Dbl grouptraining report

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Mymun Textiles Ltd Introduction

From Fabric to Garments, the DBL GROUP is a truly integrated undertaking. The Textile Division has the capability to offer a complete product range for the export and domestic textile markets. The goal of the Textile Division is to become the preferred partner for sourcing high quality fabrics and clothing from Bangladesh. With highly advanced technology and an emphasis on developing local human resources, the Textile Division has the potential to make an important contribution to the nation's growing readymade garments export sector. General Information about the Mill Name of the factory: Mymun Textiles Ltd. Owner of the mill: Mr. A .WAHED Authorized capital: 50 Croere Taka . Business Line: Manufacturing and marketing of high quality Dyed fabrics & garments. Location: Mymun Textile Mills Ltd. is situated in the Nayapara, Kashimpur, Gazipur. It is about 60 km from Dhaka. Lay out plan of knit dyeing & finishing Departments & evacuation plan about the mill The lay out of the knit dyeing & finishing department & evacuation plan is given in the next page Organizational Structure Given in the next page

Total Manpower and section-wise manpower: Total manpower: 478 persons. Section wise manpower (month of December) : DYEING SECTION: Day Shift ------------------ 56 Night Shift ------------------ 44

LAB & LAB QC SECTION: Day Shift ------------------ 09 Night Shift ------------------ 06 FINISHING SECTION: Day Shift ------------------ 86 Night Shift ------------------ 64 GREY FABRIC STORE: Day Shift ------------------ 04 Night Shift ------------------ 02 CHEMICAL STORE: Day Shift ------------------ 07 Night Shift ------------------ 05 BATCH SECTION: Day Shift ------------------ 31 Night Shift ------------------28 FINISH FABRIC STORE: Day Shift ------------------ 04 Night Shift ------------------02 MAINTENANCE SECTION: Day Shift ------------------17 Night Shift ------------------07 UTILITY SECTION: Day Shift ------------------05 Night Shift -------------------05 GENERAL STAFF: Day Shift ------------------27 Night Shift ------------------01 Others: Loader---------------------54 Sweeper-------------------02 Cleaner--------------------11 Gardener------------------01 Production: Capacity: Knit dyeing ---21 tons per day Actual : Average 16 tons /day. Costing of Dyeing Products

Dyeing Charge

White --------------------------Average Colors -----------------Reactive Black -----------------

30-35 Tk/Kg 85 Tk/Kg 110 Tk/Kg

Royal blue ---------------------Polyester -----------------------Wash -------------------------PC --------------------------

110 Tk/Kg 65 Tk/Kg 15-20 Tk/Kg 130 Tk/Kg

Utilities + Overall cost : 30-35 Tk/Kg Dyes & Chemicals cost : 30 Tk/Kg Total Turnover: Total turnover in 2003-2004 financial years was million Taka. Vision: Building a true marketing led enterprise with motivated workforce, innovative vision, strong revenue based product portfolio, customer satisfaction and understanding of global market. Mission: Each of our activities must benefit and add value to the common wealth of our society. We firmly believe that, in the final analysis we are accountable to each of the constituents with whom we interact; namely, our employees, our customers, our business associates, our fellow, citizens . Product Mix and Their Sequence of Operation Product mix in knit dyeing Name of Product mix : •

Single Jersey o Double Jersey or Jersey o Plain Interlock o Needle Top Interlock o 1x1 Rib o 2x1 Rib o 2x2 Rib o Lycra Rib o Very Rib o Loop Back


o o o o o o


Fleece Fabric Fleece Terry Lycra Single Jersey Polo PK CVC (Cheap Valued Cotton) [% of Cotton is more in Blend] PC/TC(The more % of polyester in the cotton part ) [Such as 65% Polyester + 35% Cotton] Plated fabric

MILLANGE FABRIC: Millange is a blended knitted fabric generally blending Cotton with Polyester & Viscose . 100% Millange means the blending of Cotton & viscose . The one part dyeing of CVC/PC then we can get millange effect . Ecru Millange / Silver Millange(Cotton 95% + Viscose 5%) [If the millange is dyed with white recipe then it’s Silver Millange & Ecro Millange generally dyed with Cream color] Grey Millange [Cotton 85% + Viscose (15% )] Anthra Millange ( >50% Viscose) Theory of Pretreatmen The term “pretreatment” covers all operations of preparing textile material for subsequent dyeing and finishing processes.

