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Industrial Attachment On Garment Manufacturing Technology (GMT) Of Interestoff Apparels Ltd

1.1 About inters off / Factory Overview: Name of the Project: Vertical knit unit :

Inters off Apparels Limited Fabric, garment, print & laundry

We are committed •

To our Customers: Total Satisfaction through On-Time Deliveries of Quality Products & Services

To our Employees: Good Work Environment & Compliance with National & International Rules

• To our Society: Creation of a Better Tomorrow 1.2 Lay out of the mill: Printing Section

WTP

Boiler & Generator

ETP

Ground Floor Finishing Section 1st to 5th Floor Garments Section

Administrative Building

Dyeing Floor

Wastage store Batch Section Security Room

Fig: Layout of Interstoff Apparels Ltd.


2.1 History & Evolution of Inters off Apparels Limited

The factories also have experience to work with many other buyers. But now they create a good relationship above of this buyer those who are very famous in this Garment business world .They provide them their require quality &other satisfaction .Sometimes they also work with sub–contract. This help to maintain there production flow and build a good relationship to other garments. As like in this Post MFA when there order quantity is become down then they try to hold the experience worker by sub-contract. ℵ Europe      

TESCO Marks & Spencer Sainsbury’s Kappahl Esprit Debenhams EU:80%

ℵ U.S.A/Canada  Polo Ralph Lauren  Columbia Sportswear  Kenneth Cole U.S.A: 20%


2.2 Key Statistics & Expansion Plans……. Key Stats of IAL:      

Land Area Developed Area Building Total Investment Total Workers Total Capacity

: 3 acres : 2.25 acres : 2,60,000 sft : $12.50M : 4000 : 2,000,000 per month

Expansion Plans:  Increase in fabric production by 10 MT/Day  An addition of 20 Sewing lines , which will increase the productivity by approx 15,000 pcs/day 2.3 Benefit for Workers…….  Yearly Festival Bonus- Twice a year.  Attendance Bonus of BDT 400/Month.  Other allowance for Chemical Store, Washing & Batch Workers @ 400/Month.     

Earn Leave Encashment. Group Insurance coverage for all workers. Full time primary Medical Facility, free of cost. Children day Care centre. Maternity (112 days) benefit for all. This year we paid 0.8 million taka as maternity benefits among 45 employees.

2.4. IAL’s Working Hours, Wages, Benefits: • • • • • • • •

Daily working hours-8 hours from 8:0 am to 5:0 pm with one hour lunch break. Standard workweek – 48 hours as established by BGMEA. Permissible daily overtime –not more than 2 hours Minimum wage for a permanent worker – according to BGMEA 1662.50 Frequency of payment of salary – once a month paid within the first week of the next month Leave facility – maternity leave –16weeks, festival holiday –10 days year, earned leave – one day @ 18, sick leave- 14 with salary, causal leave – 10 days/year. Other facilities:- one child care. Overtimes calculation formula -

Basic salary Χ 2 208 hours

Χ Excess hours

2.5 Our CSR Activities……. •

Recruiting disabled persons from Centre for Rehabilitation of the Paralyzed (CRP). At present 27 nos. of girls are working in the garments.


Every month donating an amount of money to a school.

Fair Price Rice and essential commodities’ distribution among the workers.

Giving cricket training to the boys of North Bengal through the North Bengal Cricket Academy.

Relief to the Natural Calamity.

Free Eye Campaign for all workers.

2.6 Our Future Plan  To build up a Community Hospital / clinic for the workers as well as for the local people.  To increase the education level of the society we are planning to build up a community school.  To prepare a dormitory for the workers, which will provide more security to the workers?  Day care centre for the children whose parents both are working.  To build up efficient workers’ and employees’ training is must, so we are planning to set up a training centre for the people. 2.7 Environment….  Effluent Treatment Plant, 30 cubic meter capacity, designed to meet World Bank guidelines.  Use of high efficiency production machinery reducing overall water usage from 200 liter/kilo to 100 liter/kilo of product.  The use of power generation reduces gas consumption.  The use of modern dyestuffs reduces the concentration of waste products in the effluent.


3. Organizational structure of the Interstoff Apparels Limited

Chairman Managing director

Director General Manager

Manager Admin

Manager Merchandiser

Assistant Manager

Assistant Merchandiser Manager

Senior Executive Officer

Senior Officer

Senior Executive Merchandiser

Merchandiser

Defects in Apparels Admin Officer

Office Assistant

Peon

Assistant Merchandise r Peon

Manager Production (Sewing)

Assistant Production Manager

Production Officer

Shift in Charge

Quality Controller

Manager Dyeing

Cutting Manager

Sample Manager

Assistant Cutting Manager

Quality Controll er

2. Sewing Quality defect

Supervisor

Quality Controller

Shift in Charge

Supervisor

Machine Operator

Quality Controller

Iron Man

1. NonAssistant sewing Dyeing defect Manager Production Officer

Manager Finishing

Finishing in charge

Quality

Label Man

Helper Supervisor

Line Chief

Quality

Supervisor

Folding Man

Quality Packing Man Operator Helper

Operator

Helper

Pattern Master

Helper

Χ Excess hours

Assistant Pattern Master

Senior Cutting Man

Cutting Man

Basic salary Χ Iron Man 2 208 hours Helper Swing Operator

Helper


4. COMPANY PROFILE: Interstoff Apparels Ltd. (Fabric, Garments and Print Unit)

Name of the Project

Interstoff Apparels Ltd.

Address

Office: Suite # B, House # 43, Road # 35/A, Gulshan-2, Dhaka-1212, Bangladesh. Tel. No. (8802) 881 7881, 989 4544; Fax No. (8802) 882 8458, email Shahriar.alam@arafapparels.com shafiq@icl.bdrmg.com. Factory: Chandora, Kaliakoir, Gazipur, Bangladesh. Tel. No. (8802) 928 9103. (88) 06822 51925-6; Fax No. (8802) 928 9240, e-mail: shafiq@icl.bdrmg.com, jagdish@icl.bdrmg.com

Banker

Mercantile Bank Ltd, Dhanmondi Branch, 2/1 Cosmos Tower, Road No. 28 (old), Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Tel. No. (8802) 9130500, 8126768; Fax No.: SWIFT Code: MBLBBDDHA006. Telex No. 642529 MBL DN.


Name of Contact Persons

1. Mr. Md. Shahriar Alam Managing Director Mobile No. (88) 01711 524 823 2. Mr. Shaikh Mohd. Ilias Director Mobile No. (88) 01711 566587 3. S. M. Shafiqur Rahman Manager, Product Development Mobile No. (88) 01711 609545

Nature of Business

100% export oriented knit/woven garments manufacturing and exporting. It has also fully vertically integrated Knit Fabric manufacturing plant (knitting, dying and finishing).

Production Started from

February 2000.

Number of Employees

4000 (till date).

Floor Area

Total floor space is 3,25,000 sft.

Products & Customers

Fashion T-shirts, Polo shirts, Knitted shorts, Leggings Nightwear and School wear etc. The factory ensures Safe/Metal-free garments as per customer's requirements, through practice of Metal Detection & Needle/ Metal Control procedures.

Customer Marks & Spencer Tesco Debenham Esprit Kappahl Polo Ralph Lauren Columbia Sports Wear Kenneth Cole

Production Capacity

: Currently 2 million pieces of garment per month. 12000 kg of fabric per day

Turnover

:

US$ 45 million per year.

Achievements……  IAL is certified by Fair Trade.  IAL’S Fabric and Garments are Oeko-tex Certified.  IAL is CTPAT certified.


ďƒ˜ IAL is WRAP Certified ďƒ˜ We are ISO 9001:2000 certificate

Machinery Some special Features: 1. Washing: We have inhouse garments washing facility. 2. Knitting Capabilities: Apart from the Single Jersey, Polo Pique, Herring Bone, Crape, Bubble Knit fabrics, we can produce Engineering Stripe, Feeder Stripe, Interlock, Rib, Waffle and other various


knit fabrics in our knitting plant.

3. Uninterrupted Power Supply: 2 units of Waukesha (USA) Gas Generator with capacity of 2500 kw, which can support the entire plant. Garment : Factory is set up with brand new imported machinery from Japan, UK and Singapore. At present, over 1400 sets of machines & equipments are installed and operational. A list of machinery is enclosed. 1. Printing : • Two 12 head auto carousal ( MHM brand) • 2 Dryer (MHM and ADELCO) • 4 x 50Hand-Print Table

4. Embroidery : Currently this unit is located at the different place. We have 14 no. of BARUDAN. We also offer hand embroidery. Management Management team is headed by the Managing Director Mr. Md. Shahriar Alam, an MBA from IBA, Dhaka University, the leading business school of Bangladesh, who has decade-long hands-on experience in all the facets of the RMG industry. Mr.


Alam is having good understanding of the market with skills of 'innovation' & 'getting things done'. He is assisted by a highly qualified & dedicated team of Merchandisers & Commercial managers/executives. Garment Production team is headed by Production Director, Mr. Sk. Md. Ilias, a Mechanical Engineer from BUET, who stays at factory, most of the time to monitor production and quality. We have a separate Print and Embroidery Unit. Print and Embroidery unit is equipped with brand new imported machineries. We are doing many complicated Printing and Embroidery. Working Environment

IAL strives for safe and healthy work environment. The number of helpers is much below than the local industry standard. Employee benefits and working conditions are as per guide line provided by the government that includes Maternity Leave with pay for 4 months, Two Festival Bonus per year, Attendance Bonus, Performance Bonus, adequate safety & security measures. Initiatives have been taken to introduce Time & Motion Study to enhance productivity and Quality Certifications to match global competitiveness. Other notable features to ensure excellent Work Environment are: • All employees have to undergo a 2-day of orientation course. Special training program for new and unskilled workers and supervisors are arranged regularly. • IAL has separate Training Room for imparting training to workers, supervisors on various aspect of production process, quality control of garments, etc. • All workers are provided with bar-coded ID cards. • Salaries including overtime are paid regularly by 7th of the following month.

Occupational Health, Safety, & Concern for Environment

• Doctor is available to provide full free medical services to workers. • Well trained Fire-fighting team with Advance Fire Fighting Equipments. • Fully equipped and operational Effluent

• Spacious purpose-built safe and secured factory building • First-Aid


Treatment Plant (ETP). Even, we kept dyeing plant idle, till Operational ETP.

Raw Material Storage

IAL's storage facility is safe, systematic, and fully compliant with the local laws. The factory follows 4-point fabric inspection system to ensure fabric quality. Apart from this, other standard measures for Quality Assurance like Shade Continuity, 100% Garment Parts Inspection & Numbering are strictly followed.

Final Inspection

100% of the garments are inspected and IAL works in a strict AQL Level of 2.5. The company always stands by its quality.

Certifications

Interstoff Apparels Ltd. is fully approved by several globally accepted Certification bodies like Oeko Tex, SGS, and WRAP etc. IAL is also FAIRTRADE certified by the FLO-Cert Trade Certification Committee (FLO ID: 18123). IAL is an approved factory by MARKS & SPENCER, TESCO, POLO, COLUMBIA , KAPPAHL, ESPRIT, WAL MART and other reputed international brands.

IAL’s mission statement: • • • • •

To be acclaimed by our customers as among the best manufacturers of high quality garments To be seen as a good business partner by our suppliers of goods and services To be a hailed as a model employer by our work force To be a socially responsible organization To be a profitable organization that maximizes the return on investments.

5. Infrastructure of IAL: Interstoff Apparels Ltd. is not only a name but also it is a strong shed of some well establish department. The departments are highly efficient of their duty and works. The responsibilities of sections will be clear from the following follow up --5.1

HR & Compliance:

Human Resources is the arm of the company which houses various data (Benefits, Compensation, Workers' Compensation, Training, etc.). It is the place which provides resources for managers and employees alike. Human resources management involves several processes. Together they are supposed to achieve the above mentioned goal. These processes can be performed in an HR department, but some tasks can also be outsourced or performed by line-managers or other departments. When effectively integrated they provide significant economic benefit to the company.


• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Workforce planning Recruitment (sometimes separated into attraction and selection) Induction, Orientation Skills management Training and development Personnel administration Compensation in wage or salary Time management Travel management (sometimes assigned to accounting rather than HRM) Payroll (sometimes assigned to accounting rather than HRM) Employee benefits administration Personnel cost planning Performance appraisal Labor relations

Human resource department is responsible for: Ø Recruiting Ø Training Ø Compensation Ø Performance appraisal Ø Firing Recruiting: In Radial International Limited for management hiring three interviews are conducted if they are experienced. If they fresh graduate then first written test is done after this initial interview, and then final interview is conducted. This process is done for management trainees. For workers and officer level the head of department hire. His criteria will accord job requirements. Training: On the job training is mostly provided. But sometimes for management we conduct seminars; in LUMS some lectures are scheduled. Some mangers they visit to foreign countries for getting training. Compensation: For management trainees they provide Rs.12000 and other according to job requirement and skills of the employee. They also compensate according market going situation. For workers they are providing minimum Rs. 3000 according to government rolls. For officers the G.M decide how much salary will be provided. This depends on the nature of the job and skills, experience of the employees. Firing the employees: If any employee is not doing his job very well then the Head of the department fire the concern employee. 5.1.1 Recruiting: Conducting searches to recruit faculty and staff employees is an important and time-consuming task. Every technique used to attract and screen applicants must measure up to the University’s EEO responsibilities. Increasing diversity should be a significant part of the hiring process. Vacancies are


to be filled with qualified candidates either by promoting or transferring employees from within, or by hiring from outside the University. The following steps have been established to facilitate the search process. 1. If there is no current job description then the department must develop a detailed job analysis, by investigating the duties, tasks, responsibilities, functions and purpose of the position for which you are hiring. Human Resources (HR) is available to assist you in developing a job description. 2. Once the electronic authorization has been routed through the appropriate channels and sent to HR, the position will be posted on the online applicant system. 3. Non exempt positions must be posted for a minimum of five calendar days. Exempt and Faculty positions should be posted for a minimum of ten calendar days. Positions are posted with the state employment agency and may also be advertised through other sources as needed. Advertisements for exempt staff positions that are sent outside the university should be approved by Public Affairs. The Provost office will approve Faculty ads. Advertising must include the standardized advertising requirement: “Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employer - Security Sensitive Position Criminal background check required for successful candidate”. Human Resources cover the expense of advertising in highbred jobs. Additional advertising is at the expense of the hiring department. 4. All applicants must use the online applicant system to be considered. Candidates must not be considered if the requested documents are not completed. All candidates will be directed through instructions on the online applicant system as to what documents they must submit. Accuracy of the statements on the employee’s application will be certified by the signature of the applicant. Falsification, misstatement or omission of information may be grounds for refusal to hire or, if hired, termination. The applicant’s signature authorizes persons to give you references; any and all information concerning previous employment, education, or any other information they might have personal or otherwise, with regard to any of the subjects covered by the application, and releases all such parties from all liability from any damages which may result from furnishing such information to you. 5. Once the position has been posted and the department is ready to start interviewing they may request a search committee training session through HR. The search committee process is required for faculty and exempt positions but may be used for all openings. 6. Appoint or designate a search committee. When feasible, the search committee should be diversified in nature (minorities and females should be represented). If the department is homogeneous, consider inviting members of other departments that are representative of underrepresented groups to participate as a member of the search committee. Search committees should have an odd number of members. 7. Appoint or designate an Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Coordinator within the search committee to sign off on the hiring decision signifying that the committee complied with SFA selection guidelines and state and federal laws. The EEO Coordinator will have the responsibility of justifying a hiring decision. The EEO Coordinator may be the hiring manager or search chair. 8. It is recommended that the Affirmative Action Officer (or designated representative) from HR meet with the Search Committee Chairperson and/or the search committee to discuss proper search procedures prior to implementing the search. At this time HR will apprise the department of any under representation of females and minorities in the respective department. HR may offer assistance in recruitment outreach.


9. It is no longer necessary to mail the EEO data from to candidates as this information is requested on a voluntary basis in the online applicant process. 10. Develop a list of basic interview questions and appropriate answers to be asked of all applicants interviewed. This basic list does not preclude the committee from asking more specific questions as a result of answers from the basic list. When interviewing, ask each applicant to answer the same jobrelated and experience specific interview questions and/or complete the same job-related practical exercises, which can be quantifiably measured. Focus exclusively on the applicant’s professional and technical ability or knowledge to perform the particular job. 11. The search committee must use a Hiring Matrix to objectively and more accurately compare an applicant’s qualifications to a job vacancy and to one another. This tool will help to ensure that hiring selection decisions are made only on lawful job-related and non-discriminatory criteria, thus providing Equal Employment Opportunity to all applicants. 12. Screening of applicants must be done in accordance with Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) laws and the selection criteria. Reasons for the non-selection of applicants must be documented for all applicants interviewed but not chosen. In the online system there is a drop down menu for nonselection codes. All committees must complete this section on non-selected candidates. This information will be retained online and be accessible for any potential audits or open records requests. 13. Documentation is critically important before, during, and after the interview/hiring process. The hiring authority must thoroughly document the recruitment and selection processes used to fill the position. The hiring department may view all applicant information online, but if the department makes any written notes then those must be retained for 2 years and 1 day. The purpose for this is to assure that if for any reason an applicant makes an open records request or the records are subpoenaed in a court of law that the information needed will be thorough and accessible. This information is also important should the department be audited for any reason. 14. The search committee should check two employment references/current or previous work histories of their final candidates. An employment verification form is available to assist the search committee with this task. At least one reference should be a former supervisor or previous employer. Unsatisfactory references will take a candidate out of consideration for hire. It is acceptable to check references not provided by the applicant. 5.1.2 Training Getting off on the right foot: Many companies provide some sort of introductory training or orientation for most of their new employees. It may take the form of an older employee assigned to show the new employee "the ropes." Or it may be left to the HR department or the individual's new supervisor to show them where the coffee pot is and how to apply for time off. Many organizations, especially in government and academia, have created new employee training that is designed, exclusively or primarily, to provide mandated safety familiarization. There is a measurable cost to that training, but is it worth it? Let's look at some of the issues. Some Background Facts: The technology in the workplace is changing very rapidly and companies that can't keep up will drop out of competition. A survey by the Ontario (Bangladesh) Skills Development Office found 63% of


the respondents planned to "introduce new technology into the workplace that would require staff training." A third of the respondents included "improving employee job performance" and "keeping the best employees" as desired outcomes. The American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) reports that less than $1500 per employee was spent for training in 1996. Reasons to Not Do New Employee Training: Even at the less than $1500 per year for training an employee we reported above, it is still a cost. For some companies, especially those with traditionally high turnover, it can be a major expense. If your profit per employee is less than $1500, it would be difficult to convince the stakeholders that training is justified. Besides, we all know it is the responsibility of the school system to train people to be workers. And it is the worker's responsibility to learn how to do a job so they can get hired. Required Training: Government regulation, insurance coverage’s, and common sense dictate some training that MUST be given to every new employee. Other Reasons for New Employee Training: American International Assurance is an ISO 9002 certified insurance company. AIA makes a commitment to training for their staff because AIA "recognizes that the training and development knowledge, attitude and skills of the staff and agency field force are fundamental to its continued efficient and profitable performance.” An Interesting Proposal: Dr. Edward Gordon recommends companies make training a stand-alone function, separate from HR. He points out a twenty percent increase in training expenditure since 1983 has not kept pace with the twenty-four percent increase in workers in the same period. He suggests Training Managers use Return on Investment (ROI) to demonstrate that the training function is a profit center, not just a cost center. 5.1.3 Compensation: Some business costs, such as rent, materials, and borrowing, often decline during economic downturns. Rising unemployment may also tempt business owners to assume they’ll be able to pay new hires much less than when times were better. But determining how to compensate new employees involves more than the unemployment rate. Base wage rates and salaries do not typically fluctuate much in accordance with the overall economy, so don’t make major adjustments to these when formulating offers to job candidates. Keeping salaries fairly stable avoids friction between recent hires and other employees. Long-term employee discontent is not a good trade-off for short-term salary savings. Many employers do better taking a long-term approach and adjusting salaries and benefits to meet typical market conditions rather than risking being seen as taking advantage of an employer’s market. You can find out what a fair salary is for existing company positions or newly created ones by checking compensation surveys and other sources. The federal Bureau of Labor Statistics publishes several free reports, including information on salaries in broad occupational niches, such as


the Occupational Outlook Handbook. Private sources may deal with more specialized data. For instance, Radford, a compensation consulting company, publishes a quarterly survey of trends in technology and life sciences practices. 5.1.4 Firing The Lowdown on Firing Employees "Of all confrontations with an employee, the response you get from firing someone is the most difficult to predict. One employee may thank you for giving him or her the opportunity to work with you, while another may .." How to Fire an Employee "After you have taken all of the preliminary steps, considered all of the potential ramifications, legal and otherwise, and have made the difficult decision to let someone go, stick to it. " Severance Pay Issues " First, by law, you need to immediately remunerate a terminated employee for any unused vacation or personal time, all regular and overtime hours worked, and previously unpaid, earned bonuses and any other earned pay. " Legal Risks "Thanks to your friends in the federal government, you need to carefully consider any potential termination from a legal perspective. If you aren’t sure where you would stand legally should a terminated employee bring suit, consult an attorney. Avoiding a Lawsuit The first way to avoid getting sued is to be sure that you and all other supervisors understand discrimination law. Go one step further and be sure that all supervisors really believe . 5.1.5 COMPLIANCE SECTION Compliance means obeying by the rules revelation, convention of local labor laws constitution ILO is one of the biggest human resource obligation and environmental regulation organization. IAL’s compliance policies are explained below: -

General principles: IAL highly determined on•

Satisfy to customer for best quality of product

To follow all business rules

Make a healthy environment at work place, and maintain workers health & security maintain.

To ensure more than fire extinguishers system

To follow local rules and regulation

By training personnel & make them efficient

Not irritation on- sex, religion, age etc.


Quality principles: IAL believe quality product is only way of success & IALs’ promises belowo

To achieve Zero defect

o

To satisfy the buyers

o

To help in al sections in the company by best investment of training, machinery and Processes for best quality of product. Quality less product is valueless.

o

Need to more practice in all internal division for best quality.

Recruitment and others principle: •

No child labor recruitment

The job will give the right candidate

Do not have any biasness on recruitment

Candidate should write his/her educational background

At least 18 years people can come to the worker post. They must bring age certificate.

In present Local wages law of BGMEA is 1662.50 taka. in future whatever wages law will make BGMEA, we will continue that.

Employee will get vacation according to company regulation.

Increment and promotion depend on employer’s efficiency.

Female worker will get maternity leave that based on local industrial law.

Killer, thieves are not to recruit to the company. 5.2

Apparel Technology:

5.2.1 Product development & Marketing:

Product development: IAL has a good sample room; this room develops patterns. After get buyer spec sheet, merchandiser submit it to the sample room. Pattern master make the pattern according to the measurement.


The apparel industry is dominated by numerous small to medium sized business & product development is vital to the survival success of any business whatever its size o\r type of production .The future of textiles & apparel depends on companies adding value to their products & /or services .Companies need to understand the product development process to control quality & costs. Large organizations may have department devoted to the research & development of products or design department who are constantly producing new products & ranges .However the product development process is just as important for smaller organizations & ……………… Product development section helps in the Apparel Industry  We will gain a full understanding of the product development process.  We will be able to plan a development process suitable for our company needs.  We will be able to strength our teams awareness & understanding of other department needs.  We will be aware of ways of reducing development & company costs.  We will become aware of ways of improving customer service. Product development Cycle: The owner /manager or the one need & only technician person often carry out the development or design process .innovation & creativity are necessary for any busine3ss to move forward & take advantage of prevailing market conditions .The increasing use of computer aided design & manufacturing has helped all types of business to speed up the process of product development & todo this more cost effectively. The process of product development varies from textile context .The development process covers a wide range of diverse products from new fibers ,sibre blends , new yarns , fabric structures, finishes & surface effects 7 all types of made up products such as knitwear, hosiery , cut & sewn garments , household products & technical & medical products. Despite the diversify of textile products the development process a similar for all & the process has been transferred by the increasing use of Cad /Cam ,computer aided design & computer aided manufacturing .these enable new ideas & effect to be reproduced on computer & tried & tested in a cost effective & visually acceptable way. The product development process can be splits into three main phases:  Phase 1 – Covers the development of the initial concept or design idea through to its approval by the customer & full review /risk analysis by the development & production teams.  Phase 2 – covers the process following acceptance of the first prototype sample & includes of sourcing & ordering, testing the product & carrying out trails.  Phase -3 – Once the finalized product specification has-been drawn up the third & final phase comments .This include a range of activities that are carried out before large scale or bulk production can begin .This final stage includes sour4cing production capacity outside the home producer /developer where this is applicable.


