Garment Industries in Dhaka City and Its Impact on the Neighborhood Environment
1.1 Introduction Bangladesh is a tropical country in South Asia that is situated in the delta of two major rivers that flow down from the Himalayas (the Ganges and the Jamuna). The countryâ€™s land surface is therefore largely composed of alluvial silt, rendering the soil highly fertile. Historically, this has made Bangladesh an agricultural nation; although agriculture contributes only about a fifth of the national GDP, it employs three-fifths of the labour force (ADB, 2005). The Economy of Bangladesh is constituted by that of a developing country. Its per capita income in 2008 was US$1389 (adjusted by purchasing power parity) lower than the world average of $10,497. According to the gradation by the International Monetary Fund, Bangladesh ranked as the 48th largest economy in the world in 2008, with a gross domestic product of US$224,889 million. The economy has grown at the rate of 6-7% p.a. over the past few years. While more than half of the GDP belongs to the service sector, nearly twothirds of Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector, with rice as the single-mostimportant produce. Bangladesh has made significant strides in her economic sector since her independence in 1971. Although the economy has improved vastly in the 1990s, . Reproductive Health and Rights is Fundamental for Sound Economic Development and Poverty Alleviation," United Nations Population Fund. Retrieved June 9, 2009.. CIA World Factbook 2007 Bangladesh still suffers in the area of foreign trade in South Asian region. Despite major impediments to growth like the inefficiency of state-owned enterprises, a rapidly growing labor force that cannot be absorbed by agriculture, inadequate power supplies, and slow implementation of economic reforms, Bangladesh has made some headway improving the
climate for foreign investors and liberalizing the capital markets; for example, it has negotiated with foreign firms for oil and gas exploration, better countrywide distribution of cooking gas, and the construction of natural gas pipelines and power stations. Progress on other economic reforms has been halting because of opposition from the bureaucracy, public sector unions, and other vested interest groups. The especially severe floods of 1998 increased the country's reliance on large-scale international aid. So far the East Asian financial crisis has not had major impact on the economy. Like many other third-world countries, Bangladesh relies quite heavily on exports to provide for the needs of its densely populated nation. The same products sold locally will generally fetch a much lower price than they would on the international market. This means that it is far more profitable for the country to engage in exportation than it is to engage in local trade. While this may mean that a large percentage of the countries GDP is sent off abroad as Bangladesh exports instead of being enjoyed by the country’s own people, it also allows for a steady influx of foreign currency. Currently Bangladesh’s main export items are garments, jute and jute-related goods, leather, frozen fish and seafood. Just three years ago the country made over $2 000 billion from export trade. The majority of the country’s trade is conducted with the USA but a small portion of exports also sees its way to Germany, the UK, France and Italy. However these figures should not mislead you into thinking that the country is well-off. As one of the poorest and most densely populated countries in the world, the majority of these profits generally make their way into the pockets of a few wealthy while the rest will be thinly spread out amongst those involved in the production of these goods. To add to this, the country’s economy depends on an erratic monsoon cycle as well as drought and flooding which makes regular harvesting difficult. The breakdown of various exports by sector is given in the Table-1.1 (Bangladesh Bank, 2005). The figures are for the 2003-2004 fiscal year. Table 1.1: Major Export Items and Receipts, 2003-2004 Item Export receipts (USD millions) Woven Garments 3538.07 Knitwear Products 2148.02 Terry Towels 68.31 Other Textiles 135.49 Frozen fish 390.25 Jute goods 246.45 Raw jute 79.70 Leather 211.41 Fertilizer 80.67 Tea 15.81 Others 688.81 Total Exports 7602.99 Source: Bangladesh Bank As can be seen from the Table, garments and textile items are the dominant export product, accounting for 77% of the country’s total export receipts. This is a relatively new phenomenon. For centuries, the chief export of the Bengal economy was jute, a natural fibre which is used in making carpets, sacks and hessian, but whose economic value went into precipitous decline after the advent of plastic bags and synthetic packaging material in the 1960s and 1970s.
World Bank predicted economic growth of 6.5% for 2006. Foreign aid has seen a decline of 10% over the last few months but economists see this as a good sign for self-reliance.There has been 18% growth in exports over the last 9 months and remittance inflow has increased at a remarkable 25% rate. Export was $10.5 billion in fiscal year 2005 exceeding the target export of $10.4 billion. Target export for current year is $11.5 billion. An estimated GDP growth of 6.7% was predicted for FY 2006. Table 1.2: Total Export and Import of Fiscal Year Fiscal Year Total Export Total Import 2007-2008 $14.11b $25.205b 2008-2009 $15.56b N/A 2009-2010(Set Target) $17.6b N/A Source: World Bank
Foreign Remittance Earnings $8.9b $9.86b $10.87b
1.2 Nature of the Problem Agriculture, as the case in Bangladesh, has been the backbone of economy and chief source of income for the people of Bangladesh, the country made of villages. Government wants to decrease poverty by getting highest productivity from agriculture and achieve self-reliance in food production. Apart from agriculture, the country is much concerned about the growth of export division. Bangladesh have accelerated and changed her exports substantially from time to time. After Bangladesh came into being, jute and tea were the most export-oriented industries. But with the continual perils of flood, failing jute fiber prices and a considerable decline in world demand, the role of the jute sector to the country's economy has deteriorated (Spinanger, 1986). After that, focus has been shifted to the function of production sector, especially in garment industry. Garment Industries of Bangladesh are situated in four districts. They are: Dhaka, Chittagong, Narayanganj and Gazipur. (Map 1.1) The garment industry of Bangladesh has been the key export division and a main source of foreign exchange for the last 25 years. At present, the country generates about $5 billion worth of products each year by exporting garment (BGMEA, 2008). The industry provides employment to about 3 million workers of whom 90% are women. Two non-market elements have performed a vital function in confirming the garment industry's continual success; these elements are (a) Quotas under Multi- Fiber Arrangement1 (MFA) in the North American market and (b) Special market entry to European markets. The whole procedure is strongly related with the trend of relocation of production. In Bangladesh Garment Industries have impacts on Socio Economic Environment. These sectors open a new horizon of Bangladeshi Economy. The social environment has changed due to the Garment Industries. Ninety percent of the Garment industriesâ€™ labours are women (BGMEA Bulletin, 2008).It also have that impact on our natural environment. Most of the Garment Industries disposed the waste here and there. It pollutes the water of pond, river, canal, and also pollutes air which is very harmful for human being. In our urban life this sector affect on housing, urbanization, life style, independency, work capability etc. The surveys of 1990 and 1998 (M. Helal and K. Amena, 1999) show that most female garment workers are new entrants in the labor market. The findings show that about 93
percent of female garment workers and 70 percent of their male counterparts do not have any previous work experience. Map 1.1: Garment Industries in Bangladesh
Source: Author Most of the female workers with past work experience were engaged either in domestic service or in self-employment in tailoring/sewing. The survey of 1993 indicates that about half of the female workers employed in non export industries had previous work experience, mostly as industrial workers, self-employed workers, and maids. (Mitchell, 1979; Islam, 1992). Women constitute about 66% of the workforce in the export oriented garment Industry in Bangladesh. By contrast, womenâ€™s share of employment in non export industries is negligible, only about 7 percent. The assembly-line nature of garment manufacturing is one of the main reasons for higher employment of women in this industry. A problem faced by working women (migrants) especially in urban areas is the lack of proper accommodation. Khan (1993:77) notes that it is terribly expensive for a single person to rent an accommodation on her own. It is also difficult to find a landlord who would let out his place
to a single woman we found during d fieldwork, that women face extreme hardship to meet ends because of low wages and high rental costs. Usually, rent consumes 60% of the monthly wages of a worker. Zohir and Paul-Majumder (1996), Paul-Majumder and Begum (2000) and Zohir (2000) have done extensive research on housing of garment workers and their study illustrate that accommodation, at present in the city, is not adequate for 1.5 million workers. Journey to work is the single most important aspect of women emerging as factory workers which pose as an ecological barrier. In a city where women were invisible in the streets, thousand of women workers going to work early in the morning and late in the evening created a novel sight. Those who worked during the early phase i.e., during the early eighties complained of a fair amount of negative attitude and comments from passersby particularly late in the evening. As 80% of the workers walk they were chaperoned but things have changed from mid eighties and the question of street harassment does not arise (although one or two incidents are bound to occur at basically personal levels) (Razia S. Ahmad, 1994) A Slum is equivalent to a squatter settlement. In Bangladesh a Slum comprises of a group of thatched or tin-roofed one-room houses that stand next to each other with inadequate shared sanitation facilities. Usually the rent is between Tk.800 to Tk.1800 per month. Sometimes there is electricity and stove with private bath facilities. 1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Research Based on the garment industries a whole neighborhood environment catering to the needs of the Labour spring up or when a new industry is set up within a neighborhood, the area undergoes changes that can be both negative and or positive. The main objective of this study is to look into this aspect of garment industries through location and overall environment. The specific objectives of this thesis are as follows: 1) Analyze the location of industries under study 2) Investigate how garment industries affect the neighborhood through studying the socioeconomic & living condition of the local inhabitants. 1.4 Present Research Methodology This Research has two objectives. These are Locational analysis and Impact Assessment. Following are the research procedures: 1.4.1 Selection of the Study Area Dhaka is the Capital of Bangladesh and the main city. Ninety percent of Garment Industries are established within the Dhaka city (BGMEA Bulletin, 2008). Here Dhaka has been defined as Dhaka City Corporation (Map 1.2). Randomly chosen garment industries and their neighboring environs have been selected for study. 1.4.2 Sample and Research Area Selection In the Dhaka City Corporation there is a total of 3607 numbers of Garment Industries. Out of this huge number only 40 garment units from six zones were studied. The selection procedure of the sample units is given below: Firstly, The BGMEA member list of 2008 published address of 3607 Garment Industries. Since the Industries are all spread out over a large area, only six zones have been selected for study. Within the zones of Motijheel, Malibagh, Karwan Bazar, Mohakhali, Mirpur, and Badda there are 1491 industries. Only 40 industries out of this 1491 have been studied. The calculation of the sampling was as follows (Islam. Zohirul, 1994): S = NXZ
1491 Here, S = Sampling number of Garment Industries Map 1.2: Study Area
Map 1.3: Study Area of the Research
Source: Author N = Total Sample Number (40) Z = Number of Garment Industries in this Zone Serial No
1 2 3 4 5 6
Motijheel Malibagh Karwan Bazar Mohakhali Mirpur Badda
Number Garment Industries 293 154 82 276 604 82 1491
1.4.3 Selection of the Respondents
of Selected Sample 40 40 40 40 40 40
7.86 4.13 2.19 7.50 16.20 2.19
8 4 2 8 16 2 40
Neighbor Sample (Sample X 10) 80 40 20 80 160 20 400
In the Research, main objective is to assess the impact of garment industries on the neighborhood environment. In this research the attitude of respondents is the most important aspect of analysis. So, the age and sex also become important factors in the research. House owners are also important as respondents in the data collection (Onibukon, 1970). In this study, some times the house owner (male) is not in the home, in such cases house owner (women) have given the information important for our research work Ten Interviewee were selected in every residential area. So, the total sample was to be 400 (40 x10) for this study. Map1.4: Location of Garment Industries in Dhaka
Source: Author 1.4.4 Data Collection For this research, data were collected at two levels- through mapping and a questionnaire survey. 1.4.5 Analysis of Data In this research two type of data analysis. So there are two type of data analysis process. Data for this study have been analyzed by using simple statistical techniques and also by diagrams and maps.