a. Objective: The preparation of goods for dyeing and printing is a far important process than the production of white goods. Textile material to be dyed or printed must have the following properties: • • • •

High and uniform dye uptake and absorptivity. Completely free from husks. High degree of polymerization of the cellulose. Adequate degree of whiteness to permit faultless dyeing of pale shades.

b. Degree of whiteness: In the past, it was customary to regard the degree of whiteness as the most reliable criterion for judging the quality of the pretreatment. But now there are other factors governing the results obtained in subsequent operations. Today, therefore, the object of pretreatment is not a full bleach, but only a partial bleach as necessary to ensure good purity and brilliance of shade in subsequent dyeing or printing. c. Hydrophilic properties: High and uniform absorbtivity of the goods is essential. It is the hydrophilic properties that govern the evenness of uptake of the dyes and chemicals, particularly in cases where these are applied continuously. d. Swelling State: Swelling changes the inner surface of the cotton fibre and consequently its sorption behavior. Maximum, uniform swelling of the cellulose is therefore, essential for complete and level uptake of dye. This can be ensured by: • • •

Removing the hydrophobic impurities from the fibre. Treatment with alkali in scouring, bleaching, mercerizing etc. Full width, tight-strand passage of the goods during the swelling process.

e. Solubilizing and washing- out of the impurities: The purer the cellulosic fibre, the greater the assurance that the desired quality and uniformity of the pretreatment effect will be obtained. When the impurities of the cotton fibre have been solubilized, only the chemical problem has been solved. The next step is to remove by washing large amount of various substances in as short a time as possible. Theory of Scouring: Scouring is almost invariably the first wet process applied to textile materials. The object is to remove oils, fats, waxes, soluble impurities and any particulate or solid dirt adhering to the fibers. The process consists essentially of treatment with a detergent with, or without, the addition of an alkali. When soap is used a good supply of soft water is essential but this is of less importance with the synthetic detergents, which, now occupy such a prominent position. After the cloth still contains fats and waxes (both natural and added), due to the presence of which the cloth becomes non-absorbent. These are removed from the cloth by scouring, also called kiering, kierboiling, boiling out etc.

Objective of scouring • • • • •

To remove the natural as well as added impurities as completely as possible to from textile material. To produce hydrolytic characteristics. To produce a clean material by adding alkali. To make the fabric suitable for the next process. To leave the materials in a highly absorptive condition without undergoing physical and chemical damage.

The main purpose of scouring cotton fabrics is to remove natural as well as added chemicals of essentially hydrophobic character as completely a possible and leave the fabric in a high absorptive condition without undergoing chemical or physical damage significantly and also to make the goods suitable for removing the natural coloring matter of the cotton during the subsequent process. The main processes occurring during scouring are ------1. Saponification of fats into water-soluble soap and water-miscible glycerin under alkaline conditions, 2. Hydrolysis of proteins into water-soluble degradation products, 3. Dissolution of hydrolysis to ammonia of simpler amino compounds, 4. Conversion of pectose and pectin into their soluble salts, 5. Dissolution of mineral matter, 6. Emulsification of unsaponifiable oils and waxes, and 7. Removal of dirt particles from the kier liquor by the detergent present therein. The chief aim of scouring textile materials is to remove the natural and added impurities, thus rendering the material cleaner and more absorbent. Both this properties are highly desirable in view of the subsequent bleaching, dyeing operations. Scouring can be carried out in a number of ways. The selection of a particular scouring process is governed by the needs of the production, i.e. the degree of purification required for subsequent operations to be carried out. The scouring or boiling off process permits the removal of certain impurities with which the fiber is associated. In fact, one of the main advantages of cotton lies in its resistance to alkali solutions; this property enables the cleansing of the raw material in a manner that is not possible with wool or silk. The scouring process, while purifying the α-cellulose, imparts the hydrophilic character and permeability necessary for the subsequent process. It may be said that good scouring is the foundation of successful finishing. In fact, scouring is a purifying treatment of cotton α-cellulose, which contains impurities such as waxes, pectin’s, hemicellulose and mineral salts. Cotton goods also contain certain proportion of lignified substances, consisting of residues seeds, husks and leaves, which have not been completely removed mechanically during yarn manufacture. In fact, scouring is the only industrial method capable of removing cotton impurities almost totally. The chemical most commonly used for scouring cotton textiles is caustic soda in combination with other supporting alkaline substance like soda ash, sodium silicate and tri-sodium phosphate. Sodium silicate is used to assist the detergent action of the kier liquor and its deflocculating action reduces the danger of kier stains. Both the silicates and phosphates cause the soaps formed to function better in hard water. During the caustic soda boil, all the impurities, with the exception of coloring matter and wax, are converted into soluble substances, which are washed away when the fabric is rinsed. The oils and fats