Major process of product development: The origin of style Market research [To find out information required to develop new styles) Information is gathered through. • • • • •

Fashion shows Fashion Journals Style & color forecasting Garment competitions Final consumers in the retail stores

Design concept Fashion shows. By sketching new styles Fashion Journals. Serious of trails are carried out to find shape, colors & Style & color forecastingsurface services. decoration Garment competitions.  Final consumers in the retail stores. Market Screening. Check the existing of a target population.    

The developed of samples Creation of prototype pattern (Design Activity0 Used Technology of block pattern. Modeling. Figure types in the market segment. Material technology. Sample making. Using information collected through the market research skilled sample machinist construct first sample.


Conducting range meeting (Key decision – Making pointy in the whole sale process. The refinement of business objectives. Pattern Adoption Plan the sequence of construction to be used in mass Production. Make proposal to purchase new machine for mass production. Over of objectives -Comfort. -Resistance to

Attach by fluids Sunlight Wear

-Behavior in washing & dry cleaning. The attainment of commercial products. Production patterns making. According to necessary pattern specification. Grading. Information from sizing surveys can be used to grade the Pattern. Marker making. Minimize the wastage. Maximize the utilization of Material without breaking marker making rules. Production of templates. For button hole marking, pocket , marking collar marking. Finalizing the specifications Feed back from manufacturing. Based initially on attest based. Feed back from market place. Market Research:


Before product development can star it is essential to carry out market research top find out what the market wants .There are both internal & external factors to be considered which will affect potential markets & products .Social economical & political environments can all have an influence Factors closer to home such as competitor activities & company policy may also have an effect .market information gathered from trade shows, trade, journals & market reports is also important. Every business decision made by the company if affected by affected a no of factors .The below chart is a representative of the various factors.

COMPETITION

TECHNLOGY

NEW PRODUCT

SOCIAL INFLUENCE CONSUMER SPENDING POWER

THE COMPANY FASHION TRENDS

CONSUMER ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS FINANCIAL ASPECTS

INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION

GOVERNMENT LEGISLATION 5.2.2 Sample section: Process flow chart of sample section: Work sheet or sketch Pattern making according buyers specification in computer or manually


Pattern cutting in winda pattern cutter m/c or using scissor. Fabric marking by using pattern Fabric cutting according to pattern by straight knife fabric cutter or by scissor Printing or embroidery if required Sewing the different part of garments by different m/c Making button hole and attach button Quality checking by quality inspector Ironing Final quality check Inspection Sample send to buyer Different type of sample for different buyer: Sl. No Sample status Size Sainsbury 01 Development Department size 02 Fit/Red seal Base size 03 Press sample Base size 04 Wash test Buyer need 05 Gold seal Base size Debenhams 01 Development Department size 02 Fit Base size 03 Size set All size 04 Wash test Buyer need 05 Gold seal Base size H&M 01 Development Department size 02 Quotation Edge color 03 Size set Any color 04 Counter sample Edge color 05 Shipment sample Base color Tesco 01 Development Department size 02 Fit/Red seal 18/24-7/8-12/13 03 Press sample Any size 04 Wash test Any size

Quantity 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 8 6 6


05 06 M&S 01 02

Pre production Green seal

03 04 05 Kapphal 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 Ralhpa polo/a.living 01 02 03

All size Base &all size

Every size-1 pcs 6

Development Department size Contract seal graded Base size White city Any size Press ecomase Any size Rack sample Base

3 6-all size

Development Style sample Photo sample Counter sample each color 3 pcs Lab test each color 4 pcs In house test each color 4 pcs Size set jumping each color 1 pcs Pp sample buyer need requirement

Department size Base Buyer need 68/80

3 3 7 3

Any size

4

Any size

4

Base&all size

4

Development Top Shipment sample

Base size Base size Base size

4 8 4

4 4 6

All size

5.2.3 MERCHANDISING SECTION:

Now days, major companies are adopting merchandising concepts, which comply with all procedures to execute and dispatch the shipment on time, considering quality, cost and time. Merchandisers are serious in the success of any garment retail business. They provide the right products at the right time, enabling a company to match with latest market trends and meet the market demand. In the merchandising concept, time management is a gig to manage one's time properly, so he can focus on value adding actions. Today's garment merchandisers have to move with frequent changes in demand and the developing technologies utilized in manufacturing and production. To find out customer requirements, they regularly visit retail outlets, and come up with latest updates from frontline staff. In order to keep an eye on developments in sourcing, site visits are made every week to mainland factories to meet suppliers and study production. In garment merchandising, there is no specific rule, so it's important to be able to think on one's feet. Mission & Vision: Our country Bangladesh has already achieved a global reputation of reliable supply base for knit. We have established our knit factory Interstoff Apparels Ltd with a vision to become a high grade manufacturer in Bangladesh. With a decade of experience of our qualified management team, our


objective is to concentrate on specialization in the production of a single item-knit and create our own niche in the market. The word came from the work” Merchandise” meaning a product meant for selling and buying. Merchandising involved with trade (buy & sale). The person dealing with the merchandise is called Merchandiser. If it is apparel product then the person is apparel Merchandiser. Apparel merchandising involved in garments trade (goods are bought and apparel sold). In the other way Merchandising may be defined as- Person who merchandises the goods, specifically for export purposes.

Objects of Merchandising: Merchandising denotes all the planned activities to execute and dispatch the merchandise on time, taking into consideration of the 4 Rs to replenish the customer. • • • •

Right Quantity: To dispatch right quantity of product what buyer ordered. Right Quality: It should be with right quality as accepted both parties. Right Cost: Everybody wants more from what they are paid. Right Time: No one wants to wait idle even in a Restaurant. Keeping delivery schedule is mandatory.

Qualities of Merchandiser: 1. Communication Skill: The communication is very much important to promote the business activity. The merchandiser should remember that communication must be lurid and should having face to face conversation with the buyer. 2. Planning Capability: Merchandiser should be capable of planning, based on the planning the order is to be followed. If the planning is not done properly it will directly affect the delivery time of the order. 3. Decision making: For a Merchandiser, decision making power is most important. He should think about the decision to be taken and to act in a right way. 4. Loyalty: Loyalty is an essential character of human beings. Especially for the business people like merchandiser it is a must. 5. Knowledge about the field: Merchandiser should have adequate knowledge about the garments, Computer knowledge, and technical knowledge to communicate with different people in the business is a must. 6. Co-ordinate & Co-operate: Merchandiser is the person who is actually co-ordinate with the number of departments. To Co-ordinate with different people in the industry he should be cooperative. 7. Monitoring ability: Merchandiser should monitor to expedite the orders. 8. Other qualities: Education, Experience, Situational Management, Ability to Evaluate, Dedication, Knowledge of expediting procedures. Term of apparel merchandising: • • • • •

Order confirmation by negotiation Buying raw materials and accessories Producing garments Maintaining required quality level Exporting the garments with in schedule time.


In apparel merchandiser must have a wide range of knowledge and skills to perform his/ her job successfully. The job itself is Technical and general as well. Qualifications of merchandiser: • • • • • •

Good commend of English and good communication skills in English. Good knowledge of Yarn, Fabric, Dyeing, Printing, Finishing, Dyes, Color Fastness, Garments production, etc. Clear conception of the usual Potential Quality problems and garment manufacturing. Good knowledge of the usual raw materials inspection systems and garments inspection system. Knowledge of the compliance, buyer’s code of conduct, SA 8000, Warp, International human rights, Core ILO conventions and various standards. Knowledge of quota system and category countries, duty rate, custom regulation, shipping and banking documentation.

Roles & responsibilities: When an export order is placed to a merchandiser, he has to schedule the following main functions to execute the export order perfectly in time (schedule):• • • • • • • • • • • •

Fabric requirement calculation (consumption, YPD). Accessories requirement, calculation (Example, Thread, button, interlining, label, poly bag and cartoon etc). Sourcing of fabrics. Sourcing of accessories. Production follow-up with fabric and accessories, be possible date of arrival of fabric and accessories in garment factory. Costing of garments. Garment analysis and production planning. Performa making, swatch making and distribution to the production unit and quality concern people. Pre-shipment inspection schedule. Shipment documents Have to prepare proper time and action plan Arranging shipping documents and final inspection.

Function of Merchandisers: • • • • • • • • • • •

Developing new samples, execute sample orders Costing Programming Raw materials / Accessories arrangement Production scheduling (or) route card drafting Approval of various Process, Pattern and size set Pre production follow up Meet Inspection Agencies Production controlling Identifying shortages and make arrangement for the shortages Following quality assurance procedures, quality control procedures

Execution process for garment export:


• • •

Order inquiry from buyer to factory. Approval of order from Buyer, as per the costing given by the Merchandiser. Buyer Bank gives master L/C to the factory. Commercial dept deals with the follow up of L/C matters. • B/B, L/C is given to the suppliers of accessories and fabric, etc. • Fit sample sent to the Buyer for fit approval. • Pre-Production sample submitted to Buyer with original accessories and fabric. • Fabric and trims to be in housed on due time as per time and action plan. • Pilot production to be started as per time and action plan. (Pilot production or initial production can consist of 100to 200 pcs.) • Online inspection by buyers Q.C certifies the quality of the garments. • Bulk production to be started, as per the time and action plan. • In the main time commercial section, prepare the shipping documents • Final inspection as per time and action plan (after final inspection ok). • Goods are made ex factory. • Goods handed over to the shipping line (Sea shipment) As a merchandiser: • • • • • • • • • • •

He / she should be hard worker He / she should be responsible for the job He / she should be not bureaucratic He / she should be must have knowledge in computer literacy e- mail website ,windows, ms, power point, excel etc He / she should be able work intelligently He / she should have ability to improve public relation He / she should be well behaved personality He / she should be pleasant behavior to motivate people He / she should be good knowledge on calculation He / she should be goal achiever

Merchandising chorological process: •

1st pattern (first sample)

2nd pattern (second sample)

Approved sample and counter sample (three pace)

Sales man sample (for sale every chain store can take 20)

Size set sample

Pre-production sample (production running in that time merchandiser take)

Production sample

Shipping sample (before shipping merchandiser takes some sample)


The main procedures of merchandisers are as followed: Understanding Sample Order Merchandiser has to understand the buyer's requirements after receiving specification in the sample order. In many cases, there are modifications pertaining to the specifications in the order to dispatch on time and the right quality. He has to talk with the in-house veterans on the execution problems of sample orders, as the right information is required in decision making. Managing order route card and production timetable Merchandiser has to manage every single production schedule and order route card that helps to follow-up the execution in the planned way. It is expected to be acknowledged of the various descriptions like: design, no. of modules, no. of operators, how many processes, date of dispatch, quantity, output capacity, and deadlines in the schedules. The sub-ordinates are normally assigned to follow-up with execution of the plan. Merchandiser plans the activities depending on the essentials or non-essentials, and top priority are given to the most essential tasks. This is customary that the essential activities are handled personally or with the support of junior merchandisers/sub-ordinates. In a "daily schedule", merchandiser has to carry-out and categorize which is the most significant and urgent task. The activity that has to be focused with full attention to sweep-off non-essential activities and have to be to be corrected by prioritizing to meet the deadlines. Using route card to reschedule activities To get updated on the current status on the order, the route cards should be utilized. The latest status can be fed into the computers. In case, the buyer ask for the goods prior to the deadline, then merchandiser has to reorganize the schedules to accomplish tasks, output capacity, no. of pieces to be produced daily, substitute arrangements, time availability, supply time, scheduling critical ratio, etc. Submitting pre-production samples The pre-production samples should be provided on time to the concerned buyers. Quality of the sample must be verified. If required, revised samples should be made available to the buyers. Merchandiser should adjust to the required changes demanded by the buyer. The execution of bulk orders should be made only after samples are approved by the buyer.


In-process inspection denote between any tasks in order-execution. In case of non- conformation, it is better to focus on the concerns of quality. Merchandisers that works on complete orders have to check deviation to the production teams so that any amendments can be done to avoid the non-conformities. Solving shortage problem The merchandiser should know about the dearth of any commodity such as fabric, yarn, etc... from the beginning. Actions should be taken immediately to arrange required materials, after discovering the shortage. It is expected that the merchandisers should verify quality of the goods prior to execution of the order. If the material is found unavailable, the superior should be informed about the concern.