Location of garment industries has been shown on maps. While data collected through questionnaires have been cross tabulated and represented by average, percentage etc. 1.5 Limitation of the Research There are always limitations in all survey. In this Research Work there are also some limitations. They are as follows: A) At present (2009) there are 3607 of Garment Industries in Dhaka city, but only 40 Garment Industries have been taken as study units. This seems to be the main limitation of this study. B) Location of the Garment Industries in the map may not be accurate for all industries. It is difficult to locate all industries from Google Earth and whatever previous work done does not provide with all information correctly. C) It was feel that the respondents, workers or the neighborhood inhabitants were not speaking out the whole truth in front of the authority or due to outside influence. D) Nothing comes free; a thesis like this needs money at all stages of work. For a student with no source of income, financial problem proved as a limitation of the study also.
1.6 Planning of the Research Research Planning
Observation of Neighbors
Sample size of the Respondent of Neighbors
a. Economic Approach b. Structural Approach c. Behavioral Approach
General Table Relational Table
Data Presentation Literature Review In every research literature review is very important. Several authors have analyzed various aspects of the garment industry in Bangladesh and the BGMEA published directory gives a wealth of information regarding the number of garment industries in the Country, number of people involved etc.
2.1 Methodology The key source of data is secondary data which is collected from BGMEA Newsletter, Reports, Bulletin, and Souvenirs. BGMEA also published the Members list and address of the Garments factory owners which are the most important for the research work. Some information has been collected from BIDS, BUET (Department of URP). Information has also been collected from Dhaka University (published or unpublished Research Paper) Journal, Report, Monograph and the Daily Newspaper, Weekly Newspaper and Magazines. 2.2
At present Garment Industries are the most important economic base factor of the country. The main objective of the research is Impact Assessment of the neighborhood Environment. In this section some information being given about Garment Industries, viz when it started in Bangladesh, cause of expansion, size of Garment Industries, and impact of Garment Industries in our socio-economic condition. 2.2.1 Garments Industries of Bangladesh The garment industry of Bangladesh has been the key export division and a main source of foreign exchange for the last 25 years. At present, the country generates about $9 billion worth of products each year by exporting ready made garments. The industry provides employment to about 3 million workers of whom 90% are women. Two non-market elements have performed a vital function in confirming the garment industry's continual success; these elements are: (a) Quotas under Multi- Fibre Arrangement1 (MFA) in the North American market, and (b) Special market entry to European markets. In the field of industrialization, role of textile industry is found very prominent in both developed and developing countries. Economic history of Britain reveals that in the 18th Century the cotton mills of Lancashire in Britain ushered in the first industrial revolution of the world. Moreover, during the last 200 years or more many countries of the world have used textile and clothing industry as an engine for growth and a basis for attaining economic development (Ahmed, 1991). Over the past few years garment industry is found to have played such an important role in the process of industrialization and economic growth. This industry is in fact trying to put the wheel of her declining economic back to the track by giving essential life blood to it (Chowdhury, 1991). The growth of garment industry in Bangladesh is a comparatively recent one. In the British period there was no garment industry in this part of the Indo-Pak-Sub Continent. In 1960 the first garment industry in Bangladesh (The East Pakistan) was established at Dhaka and till 1971 the number rose to five (Islam, 1984). But these garments were of different type intended to serve home market only. From 1976 and 1977 some entrepreneurs came forward to setup 100% export oriented garment industry. Both domestic and international environment favored the rapid growth of this industry in Bangladesh. By mid seventies the established developed suppliers of garments in the world markets i.e. Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Srilanka and India were severely constrained by the quota restrictions imposed by their major buyers like USA, Canada and European Union. To maintain their business and competitive edge in the world markets, they followed a strategy of relocation of garment
factories in those countries, which were free from quota restrictions and at the same time had enough trainable cheap labour. They found Bangladesh as one of the most suitable countries. Table 2.1: Growth of Garments factories in Bangladesh: Year Compound Growth Rate in % 1971 1977 5.77 1981 82.70 1983 34.45 1984-85 65.03 1989-90 14.60 1994-95 23.52 1999-00 7.96 2004-05 5.12 2005-06 3.48 Source: Md. Salim Uddin & Mohammed Abu Jahed (2007) The Table-2.1 shows that the growth was very slow till 1977 and got a momentum from 1977 to 2005-06 in terms of number of industries. But the compound growth rate was highest till 1981 and the rate was very good during 1989-90 to 1994-95 and thereafter i.e. 1994-95 to 2004-05, the industrial growth has been declined though the numbers of industries have increased. The capacity as well as number of equipments are very good indicators to examine the actual position of the garment industry as well as size of the industry. 2.2.2 Expansion of the Garment Industries in Bangladesh The tremendous success of readymade garment exports from Bangladesh over the last two decades has surpassed the most optimistic expectations. Today the apparel export sector is a multi-billion-dollar manufacturing and export industry in the country (H. Mohammed, 2007). The overall impact of the readymade garment exports is certainly one of the most significant social and economic developments in contemporary Bangladesh. With over one and a half million women workers employed in semi-skilled and skilled jobs producing clothing for exports, the development of the apparel export industry has had far-reaching implications for the society and economy of Bangladesh. European Union found Bangladesh is one of the most suitable countries. Table 2.2: Number of Garments factories in Bangladesh: Year Number of Garment Factories 1983-1984 134 1984-1985 384 1985-1986 594 1986-1987 629 1987-1988 685 1988-1989 725 1989-1990 759 1990-1991 834 1991-1992 1163 1992-1993 1537
1993-1994 1994-1995 1995-1996 1996-1997 1997-1998 1998-1999 1999-2000 2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008
1839 2182 2353 2503 2726 2963 3200 3480 3618 3760 3957 4107 4220 4490 4740
Source: BGMEA, 2008 Since the late 1970s, the RMG industry started developing in Bangladesh primarily as an export-oriented industry although; the domestic market for RMG has been increasing fast due to increase in personal disposable income and change in life style. The sector rapidly attained high importance in terms of employment, foreign exchange earnings, and its contribution to GDP. In 1999, the industry employed directly more than 1.4 million workers, about 80% of whom were female. Figure 2.1: Number and Employment of Garment Industries in Bangladesh 5000
4500 4000 3500
Number Of Garment Factories
Employment In Million Workers
2000 1500 1000
19 8 19 3-1 8 98 19 4-1 4 8 98 19 5-1 5 86 98 19 -1 6 8 98 19 7-1 7 8 98 19 8-1 8 89 98 19 -1 9 9 99 19 0-1 0 9 99 19 1-1 1 9 99 19 2-1 2 93 99 19 -1 3 9 99 19 4-1 4 9 99 19 5-1 5 96 99 19 -1 6 9 99 19 7-1 7 98 99 19 -1 8 9 99 20 9-2 9 00 00 20 -2 0 0 00 20 1-2 1 02 00 20 -2 2 03 00 20 -2 3 0 00 20 4-2 4 0 00 20 5-2 5 0 00 20 6-2 6 07 00 -2 7 00 8
Source: BGMEA, 2008
With the growth of RMG industry, linkage industries supplying fabrics, yarns, accessories, packaging materials, etc. have also expanded. In addition, demand for services like transportation, banking, shipping and insurance has increased. All these have created additional employment. The total indirect employment created by the RMG industry in Bangladesh is estimated to be about 300,000 workers (BGMEA, 2008). In addition to its economic contribution, the expansion of the RMG industry has caused noticeable social changes by bringing more than 1.12 million women into labour force. The economic empowerment of these working women has changed their status in the family (Abdel-Latif,