are converted into soaps and these in turn emulsify the waxes. The proteins are broken down into the sodium salts of simple amino acids and the adventitious dirt fats away when the oil are removed and is held in suspension by the soap. The reaction of caustic soda with the impurities is governed by the following factors --1. 2. 3. 4.

Quantity of alkali used. Concentration of the alkali in solution. Temperature of the reaction. Time allowed for the reaction.

When fabrics have been desized, they are normally scoured using an array of chemicals chosen for particular purposes. A typical mixture of chemicals useful for cleaning fabrics is shown in Table. Chemical Caustic (NaOH) Sodium Silicate Surfactant Detergent Chelating (Sequestering) agent Builder (Salt) Solvent

Use Neutralize acidic materials, saponify glycerides (Waxes and Oils), and solubilize silicate. Penetrate and break down lignins in motes. Reduces surface tension and minimize interfacial tensions. Emulsify oils, fats, and waxes; remove oil – borne stains; suspend materials after they have been removed. Deactivate metal ions. Cause detergents to become increasingly effective. Assist emulsification by dissolving oily materials.

Table: chemicals and their purposes When cleaning soiled surfaces, five variables become involved that interact during scouring and they are as follows: 1. The nature of the surface to be cleaned, 2. The nature of the dirt or soil, 3. The chemicals to be used, 4. The nature of the water or solvent, and 5. The nature of the detergent or soap. Changes occurring in alkaline treatments The changes brought by boiling with alkali are summarized in a somewhat over – simplified manner as follows: 1. Saponifiable oils and free fatty acids are converted into soap. 2. Pectin’s and pectoses are converted to soluble salts of pectic acid. 3. Proteins are degraded to simple soluble amino acids or to ammonia. 4. Mineral matter is dissolved. 5. Unsaponifiable oils are emulsified by the soaps formed during the hydrolysis of the saponifiable matter. 6. Adventitious dirt is removed and retained in suspension by the soap. 7. Dressing and sizing materials are broken down into soluble products. It is clear that most of the impurities are removed because of their solubility in the alkaline liquor, but with the wax, the position is more complex. On contact with alkali, the free fatty acids in the wax will be dissolved to form soaps and some of the wax itself will be saponified to give free alcohols and some soap. The soaps so formed will then be capable of removing the wax and alcohols by detergent

action, the wax mixture being molten at the scouring temperature. The extent to which hydrolysis of the wax is important is not known for certain. Reaction with cellulose Alkaline solutions may attack cellulose in two distinct ways. In the absence of oxygen, the reducing ends of the cellulose chains may transform by the degradation process, in which a terminal metasaccharinic acid residue is formed. This residue is stable to alkali so that, once it has been formed, degradation causes. This reaction is of considerable importance when cellulose is treated with alkali and offers an explanation of the fact that, in general, scouring losses exceed the total amount of impurity present. In the presence of oxygen, degradation can be very severe. Unfortunately, however, the reaction of oxygen with cellulose in the presence of alkali has not thoroughly been worked out, mainly due to the complex number of possible reactions, which may occur. Scouring process 1. Batch or Discontinuous process E.g. Kier boiling process 2. Continuous process E.g. Scouring in J – box 3. Semi – continuous process E.g. pad – roller process. Scouring processes are basically similar but vary within limits because of plant equipment and the fabric constructions produced by individual mills. The first line of demarcation is the variation caused by continuous versus batch equipment. Both of these can be used to produce goods using either rope or open width methods, but the equipment dictates whether or not the possibility exists. A plant may be equipped to continuously process fabrics only in rope form. When this situation exists, and fabrics must be handled in an open configuration, Either Jigs or other open width equipment must be found or the order rejected. The main purpose of scouring textile material is to remove natural as well as added impurities of essentially hydrophobic character as completely as possible and leave the material in a highly absorptive condition without undergoing chemical or physical damage significantly and also to make the goods suitable for removing the natural coloring matter of the cotton during the subsequent bleaching process. Objective: 1. To remove natural as well as added impurities. 2. To produce hydrophilic characteristics. 3. To make goods cleaner. 4. To leave the material in a highly absorptive condition without undergoing chemical or physical damage. Basic principle:

The scouring process of cotton consists of an alkali treatment in the presence of wetting and sequestering agents, in order to convert the impurities, other than natural colouring matter, into products which can be removed by aqueous washing. The processes occurring during the scouring are: 1. Saponifiable oils and free fatty acids are converted into soap. 2. Pectins and pectoses are converted to soluble salts of pectic acid. 3. Proteins are degraded to simple soluble amino acids or to ammonia. 4. Mineral matter is dissolved. 5. Unsaponifiable oils are emulsified by the soaps formed during the shydrolysis of the saponifiable matter. 6. Adventitious dirt is removed and retained in suspension by the soap. 7. Dressings and sizing materials are broken down into soluble


Factors involved in scouring: When cleaning soiled surfaces, five variables become involved that interact during scouring and they are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The nature of the surfaces to be cleaned. The nature of the dirt or soil. The chemicals to be used. The nature of the water or solvent. The nature of the detergent or soap

Theory of Bleaching: Bleaching is a process, which is designed to produce white fabrics and must be accomplished with a minimum of damage to the cotton being bleached. Bleaching is not a cleaning process in the sense of scouring; bleaching does not remove dirt. Bleaching is an oxidation process whereby coloring matter is destroyed (not removed) and cotton invariably is degraded. Production personnel must be aware that degradation is part of the process and must be regulated in a way so that satisfactory whiteness is obtained while fabric properties are maintained within customer specifications. The removal of cotton wax, natural fats and added fatty matter (of the size) and others components from the desized fabric during the scouring process carried out in a kier leaves the material in a more absorbent condition than the grey fabric. But the natural coloring matter of the cotton is still present in the cloth. In order to obtain white cloth (so that pure or pale shades are produced on it either by dyeing or printing), the normal is to decolorize the natural coloring matter present in the cloth. Bleaching in different ways does this. An effective bleaching process must ensure pure and permanent white level dyeing properties (overbleaching and under-bleaching adversely affect the dye absorption properties of the fabric) and the fabric too should not undergo chemical damage or degradation during bleaching. A control over the concentration of the bleaching agent, the pH, and temperature of the solution, the duration of bleaching, the presence of catalysts like rust etc. on the cloth during bleaching should be kept in order to minimize or prevent any chemical damage of the cloth being bleached or wastage of the bleaching agent by self-decomposition. The properly scoured cotton cloth goes for bleaching after a thorough washing treatment. The fabric must be approximately in a neutral condition at this stage. When it comes out of the kier, it contains

alkali and this has to be completely removed; otherwise the residual alkali increases the pH of the bleaching solution (sodium hypochlorite or bleaching powder), which is usually kept at pH 10 to 11. Hypochlorite solutions at higher pH values are usually less active at room temperature. Further, the cloth leaving the washing machine is in a wet condition and the water accompanying the cloth dilutes the bleaching solutions with which the cloth is impregnated. In order to reduce this tendency, the washed cloth should be thoroughly squeezed to remove as much water as possible before saturating with bleaching solutions. Bleaching process Cotton can be bleached in fiber, yarn and fabric states. Some processes used are the following: Fiber: Raw stock Yarn: Package machine Skein machine Beam machine Fabric: Kier Continuous rope Continuous open width Jig, Kettle or beck Types of bleaching agents There are different types of bleaching agents are used: (A) Reducing bleaching agents 1. Sulphur dioxide. 2. Sodium dithionite 3. Sulphoxylates (B) Oxidizing bleaching agents 1. Sodium hypochlorite

2. 3. 4. 5.

Hydrogen peroxide. Sodium peroxide. Sodium perborate. Sodium percarbonate 6. Peracetic acid. 7. Sodium chlorite.