Confirmation & T &AC Make

Communicating with associated people and buyer

A merchandiser takes a sample or sketch or group of sketches, measure the sample or

It buyers’ is essential to communicate with the the or order. It is to expected give some required measurement, andbuyers send regarding the sample sketch sampletoroom. Aftertime to the buyer to read the sent messages. Merchandiser should to go through the messages received get the sample, check the sample again to be sure it’s measurements is okay. If the from the buyer and replyfor onat time. many cases, merchandisers have to provide order status to to thedo buyers. sample is okay firstInconfirm the order. At the same time merchandiser has Also, merchandiser has to communicate with the people that are in-house, venders, contractors and another work, this is T&AC (Time & Action Calendar) to sure there self; time job-workers. Only through the right communication can one meet deadline for the concerned orders.

required to execution the order.

GENERAL DUTIES OF A MERCHANDISER · Costing. · Determination of Fabric requirement. · Determination Accessories requirement (Thread, Button, Interlining, Label, Poly Bag, Carton etc) · Sourcing of fabrics.Confirmation & T &AC Make · Sourcing of accessories. Fit sample submission: For the coordination of Sample room & product development · Possible date of arrival of fabrics & accessories in the garments factory. department the merchandiser has to submit a Fit sample to the buyer. Fit sample is · Garments production planning. send it· Inspection to buyer to check if the fitting of the garment is ok or not only on the dress schedule form ·but also on model in motion, necessary modification should be done to the Shipping documents.

pattern & then sample must be prepared to achieve quality & Fit. So satisfy target group. Unusually Time & Action plan:the Fit sample is made in using alternative fabric & accessories & it is made in mool which ever comes at the middle of the export order sizes. For example: if the export order sizes are S, M & L, the Fit sample will be in M size.

Fit sample approval After submission of the Fit sample merchandiser have to take approval from the buyer about the fit sample that is also called Fit comment.

Lab-dip submission Buyer gives the color plate, from that color plate merchandiser have to submit a color plate, which will match with the color plate given by the buyer. That is called lab-dip submission. Lab section is responsible to do Lab-Dip

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Lab-dip approval After submission of the Lab-dip merchandisers have to take approval of lab-dip from the buyer.

Receiving the Master L/C After approvals of the style the buyer comes to negotiate the order price or cost. After the negotiation the merchandiser have to collect the master L/C from the buyer to execute the order.

Yarn/Fabric/Trim Booking placement After getting the master L/C, with in 48 hrs. Merchandiser has to give booking of Yarn/Fabric/Trim from the source of supplier.

L/C opening for Yarn/Fabric/Trim bookings Than merchandiser have to open the B/B L/C for Yarn/Fabric/Trims for booking confirmation & give the order as per consumption.

PP sample submission Pre-production sample have to submit to buyer before go for the Bulk production. That means with original fabric & accessories using the PP sample are made. This sample represents the fabric & accessories used in bulk production. PP sample should include all the colors of the style.

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PP sample approval The buyer checks the PP samples & after the buyer gives approval on PP samples then merchandiser execute run for the bulk production of the order. This approval not only for size, fit & workmanship but quality of texture, color, accessories as buyer required.

Trims submission Trims/Accessories submitted to buyer as per requirement for approvals.

Trims approval Than merchandiser has to take approval of trims from the buyer.

Yarn/Fabric/Trims in-house date Than the merchandiser give a deadline to the suppliers to in-house all the yarn/fabric/trims to the factory as before the bulk production starts.

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Inventory of received Yarn/Fabric/Trims Merchandiser has to send a inventory report to the buyer that all the received yarn/fabric/trims are ok & ready to use for production. Bulk Fabric/Test reports submission Merchandiser has to make a test report of the bulk fabric & submitted to buyer before start bulk production

Bulk Fabric/Test reports approval Merchandiser has to get approval from the buyer about the bulk fabric test reports to go for the bulk production.

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Ex-Factory Date Ex-Factory date means when bulk production loaded on the container cargo & goes for shipping or on the way to port that is Ex-Factory date.

Cut off date Cut off date means when the ship starts to sail from the port that is called cut off date.

Receipt of Bill of Lading / AWB For the individual order the merchandiser than collect or receipt of Bill of Lading from the buyer bank to the Beneficiaries bank. That is the last job of the merchandiser of that particular order.

Executed an Order

Consumption & costing: Fabric consumption:To make a garments how much fabric is necessary that is called fabric consumption after making the sample garment if we want to know the value of the sample then at first it is important to know the fabric consumption. So we want to show the fundamental theory of fabric consumption. For knit fabric:Consumption = Length X Width X GSM


For woven fabric:Consumption = Length” X Width” Fabric Width”

36 yards

Knit Fabric For, T-shirt {(s/j) 30/1 combed yarn} Measurement:Length = 70 cm ½ chest = 60 cm / dia Sleeve length = 25 cm Arm hole width = 40 cm GSM = 145 Find out consumption / dz in kg? Formula:(Back length + sleeve length) × ½ chest × 2 × GSM ×12 10000000 = {(70 +5) + (25 +5)} × 60 × 2 ×145 ×12 {B.L + S.L × chest × GSM ×12} 10000000 100 100 1000 = 2.28 kg + 7% = 2.28 kg +0.159 = 2.439 kg [neck and sleeve are made rib so add 0.10] All time collar in rib = (350-400) Cost Calculation: Cost is divided in to:1) Pre- cost------- Merchandiser 2) Final costing -------- Merchandiser + import section Garment for example: - $ 5.00 = cost Garment costing: - $ 5.00 + profit = costing Pre- cost:1) 2) 3) 4)

It is an estimate made before the garment is adopted in to the line Fabric, trim and labor costs for each garment is calculated The merchandiser / designer usually keep a record of all materials costs on a work sheet. Then the costing department can roughly estimate the cost and price structure. (Normally over head cost is 30-40%)

Final costing:1) It is an exact calculation by the costing or import department 2) Using actual figures for fabric,, accessories and labor cost 3) Costing department usesa. Merchandiser work sheet


b. A proto type garment c. Production pattern 4) A detailed cost analysis is made for each garment the final cost is plotted on a “cost sheet”. Analysis a cost sheet: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Materials:- Total amount of material × ($ 1) / yd = Total price Trimming :- Button(BTN), thread(THD), interlining(INT), level & packing Production pattern making, grading, marking, spreading and cutting Assembly and finishing:- Calculated the average time of operations Over head cost: - Salary, rent, utilities > (30- 40%) Freight :- Air freight / sea freight Quota change

The Types of Items are Produce in the IAL: IAL is fully knit composite, it can produce almost 15000 pcs in a day. Here produce lots of items, generally whichever buyer want they can produce or can fulfill buyer’s requirement. Nut generally they produce:Men

Ladies

Children

Basic T-Shirt • With sleeve • Without sleeve Polo Shirt • With cuff • Without cuff Tank Top

Basic T-Shirt • With sleeve • Without sleeve Polo Shirt • With cuff • Without cuff Tank Top

Basic T-Shirt • With sleeve • Without sleeve Polo Shirt • With cuff • Without cuff

Jacket • Long sleeve • Short sleeve Sports Wear

Jacket • Long sleeve • Short sleeve

Night Wear • Long length • Short length Trouser  Short  Long  Tapered  Bellbottom  Straight

Night Wear • Long length • Short length Trouser • Short • Long o Tapered o Bellbottom o Straight

Items are Jacket Produce • Long sleeve • Short sleeve Sports Wear

Night Wear • Long length • Short length Trouser • Short • Long o Tapered o Bellbottom o Straight

Undertaking price quotation for buyers: There are following process for fixation price:1. FOB ( Free on board) a. Exporter does not bear the cost of freight of ship or air


b. It is buyer who him self bear the freight 2. C & F ( Cost & freight) a. Free on board + freight = c & f b. In this case ship or air freight is carried by the exporter while quoting price. c. This price a bit higher than FOB 3. CIF ( Cost, insurance & freight) a. C& f + insurance = CIF b. In this case in addition to the bearing of freight, the cost of insurance is also borne by the export. 4. CM ( Cost of making / manufacturing) a. Manufacturing or exporter will get only making charge of that garment b. Fabric, trimming and other materials is supplied by the buyer. 5. CMT (Cost of manufacturing and trimming) a. Manufacture or exporter will get the making charge and at the same time will get the trimming cost b. Fabric is supplied by the buyer Costing of garments in (FOB) cost: Costing of a garment for example in a shirt: 1. Fabric costing 2. Garment accessories: 1. Button 2. Interlining 3. Label 4. Thread 5. Collar bone 6. Hang tag/ price tag 3. Finishing accessories: 1. Poly bag 2. Plastic clip 3. Gum Tape 4. Neck board 5. Tag pin 6. Sticker 7. Butterfly 8. Collar insert 9. Back board 10. Neck insert 11. Scotch Tape 12. PP belt 13. Carton 4. Labor charge 5. Washing charge (If it is garment wash) 6. Commercial and transportation cost. + 10% profit margin. (% of profit margins is the distortion of the exporter)


5.2.4 Production planning & co-ordination Work study process: Work study is a management technique by which we can determine standard time of a task and discover the easiest and most economical way of doing the job. Work study is a scientific method which ensured measurement of work content of a job and takes recourse to better method of doing the job and thus realizes the best utilization of human, machinery and other resources of an organization Work study is a very valuable tool of substantially improving productivity of an organization at very cheap cost; Work study is a systematic and comprehensive method of analyzing a problem, so that no factor overlook in evaluating the problem of finding out a solution. Work study can be easily implemented and at a relatively cheap cost, it’s provokes benefit as soon as it is applied and continuous till it is in use and it can reduce hazard b y developing safer mood of operations. It the most effective tool of investigation of process, it helps find out problems and workout a right solution. Standard time can be determined for a definite work. Production quota may be determined for daily organization hourly works. Work study is the most accurate method of setting Standard of performance upon which effective planning and production control relies upon. Important definitions of work-study: Observed time: It is the time taken by the operator to operator complete his her job as observer d time by work-study officer. Basic time: It is the time taken by the operator to operator complete his or her job had she or he worked at 100% performance. Allowance time: It is the time allowed to an operator for non performing task such as going to laboratory, rest, changing needle, taking instruction of supervisor etc. Relaxation allowance: It is the time allowed to an operator to attend to personal need. Contingency allowance: It is the time allowed to the operator when uncertain problem occur. Machine delay allowance: It is the time allowed to an operator for delay due to machine maintenance. Style change allowance:


It is the time allowed to the operator where frequently style change occurs. Special allowance: It is the time allowed to an operator for start up time, shut down, cleaning etc. Standard time: It is the time required by operator to complete a job had she worked at 100% rating plus allowance time. Bottleneck time: It is the highest time taken b y an operator compared to other operator’s time, generally it is the time beyond the U.C.L. Rating Rating is a speed of a qualified worker. Organization efficiency It is the efficiency of the production time. Basic work content: It is the time contents the work without any undue loss of time. Work count: It is the time value required by operation. Ineffective time: It is the time means time loss due to different design fault, production fault, finishing fault etc. Upper control limit: Upper control limit is the time limit represents efficiency. Lower control limit: Lower control limit is the time limit representing 115% efficiency. Pitch time: Pitch time is the time taken by operator on average or Industrial operator’s time shown on the pitch diagram is called pitch time. How work study can be realized? Work study method comprises eight steps, which are given below, Select: Select the job to be investigated.