Abla M., 1993). The attractive opportunity of employment has changed the traditional patriarchal hegemony of the fathers, brothers, and husbands. Most working women can now chose when to get married or become mothers. The number of early Marriage is decreasing; so is the birth rate; and the working girls tend to send their little bothers and sisters to school, as a result, the literacy rate is increasing. They can participate in family decision-making. Most importantly, the growth of RMG sector produced a group of entrepreneurs who have created a strong private sector. Of these entrepreneurs, a sizeable number is female. A woman entrepreneur established one of the oldest export-oriented garment factories, the Baishakhi Garment in 1977. Many women hold top executive positions in RMG industry. 2.2.3 Causes of Rapid Expansion of Garment Industries Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore were the most Garment export oriented Country in the World. In the World market they dominated in some decades. In 1976 Bangladesh first exported the Garment Products and since then the growth has been very rapid. Some factors have been found behind the rapid growth of the Garment Industries (Rahman, 1988). They are: 1. Easy Technology 2. Low price Labour 3. International quota System 4. Government Industries Policy and Easy Loan System The presented information reveals that the tendency of low labour charges is the key reason for the transfer of garment manufacturing in Bangladesh. In the Garment Industries the technology is easy and less costly. The investment of a Garment Industry is relatively less than any other Industry. Some calculations show that US$ 500 is the capital investment per labour in a Garment. Less investment and congesting work environment is the cause of rapid growth of Garment Industries in Bangladesh. The cause of this transfer can be clarified by the salary structure in the garment industry, all over the world. Apparel labour charge per hour (wages and fringe benefits, US$) in USA is 10.12 but it is only 0.22 in Bangladesh. This difference accelerated the world apparel exports from $3 billion in 1965, with developing nations making up just 14 percent of the total, to $119 billion in 1991, with developing nations contributing 59 percent. In 1991 the number of workers in the ready-made garment industry of Bangladesh was 582,000 and it grew up to 1,404,000 in 1998. In USA, however, 1991 showed 1,106.0 thousand workers in the apparel sector and in 1998 it turned down to 765. 8 thousand. Bangladesh has the lowest wages of Asia. Following is a Table (No-2.3) showing the situation of the world wages system. Table 2.3: World Apparel Manufacturing Labor Costs in 2008 Apparel Manufacturing Labor Costs in 2008 In US$ per Hour- Including Social Charges Countries Labor Cost US$/Hour Labor Cost US$/Hour Bangladesh=100 Bangladesh 0.22 100 India 0.51 232 Pakistan 0.37 168
Labor Cost India=100 43 100 73
Vietnam 0.38 Sri Lanka 0.43 Indonesia 0.44 China(Inland) 0.55-0.80 Egypt 0.83 Russia 1.01 Philippines 1.07 Malaysia 1.18 Thailand 1.29-1.36 Mexico 2.54 Source: Jassin - O’ Rourke Group, LLC ©EmergingTextiles.com (1998-2008)
173 195 200 305 377 459 486 536 600 1155
75 84 86 131 163 198 210 231 259 498
2.2.4 Structure and Association of Garment Industries The Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BGMEA) is the only recognized trade body that represents all the export oriented garment manufacturers and exporters of the country. The Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BGMEA) is the officially recognized apex apparel export trade body of 4,740 apparel manufacturing units. The RMG sector earned over US$ 9 billion in 2006. The BGMEA helps to drive commerce by increasing sales of Bangladeshi-produced garments and pursues excellence in the Bangladeshi readymade garments (RMG) sector through its activities and programmes, including establishing and nurturing relationships with foreign buyers, businesses and trade associations, organizations, chambers, and research organizations. The BGMEA also acts as a pressure group to protect the interests of the RMG sector and acts as a facilitator of trade negotiations with global trade bodies such as the WTO, ILO, and UNCTAD. All the Garment Industries of Bangladesh are the own property. 2.2.5 Role of Garment Industries in Socio-economic Condition of Bangladesh Bangladesh has earned nearly $9 billion in 2005-06 by exporting garment products, mainly to Europe and the United States. This is about 75 percent of total export earnings of the country. The RMG industry has around 4,740 units across the country. It employs about 3 million workers, most of whom are poor women. Whenever the country is criticized for its high level of corruption and confrontational politics, its garment industry is held up as a success story. Bangladesh is a tropical country in South Asia that is situated in the delta of two major rivers that flow down from the Himalayas (the Ganges and the Jamuna). The country’s land surface is therefore largely composed of alluvial silt, rendering the soil highly fertile. Historically, this has made Bangladesh an agricultural nation; although agriculture contributes only about a fifth of the national GDP, it employs three-fifths of the labour force (ADB, 2005). Garment Industries are the main export oriented product in Bangladesh. It affects the Socio economic environment. It controls the foreign currency and women empowerment, Housing, Urbanization, and Economic Growth of Bangladesh. Garments Industry occupies a unique position in the Bangladesh economy. It is the largest exporting industry in Bangladesh, which experienced phenomenal growth during last two decades. By taking advantage of an insulated market under the provision of Multi Fibre Agreement (MFA) of GATT, it attained a high profile in terms of foreign exchange earnings, exports, industrialization, and contribution to GDP within a short span of time. The industry plays a key role in employment generation and in the provision of income to the poor. Nearly two million workers one directly and more than ten million inhabitants are indirectly associated
with the industry (Ahmed and Hossain, 2006). The sector has also played a significant role in the socio-economic development of the country. In such a context, the trend and growth of garments export and its contribution to total exports and GDP has been examined (Table No. 2.4). Table 2.4: Growth and Trend of Garments Exports, and contribution to GDP (Amounts in Million US$) Year Garment Export Total Export (Min Share to Total Share to GDP in (Min USD) USD) Export in % % 1984-85 116 934 12.42 1989-90 624 (40) 1924 (16) 32.43 (21) 1994-95 2228 (29) 3473 (13) 64.15 (15) 5.87 1999-00 4349 (14) 5752 (11) 75.61 (3) 9.23 (9) 2004-05 6418 (8) 8655 (9) 74.15 (-1) 10.63 (3) 2005-06 7901 (23) 10526 (22) 75.06 (1) 12.64 (2) Source: Economic Review of Bangladesh, BGMEA, 2007 It is revealed from the Table that the value of garment exports, share of garments export to total exports and contribution to GDP has increased significantly during the period from 1984-85 to 2005-06. The total garments export in 2005-06 is more than 68 times compared to garments exports in 1984-85 whereas total country’s export for the same period has increased by 11 times. In terms of GDP, contribution of garments export is significant; it reaches 12.64 percent of GDP in 2005-06 which was only 5.87 percent in 1989-90. It is a clear indication of the contribution to the overall economy. It also plays a pivotal role to promote the development of linkage small scale industries. For instance, manufacturing of intermediate product such as dyeing, printing, zippers, labels has begun to take a foothold on limited scale and is expected to grow significantly. Moreover it has helped the business of basking, insurance, shipping, hotel, tourism, and transportation. The sector also has created jobs for about two million people of which 70 percent are women who mostly come from rural areas. The sector opened up employment opportunities for many more individuals through direct and indirect economic activities, which eventually helps the country’s social development, woman empowerment, and poverty alleviation. In such a way the economy of Bangladesh is getting favorable contribution from this industry. 2.2.6 Other Survey/Research work Researchers not involved in any way with garment industries have studied the RMG from various perspectives. Thesis works include several studies by Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies (BIDS), Salma Chowdhury and Protima Mazumdar (1991) and the Bangladesh Unnayan Parisad (1990). Rahman (2004), Huq. Hossain (1995) and others. These studies use accepted survey and research methodology to analyze a wealth of data on the social and economic background, problems, and prospects of female workers in the RMG sector. Professor Muzaffar Ahmad looks at the industrial organization of the sector and discusses robustness and long-term viability of apparel manufacturing in Bangladesh. Wiig (1990) provides a good overview of this industry, especially the developments in the early years. One of the few studies on the Bangladesh apparel industry to be published in a reputed journal in the U.S. is that of Yung Whee Rhee (1990) who presents what he calls a “catalyst model” of development.