These processes may be used whether bleaching continuously or discontinuously (Batch) and in staged combinations with each other. The term “ staged combinations” infers that two or three methods for bleaching can be used in sequence but not as a mixture in one application. A common two – stage sequence is to first bleach using hypochlorite, rinse and re-bleach with hydrogen peroxide. Bleaching of cotton with hydrogen peroxide Hydrogen peroxide is virtually the only bleaching agent available for protein fibers and it is also used very extensively for the cellulosic fibers. Hydrogen peroxide is a colorless liquid soluble in water in all proportions. It is reasonably stable when the pH is below 7, but tends to become unstable as the alkalinity increases. Commercial hydrogen peroxide, therefore, is made slightly acid so that it will not lose strength during storage. Solutions of hydrogen peroxide of more than 20 volumes cause intense irritation when they come into contact with skin and should be washed away immediately. Cotton is usually bleached in 1-volume liquor at the boil. The most important factor in bleaching is to achieve the right degree of stability in the bleach liquor. If the pH were too low no per hydroxyl ions are set free and bleaching does not take place; when the liquor is too unstable the whole of the oxygen is liberated and escapes into the atmosphere before it has had time to act upon the cotton.

The bleaching liquor must be made alkaline, otherwise it would be too stable, but it is virtually impossible to adjust to the optimum pH with alkali alone and there is a marked tendency for the liquor to is too unstable, however carefully it has made alkaline. It is, therefore, necessary to add a stabilizer, and of all the substances, which have been, tried sodium silicate is the most effective. Hydrogen peroxide is a stable chemical under acidic conditions and needs the addition of an alkali for activating it. Above pH 10, it is extremely unstable when it gets decomposed under water and oxygen. 2H2O2 2H2O + O2 This liberated oxygen, however, has no bleaching action and the catalysts are therefore a cause of loss of bleaching power. In fact, hydrogen peroxide is used bleaching under alkaline conditions (pH 10) after stabilizing at this pH by adding sodium silicate, borax, phosphate etc. Generally bleaching is done at 80ºC to 85ºC temperature. Hydrogen peroxide solution at any concentration can be stable or unstable depending upon the several factors listed below. 1. 2. 3. 4.

pH: Stable in acidic solution and unstable in alkaline baths. Temperature: As temperature increases the solution becomes increasingly unstable. Buffers: Silicates, Phosphates, Borax, Proteins and others tend to stabilize peroxide. Metals: (a) Ca and Mg in the presence of silicates tend to stabilize baths; (b) other metals, i.e., Cu, Fu, etc. tend to unstabilize bleach solutions. 5. Hard water: Depending upon the hardness of water and the metals making it hard, peroxide is unstabilize. It was at one time believed that the bleaching action of hydrogen peroxide was due to the liberation of nascent oxygen but this explanation is no longer tenable. It is known that under certain conditions, particularly with regard to pH, hydrogen peroxide will liberate hydrogen and per hydroxyl ions in the following manner: H2O2

H+ + HO2-

Hydrogen peroxide is a universal bleaching agent and is used extensively for the bleaching of cotton materials. The advantages in its use are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

It can be employed for bleaching fibers like wool, silk and jute also. It requires less manipulation of fabric and hence less labor. The loss in weight in bleaching is less than that with hypochlorite bleaching Less water is required with peroxide bleaching and there is no need for souring after bleaching. Peroxide bleached goods are more absorbent than hypochlorite bleached goods. After – yellowing of white goods bleached with peroxide or less than with hypochlorite bleached goods. Peroxide bleaching is safer in regard to chemical degradation and Continuous scouring and bleaching in one operation is possible by employing peroxide.

Application methods (1) Batch or Discontinuous process e.g. Kier, Jigger, Winch. (2) Continuous process. e.g. J – box, Vaporloc (3) Semi – continuous process

e.g. pad – roll. In the bleaching process the coloured material is destroyed and thus to confer a pure white appearance to the fabric. Bleaching should also decolourise or remove any residual impurities left by scouring. An efficient bleaching process must ensure: • • •

A pure and permanent white. Level dyeing properties (over-bleaching or under-bleaching adversely affects the dye absorption properties of the fabric). The fabric does not undergo tendering (chemical damage or degradation, which results in loss in tensile strength and hence the durability is affected) during bleaching.