Record: record data by collecting organization by direct observation. Examine: Examine data critically; what is the purpose of action, where is the place of performing it, the sequence in which the job is done, the person doing the job etc. Develop: Develop the easiest & the most economic methods. Evaluate: Evaluate the results of alternatives ways of doing the job. Define: Define new method & time & present them to the concerned people. Install: Install new method & train persons to apply them. Maintain: Maintain new standard practice & set control procedures. Why bottleneck time created? -The operator has not the right skill. -The operator makes more rejects & rework takes time. -The machine is definite. -The operator is not following work standard. - The operator is not motivated etc. How to eliminate the bottleneck time? -By using automatic organization high performance machine. -By mechanizing the relevant processes. -By using better tools, folder, special work aids etc. -By allotting the bottle process between more than the operator. -By improving operator skill/ speed. -By using addition machinery/ operator etc. Production calculation formula: •

BPT (Basic Pitch Time) = Total standard time÷ No of operator

UCL (Upper Control Limit) = Basic pitch time÷ 0.85

LCL (Lower Control Limit) = 2×BPT-UCL

Organization Efficiency = BPT÷ Highest bottleneck time×100

Productivity = per hour production ÷ Total operator

Production Target = (No of operator×3600) ×85% ÷ Total standard time

Actual production = 3600÷Height bottleneck time


5.2.5 Cutting & CAD section: Pattern Grading: Pattern grading also done by sample room. In buyers’ spec sheet, have mentioned grading measurement. Through some basic points pattern grading is accomplish. Those points are mention below: -

Grading

For Top Garments

Neck ( + ) Shoulder ( + ), Chest ( + ), Body length ( + ), Sleeve Length ( + ), Sleeve Width ( + ), Cuff Length ( + ), Cuff Width ( + ), Arm Hole ( + ), Waist ( + ), Hip ( + ) etc.

For Bottom Garments

Seat ( + ), Waist ( + ), Body Rise ( + ), Inside Leg Measurement ( + ), Trouser Bottom Width ( + ), Waist Bend ( + ), Depth ( + ) etc.

Marker making: Marker is very important element in garment section. By achieving better marker wastage we can cut our cost, so that our profit margin will be high. The formula of Marker efficiency shown below: Square inch/CM of Patterns in Marker

X100

Marker Efficiency Total Markers’ Measurement in Square

The fabric cost of a garment required ½ (half) % (percent) value. So if 1% fabric is possible to save by efficient marker, this will increase the profit margin, the variable facts of marker making mentioned below: •

Marker maker


Sizes of the garment

Length of the marker

Pattern engineering

Fabric type

Marker width

Way of marker making

Garment type, etc.

There are two way of marker making, they are: 1. Manual marker making 2. Computerized marker making Cutting section flow chart :

Receive the fabric from dyeing finishing

Make the cutting quantity plan

Lay planning

Marker making

Make marker ratio

Fabrics lying marker setting

Cutting

Bundling & storing

Cutting Quality Check


Cutting hierarchy: Below shown the organ gram of cutting section in IAL: -

Cutting manager

Cutting In charge

Cutting Floor Supervisor

M/C Cutting Man

Seizer Cutting man

Cutting Helper

Spreading: •

How spreading is accomplished?

Generally 12 persons make a group (in IAL) including machine man, helper and spread man and start spreading. First spread man collect the marker ratio paper to know the marker length. Fabric will be spread on the bases of marker length. The fabric ply is 1” (one inch) bigger then marker length. If the fabric is defected (crease mark, hole, fixed spot, foreign yarn etc) then spreading is not stopped, but when the cutting QC get reject pieces and inform it to hand cutting seizer man. Then seizer cutting man cut the reject pieces to recover the reject from any matched fabric lot. •

Cutting table and spreading machinery.

IAL do not use very up dated machinery in cutting room. IAL have 12 pieces of cutting machine, 8” and 10” blade are used by those machines. • Is there semi-automatic or automatic spreading machinery? There are no semi-automatic or automatic spreading machinery, and they believe they can achieve better efficiency by manually than auto or semi-automatic spreading machinery. • Is there computer-interested cutting table? If yes, illustrate how do they work. They do not have computer-integrated cutting table. They make patterns and markers manually. But it is difficult to get marker efficiency.


• How ply ends are controlled to minimize fabric lose? IAL have some scales, after spread the fabric the scale brings onto the ply so that extra fabrics are not cut. • Make a list of cutting room machinery IAL have 12 cutting machine.170-person work for cutting in IAL exclude seizer man and marker man, there are 158 cutting man and spread man, 12 stuffs. Some important terms/things of cutting department: Role divider: a piece of fabric by which, easy to identify the roles from the lay. This thing is essential to not to mixed the different roles in one garment. Thin papers: a thin paper is used at both top and bottom of the lay, generally it top paper content the marker, and bottom paper is use for easy to move and easy to cut the lay. Lay capacity of different knit fabric: Item Tube S/J 60 –70 I/L 40 –50 RIB 40 –50 2X2 RIB 35 -40

Open 110 –120 80-100 80-100 60-70

Why cutting QC is essential: After cutting Generally we can find 2% reject from knitting, dyeing and cutting section. This reject value is shown below: IAL’s daily cutting quantity is 20000 pcs/day 2% reject from knitting, dyeing and cutting Each garment’s value (minimum) is 2 dollars Cutting QC department’s salary is 70000/= Total reject is 20000 X2% = 400 pcs/day USA’s dollar value is 70 taka So total money amount is =400 X 70 =28000/= (Day) Monthly reject money is = 2800 X25 =700000/ Monthly profit is =700000-70000 =630000/ (taka) Quality policy: Cutting section System adopted in cutting section: 1. All fabric are being inspected and relaxed before spreading. 2. During spreading all reject areas are marked for easy identification and replacement after cutting. 3. All parts are checked after cutting and reject parts are replaced from the cutting from fabric of same roll. 4. All important areas are given cut – mark for easy control and to maintain quality.


5. To control twisting of fabric we are tumbling the fabric (especially for low GSM fabric). 6. For all stripe fabric we are giving smaller lay and is going hand – scissoring for stripe matching. 7. Cutting parts from top, center and bottom are checked with the pattern avoid any gross deviation after cutting. 5.2.6 SEWING PRODUCTION ROOM Arrangement & organization of inputs: Before starting the sewing production have to PM check about the materials that are required to sew. For an example, to sew we need cut pieces (fabric), sewing machine, thread, label, button, work force etc. so a PM make sure himself that all are in his hand. When all are in his hand, then PM organize the floor by his efficiency. Then PM input the cut bundles in sewing line. This is the Arrangement & organization of inputs processes in IAL. 20.1 Movement of materials and their documentation:

There are several documentations have to use in sewing room, this documentation are very important to run the sewing line smoothly. On the other hand we can say these documents are the software of the section. Pre-production meeting: It is a meeting called by GM before start the production. There are some important person has to come to the meeting. in this meting people discuses on a particular order to execute the order easily. Knitting manager, knitting master, knitting in charge, dyeing manager, dyeing in charge, Dyeing finishing Dyeing finishing In charge, cutting In charge, Production manager, quality in charge and produceInthe fabric within They schedule cost control? other concern people Have to participate inHow this to meeting this meeting. are with discussing on: Knitting Department

Dyeing Department

Dyeing Finishing Department

Cutting Department

Sewing Department

Finishing Department

How to minimize the time and cost control?

What dia need after compaction and Dimensional stability?

How actual consumption minimize than Budget Consumption?

What are the critical processes in the style and how can we make it easy?

How can we make buyers’ required folding, poly, assortment etc?


Garments Machinery & Equipment: Sl. No

Manufacturer name, Model & Origin

Quanti ty

1. 1-needle lockstitch sewing M/C 2. 1-needle lockstitch sewing M/C

Juki, DDL-5530N, Japan Juki, DDL-5550N-3-WB/EC-10BF, Japan

3. 4. 5. 6.

Juki, DLM-5200ND, Japan Juki, DLM-5200ND, Japan Juki, DDL- 8300N, Taiwan Juki, DDL-87007 WB/EC10BF, Taiwan

56 1 6 4 10 10 130

Juki, LBH-781KU, Japan PEGASUS, M-752-90-6, CHINA Juki, LZ-2284 NT, Japan Juki, DDL-5530N 7 WB/EC 10BF, Japan

4 4 1 20

Juki, MO-3604F-OE4-40H/F, Japan Juki, MF-7605UU03-B56, USA Juki,MO-3614E-BE6-44H/F/G39/Q141, Japan Juki, MO-6714SBE644H/G39/Q141, TAIWAN Juki, LH 3128SF, Japan YAMATO, AZF 8420-Y5DF/K2/RS25/TL1,Japan Juki, MO-6914R-BE6-307, Japan Juki, MO-6714 SBE 644H/G39/Q141, Japan Juki, MO-3616E-DE4-40H/F/E35, Japan

2 2 29 6 3 9 3 32 6

Pegasus,M752-13-2X4/KS391/LC001, Taiwan Juki, MO-3616E-DE4-40H/F/E35, Japan AZ 8125G-Y6DF-8/MT22/TL1/CLUTH,Japan

10 6 15

Juki, LH3128SF, Japan Kansai, PX-302-4W, Japan Yamato, AZ8125G-Y6DF-8/MT22/TL1, Japan Yamato, AZ8125G-Y5DF-8/MT22/TL1, Japan Yamato, AZ8125G-Y6DF-8/MT22/TL1/UB6, Japan AZF8420,Y5DF/K2/RS25/TL1,Japan

3 1 28 24 6

Juki,MF-7723 U 10B 56, CHINA

6

Juki, MFC-7605 U-H21-B56/UT5, USA

4

Juki, MFC-7605 UU-06-B56/UT5, USA

8

Juki, MF-7723U 10 B 56, Japan

6

Juki, MF-7823 U 10 B 56, TAIWAN

4

Juki, MO-6743 STD 640 H, TAIWAN

4

Juki, MF-7605UU03-B56, USA

2

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.

Machine Name

1-needle lockstitch sewing M/C 1-needle lockstitch side cutter sewing M/C 1- Needle Lockstitch Sewing M/C 1-needle lockstitch automated trimmer sewing M/C 1-needle lockstitch Button hole sewing M/C 1-Needle over lock button end sewing M/C 1 needle, 1 step & 3 step zigzag stitching 1-needle lockstitch Automated trimmer sewing M/C 1-needle 3Thread Over lock sewing 2-Nedle, Needle Feed Lockstitch 2-Needle,4-thread,2-looper over lock sewing 2-needle 4 Thread, 2-Looper, OVL M/C 2-Needle Needle feed Lock stitch sewing M/C 2-needle 4 thread, cylinder bed over lock M/C 2-Needle 4-Thread, 2-Looper, Over lock M/C 2-Needle 4-Thread,2-Looper, Over lock M/C 2-Needle,5-Thread,3-looper safety stitch over lock 2- needle, 4-Thread, over lock, S. M/C 2- Needle, 5-Thread, 3-Looper S.M/C 2- needle 4 thread, over lock general sewing machine 2-needle, needle feed lockstitch machine 2-needle, double chain zig zag machine 2-needle, 4 thread, over lock machine 2-needle, 4 thread, over lock machine 2-needle, 4 thread, over lock machine

28. 2-needle, 4 thread, cylinder bed over lock Machine 29. 3-Needle 5-thread,flat bed top & bottom cover S M/C 30. 3-Needle 5-thread,cylinder bed top & bottom trimmer 31. 3-Needle 5-thread,cylinder bed top & bottom trimmer 32. 3-Needle 5-thread, flat bed top & bottom stitching M 33. 3-Needle 5-thread, cylinder bed top bottom Stc. M 34. 3-Needle 6-thread, safety stitch over lock M/C 35. 3-Needle Flat Bed Top & Bottom