The Bangladesh Planning Commission under the Trade and Industrial Policy (TIP) project also commissioned several studies on the industry. Hossain and Brar (1992) consider some labor-related issues in the garment industry. Quddus (1993) presents a profile of the apparel sector in Bangladesh and discusses some other aspects of the industry. Quddus (1996) presents results from a survey of apparel entrepreneurs and evaluates the performance of entrepreneurs and their contribution to the success of this industry. Islam and Quddus (1996) present an overall analysis of the industry to evaluate its potential as a catalyst for the development of the rest of the Bangladesh economy. Mohammad Mafizur Rahman (2004), Paper entitled The Foreign Trade of Bangladesh: Its Composition, Performance, Trend, and Policy. In this paper he discusses the composition, performance, and trends of foreign trade of Bangladesh. In the process, he examines Bangladesh’s export and import performance compared to those of various countries, regions and the world over the years. He also discusses the sources of Bangladesh’s imports and directions of Bangladesh’s exports and the dynamic changes over the years, and highlights the trends of export and import shares to GDP and trade balance positions with different countries, regions as well as the world. Dr. Shahnaz Huq-Hussain’s (1995), Paper Fighting poverty: the economic adjustment of female migrants in Dhaka, analyzes the process of adjustment by poor female migrants coming to Dhaka in terms of their economic motives such as their plans to work, occupational involvement, work satisfaction, income earned, control over income and their role in the family economy. The influence of occupation on migrant females’ urban adaptation is also discussed. Md. Salim Uddin & Mohammed Abu Jahed (2007), described Garments Industry: A Prime Mover of the Socio Economic Development of Bangladesh. The objective of this paper was to study and evaluate the growth and development of garment industry in Bangladesh, To examine the contribution of garment industry to the national economy of Bangladesh and To study the trend of garment product development and its composition in order to analyze the product portfolio and its diversification. Chapter Three Analytical Perspective 3.1 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Man Environment interactions are the long time tradition of Geographic Knowledge (Mitchell, 1979). Environmental Impact Assessment includes the processes of analysing, monitoring, and managing the intended and unintended Environmental consequences, both positive and negative, of planned interventions (policies, programs, plans, and projects) and any Environmental change processes invoked by those interventions. According to Olsson G (1965), its primary purpose is to bring about a more sustainable and equitable biophysical and human environment. Impact Assessment is now an established part of development activity. There are many guidelines, tools and ' Best Practices ' in different areas of enterprise development. The main focus to date has been on accounting to Government and NGOs for particular project and programme investments in preference to others. The aim of this research work is to identify the Impact Assessment in Neighborhood Environment of a Garment Industries. So, here find the theoretical perspective of the Impact Assessment of Neighborhood Environment. In this section I am trying to describe the definition of Impact Assessment, Classification, and Theoretical perspective. According to Egyptian Annual Report of Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs (2007), the purpose of EIA is to ensure the protection and conservation of the environment
and natural resources including human health aspects against uncontrolled development. The long-term objective is to ensure a sustainable economic development that meets present needs without compromising future generation ability to meet their own needs. EIA is an important tool in the integrated environmental management approach. The legal one is quite straight forward: to ensure that development projects such as a housing estate, a road/bridge or some such construction project has a minimal impact on the environment in its entire 'lifecycle' i.e. during design, construction, use, maintenance, and demolition. Many countries (Australia, Canada, China, Nepal, EU, New Zealand, Sri Lanka, and United States etc.) now have laws stipulating that unless an EIA study is carried out (particularly for large infrastructure projects), permission for construction will not be granted by the local authority (Sadler, B., 1996). 3.1.1 What Is Impact Assessment The process of identifying, predicting, evaluating and mitigating the biophysical, social, and other relevant effects of development proposals prior to major decisions being taken and commitments made.An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an assessment of the possible impact positive or negative that a proposed project may have on the Environment; considering natural, social and economic aspects. The purpose of the assessment is to ensure that decision makers consider the ensuing environmental impacts to decide whether to proceed with the project. The International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA) defines an Environmental Impact Assessment as "the process of identifying, predicting, evaluating and mitigating the biophysical, social, and other relevant effects of development proposals prior to major decisions being taken and commitments made."  "Principle of Environmental Imapact Assessment Best Practice." International Association for Impact Assessment. 1999. The level and pace of socio-economic advancement in developing countries has important implications for the efficacy with which legislature and institutional regimes are developed and applied for the promotion of environmental management. In the first instance, the imperatives of rapid social and economic development could influence the political will to initiate, implement, and enforce appropriate environmental policies and laws. Secondly, these development imperatives often circumscribe the limits of resources available for environmental protection. Thirdly, implementing agencies often operate under severe resource constraints and fourthly, the relatively low level of public awareness, particularly environmental awareness does little to trigger a sense of urgency and resolve for political and legislative action for environmental management for sustainable development. (Alan Gilpin, 1995) In the absence of familiarity with environmental legislation and the environmental impacts of human activities there is likely to be no spontaneous observance of normative demands for efforts at environmental protection and enhancement. In the last instance, the desire to satisfy basic social needs could very well override even basic environmental considerations. It might also be remembered that environmental management in many countries, especially the developing countries, is achieved not only through environmental legislation, i.e. laws, regulations and rules which are enforceable in a court of law, but also through administrative provisions such as administrative orders, technical standards etc. which are applied through various administrative mechanisms (Wilson S., 1996). This is especially true in relation to the implementation of international environmental conventions. Often, many years pass before provisions are established in laws for the implementation and application of the provisions of international agreements. It is equally true in the implementation, especially at its early stages, of environmental policy, such as the requirement of environmental impact assessment in respect of development projects and the
procedures to be followed in respect of such assessments. From this perspective, environmental legislation is one of the chief tools for formulating environmental policy while also being one of the major instruments for implementing it. 3.1.2 Context of Impact Assessment Development which comprises a change or extension requires EIA only if the change or extension is likely to have significant environmental effects. This should be considered in the light of the general guidance in this Circular and the indicative thresholds in area. However, the significance of any effects must be considered in the context of the existing development. In some cases, repeated small extensions may be made to development. Quantified thresholds cannot easily deal with this kind of 'incremental' development (Y. J. Ahmad and G. K. Sammy, 1987). Characteristics of development The characteristics of development must be considered having regard in particular, to a. the size of the development; b. the cumulation with other development; c. the use of natural resources; d. the production of waste; e. pollution and nuisances; f. the risk of accidents, having regard in particular to substances or technologies used. It should be noted that a developer can be asked to provide an Environmental Statement only in respect of the specific development he has proposed, though the statement will need to address not only direct, but also indirect effects of the development (Espoo, 1991). Any wider implications would be for the local planning authority to consider, although it is open to developers to assist the local planning authority by supplying any additional information relevant to this consideration. Types of Impact Assessment on the basis of subjects are as follows (Smith, 1981 & Smith 1993). They are: 1. Technology Assessment-TA 2. Environmental Impact Assessment- EIA 3. Social Impact Assessment-SIA 4. Community Assessment- CA 5. General Welfare Assessment- WIA or Total Assessment 3.1.3 Method and Approach For most projects, particularly those involving large public investments in areas such as infrastructure, an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) should be carried out and linked to the cost-benefit analysis. The objective of the EIA is to ensure that environmental aspects are addressed and potential problems are foreseen at the appropriate stage of project design. EIA should be envisaged as an integral part of the planning process and initiated at the project level from the start. According to Natural Resources Conservation Authority (1997), various guidelines on EIA are available. The main steps are as follows: Preliminary activities include the selection of a coordinator for the EIA and the collection of background information. This should be undertaken as soon as a project has been identified.