Objectives: Bleaching of cotton is carried out with two objects in view: •

To achieve a high degree of whiteness, for goods that are to remain white or to be dyed in pastel shades; for goods to be dyed in dark shades, bleaching improves the brilliance.

To improve the even appearance of the goods by removing the husks.

Basic principle: The oxidizing agent most commonly used today in bleaching is hydrogen peroxide. Owing to its dissociation constant of 1.5 X 10-12 at 20oC, hydrogen peroxide is a very weak acid. In alkaline solution, there is a certain amount of hydrogen peroxide anions above the equilibrium (1), and these anions are the source of the active oxygen that has the bleaching effect (2). In a secondary reaction (3) there is always a certain formation of molecular oxygen, which develops no efficiency for bleaching. • H2O2 + OH ¯ H2O + HO2¯ ¯ • HO2 OH¯ + O • 2H2O2 2H2O +O2 A higher concentration of OH ¯ ions has an activating effect; with increasing amount of hydrogen peroxide anions available in the liquor, the bleaching effect increases.

The advantages of bleaching with hydrogen peroxide are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

No need for severe pre cleaning processes. No need for exotic materials of construction, but iron and copper must not be used. Environmentally acceptable; no AOX even in the presence of salt. Decomposition products are oxygen and water. Excellent storage stability. Compatible with most dyes and FBAs. Gives versatile processing (batch/continuous, hot/cold, rapid/long dwell, most fibre types). Produces a stable white fibre with good absorbency. Allows route shortening by combining stages (desize with scour, scour with bleach and desize with scour and bleach).

The disadvantages of bleaching with peroxide are: 1. Some water is always transported. 2. Sensitivity to metallic transported.

3. Multichemical baths which need control. 4. Comparatively expensive. Chemical used and their functions: 1. Caustic Soda: The vegetable oil, which is immiscible with water, is a glyceride of fatty acids like oleic, stearic, palmitic, ricinoleic acids. When such an oil is heated with a solution of sodium hydroxide in water, the oil is split up into its constituents, fatty acid and glycerine, of which the latter is freely miscible with water. The fatty acid reacts with sodium hydroxide present in the solution forming its sodium salt, i.e. soap, which is also soluble in water. The reaction is called saponification. As a result of saponification, the insoluble and water immiscible oil is converted into water-soluble products. 2. Soda ash: Soda ash is used as alkali in addition with caustic soda. For scouring pH 11 should be maintained. But if only caustic soda is used to maintain the alkalinity then it would hamper the fabric quality. When the amount of caustic soda increases, the swelling of the fabric will also be increased and which leads to shrinkage. Thus the fabric dimension will also be changed. To avoid this problem, soda ash is added. Soda ash has superior cleansing action. Moreover it is used to increase the efficiency of Kieralon-OL. 3. Hydrogen peroxide: Hydrogen peroxide is a colourless liquid which is used, in the textile industry, as a 35 or 50% solution with specific gravity of 1.131 or 1.195 respectively, it is the most widely used bleaching agent. Hydrogen peroxide is an extremely versatile bleaching agent applicable over a very wide range of bleaching temperatures (ambient to 130 oC) and times (minutes to days) on a wide range of machinery. Bleaching is usually carried out under alkaline conditions and this allows combination with other processes, such as scouring. Hydrogen peroxide has achieved its dominant position as a bleaching agent because of three factors: • • •

It is environmentally innocuous (potentially it can decompose into oxygen and water). It is versatile (it can be used hot or cold, in rapid or long-dwell processes, batch wise or continuously). A variety of activation routes are available.

4. Organic stabilizer: High pH and temperature lead to the decomposition of peroxide bleaching liquor and degradation of the cellulose, which are catalyzed by transition metal ions. The role of the stabilizer is simply to control or regulate these effects by a multiplicity of functions. For example, they act as buffers, sequestrates and dispersants as well as, in special cases, enhancing performance of the surfactants used in the bleach bath. The sequestering action inactivates metallic impurities which cause catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide or precipitation of hydroxides or carbonates. These impurities, the most common being calcium and iron, are brought into the bleaching system by the fabric, water supply or the other chemicals. Many chemical compounds are suitable as stabilizers. The cheapest method of stabilizing is with sodium silicate and magnesium ions. This combination has, however, significant disadvantages; the sparingly soluble magnesium silicate deposits in the machines and causes fiber incrustations, which cannot be removed by rinsing and are therefore liable to impair the handle. Organic stabilizers are blends of organic materials with or without magnesium salts, are mainly of five chemical types: •

Organic sequestering agents.