3


Cover stitch 36. 3-Needle 5-thread, cylinder bed Interlock St. M/CYAMATO, VG2713-156M-K4N/UTA34/ 3 ST2A/TL1,Japan 37. 3-Needle 5 thread, cylinder bed interlock S M/C YAMATO,VG3721-156S1-8F-WF1/UTA44/ST2A/CC7 4 /TL1, JAPAN 38. 3-Needle 5 thread, flat bed interlock stitching M/C YAMATO, VF 2503-156M-21/EC/TL1, JAPAN 10 39. 3-Needle 5 thread, flat bed interlock stitching M/C YAMATO, VF 2500-156M-8UTA24/TL1, JAPAN 4 40. 3-Needle 5 thread, flat bed interlock stitching M/C YAMATO, VF 2500-156M-8/UTA24/ST2A/TL1, 10 JAPAN 41. 3-Needle 5 thread, cylinder bed interlock M/C YAMATO, VE 2713-156S-2-KAN/UTA24/ST2A/ 10 /TL1, JAPAN 42. 3-Needle 5 thread, flatbed interlock machine PEGASUS, W1562-02GX356BS/TK3C 2 /TFS-25,China 43. 3-Needle 5 thread, cylinder bed interlock M/C PEGASUS, W664-01GBX356/UT333, JAPAN 2 44. 3-needle Flat Bed Top & Bottom Cover Stitch Juki, MF-7605UU03-B56,USA 11 45. 3-needle 5-Thread,Cylinder Bed Top & Juki, MFC-7605U-U03-B56,USA 4 Bottom Cover 46. 3-Needle 5 Thread Flat Bed Top Bottom MF-7605UE12-B56/MD6, Japan 2 Trimming Machine 47. 3-Needle,5-Thread,Flat bed Top & Juki, MF-7605UC02-B56, USA 2 Bottom Stitching 48. 3-Needle,6-Thread,Safety Stitch Over lock M. MO-3643E-FBD6-40H/F, Japan 2 49. 3-Needle5-Thread,Cylender Bed Interlock Pegasus, W264-03FBX356, Japan 4 M/C 50. 3-Needle5-Thread,Cylender Bed Interlock Pegasus, W664-01GBX356, Japan 4 M/C 51. 3-Needle5-Thread,Cylender Bed Interlock YAMATO,VG2713-156M9 M/C 4N/UTA34/ST2ATL1, JAPAN 52. 3-Needle5-Thread,Flad Bed Top Bottom Juki, MF-7605U-C02-B56, Taiwan 3 Stitching sewing machine 53. 3-Needle, 5 Thread, stitching S. M/C Juki, MFC7605U-U06-B56,Taiwan 4 54. 3-Needle5-Thread,Flad Bed Interlock machine Yamato, VF2503-156M-8/EC/TL1/EL1,Japan 7 55. 3-Needle5-Thread,Flad Bed Interlock machine Yamato, VF2500-156M-8/UTA24/TL1, Japan 10 56. 3-Needle5-Thread,Flad Bed Interlock machine Yamato,VE2713-156S-24 K4N/UTA24/ST2A/TL1, Japan 57. 3-needle, 6 thread, over lock machine YAMATOAZ8520G AY5DF/K1/CC4/TL1,Japan 3 58. 4-Needle, 8 Thread, Sewing M/C Kansai, DBF-1404 PMD, Japan 7 59. Computer controlled Lockstitch Sewing M/C Juki, LK-1903ss-304/mc-590-3k, Japan 4 60. Computer controlled Bar taking M/C Juki, LK-1900ASS/MC596K,JAPAN 4 61. Computer controlled Lock stitch M/C Juki, LK1903ASS301/MC596KSS,JAPAN 5 62. Computer controlled Bar taking M/C Juki, LK1900SS/MC-590-K, Japan 3 63. Computer controlled Button sewing machine Juki, LK1903ASS301/MC596KSS,JAPAN 2 64. Fully Automatic Flat Knit machine Matsuya, M-100 14GG 6 COL, Japan 1 65. Circular single Knit machine New, S-296, Germany 3 7.2 Other Machine of Garments Section: Sl.

Machine Name

Manufacturer name, Model & Origin

a Quantity

Cloth Cutting machine Brand knife cloth cutting machine Straight knife cloth cutting

K.M, K.M K.S AU-V-8�, Japan EC-700N, TAIWAN KS-AU-V-8, TAIWAN

7 1 4

No 1. 2. 3.


4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Rib cutting machine Rib cutting machine Steam iron Steam iron Steam iron Needle check machine Suction machine

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35.

Needle check gold 30+conveyor Suction machine Vacuame table Vacuame table Thread recoining machine Steam boiler Semi automatic strapping machine BUSBER, Trucking system Pneumatic press Calator rickh Generator Compressor Air receiver Air dryer Line filter Stenter machine Electic gas generator Steam boiler Steam boiler Cooling machine Cooling machine Busber trucking Compector Straping machine Formica laminated solid Top surface table Bullmer brand spreding system Evaporative cooling system

36. 37.

IDEA, IDEA SM-601, JAPAN IDEA, IDEA SM-601, TAIWAN 1200X700, Sweden VEIT, AS1450, GERMANY NOMATO, HSL-620, JAPAN 2000- CONVEYOR, ENGLAND LK 1903 ASS 301/ MC 596 KSS, THAILAND England TOYO, UZ-12N, THAILAND NAOMATO, FB-130 S/D, INDONESIA VEIT, 4425, GERMANY HASHIMA, HW-40, JAPAN NOMATO, NB-36C, Japan Toyota, JW – 602, Taiwan BUSBER, France PRYM/MAC/679243, Hong Kong AS-2202, SWEDEN GS-250, France FINI, PLUS-2510, ITALY ITALY FRIULAIR, DFE-23, ITALY FRIULAIR, LFP-023, ITALY VN-24/4, KOREA VHP-5900 GSI, USA THERMAX, UK INDIA KST-N-350, CHINA THAILAND TURKEY RA-2500, ITALY TOYO, TY-JW-602, JAPAN JAPAN

3 1 4 3 30 1 1

COMPACTEE-600, GERMANY THAILAND

2 1

1 1 30 3 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 75


5.2.7 FINISHING SECTION There are several processes content in sewing finishing; explaining below (workflow): -

Process

Man Power

Iron Man

16

Q/C Check

8

Sleeve Pair Matching

4

Measurement

5

Get-up Check

4

Hang Tag

4

Folding

8

Folding Get-up

2

Ratio

2

Poly

2

Carton

5

This is a basic workflow in IAL sewing finishing for a full sleeve T-Shirt, but it may vary from style to style. Say for example in half sleeve T-Shirt we do not need Sleeve Pair Matching in Workflow. Assortment, Blister is also auxiliary stage in sewing finishing.


List of machinery: Lots of machineries are use in sewing finishing section. Few things are very primary what are very essential, fey machineries are auxiliary.

Finishing SL.No

Machine Type

Manufacturer

Quantity

1

Steam Iron

HSL 620

73

2

Vacuame Table

Naomato , FB130

73

3

Metal Detecter

2

Quality policy: Finishing section System adopted in finishing section: 1. After cleaning the thread all garments are being sent to iron man directly. 2. In the iron table we are drawing size wise graded patterns of the body and the garments are being ironed conforming to the respective size. 3. After ironing all garment are checked by QC and only OK garment are sent for measurement and reject garment are segregated and taken away finishing floor.

100%

4. After doing 100% measurement of all bodies only the OK garment s are sent for folding and packing. 5. We have appointed one QC to do the hourly checking of all garments and prepare a report in this regard and up to AGM of the floor for his review. 6. At the end of the day another QC person is doing the day final and making a report in this respect and keeping record. 7. After complete any of order we are doing the pre final from the point of view of buyer and making a complete report in this regard maintaining record also. Once the garments pass the pre-final inspection then all the garments are kept under constant surveillance.


5.3 QUALITY DEPARTMENT Theoretical idea about quality: •

Quality is set of inherent characteristic that full-fill environment.

Quality is the difference between productions.

It is the goodness or badness in a product. This definition holds true till this data.

However, in general terms, quality encompasses important characteristics of a product for which, it is in demand. Quality of a product features in two ways: form and content. Thus quality may be defined as the features of a product, which satisfy customers or end-users quality imparts sale ability to product. Quality is also referred to as “conformance of goods to buyers’ satisfaction” I S O-9000: 2000 defines quality as “degree to which is set of inherent characteristic that full-fill environment.

Quality

Form: It represents features of a product in terms of shape, size, style, design and measurements. Importance of quality:

Content: It represents features expressing internal quality, implying quality of raw materials and the value additions attached to it.

Every product must feature functional characteristics as well as sum other aspects related to its shape, size and design. Consumers always demand following expectations of the purchased product: The product must satisfy consumer in terms of beauty, attractiveness, taste, shape, design and longevity etc. it’s depending on the type of the product. Types of Quality: As per excellence of satisfaction, quality may be grouped into three categories: 1. Quality of general acceptance. 2. Quality of satisfaction. 3. Quality category of higher delight.


Work flow and Organization chart of QA (Quality Plan) in Garment division:-

Process/Work flow

Marketing + customer gives specification

Sample is made and sent to customer

QC record/available

Checkpoint Responsibility

Fabric check Accessories check Style check Pattern check Measurement check

According to customer sketch and specification

Buyer send approved sample

Merchandising + sample in charge

Management sheet Customer order file

Merchandising manager

Management sheet Customer order file

Director

Store officer + merchandiser + quality controller + MIS

Material arrival at factory

Yarn

Fabric cutting permission

Color shade, Hole, Knot, Weaving Fault, Spot

Quality Controller

Check at next page

Quality certificate register


Fabric cutting

Quality check

Bundling number

In process

Lay register Marker check Lay out check

APM

Naps, yarn folding, hole, spot, dirty mark

Quality inspector

Numbering

Supervisor

Machine layout check. Finished pattern check. Individual parts compression with sample.

Production manager

Register

Register

In line quality audit report. Table quality audit report

Inline quality audit report. Table quality audit report.

Quality check on out put

On quality management as per approved sample or approval.

Quality controller

Quality Checking

Size, quantity, color

Quality inspector

Register write the document and send to MIS

Finishing

Loose or uncut thread

Quality control supervisor

No record

Check at next page


Iron supervisor

No record

Stitch, oil stand, dirty mark

Finishing Quality inspector

No record

Measurement

Size check

Quality inspector

No record

Folding

Folding as per customer requirements

Finishing in charge

Daily inspection report register

Poly

Poly get up check

Finishing in charge

Daily inspection report register

Cartoon

Ratio Assortment

Finishing in charge

Ironing

Shinning

Finishing final inspection

Inspection by customer Okay for shipment

Packing list

Buyer inspection report

Complete


5.4

Ware House:

Ware house is divided by different section. They are: i) Yarn ii) Greigh iii) Fabric iv) Chemical v) Printing vi) Garments vii) Finished Fabrics viii) General store ix) Accessories store ℵ Sequence of Yarn & Fabric storing:  L/C ( Back to back l/c)  In house  Lot & count inventory  Order wise batch (grey fabric)  Dyeing by turning m/c  Dryer  Slitting  Compacting by stenter m/c  Quality check  Delivery to cutting section ( if passed) ℵ General store:  Electrical item  Stationary item  Printing item ℵ Fabric Store: IAL stored fabric of their own manufactured and also from other manufacturer. Here mention some of the other manufacturer name;  Paramount textile  International Classic composite ltd.  NASSA Taipei  Evince Textile ltd. Interlining collected from:  EACHEN Textile corporation  Vilene (Paper Interlining)  T & M Interlining  MFG company ltd  Kufner International ℵ Accessories Store:  Sewing ticket / hang tag  Barcode/ UPC sticker


         

Transit label Hanger sticker Lb sticker/ price sticker Cartoon sticker Poly sticker Hanger Sizer Transfer print/ Heat seal Cartoon Size label

ℵ Chemical store;                    

5.5

Soda ash Glober salt Caustic soda Anti crease Sequesterent agent Ladiquest Drimagan Stabilizer Anti musol Imerol Cyclaron Lanaryl RK Soaping Scouring SPL Uvitex Synowhilte Acetic acid Hydrogen per oxide Sirrix Hydrose (Explosiv Substance)

UTILITY SERVICES

Utility Services: INTERSTOFF APPARELS LTD. is a big project. So, it required adequate utility services without the factory can’t run. Here the following utility services are available-

Water Electricity Steam Gas Compress air

Water: Source of water is land water which is pumped by deep tube well. Production capacity – 80 m3 /hr = 1920000 liter/day


Water treatment plant: Row water content different types of foreign materials like oily or gummy substances, Iron, Copper, Manganese & their salt, ions etc. The hardness of raw water is 100 ppm or more. To use it in dyeing and in boiler this water must need to soft & foreign materials needs to remove. Otherwise this may create problem in processing like precipitation of dyestuff, precipitation of soap, redeposit ion of dirt on fabric & scale formation on pipe line etc. INTERSTOFF APPARELS LTD. mainly follows Permutit Process for water softening. The tested hardness of water after softening is 3-5 ppm. Description of W.T.P: Land water pump by deep tube well is collected to the hard water store tank. Water treatment is done in three steps by three by three filter tanks. The circulations of water at different stages are control by different bulbs like supply bulbs, backwash bulbs, drain bulbs. Water collected by two parallel pumps is flowed to the stone filter for first filtration. Stone filter consists of six layers of stone of different size and shape. Stone filter helps to remove iron from the water. There is a dosing pump attach with the stone filter for the dosing of sodium hypo chloride. During stone filtration sodium hypo chloride is added to resist the deposition of iron on stone layers which might be rigid and hamper smooth operation. After completion of stone filtration, water is fed to activated carbon filter for second filtration for the removal of order from the water. At the end of carbon filtration, water is flowed to the resin filter for final filtration. Here hard water is treated with base exchange complex or zeolites to remove the hardness of water. Zeolites are naturally occurring insoluble mineral of sodium alumina silicate type complex (e.g. NaAlSiO 4.3H2O ≈ NaPermutit). When hard water passed through a bed of small particles of such mineral ion exchanger, an ion exchange reaction take place2Na-Permutit + Ca (HCO3)