Impact identification involves a broad analysis of the impacts of project activities with a view to identifying those which are worthy of a detailed study. Baseline study entails the collection of detailed information and data on the condition of the project area prior to the project's implementation. Impact evaluation should be done whenever possible in quantitative terms and should include the working-out of potential mitigation measures. Impact evaluation cannot proceed until project alternative has been defined, but should be completed early enough to permit decisions to be made in a timely fashion. Assessment involves combining environmental losses and gains with economic costs and benefits to procedure a complete account to each project alternative. Cost-benefit analysis should include environmental impacts where these can be evaluated in monetary terms (see Economic Analysis section). Documentation is prepared to describe to the work done in the EIA. A working document is prepared to provide clearly stated and argued recommendations for immediate action. The working document should contain a list of project alternative with comments on the environmental and economic impacts of each. Decision-making begins when the working document reaches the decision maker, who will either accept one of the project alternatives, request further study or reject the proposed action altogether. Post audits are made to determine how close to reality the EIA predictions were. A) Catlow and Thriwell Model: Impact Group Subdivision The natural The flora and fauna, insect life and organisms, and ecological Environment regimes in identifiable terrains or aquatic habitats. The Human Environment 1. Esthetic quality Esthetic quality in rural and urban areas including landscape and the physical quality and accessibility for its enjoyment and natural environment 2. Impact on a. On the land including fishing and the hunting of game employment b. On the employment within the local area 3. Impact on health, a. On health though the apprehension of hazard safety and b. On health though polluting emissions to water, land, and the convenience atmospheres, including solid waste disposal and radiation. c. Nuisance affection health, comfort, and convenience arising from dust, grit, fumes, heat, light, noise, vibration, and wind. d. on pedestrian safety and convenience through changes in movement and traffic 4. Impact on social a. Arising from the breaking up or disturbance of existing and cultural well communities or group. being b. Through disturbance and severance and change in homes and neighborhood. c. Through disturbance to or loss of recreational facilities. d. Through disturbance to the concept of the man in the perspective of history either to long established patterns of living and working or to specific archaeological or historical remains. Source: Catlow and Thirlwell (1976, p.13) B) Bart Residential Model:
Dimension label Aesthetics of the residential area Felling about living in this area Noise disturbing outdoor activities Traffic safety Noise from sources outside own and neighbors homes Safety of self and property Noise disturbing indoor activities Noise from sources in own and neighbor homes, except aircraft and trains Characteristics of people in the area Air quality Maintenance (by residents) with in own block Nonautomobile Mobility Maintenance services Solicitors Privacy Automobile Mobility Noise from aircraft and trains Animalâ€™s nuisance Alienation among residents Environmental correlates of alienations Adapted from Carp, Appleyard, Shokrkon, and Zawadski (1973) C) Florence C. Ladd Model: Perceiver Groups Environmental Factors Residents Region Developers Urban- Suburban- rural Mortgage bankers Neighborhood configuration and type Real estate board members House type Politicians Age of housing and neighborhood Planners Architects Urban designers Associated Factors Social Density/crowding Privacy Security Human dimension of delivery of Services Identification with other residents
Source: Florence C. Ladd (1978) 3.2 Locational Pattern Analysis
Physical Location Location in relation to services spatial Configuration of home and neighborhood Physical amenities Safety Aesthetics Open Space Ventilation Air quality Noise level Vegetation
Main objective of Geography is to discuss about the space or distribution pattern of any locational object. Geographers realized that spatial data present specific analytical problems that require particular treatment and for which standard procedures have to be modified. In this section the need is to discuss about distribution and locational pattern of Garment industries. A wide range of issues in geostatistics was identified, such as the problems of spatial autocorrelation in analyzing all spatial data. Analyzing spatial data has been extremely facilitated by developments in computer. By the late 1960s these new practices were synthesized in influential innovative textbooks on both sides of the North America. Notable examples include Peter Haggett’s Locational Analysis in Human Geography (1965), Richard Chorley and Haggett’s Models in Geography (1967), Ron Abler, John Adams, and Peter Gould’s Spatial Organization (1971), and Richard L. Morrill’s The Spatial Organization of Society (1970). Each emphasized the theme earlier pronounced by Wreford Watson that “geography is a discipline in distance.” The Locational Pattern Analysis and flows were synthesized to describe the Garment pattern in Dhaka City. The goal was just to describe those Industries and their operations and also to model them (statistically and mathematically), thus producing general knowledge about the spatial organization of society rather than just specific knowledge about individual places. Location allocation models suggested both optimum locations for facilities and efficient flows between them. In the Map locational data can be represented by four methods (Hammond & MeCullagh, 1980). They are: Point distribution Line distribution Non Continuous Area distribution Continuous Area distribution Garment Industries are the Secondary economic activities. In these activities there are some selected theories which called Industrial location Theory. They are: Economic Theory Behavioral Theory Structural Theory Economic Theory provides an outlet for research in all areas of economics based on rigorous theoretical reasoning and on topics in mathematics that are supported by the analysis of economic problems. The models made relatively simple assumptions regarding human behavior; the principle of least effort predominated, with monetary considerations preeminent, and it was assumed that decisions were based on complete information. These were later relaxed, and more-realistic models of spatial behavior were based on observed decision making in which the acquisition and use of information in spatial contexts. In all senses men are not always logical. So they have some limitation to do the work (Simon, 1959). In these cases they always do not think about maximization of profit but they think about locational suitability (Rees, 1974). These considerations made human behavioral theory. In these theories the Industrialist make decision to establish their Garment in a suitable location. In these situations all the proprietor does not think about their profit but they think about locational pattern. So, it can realize that the Structural theory is the most suitable for establishment of Bangladeshi Garment Industries. Concept of Locational Analysis One of the most important objectives in Geography is the Locational Pattern Analysis. The Pattern of Garment and the location of Garment Industries are describing in this research. I) Nearest neighbor analysis (NNI): Nearest neighbour analysis examines the distances between each point and the closest point to it (Fotheringham, et al 1994 and Wulder, 1999). The Nearest neighbour is a method of
exploring pattern in Locational data by comparing graphically the observed distribution functions of event-to-event or random point-to-event nearest neighbour distances, either with each other or with those that may be theoretically expected from various hypothesized models, in particular that of spatial randomness (Upton, 1985), i.e. it describe distribution of points according to their spacing. The Nearest neighbour index measures the degree of spatial dispersion in the distribution based on the minimum of the inter-feature distances (Chou, 1997), i.e. it is based on the distance between adjacent point features. Such that the distance between points features in a clustered pattern will be smaller than in a scattered (uniform) distribution with random falling between the two. The equation for the nearest neighbour is computed through the following steps: Ad = (âˆ‘idi)/n. Ed=1/2sqr(A/n ) NNI=Ad/Ed
di is the distance from point i to its nearest neighbour; Ad is the average of nearest neighbour distance of the point pattern; n is the total number of points in the chosen map area. Expresses the expected value of the average nearest distance; A denotes the map area Equation for the nearest neighbour index, it is defined as the ratio of Ad to Ed
The values of NNI range between two theoretical extremes, 0 and 2.1491. When all the points in a pattern fall at the same location, the pattern represents the theoretical extreme of spatial concentration, in this case, Ad = 0 and NNI = 0. The more closely the points are clustered together, the closer to 0 NNI will be, since the average nearest neighbour distance decreases. The closer NNI gets to 1, the more randomly spaced the points are. The value of NNI approaches 2.1491 for perfectly uniformly spaced points. Hence, the closer NNI is to 2.1491, the more uniformly spaced the data are. II) Mean Center and Standard Distance Deviation A. Mean Center In the calculation of Mean Centre to identifies the geographic center (or the center of concentration) for a set of features. The mean center is a point constructed from the average x and y values for the input feature centroids. If a case field is specified, the input features are grouped according to case field values, and a mean center is calculated from the average x and y values for the centroids in each group.
The x and y values for the center features are feature attributes of the output feature class.