• • • •

Protein degradation products. Certain surfactants. Polymeric materials. Mixtures of any of the above.

Theory of Reactive Dyeing The dyeing of textiles is usually understood to mean giving them a colour which is of comparative permanence. This implies that it should not be possible to wash the colour out easily in laundering, nor should it fade rapidly when exposed to light. There are three steps in the reactive dyeing procedure comprising adsorption of dye on the fiber, diffusion into the fibre and the covalent reaction with the particular nucleophilic groups present in the substrate. The reaction of dye occurs with the ionized hydroxyl of cellulose via the nucleophilic substitution or addition mechanism. Alkaline conditions are required to generate the cellulosate ion. The presence of OH- throughout the reaction is the cause for the hydrolysis of dye, because of the reaction of dye with hydroxyl anion. Hydrolysis is the same type of reaction as that employed during fixation to the functional groups of fibres and as a result of hydrolysis the dye become unreactive towards the textile substrate. Hydrolysis of the dye causes problems associated with highly coloured exhausted dye baths.

The reactions of fixation and hydrolysis are in competition with each other although the dye-fibre fixation reaction is more likely than hydrolysis, due to absorption of dye by cellulose under neutral conditions. The usage of electrolytes in the reactive dyeing is much higher than for any other class of dye. Addition of electrolyte promotes the dye uptake (exhaustion), rate of reaction and efficiency of the dyeing process. Mechanism of dyeing: The cellulose anion is a nucleophile, which can take part in addition and substitution reaction. Nucleophilic substitution reaction: Triazinyl reactive dyes undergo reaction with cellulose substrates via this mechanism. The hydroxyl anion of cellulose attacks at the electron deficient carbons of the heterocyclic ring.

Scheme: Substitution mechanism for a dichloro-s-triazine dye

Nucleophilic addition mechanism: Reactive dyes based on B-sulphatoethylsulphone undergo eliminate to the vinylsulphone form with then react via an addition mechanism.

Scheme: Hydrolysis and fixation reaction of vinylsulphone dyes The carbon-carbon double bond is polarized by the powerfully electron attracting sulphone group. The polarizing effect results in a positive charge to the end carbon atom and allowing nucleophilic addition of ionized cellulose to occur. The electron deficient Sq2 group activates the ethylenic carbon atom and acts as a bridge between the dye chromophore and the reactive group. Factors governing reactive dye uptake: All conventional reactive dyes for cellulose, irrespective of whether they react by nucleophilic addition, substitution, or both mechanism, rely on the reactivity of the cellulosate anion as the nucleophilic reagent and hence hydrolysis of the dye by reaction with hydroxide ions from water will always compete with the desired fixation reaction. Reaction between the dye and cellulose can occur only when the dye has been absorbed into the cellulose phase. Thus the kinetics of the dye- cellulose reaction are strongly influenced by the rate of absorption of dye. The ratio of the rate constants for reaction of the dye with the fibre and with water is a constant for a given dye over a wide range alkaline pH values. The efficiency of fixation is a function of: 1. The reactivity ratio, the ratio of rate constants for the fixation reaction and hydrolysis. 2. The substantivity ratio, the relative concentrations of dye absorbed into the substrate and remaining in the dyebath. 3. The diffusion coefficient of the dye in the substrate. 4. The liquor ratio. 5. The surface area of the substrate available for absorption of dye. An increase of dyeing temperature lowers the substantivity ratio and accelerates the rate of hydrolysis of the dye; both of these effects reduce the fixation efficiency. The rates of diffusion into and reaction with the fibre are also accelerated, however, and these factors both favour fixation of the dye. An increase in electrolyte concentration always enhances substantivity without impairing reactivity providing the dye remains completely dissolved. Basic principle: The conventional dyeing process entails three stages: 1. Exhaustion from an aqueous bath containing electrolyte, normally under neutral conditions. 2. Addition of alkali to promote further uptake and chemical reaction of absorbed dye with the fibre at optimum pH and temperature. 3. Washing of the dyed material to remove electrolyte, alkali and unfixed dye.