Ca- Permutit

+ 2NaHCO3 (For temporary hardness)

2Na-Permutit + CaSO4

Ca- Permutit + Na 2sO4 (For permanent hardness)

Here the base part (Ca, Mg, Fe) of hard water are replace by Na; result is the salt of Ca, Mg, Fe (CaPermutit, Mg-Permutit, Fe-Permutit) and soften the water. After a certain period of times, whole sodium of base exchanger is replace by Ca, Mg, or Fe then it is said to be exhausted; because it will not soften hard water any more and then it need to regenerate by NaCl. Ca-Permutit + NaCl 2Na – permutit + CaCl 2 Final filtration makes the water finally soft and drains it to the soft water reserve tank with the help of a drain bulb. The hardness of water after treatment is 1-2 ppm. For the supply of soft water to the floor a pressure vessel is used. A minimum pressure of (4-5 kg/cm 3) is maintained in the pressure vessel for circulation. Air is inject in the vessel to sustain the pressure is required range. The flow chart of water treatment plant is given bellow -

Hard Water Store Tank

Stone Filter

Carbon Filter

Resin Filter

Soft Water Store Tank

DeleVery Pump


Fig: Water treatment plan Standard water Quality for dye house: Parameter

Permissible concentration

Color

Color less

Smell

No bed smell

Water Hardness

<5 ppm

PH value

7-8 (Neutral)

Dissolve solid

< 1 ppm

Inorganic salt

< 500 ppm

Iron(Fe)

< 0.1 ppm

Manganese(Mn)

< 0.01 ppm

Copper (Cu)

<0.005 ppm

Nitrate(NO3)

< 50 ppm

Nitrate(NO2)

< 5 ppm

Electricity: Though the main supplier of electricity to run the factory and office of INTERSTOFF APPARELS LTD. is REB, but this electricity is insufficient & costly. That’s why INTERSTOFF APPARELS LTD. has two gas generators and one diesel generator. Total electricity produce by gas & diesel generator – 1900 kw Requirement of electricity to run the factory & office – 1250 kw (66% of its production) The technical details about the generator are given bellow. Machine no: 01 Type of generator Brand Name Origin Model no Capacity Volts Phase Power factor Frequency AMPS

: Gas generator (old) : WAUKESHA : USA : MTG 846 : 750kw : 415 :3 : 0.8 : 50 Hz : 1304


Governed speed

: 1000 rpm

Machine no: 02 Type of generator Brand Name Origin Model no Capacity Volts Phase Power factor Frequency AMPS Governed speed

: Gas generator (new) : WAUKESHA : USA : VHP 5904 GSID : 900kw : 415 :3 : 0.8 : 50 Hz : 1565 : 1000 rpm

Machine no: 03 Type of generator Brand Name Origin Model no Capacity Volts Phase Power factor Frequency AMPS Governed speed Diesel Consumption

: Diesel generator : DATE : Mexico : HC1434F : 288kw : 415 : 3-4 : 0.8 : 50 Hz : 1304 : 1000 rpm : 55 lit/hr

Fig: WAUKESEA gas generator


Steam: Boiler (Cochran boiler): The equipment used for producing steam is called steam generator or boiler. The boiler used for producing steam in IAL is Cochran boiler which is a fire tube type boiler. Simple vertical boiler of fire tube type is mainly used in small plant requiring small quantity of steam and where floor area is limited. Here, gas is fed to the burner which run by thermo motor and produce flame. The flame produces hot flue gases, which pass through the tubes that are surrounded by water. This water is supplied from the soft water tank to the feed water tank, which is situated above the boiler. The heat energy of the flue gas is transfer to water which is converted into steam. This steam is supplied to the whole plant. The spent gases are then discharged to the atmosphere through chimney. The specification of Cochran boiler is describe bellowBrand name Manufacturer Company Origin Capacity Max. Allowable pressure Max. Allowable temperature Max. Heat output Softy valve set pressure Year of manufacture

: Cochran : BIB Cochran Ltd. : Scotland, UK : 7.5 ton : 11 bar : 1880C : 4833 kw : 10.86 bar : 2004

Fig: Cochran boiler Compress air: Compressor no: 01 Brand Model Origin Max. Air pressure Voltage Phase Frequency Motor rpm

: Worthington Creyssensae. : Roll air 50 : French : 10.5 bar : 37 kw/ 400 v :3 : 5 Hz : 935 kg


: 353 m3/ hour

Capacity Compressor no: 02 Brand Model Type Origin Max. Air pressure Voltage Phase Frequency Motor rpm Capacity

: Fini : FIVS- 25 : Silenced screw compressor : Italy : 10.5 bar : 400v :3 : 5 Hz : 50 kg : 2.5 m3 /hour

Gas: INTERSTOFF APPARELS LTD. used natural gas from Titas Gas Transmission Company. Gas is used as the fuel of Boiler, Generator and also used for heating dryer, Stenter and compactor m/cs etc. 5.6 Maintenance: Maintenance: Machine, buildings and other facilities are subjected to deterioration due to their use and exposure to environmental condition. Process of deterioration, if unchecked, culminates in rendering these service facilities unserviceable and brings them to a standstill. In Industry, therefore has no choice but to attend them from time to time to repair and recondition them so as to elongate their life to the extent it is economically and physically possible to do so. Objectives of maintenance: 1. To keep the factory plants, equipments, machine tools in an optimum working condition. 2. To ensure specified accuracy to product and time schedule of delivery to customer. 3. To keep the downtime of machines to the minimum thus to have control over the production program. 4. To keep the production cycle within the stipulated range. 5. To modify the machine tools to meet the need for production Types of maintenance: Maintenance

Preventive Maintenance

Electrical Maintenance

Mechanical Maintenance

Break Down Maintenance

Electrical Maintenance

Mechanical Maintenance


Preventive Maintenance: Preventive maintenance is a predetermined routine actively to ensure on time inspection / checking of facilities to uncover conditions that may lead to production break downs or harmful description. Break down maintenance: In this case, repairs are made after the equipment is out of order and it can not perform its normal functions. Routine Maintenance: Maintenance of different machines is prepared by expert engineer of maintenance department. Normally in case of dyeing machine maintenance after 30 days complete checking of different important parts are done. 6. Export & Import Major Responsibilities: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Make UD, UD Amendment & Export Order. Prepared Import Documents. Collect Insurance Policy. Prepare The Goods Documents of AIR Port & DEPZ. Maintain Import Status. Collect the Bill of Entry.

Detail Activities: 1. UD, UD AMENDMENT & EXPORT ORDER: These are very important for both Import & Export department. After opening the back to back L/C, we have to ready Ud, Ud Amendment & Export Order.We help to make Ud, Ud Amendment & Export Order. We go to BGMEA with these to approve from BGMEA nominated authority. 2. IMPORT DOCCUMENT: When we get the import document from the bank, we prepare it properly with the necessary papers. Everyday the document which we send to our Chittagong and Benapole C&F agent we note down that in a register book for our evidence. 3. INSURANCE POLICY: We communicate with insurance company to collect insurance policy against foreign fabrics & accessories and send it our C&F agent for goods clearing. 4. THE GOODS OF AIR PORT & DHAKA EXPORT PROCESSING ZONE (DEPZ): When the goods come by air or from DEPZ, we get copy of original document. Then we prepare it for bank endorsement with attested copy of export L/C & BTB L/C. 5. IMPORT STATUS: We have to maintain Import Status which contains all information of imported goods. We send import status by e-mail to the merchandiser & store keeper once in a week to know the valuable information. 6. BILL OF ENTRY:We collect the bill of entry and note down it in our register for customs purpose. OTHERS ACTIVITIES: Beside it we have to go to BGMEA in the following purpose. â&#x20AC;˘

To approve the machinery certificate for machinery release.


• • • • • •

For BGMEA membership renewal. For sample pass book renewal To approve inter bond. To approve free of cost certificate & all purpose in BGMEA. We abide by everything as we directed the senior officer in our import department. We also respect the all kinds of rules in our company.

Draft check list  Helping to make UD, UD amendment & export order and approve by BGMEA authority.  Prepare import document with necessary paper.  Forward to C&F agent and note down for evidence.  Collect insurance policy and sand to C&F agent.  Preparing DEPZ document by bank endorsement and add to attested copy of export L/C & BTB L/C.  Forward import status by online to merchandiser and store keeper.  Collect & noted the bill of entry in register.

7. Barriers of Apparel Production & Remedies Garments sector plays a vital role in Bangladesh. Now a day’s garments product is the number one export products in our country. Few years ago jute was the golden fiber of Bangladesh. But now this place is replaced by the garment sector. People come to this sector and stay with their giant pleasure. Because this sector creates a very large job market in our country. Most of the workers are very poor. But this sector removes their poverty. So, it can be told that the sector is the God gifted sector for our poor people. The out put of garments per unit time ( second, minute etc) is an important factor in a garments industry. A split second is very significant for garments production. Sometimes garments production does not meet up the target making due to some problems or barriers. On the below has discussed about the barriers and remedies of garments production through out this paper. Types of problem:

1. Economical problems: Economical problem is a major issue for growing a garments industry. If any garments owners have no good fund, he doesn’t build up his industry. As for example, at any time garments business may fall due to various reasons. Such as ℵ Shipment date may fail ℵ Suddenly need lot of money to buy some important parts that parts need for your better production. ℵ To build up a new project which is helpful for the business? At this purpose an owner need money to save his business. So every owner need to know money saving formula which is very helpful for themselves to recover that type of problem. Banking problem is another big problem in our country. If the bank doesn’t give the loan in minor interest, an owner not able to establish the industrial project. There are various kinds economical problem. Such as: I. II. III. IV.

Community problems Political problems Transportation problems Drudge problems


(i) Community problems: Man is a social being. One can not live with the help of others. To work everybody as a team is important concern to increase the garment production. Lack of this type of attitudes creates a lot of problems. Such as: ℵ ℵ ℵ ℵ ℵ ℵ

The workers can not be helpful with each other. The workers always look after others fault. They can not work properly. Lead time may increase. The workers make quarrel with others. Factory environment and production may fall.

Factory management should be very careful about the problems. The problems can be minimized only by improving the better relationships between the workers. (ii) Political problems : Political problem is very important for garment business. It creates very bad effects in garments production. The author has discussed only three major obstacles related to the political problems. Such as: Hartal: Each buyer gives an order and a target date to the vendor. Due to Hartal the production process, inter factory transportation and shipment process may hamper. Sometimes garments (End products) are exported by air to meet the buyers date. In this case the owner has to spend extra cost. To remove this problem Hartal should be stopped. Strike: Strike is one type of Hartal created by the workers. Workers are illiterate and so they are paid low wages by the owners. Sometimes workers are influenced by their leader and stop working to notify their owners about wages. In some cases the strike comes out a large volume that the workers act destructive works against the factory management and take place along the high way to create strike. As a result the productions go down. To reduce this problem, the management should keep sound relationship with worker leaders and should meet their demands time to time. Internal politics : Internal politics mean the politics is created in garment factory among the workers and upper level stuffs. The workers perform their own duty under the supervision of their upper level stuffs. In some cases, the stuffs make bad behaviors to the workers. At that moment, the workers mentality falls down and production also decreases. The management should convey cooperative attitude to the workers so that they can work liberally and get chance to make correct their own faults. (iii) Transportation problem : Transportation is a vital factor in apparel production. Transportation is of two types:


ℵ Internal transportation : The garment related accessories are transferred from one floor to another floor during production. Some important points should be considered to formulate internal transportation very efficiently . Such as:  

At least four stairs for one floor are needed. At least two lifts are required for one floor. One is used for heavy weight transportation and other is used for personnel.

Smooth transportation system gives better production to the company. ℵ

External transportation :

Transportation outside the factory premise is external transportation. Transportation system in our country is not very fine. Problems related to external transportation are as follows: 

Traffic jam is occurred most of the entire road in the city. Enormous time is required to transport the garment products from one place to another. The company has to pay extra time, money, manpower and even has to fail the targeted lead time.

To remove this problem, we must develop our overall traffic system. At least 1 or 2 minutes are required to pass the vehicle of every sight. 