For line and polygon features, geometric centroids are calculated before the central feature is identified. The geometric centroid of a feature may be located outside a feature's boundary. If centroids must be within feature boundaries, use the Feature to Points (Inside option) to create centroids before performing the Mean Center operation. Current map layers may be used to define the input feature class. When using layers, only the currently selected features are used in the Mean Center operation. B. Standard Distance Deviation (SDD) In Probability theory and statistics, standard deviation is a measure of the variability or dispersion of a population, a data set, or a probability distribution. A low standard deviation indicates that the data points tend to be very close to the same value (the mean), while high standard deviation indicates that the data are spread out over a large range of values. In addition to expressing the variability of a population, standard deviation is commonly used to measure confidence in stastical conclusions. For example, the margin of error in polling data is determined by calculating the expected standard deviation in the results if the same poll were to be conducted multiple times. (Typically the reported margin of error is about twice the standard deviation, the radius of a 95% confidence interval.) In science, researchers commonly report the standard deviation of experimental data, and only effects that fall far outside the range of standard deviation are considered stastically significantâ€”normal random error or variation in the measurements is in this way distinguished from causal variation. Standard deviation is also important in finance, where the standard deviation on the rate of return on an investment is a measure of the risk. The term standard deviation was first used in writing by Karl Pearson in 1894 following use by him in lectures. This was as a replacement for earlier alternative names for the same idea: for example Gauss used "mean error". A useful property of standard deviation is that, unlike variance, it is expressed in the same units as the data. Represents the standard deviation of the distance of each point from the mean center Is the two dimensional equivalent of standard deviation Where: N (d ) 2 S xy = âˆ‘
N âˆ’2 where d iMC is the distance between each point, i, and i =1
3.2.2 Methodology  N is the total number of point the meananalysis center and I) Nearest neighbor : We subtract 2 from the number of points to provide Sample size........: 3607 an unbiased estimate of ..: standard there mi Mean Nearest Neighbor Distance 54.96 distance m, 180.31since ft, 0.03415 Standard are Devtwo of Nearest constants Neighbor Distance ...............: 40.73 m, 133.64 ft, 0.02531 mi Minimum Distance ................: 2.84 m, 9.30 ft, 0.00176 mi Maximum Distance ................: 20729.32 m, 68009.58 ft, 12.88060 mi Based on Bounding Rectangle: Area ............................: 182573211.49 sq m 1965201692.93 sq ft 70.49191 sq mi Mean Random Distance ............: 112.49 m, 369.06 ft, 0.06990 mi Mean Dispersed Distance .........: 241.75 m, 793.14 ft, 0.15022 mi Nearest Neighbor Index ..........: 0.4886 Standard Error ..................: 0.98 m, 3.21 ft, 0.00061 mi Test Statistic (Z) ..............: -58.7617 p-value (one tail) ..............: 0.0001 p-value (two tail) ..............: 0.0001
CrimeStat III was developed under the direction of Dr. Ned Levine of Ned Levine & Associates, Houston, TX with Grant No. 2002-IJ-CX-0007 from the Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice (NIJ), Washington, DC. Order
Mean Nearest Neighbor Expected Nearest Nearest Distance (m) Neighbor Distance (m) Index
II) Mean Center and Standard Distance Deviation : Sample size ...........: 3607 Unit ..................: Degrees Variable ..............: X Y Minimum ...............: 90.347513 23.696305 Maximum ...............: 90.435978 23.878948 Mean ..................: 90.396418 23.778192 Standard Deviation ....: 0.023745 0.038291 Geometric Mean ........: 90.396415 23.778162 Harmonic Mean .........: 90.396411 23.778131 Average Density .......: 0.000020 points per sq. m Std Dist Dev ..........: 4893.49 m, 16054.74 ft, 3.04067 mi Circle Area Defined by STD Dist Dev .......:
75229219.13 sq m 809760575.47 sq ft 29.04616 sq mi
CrimeStat III was developed under the direction of Dr. Ned Levine of Ned Levine & Associates, Houston, TX with Grant No. 2002-IJ-CX-0007 from the Office of Research and Evaluation, National Institute of Justice (NIJ), Washington, DC. Map 3.1: Standard distance deviation of Garment Industries in Dhaka city
Source: Author 3.2.3 Theoretical Structure The nearest neighbour formula will produce a result between 0 and 2.15, where the following distribution patterns form a continuum:
The value of NNI is 0.48856 in the all Garment Unit. When all the points in a pattern fall at the same location, the pattern represents the theoretical extreme of spatial concentration; in this case, the Garment Industries in Dhaka City is liner clustering to random, since the average nearest neighbour distance increases. At present, In Dhaka City all the Garment Industries are in towards random pattern. In standard deviation is a measure of the variability or dispersion of the Garment Industries in Dhaka City. The Circle Area Defined by Standard Distance Deviation is 29.04616 sq mile.
The area indicates that the data points tend to be very close in the main area of the Dhaka City. While large area indicates that the data are spread out over a large range of values. Chapter Four Impact Assessment of Garment Industries in Residential Area The main objective of this study was to identify and assess the Impacts on neighborhood environments of the Garment Industries. 4.1 Characteristicâ€™s of Respondents There are two types of respondents in this Research. They are: Owner of the Garment Industries and residents living in areas neighboring the Garment Industries. It includes 40 owners of the Garment Industries and 400 residents living in neighboring areas of the Garment Industries. This section is in regards to the socio economic condition of respondents and other relevant information. 4.1.1 Age A. Residents living in areas neighboring the Garment Industries The figure-4.1 shows that the highest number of respondent residents living in areas neighboring the Garment Industries (32%) who were within the age group of 30-39. Twenty six percent were within 20-29 age group and 17% were within 40-49 age groups. From the chart we can see that most of the respondents living in areas neighboring the Garment Industries are middle aged. Figure-4.1: Age Group of the Respondents
Source: Questionnaire Survey, 2009 B. Owner of the Garment Figure-4.1 shows that the highest number of owners of the Garment Industries (39%) were within the age group of 50-59. Twenty five percent were within 40-49 age group and 23% were within 60+ age group.
4.1.2 Sex The figure-4.2 shows the sex of the respondents. Here most of the respondents are male (55%) and the number of female respondents is about 45%. Figure 4.2: Sex of the Respondents Sex
Source: Questionnaire Survey, 2009 Males are the main data source because they are much more aggressive in comparison to the female workers to discuss about their problems. 4.1.3 Education A. Residents living in areas neighboring the Garment Industries Educational qualifications of the Residents living in the areas neighboring the Garment Industries show (fig-4.3) that the highest education level (45.5%) is Secondary. The higher secondary education level is about 27%. On the other hand, this figure is quite low for the post graduate level. Figure 4.3: Education level of the Respondents
Source: Questionnaire Survey, 2009 B. Owner of the Garment Figure- 4.3 shows the educational qualifications of the owner of the Garment Industries. Here the Graduate level is 65% and the Post Graduate level is about 30% and Higher Secondary Education level is 5%. The data shows that the owner of the garment Industries are all educated. 4.1.4 Occupation Figure-4.4 shows the occupation percentage of the residents living in areas neighboring the Garment Industries. Here we can see that the maximum number of the respondents who took part in the survey are employee (33.5%), 29% are businessmen, 14% are housewives, 4.5% are the labors of the Garment Industries, 6.5% are students, 3.5% are retired and 4% of the respondents are of various services. Figure 4.4: Occupation
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
r oc to
Pe rs on
r tL ab ou
G ar m en
St ud en
ife ou se w H
sin es Bu
rv ic Se
Source: Questionnaire Survey, 2009 4.1.5 Monthly Income Figure-4.5 shows that 28.5% of the residentsâ€™ monthly incomes are within the group of taka 3000-5999. As we can see that about 27% are in taka 6000-8999 group. On the other hand, this figure is low for taka 21000+ groups. The respondents are of various income labels. Thereafter the respondents who earn about taka 3000-5999 and about taka 6000-8999 monthly are the highest to respond on this topic. Other respondents are respectively of taka 9000-11999 groups (12%), taka 12000-14999 group (6.75%), taka 15000-17999 group (5%), and taka 18000-20999 group (4.5%). Figure 4.5: Monthly income
Monthly Income 30
25 20 15
9000-11999 12000-14999 15000-17999 18000-20999
Source: Questionnaire Survey, 2009
Most of the respondentsâ€™ incomes are low because some of them work in Garment Sector and others in Small Business sector. 4.1.6 Present Dwelling Time From the figure-4.6 it is clear that the highest number of respondents (41%) have been living in their present dwelling for less than 5 years. Thereafter the respondents (17%) who are living for less than 20 years are also not inadequate. According to the residing period of the other respondents the numbers are respectively 5-9 years (22%), 10-14 years (14%) and 1519 years (6%). People keep changing their jobs for better income and they want to live nearby their working places and that is the main reason of the respondents not to live many years at an area. Figure 4.6: Present Dwelling Time Present dw elling Time
<5 5_9 10_14 15-19 20+
Sou Source: Questionnaire Survey, 2009 4.1.7 Ownership of Buildings A. Type of ownership of the Garment Industry owners The figure 4.7 represents that most of the owners of the garment industries had rented some floors or a building for their industry and the Rented House percentage is 55%, while the other owners had their own buildings for their industries and the owner house percentage is 45%. Rented house percentages have dominated the data of respondents. Figure 4.7: Type of Ownership
Type of ownership 60
40 Rented House
20 10 0 Ownership of the Garment Industries owner
Ownership of the respondents
Source: Questionnaire Survey, 2009 B. Type of ownership of the respondents neighboring the Garment Industries The survey was conducted on both the respondents who have their own houses in Dhaka city and who live in rented houses. From the figure- 4.7 we can see that the percentages of the house owners and the people who live in rented houses are respectively 52% and 48%. 4.2 Impact of Garment Industries Impact Assessment of the Neighborhood Environment of Garment Industries was done in this study. Impact Assessment was done through responses on house rent, demand for houses, type of houses rented or lived in, growth of slums, crimes committed, employment opportunities, pollution, and others 4.2.1 House Rent Figuer-4.8 shows impact upon house rent. Where ‘Yes’ is 64%. As we can see that ‘No’ remark is 31%. Increase of Garment Industries might have caused the increase of houserent (yes) because of the increasing demand of the workers of the Garment Industries who want to live somewhere near of their working places. Figure 4.8: House Rent
Don’t Know 64%
Source: Questionnaire Survey, 2009 Type and Rate of rented house Surely it can be said that because of the establishment of the Garment Industries in the residential areas the rent of the houses have increased. Thereafter the respondents were asked to give their opinion on how much the rate of house rent was increased in four categories and the categories were “very high,” “High,” “Moderate,” and “Low.” Figure 4.9: Type and Rate of rented house Rate of house rent
35 1.15 0.58
10 5 0
0.77 0.58 0.29
Type of House
Source: Questionnaire Survey, 2009 From the figure- 4.9 we can see the percentage of which kind of house rent have increased. According to the opinion of the respondents of 29.11% rent of the slums had increased at a
very high rate. The respondent of 1.15% said that very high rate, 0.54% said that the rate was moderate and 1.15% said that the rate was low. About 13.55% of the respondents said that the rent of mess had increased at a very high rate, high 1.44% moderate 2.31%, and 1.01% said that the rate was low. The rate of the flats, separate house, sublets, and the other types of house had not increased at mentioned rate. 4.2.2 Demand and supply of houses It is clear that because of the establishment of the garment Industries in the residential areas the demand of house have increased. Basically because of the labors, employees and the other related professionals of the Garment Industries, the demand of houses have increased in the residential areas neighboring the Garment Industries. Data was collected from the respondents if this increasing demand had any influence on the supply of house. The respondents were directly asked to give their opinion in categories like “yes”, “no” and “Don’t know”. According to the most of them with the increasing of houses the supply was not increased. Figure 4.10: Demand and Supply of House Demand and Supply of House 70
Demand on House Supply of House
Source: Questionnaire Survey, 2009 Figure- 4.10 shows that most of the respondents (60.5%) said that because of the establishment of the Garment Industries in the residential areas the demand of houses increased. According to 35.5% of the respondents the supply of houses was not increased to keep pace with the demand. Thirty percent of the respondents said that the demand of house was not increased and only 9.5% said that they had no idea about it. According to 5.8% of the respondents the supply of houses had increased with the increasing demand and 6.5% did not make comments in this topic. 4.2.3 Types of Houses demanded and supplied Data was collected on which type of house demand had increased. From the figure-4.11 it is noticed that the demand of slums (54.55%) had increased at mentioned rate which is about 60.34%. Then respectively the demand of mess was 28.93% and supply was 24.14%, the demand of flats was 2.48% and supply was 3.45%, the demand of separate houses was 1.65% and supply was 3.88%, the demand of sublets was 4.96%, and supply was 4.31% and the demand of the other types of houses was 7.44% and supply was 3.88%. The demand of the separate houses had increased at the lowest rate.
