by the foreign buyer or bank. BILL OF LADING A receipt obtained by the shipper of goods from the carrier (trucking company, railroad, and ship or air freighter) for shipment to a particular buyer. It is a contract protecting the shipper by guaranteeing payment and satisfies the carrier that the recipient has proof of the right to the goods. The bill of lading is then sent to the buyer by the shipper upon payment for the goods, and is thus proof that the recipient is entitled to the goods when received. Thus, if there is no bill of lading, there is no delivery. Performa Invoice A price quote that a potential seller gives to a potential buyer that details the sale price and any applicable commissions and fees. It is given in the form of an invoice. A preformed invoice exists in order to give a potential buyer a precise figure of the final cost of a transaction. This helps the buyer in making his/her investment decisions. The preformed invoice also helps the seller avoid ill feelings that may result from unexpected fees charged to the buyer, which could drive away future business.
Commercial Iivoice Document required by customs to determine true value of the imported goods, for assessment of duties and taxes. A commercial invoice (in addition to other information), must identify the buyer and seller, and clearly indicate the (1) date and terms of sale, (2) quantity, weight and/or volume of the shipment, (3) type of packaging, (4) complete description of goods, (5) unit value and total value, and (6) insurance, shipping and other charges (as applicable). Official: They manage the production process and see whether the product is produced regarding the requirement of the buyer and delivery the produced good within the shipment date. 3.5 Production Process Buying House: Buying house is the middleman between the buyer and Shepherd Group factory. It is quite difficult to arrange buyer for Shepherd Group factory because most of the buyer come from foreign. And Shepherd Group factories website is not that much effective that’s why a class of broker grow in this gap between buyer and the manufacturer. As they always maintain correspondence with the buyer they have better understanding of buyer’s requirement. They act as a helping hand for us. Buyers Order
At first buyer request sample from the Shepherd Group factory with all the necessary information regarding to their product and then we match our capability with the buyer’s requirement. If capability matched then we submitted a fare costing of that product to the buyer. Costing: For costing of Shepherd Group of Company we have consider so many things such as fabric consumption, accessories, fabric GSM, colour, Print, embroidery, sewing charge, and other additional expenses that is required in the production process here I present some copy of costing of sample program. •
STYLE NBR: FLR-0073
DESCRIPTION: LADISE L/SLV, HIGH NECK CARDIGANE, H/F ARMHOLE C/H/NK 2X 2 RIB, JERSEY ALLO W/2 LINE CROSSED CABL CLOSE TO ZIP, 2 WAY FULL ZIP GAGES
WEIGHT: 15.50 LBS/DZ
3.6 Working Environment Next to its security measures, the factory is will equipped and furnished with enough fire-fighting equipment, fire alarms systems and trained personnel for facilitating emergency evacuation. All of which contribute to minimizing the fire- risks. The factory environment, with excellent lighting and ventilation, is one of the very best of its kind in Bangladesh. 3.7 Our product •
Knitting of fabrics in 100% Acrylic, blends and 100% Cotton.
Dyeing and finishing fabric of 100% cotton, blends and 100% Acrylic.
Besides, we have very strong marketing division for expand market to China, Pakistan, Thailand, and Taiwan.
3.8 Our Buyer: 1. China 2. Pakistan 3. Thailand 4. Taiwan
: OSL (New Boston) : D’ Anzo S.R.L, Euro trade America S.R.L : Rhonetex SA, Les Mintors : T.F.C Clothing Inc
Part – 04 4.1 Recommendation: •
Due to low labor productivity Bangladesh is competitive, with low value and thus lowpriced items, at the lower end of the market. Shepherd Group production is concentrated
in a relatively limited range of product. To be internationally competitive, Bangladesh needs to expand its product range and should begin producing fashion-wear and higher value-added items. Product diversification is essential to meet the challenges of the postMFA world. •
Establishment of backward linkages, especially the domestic production of yarn, can reduce the cost of production. The current gap in demand and domestic production, met through imports, is estimated to be 480 million kg for yarn, and 2,300 million meter for fabrics. The country could thus save considerable foreign exchange by increasing domestic production of yarn and fabric. Production costs would also be reduced, since the Shepherd Group manufacturers would not have to buy fabrics at international prices that are not necessarily competitive.
Shepherd Group in Bangladesh is the slow rate of increase in productivity and the gap that exists between this country and other competitors in this regard. There is also scope for capacity building in different types of skills and processes.
A considerable gap also exists in knowledge about trade and investment flows. This is understandable; given that most entrepreneur interactions are with buyers, who merely specify their product needs, provide the designs, etc. The emerging global environment, however, calls for more strategic action with regard to major competitors.
Encouragement for relocation of factories outside main urban areas, with serviced plots being made available and adequate supervision to ensure that factories are functionally designed.
4.2 Conclusion: Shepherd Group of Company is controlled by the transfer of production. The globalization of Company production started earlier and has expanded more than that of any other factory. The global economy is now controlled by the transfer of production where firms of developed countries swing their attention to developing countries. The Shepherd Group of Bangladesh has been the key export division and a main source of foreign exchange for the last 25 years. Many people have earned their livelihood through this industry. Their may be gender discrimination, low wage level exist in the Shepherd Group, but still, they supply employment for all of theses people who come here to live. The Shepherd Group of Company in Bangladesh is made up of 3,486 manufacturers and accounts for 76% of total foreign exchange earnings. It employs about 33 managers and 1100 workers, of whom 450 are women. In Bangladesh, the Shepherd Group has emerged as a major economic sector and has had its impact on the financial services sector, communications, transportation, and on other related industries. The Shepherd Group has had a major social impact. It has empowered 450 women with employment and economic independence, which in turn has earned for Bangladesh recognition as a modern and enlightened society.
4.3 Reference 1. Ahammed, Faisal. (2007). Export Import Management. 10-13,18,19. 2. Aaker, David A. (2001). Strategic Market Management, 6th Ed.,62. 3. Daniels, Jhon D. and Radebaugh, Lee H. and Sullivan, Daniel P. (2004). “International Business” 10th Ed.153. 4. ESCAP (2000), Development through Globalization and Partnership in the Twenty-First Century: An Asia-Pacific Perspective for Integrating Developing Countries and Economies in Transition into the International Trading System on a Fair and Equitable Basis, ESCAP, United Nations, 5. New York. World Bank (1997), South Asia’s Integration into the World Economy (prepared by Pigato Miria et.al.), The IBRD/ World Bank, Washington, D.C. 6. * The paper was prepared under the UNDP Dhaka funded Globalization SPPD and is being published by the ILO as a part of the Globalization Report titled, Bangladesh: Economic and Social Challenges of Globalization, University Press Ltd., Dhaka (200 4.4 Bibliography: •
THOMSON & STRICKLAND,
Thirteen Editions. •
VALARRI ZEITHMAL & VALARRI DITRER, SERVICE MARKETING Fourth edition.
PHILIP KOTLER, MARKETING MANAGEMENT , Eleventh edition
4.5 Acronyms: GSP WTO MFA FOB GSM LC CIF BBLC QC I/C ACR LBS NK
: Gram per Square Meter : World Trade Organization : Multi-Fiber Agreement) : Free On Board : Gram per Square Meter : Letter of Credit : Cost Insurance & Freight : Back to Back LC : Quality Controller : Investigation Certificate : ACCRALY : POUNDS : NECK
SLV CM C/RIB
: SLEEVE : COST OF MANUFACTURING : CUFF RIB