Some times vehicle are stop running to product transport at any reason in the middle point of the road, at this purpose need time to repair it. As a result production may fall.

(iv) Drudge Problem: The garment industry is far the country’s most important manufacturer earning around huge money annually and accounting about two thirds of all exports. About 80 percent of the garment workers are women. Despite the phenomenal success of the RMG sector the working condition and wages of workers in the industry are cause for serious concern . The problems in the industry pre-date the riots which took place just over a few times ago and which were attended by deaths, injuries, and destruction of property. Over the years, hazardous working conditions have resulted in the deaths of many workers through factory fires and collapse. The spectrum factory building collapse of April 2005 killed 64-70 people, injured over 70 (mentioning) and left hundred jobless. In February 2006 a fire destroyed the f our-story KTS Textile industries in Bangladesh’s port city of Chittagong again killing scores of mostly young and female workers. Workers, who are mostly young women, also face an acutely difficult working environment:  Wages are low  Hours are long  Forced labor is practiced  Child labor exists  Sexual harassment exists  Freedom is curtailed  Whether it be locked doors or right of association  There are a multitude of other practices which go against international labor standards and codes of conduct (non compliance)  At the level of legislation and business dealings, lack of implementation of laws, restrictive laws and unfair buying practices by buyers compound the issue of noncompliance.


To eliminate this problem, we have to follow the “Compliance” with internationally social, labor and environmental standards. There are many initiatives underway  

Buyers have their corporate social responsibility initiatives. The government has set up task forces. There are the memoranda of understanding with the trade unions and the manufacturers and exporter’s association.

There are many stakeholders and dialog is imperative and all important. The needs to be the capacity and will amongst all the stakeholders and particularly the government, to take forward and develop “Compliance” and create an industry with an enhanced global image and global recognition of performance. We should remove these types of problem, then the workers give their efforts more efficiently and sincerely. Ultimately production will be increased. We should increase the education level of our workers through different training facilities which will bring long term benefits for the company. Area problems: Selection of area is very important for establishing a proper lay out plan for a garment industry. The lay out plan has been discussed here which is the key factor for smooth production. 

Lay out plan:

A methods permitting the most effective arrangement of plants, machinery and equipment; as well as the minimization of the manufacturing cost, by feeding the materials and parts sat highest possible speed and minimizing the transfer work among the process during the overall production from acceptance of the materials to delivery of the finished products. 

Lay out of the plant by Production division

The flow of items should be considered first in the layout planning. In other words the arrangements of the divisions based on the order of the process. General stages for production process in any garments industry is given below:

In any garment industry orders are received by the merchandisers and finally the orders are executed by workers in the production floor. The whole process flow can be divided into four major areas:


Inventory Section

It is one of the important section for the garments industry. Here the raw materials and accessories are first received and then supplied to the production floor according to the requirements. So the location and layout of this section are very essential.

Cutting section

Cutting is the first step and very critical step for garments production. The wastage during cutting is an important issue. Different cutting faults can be occurred which should be minimized. Cutting faults are: ℵ ℵ ℵ ℵ ℵ ℵ ℵ ℵ

Faulty Pattern pieces Faulty marker paper Faulty machine Faulty table Ends of ply losses Selvedge losses Loss of fabric ends Purchase loss  Sewing section

There are two types of defect:

Defects in Apparels

1. Non-sewing defect

2. Sewing defect Non-sewing defect: 1. Defects occurring due to faulty raw materials 2. Defects occurring due to cutting of fabric, ironing interlining by wrong pattern. 3. Defects occurring due to wrong marking, spreading, cutting bundling, etc. Sewing defect: 1. Defects occurring due to problem of stitch formation. 2. Defects occurring due to fabric distortion. Defects occurring due to fabric damage along stitch line Remedies : ℵ The cutting manager or responsible person should be very careful to detect the faults in source and remove it ℵ Marker efficiency should be controlled. ℵ Cutting should be done very carefully according to the fabric length & width.


ℵ Operator should be skilled. Production section:

In production section line balancing is very important for escalating garments production. The number of machines in a sewing layout depends on the product parts and order size. 20 machines or 26 machines in a layout is considered by the responsible person. This is also depends on (a) Garments type (b) Shipment date (c) Fabric type (d) Available Machine If line balancing is not done properly, production may be hampered. A line balancing of a shirt has been shown below :

Finishing section :

Finishing section is the end side of any garment industry. Finishing section consists of


Inspection and quality section Packaging The workers of this section should work very careful to keep the quality of the garments product. • • • • •

This system should follow the 4 point system which is world recognized. Faulty garments should not be packed. Follow the packing procedure of the finished product. Needle detector machine is used to find any loose needle or other metal parts in the finished product. Increase the worker skill ness. Use for two or three inspection tables for smooth inspection. The above criteria should be followed to accomplish the buyer requirements and satisfactions. Considerable points in plant layout :

The following factors should be considered during plant layout• • • • • • • •

Employee ( the number of workers, male and female) Machines (size , the number of units, machine weight by models) Entrance, exit and passage, lifts, ventilation Administration office, management office Ware house (area, location, the number of warehouses) Work shop Floor condition Floor space ( Machine to machine distance, section to section distance)

Site for the factory The following factors should be taken into consideration Economical factors: such as work forces, availability of materials etc. Natural factors: such as climate, service water for the factory, geographical features. (ii) Environmental problems : Environment has an effect on the garments production. Season class: Season changes have a very big effect on the garment production. In summer season worker feels very hot due to the high temperature. So that they can not work properly. For this purpose, need sufficient air passing in the floor space. On the other side in winter season worker feels very cold due to the low temperature. So they need warm cloths to survive. The company should take necessary steps to help them by making a fund for them. Age class : Every company needs a responsibility of child labors. When they take the worker, must follow the age role of the country. A child can not give more production. They also can not do any hard work. So the company should follow the labor laws to recover this problem. 3. Utility problems :


Utility services in any garment industry is very important for increasing production. Load shedding is the common problem in our country. In summer season it affects our economy mostly. In a composite (garments) industry, utility section has some following important factors. Such as • • • • •

Generator Compressor Boiler (Fire tube and Water tube) Water treatment plant (Mainly Dyeing & Washing) Sufficient water supply

Using equipments: • • • • • • • • • • • •

Fire extinguisher per floor (assume 10-12) Smoke detector per floor (assume 10-12) Sand full bucket per floor (assume 05) Lock cutter per floor ( assume 01) Hook per floor ( assume 01) Fire bitter per floor (assume 01) Stretcher per floor (assume 01) Fire alarm per floor (assume 01) Ring per floor (assume 12-13) Automatic belt per floor (assume 01) Fire proof hand glove Flexible rope to rescue

To run smooth production the garments industry should maintain continuous power supply and safety equipments to protect from accidents. Administration and Maintenance Problem: Administration section plays a vital role in garment industry. Any kind of problems are handled by this section. The agenda which are handled by administration section are as follows: • • • • • • • • • • •

Workers agony Workers wages Trade union Child care home Medical treatment Factory management Security predicament Training to make skilled workers Mechanical problem Electrical problem Compliance problem.

The administrative structure of any garments factory:


Environment and physical security: IAL believe that in environment & security is require in workplace. The Environment and physical securities areo Workers are get good work environment here, o

They are not forced to do their job

o

IAL has enough Fire extinguishers

o

IAL has several Firehouses

o

IAL has Fire alarm & public alarm

o

IAL has mark exits in all floors

o

IAL has emergency lights

o

IAL has first aid box

o

IAL has doctorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s room

o

IAL has mask for all production unit

o

IAL has evacuation plane

o

IAL has emergency exit

Wastage principles: â&#x20AC;˘

To control extra chemical cost


If possible than use wastage

Wastage sanitation that is not harmful for environment

The raw materials supplier quality should measure

8. Code of conduct / Social Responsibility Policy Interstoff Apparels Ltd is promised to maintain a specific code of conduct in the work station. Management of Interstoff Apparels Ltd believes in equal treatment for all and do not focus on their culture, believes, religion, complexion, age, sex, marital, status or political belief. Each and every worker has the right to know about the benefits recommended by the local low. Management ensures that, no workers are forced or mentally/ physically tortured. To ensure proper treatment, the management of Interstoff Apparels Ltd. follows the following Code of Conduct or Social Responsibility Policy. Child Labor: Interstoff Apparels Ltd. follows the local low and ILO convention definition in case of child labor. Interstoff Apparels Ltd does not recruit worker below 14 years of age, though we do not recruit workers less than 18 years. Forced Labor: Interstoff Apparels Ltd is free from any prison labor, indentured labor or bonded labor. Interstoff Apparels Ltd. does not even deposit anything from workers during recruitment. Harassment and Abuse: Interstoff Apparels Ltd behaves with workers in honor. Interstoff Apparels Ltd ensures that no workers are physically, mentally, orally or sexually, abused. If we found any case in this regard then we take action against the convicted as per local law as well as company policy. Working hours and leave: We strictly follow the working hour recommended by labor & industrial law. More than 48 hours a week is never imposed to any worker. All workers enjoy weekly holiday .We ensures that no workers perform more than 12 hours Over Time in a week. Over Time rate is as per labor & industrial law. After completion of one year each workers are entitled earned 01 day leave for every 18 days work. All workers also enjoy Ten (10) days casual leave, Fourteen (14) days sick leave and Eleven (11) days festival leave.


Salary & Benefit: Interstoff Apparels Ltd. provides salary and benefit as per minimum wage rate published by labor & industrial welfare Ministry. Maternity leave is provided for 16 weeks with full salary with maternity benefit. Working Condition: Interstoff Apparels Ltd behaves with full honor and respects to all workers and ensures a safe & healthy environment for them. Interstoff Apparels Ltd ensures all kind of physical & mental harassment. Health & Safety: To avoid accident and to secure safe and healthy working environment Interstoff Apparels Ltd follows proper & well defined policy. Full time MBBS doctor and First Aid Box are always available in the work place. Interstoff Apparels Ltd ensures sufficient light, air, drinking water in the work station as per labor & industrial law. As per the ratio of Male / Female worker Interstoff Apparels Ltd ensures segregated toilet, safety training, fire drill etc. Discrimination: Interstoff Apparels Ltd ensures basic human rights for all workers. Interstoff Apparels Ltd is free from any discrimination during recruitment, salary, training, promotion, termination, selection base on nationality, complexion, sex disability, marital status, political believe etc. Environmental Rules & Regulation: Interstoff Apparels Ltd respects all local laws and regulation regarding environmental rules & regulation and maintains for inventory of raw materials use, and disposal, Interstoff Apparels Ltd. always ensures the environmental safety. Interstoff Apparels Ltd is always ready to invent & maintain better policy & procedure to ensure environmental safety. Supplier Control: Interstoff Apparels Ltd. does business only with them who follows local & international law. Freedom of Association: Interstoff Apparels Ltd respects workersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; freedom to contact any association. We do not believe in protection workers from joining any association to protect their right and bargain. 9. CONCLUSIONS Industrial training is an important and essential part of education as through this training we learn all the implimentation of the processes which we have studied theoriticaly. It gives us an opportunity to compare the theoritical knowledge with practical facts and thus develop our knowledge. This industrial trainning also give us an opportunity to explore through knitting section, printing section,garments section and maintainance section, which enlearge our knowledge of textile adminstration, production planning, procuremant system, production process ,machinaries and learn us to adjust with the industrial life.


We have found myself fortunate to have my industrial trainning at Interstoff Apparels Ltd. It has a huge production capacity with a very efficient production team. Interstoff Apparels has a very good, well equipoed and morden laboratories and producing a wide range of color. During my trainning period we have noticed that Interstoff is very concern about their quality and they rarely have any quality complain.The management of Interstoff Apparels is very organized, pre-active and cooperative. This industrial trainning gave us a clear scheme about knit dyeing. The two months of trainning was actualy the memorable time of life. All the officials of Interstoff was very kind and helpfull to us and provide me all necessaries. This Trainning programm will be helpful us in future practical life.

Profile for Md Papon

Industrial attachment on garment manufacturing technology  

Human Resources is the arm of the company which houses various data (Benefits, Compensation, Workers' Compensation, Training, etc.). It is t...

Industrial attachment on garment manufacturing technology  

Human Resources is the arm of the company which houses various data (Benefits, Compensation, Workers' Compensation, Training, etc.). It is t...

Profile for md.papon
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