Figure 4.11: Type of House demand and supply Type of House demand and supply 70 60.34
50 40 30
House demand increase 28.93
House supply increase
S ource: Questionnaire Survey, 2009 We can see from the survey that though there are some differences among the respondents opinion, but there is a common opinion of the respondents. That is, the supply of houses has not increased to keep pace with the increasing demand of houses because of the establishment of the Garment Industries. 4.2.4 Slums Most of the workers in the garment Industries are women and many are under aged. Their salary too is low. For this reason most of the slums are established somewhere near the Garment Industries. Basically around the Garment Industries where there is fallow land slums are noticed. Table-4.1: Slums near in Garment Industry Slums near in Garment Percentage Industry Yes 54.75 No 42.25 Donâ€™t Know 3 Total 100 Source: Questionnaire Survey, 2009 The data collected from the respondentâ€™s shows that 54.75% said there were no slums in their respective areas before the establishment of the Garment Industries. That is to say after the establishment of Garment Industries the slums have increased. On the other hand 42.25% said that there were slums in their areas before the establishment of Garment Industries and only 3% did not comments on this topic.(Table-4.1)
Reason behind growth of Slum Figure- 4.12: Reason behind growth of Slum
Source: Questionnaire Survey, 2009 About 49% of the respondents feel that garment industries are the cause of slums in their neighborhood. Because of the establishment of Garment Industries the workers of the Industries choose slums located nearby the Garment Industries for their dwelling with their families. Their income is too low and they want to save money for transport. So they have to live in the slums. 4.2.5 Crimes According to the survey we can see that 60% of the respondents think that whatever crime committed in their area is not due to the Garment Industries. Only 28% said that Garment Industries had affected criminal activities in their areas. Very few numbers of respondents did not comment on this matter.
Figure: 4.13: Crimes
Source: Questionnaire Survey, 2009 It seems most of the respondents did not want to tell the truth because they were afraid that if they answered positively then they will have to face trouble. Rate of Crime Figure- 4.14: Rate of Crime
Rate of Crime 45 39.09
25 20 15 10
5 0 Very High
Source: Questionnaire Survey, 2009 Those who answered positively, according to their opinion because of the establishment of the Garment Industries various types of crime occur in their areas almost everyday. According to the data it is seen that the highest number of respondents (39.09%) said that crime tendency increased at moderate rate. About 27.27% of the respondents said that it increased at low rate. About 26.36% of the respondents said that it increased at high rate. A very few number of respondents (7.27%) said that it increased at a very high rate (fig-4.14).
Type of Crime occurring The table-4.2 shows the percentage of various types of crime occurring because of the establishment of Garment Industries. Here we can see that according to the opinion of the respondents various kinds of crime have increased in their respective areas. Stealing (5.76%), Robbery (2.88%), Extortion (25.65%), Murder (.58%), Hijacking (14.99%), Rape (2.59%), Eve teasing (41.79%), and many other crimes occur almost everyday. Table-4.2: Type of Crime occurring Crime Type Percentage Stealing 5.76 Robbery 2.88 Extortion 25.65 Murder 0.58 Hijacking 14.99 Rape 2.59 Eve teasing 41.79 Other 5.76 Total 100 Source: Questionnaire Survey, 2009 In the Garment sectors most of the workers are women and they have to face a lot of problems in their everyday life. One of the big problems for women working in the Garment Industries is the constant harassment faced from outsiders and from the bad characterized people in and around their dwelling places. 4.2.6 Employment Being Labor intensive is one of the main characteristic of the Garment Industries. For this reason it can be said surely that the Garment Industries have impact upon employment opportunities. Figure- 4.15: Employment
Source: Questionnaire Survey, 2009 From Figure 4.15 it is clear that the yes percentage is 99.5%.Mentionable matter is that no respondents gave negative opinion on this topic. Only 0.5%. of the respondents did not make comment on this topic.
Type of Increasing Employment The figure-4.16 represents the increasing percentage of employment in different sectors due to the establishment of garment industries in Dhaka city. Figure- 4.16: Type of Increasing Employment Type of Employment Increase
0 Labour of Garment Industries
Other Transport Labour
Type of Employment
Source: Questionnaire Survey, 2009 We can see that the Grocery Shop group has an employment of about 21.45%. On the other hand Construction Labour group has the lowest percentage. In the data increase of Garment Industries result in many jobs for people. Maximum jobs have been created in the Garment Sector and majority is employed in Garment Labour. 4.2.7 Cleanliness Everyday Garment Industry creates some waste materials. If these wastes are disposed in a systematic way then the environment around the Garment Industries will remain neat and clean. But if these wastes are thrown here and there then it will result in environmental pollution. Big mound of cut-pieces are gathered in most of the Garment Industries. These mound become waste product afterwards. In most cases these cut-pieces block the natural flow of the drainage system and the waste materials over flow the roads. In this way the neatness of the whole area is spoilt. But this condition is improving day by day. At present these mounds are sold and then recycled. Because of the recycling process the rate of pollution has decreased a lot.
Waste disposal process 60 50.75
50 40 30 20
0 Near the Garment Industries
Selected Garbage Area
Waste disposal Area
Source: Questionnaire Survey, 2009 Figure- 4.17 represents the waste disposal sites of garment industries in Dhaka. As we can see in the research 50.75% of the respondents said that the Garments Industries dispose the waste in selected garbage area, on the other hand 13.25% said the Garments industries dispose the waste near the Garment Industries. Open field, ponds, lakes etc. are also sites for dumping waste. Open field 6.25%, ponds 3%, lake 6.5%, river 14.5%, and others 5.75% waste are disposed. From the discussion mentioned above it is clear that the respondents have mixed opinion on the topic that the establishment of the Garment Industries result environmental pollution in the surrounding areas. Though most of respondentâ€™s opinion was that the establishment of Garment Industries did not impact on environmental pollution in their areas. 4.2.8 Pollution The establishment of Garment Industries result environmental pollution in the residential areas more or less. From the figure 4.18 it is seen that according to the opinion of about 54% of the respondents, the establishment of the Garment Industries do not result in environmental pollution and about 34% of the respondents said that Garment Industries were responsible for the environmental pollution.
Figure 4.18: Percentage of pollution Waste disposal System Occur Pollution in the Area
Yes No Donâ€™t Know
Source: Questionnaire Survey, 2009 Degree of Pollution Figur-4.19 shows the degree of pollution. Here the Moderate group is 41.18%. As we can see that in low group it is about 26.47%, On the other hand, this figure is low in Very High group. Figure 4.19: Rate of Pollution
Source: Questionnaire Survey, 2009 Big mound of cut-pieces gathered in most of the Garment Industries. These mounds become waste products afterwards. Though these mounds are sold afterwards but some cut-pieces are thrown around the Garments. Because of this the neatness of the environment is spoilt. 4.2.9 Traffic Jam Traffic Jam is one of the main urban problems in Dhaka city. In the residential areas one of the main reason of traffic jam and tangle of people is the establishment of the Garment Industries. Probably because of the transportation of the raw-materials and ready-made clothes and the entry and closing time of the big Garment Industries traffic jam and crowds of people occur more or less. Even then from the survey it is seen that according to the opinion
of most of the respondents, Garment Industries are not responsible for traffic jam. The establishment of Schools, Colleges, markets etc. in the residential areas results in traffic jam. Figure-4.20: Traffic Jam
Source: Questionnaire Survey, 2009 Figure-4.20 shows that according to the opinion of about 43% of the respondents the establishment of the Garment Industries results in traffic jam in their areas. Bur majority of the respondents (52%) said that Garment Industries were not responsible for traffic jam. Only 5% of the respondents did not make comment on this topic. Rate of Traffic Jam According to the opinion of the respondents it can be said that the establishment of the Garment Industries in the residential areas result in traffic jam more or less. The respondents were asked to give their opinion about the increasing rate of traffic jam in four categories like “Very high” “High” “Moderate” and “Low”. From the collected data it is seen that according to the opinion most of the respondents (45.35%) traffic jam occur at High rate because of the establishment of the Garment Industries. About 34.3% said that the rate was Moderate, 10.47% said that the rate was Very high and about 9.88% said that the rate was very low. Figure 4.21: Rate of Traffic Jam
Source: Questionnaire Survey, 2009 This Diagram represents that the Moderate group is 34.3%.As we can see that in High group it is about 46%, On the other hand, the lowest value in this figure is in low group. 4.2.10 Noise Pollution In the Garment Industries too many sewing machines been operated at the same time and because of that noise pollution has to be occurred. But because of the use of latest and advanced machineries the respondents think that Garment Industries do not results much in noise pollution. Other than this due to the establishment of the Garment Industries, various activities related with this has been created, because of the act of coming and going of various types of people related with those activities dim and bustle occurs in these areas and also because of the sound of the vehicles sound pollution occurs in the neighboring areas of the Garment Industries. From the collected data it is seen that most of the respondents (67%) said that the Garment Industries did not results in noise pollution. A very few number of respondents (29%) said that Garment Industries results in noise pollution (figure-4.22) Figure 4.22: Noise pollution Noise pollution
No Donâ€™t Know
Source: Questionnaire Survey, 2009 Time of Noise Pollution Figure 4.23: Time of Noise Pollution Time of Noise Pollution
23% 47% 30%
Morning Afternoon Night
Source: Questionnaire Survey, 2009 Figure-4.23 represents the type of Noise Pollution. Here we can see the noise pollution at Night is 47% and in the Morning the Noise pollution is 30% and in the Afternoon the percentage is 23%.
Here we can see that at Night noise pollution increases because of the silence. On the other hand, this figure is low at Afternoon. Because of the noise of people, vehicles and other things the noise of the machineries of the Garment Industries not that much heard in the morning. Chapter Five Conclusion This section attempts to show the validity of the Explanation of Information, Analysis, and Assumption of the Environmental Impact on surrounding area of the Garment Industries in Dhaka. 5.1 Summary and Opinions Summary and opinions of Impact Assessment of Neighborhood Environment and Location Analysis of Garment Industries in Dhaka City, these were collected through primary and secondary sources. They are as follows: In 1970â€™s the first Garment product was exported in World Market. In Bangladesh we see the lowest wages in South Asia. So, investors are eager to invest in this sector. C. At present the total number of Garment Industries in Bangladesh is 4740. These Garment Industries are situated in four districts. They are: Dhaka, Chittagong, Narayanganj and Gazipur. There are 3607 Garment Industries in Dhaka City which is 76.09% of the total Garment Industries of the country. As Dhaka is the capital city, all opportunities of Business are found here. So this city contains most of the Garment Industries. At present a large number of Garment Industries is situated in Mirpur, Uttara and Motijheel (Total 1198 Garment Industries). In Dhaka City Medium and Small Garment Industries are situated. Most of the Garment Industries are located along the main road. In this study males were the main data source. ` J. The Education level of most important group is Higher Secondary. K. The residents of the neighboring area of the Garment Industries are dominating the Service Sector. L. Most of the residents of the neighboring area of the Garment Industries are in low income because some of them work in Garment Sectors and the other in Small Business sectors. They want to change their jobs for more income. M. The residents living in neighboring area of the Garment Industries are living in their respective areas for less then 5 years. N. The workers of the Garment Industries want to live near the Garment Industries because they do not want to pay enough money for communication. O. In the Surrounding area of the Garment Industries slums are located. The people living in those slums described that they had to face environmental and social problems in their everyday life. P. Most of the residents of the neighboring area of the Garment Industries described that Garment Industries had no impact upon crime in the area. Q. Almost all the residents of the neighboring area of the Garment Industries said that Garment Industries had created Employment opportunities. It must be an important positive comment. R. Wastes of the Garment Industries are increasing day by day. But the residents of the served area said that it did not pollute their area.
S. The residents of the neighboring area of the Garment Industries commented that increasing of Garment Industries never created traffic jam in their area. T. Overall impact on the residents of the neighboring area of the Garment Industries: Economic Impact occurs more than Environmental Impact. 5.2 Recommendation of further actions The discussed research was examining as well as descriptive. At present the Garment Industries play an important role in our economy. So, immediate measures should be taken to develop this sector. Some important recommendations submitted are as follows: To develop the economy of Bangladesh measures should be taken to developed spread the Garment Industries throughout the country. Measures should be taken to build up Garment Industries not only in Dhaka city but also in other cities throughout the country. Garment Industries should not be given permission to operate in the dense populated residential areas. Permission can be given to establish the garment industries somewhere near the main road. Most of the workers of the Garment Industries are of poor families and they are ill paid. So, Garment Industries should be established on those areas were there are enough open spaces nearby the Garment Industries to build up dwelling for the workers. The workers of the Garment Industries have to face transportation problem. Measures also should be taken to solve this problem either by the owners of the Garment Industries or by the Government. Close relationship between the owners and the workers of the Garment Industries is very important for a proper functioning and development of this sector. 5.3 Recommendation of further research Researches should be undertaken on the following issues in order to enhance our understanding of the export-oriented industrialization and the neighboring environment. 1. Spatial pattern of Garment Industries in Dhaka city. 2. Long run employment prospects in the export-oriented industries. 3. Long term impact of garment workers health. 4. Export oriented industrialization and violence against workers. 5. Overall Environmental Impact Assessment of Garment area. 6. The role of support service. References BGMEA Bulletin, February, 2008. BGMEA Statistical Report, April, 2008. BGMEA Membersâ€™ Directory, 2008-2009. BGMEA Statistical Report, December, 2007. Statistical pocketbook, BBS.2008 Majumder, P.P. and A. Begum (2000). The Gender Imbalances in the Export Oriented Garment Industry in Bangladesh, A Research Report, Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies (BIDS). BANBEIS. (1998).Bangladesh Education Statistics (At a glance). Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics, Ministry of Education, Government of Bangladesh. Bhattacharya, Debapriya. (1997). Women and Industrial Employment in Bangladesh: Challenges and Opportunities in the Era of New Technologies. A Research Report, Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies (BIDS). BUP. (1990). A Study on Female Garment Workers in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Unnyan Parishad (BUP), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Paul-Majumder, Pratima. (1996). Health Impact of womenâ€™s wages Employment: A case study of the Garment Industry of Bangladesh. The Bangladesh Development Studies (BDS), Quarterly Journal of the Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies (BIDS), Vol. xxiv, Number 1 and 2, March June. Amin, Sajeda. (1997). Transition to Adulthood for Working Girls: The case of Bangladesh Garment workers. Paper presented at Population Council Workshop on Adolescence and Marriage among Female Garments workers of Dhaka, held in BIDS Dhaka, 15 May 1997. Zohir, Salma Choudhuri, and Paul-Majumder Pratima. (1996). Garment workers in Bangladesh: Economic, Social and Health Condition, Research Monograph: 18, Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies (BIDS). Naved, T. Ruchira, Margaret Newby, and Amin Sajeda. (1997). Female Labor Migration and its Implication for Marriage and Child Bearing in Bangladesh. A paper presented at Population Council Workshop on Adolescence and Marriage among Female Garments workers of Dhaka, BIDS Dhaka, 15 May 1997. Mahmood, Raisul Awal, and Paul-Majumder, Pratima. (1996).Gender and Export-oriented Industrialization: A Case Study of Bangladesh. In Uma Kothari and Vidula, Nababsing eds. Gender and Industrialization Mauritius, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Editions de Iâ€™ Ocean Indian. Stanley, Rose Hill. Chowdhury, J.A.J. (1987). Garments Industry in Bangladesh: Its Problem and Prospects, Journal of Business Administration, Vol. 13, No.3, Dhaka: IBA, University of Dhaka. Gold, J.R. (1980). An Introduction to Behavioural Geography, Oxford: Oxford University Press.