Chemical used and their functions: Salt: Electrolyte (sodium chloride or sulfate) increases the substantivity of the dyes toward the cellulose fibre, by suppressing dye-fibre repulsion and by increasing the activity of the anionic dyes in solution, thereby increasing of the dye exhaustion, rate of reaction, and efficiency of the dyeing process. Alkali: Anhydrous sodium carbonate is the mostly widely used alkali; sodium bicarbonate and sodium hydroxide are also employed, enabling pH range of 8-12 to be achieved. The fixation of the dye occurs only on alkaline condition. The optimum pH should be maintained for better yield. Anti migrating agent: Anti-migrating agent is used to prevent the migration of dyes on the fabric surface. Wetting agent: Wetting agent is used to increase the wet ability of the fabric so that the dyes can penetrate easily. Sequestering agent: These are the compounds, which react with metallic ions in such a way that they become part of a complex anion. The most commonly used sequestering agent is the sodiumhexametaphosphate (Na6P6O18). It is also known as Calgon T. They are used to soften process water and so avoid precipitation of alkaline earth metal salts during dye fixation and their deposition on the dyed material. An excess of inorganic sequestering agent can, however, lead to reduced color yield. The use of organic sequestering agents such as EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) is avoided, since they decopperize metal-complex reactive dyes to the detriment of light fastness and shade. Theory of Disperse dyeing A disperse dye is defined as a substantially water insoluble dye having substantivity for one or more hydrophobic fibers and usually applied from aqueous dispersion. Characteristically, disperse dyes are small molecular size compounds which contain no ionic groups but do carry polar substituents such as –OH, -CH 2OH. As a consequence of their low size, they possess a small but nevertheless important solubility in water. The dyes are volatile due to their relative lack of cohesive energy in the solid state, and may therefore be applied via the vapor phase in heat-fixation processes such as thermofixation. Basic principle: The dyeing of hydrophobic fibers with disperse dyes may be considered as a process of dye transfer from a liquid (water) to a solid organic ‘solvent’ (fiber) and the dyeing is considered to take place in the following stages: 1. Dispersion of the dye in the solid phase into water by breaking up into molecules (dissolution in water). 2. Adsorption of the dissolved dye from the solution onto the fiber surface. 3. Diffusion of the dye molecules from the fiber surface into the interior of the fiber substance towards the center. Chemical used: Urea: Urea is a substance which is soluble in water and has dye solvent and hygroscopic properties. Urea assists in getting more complete fixation of the dyes so that a deeper shade is produced. Dispersing agent: The dispersing agent performs many functions in dyeing. It assists the process of particle size reduction of the dye. It also enables the dye to be formed in the powder formed. When

the powder is added to the dye bath it facilitates the reconversion of the powder into dispersion in a fine form in the dye bath through out the dyeing process, in which it is assisted by an additional dispersing agent, which is normally added to the dye bath. It is seen that the dispersing agent considerably increases the solubility of the dye in water and that different dispersing agents affect the solubility to different extents. Thus, maximum solubilising effect can be conferred on a disperse dye by a particular dispersing agent, which varies with the dye. Chemical used in Mymun Textiles ltd are as bellow : CHEMICAL NAME



Tinovetin TC

Anionic Detergent , Wetting agent


Invadine LUN

Nonionic Wetting Agent


Invadine DP

Leveling Agent, Dispersing Agent

PES Dyeing

Invatex CRA

Sequestering Agent & Wetting Agent


Tinoclarite CBB Ciba Flow JET Primasol JET Caustic Soda Hydrogen Peroxide Invatex PC

Stabilizer Antifoaming Agent Anticreasing Agent Alkali / To improve fibre cross-section Bleaching /Oxidizing Agent Hydrogen peroxide Killer

Pretreatment Pretreatment, Dyeing Pretreatment, Dyeing Pretreatment Pretreatment Pretreatment

Invatex CS Tinozyme 44L

Pretreatment Bio polishing

Irgasol CO-NEW Lyoprint RG-Gran Uvitex 2B

Sequestering Enzyme Leveling Agent, Wash off (Dye bath conditioner) Leveling Agent Mild Oxidizing Agent Optical Brightener

Uvitex BHV

Optical Brightener

White Dyeing(Cotton)

Cibacell DBC

Tinofix FRD Alcamine CWS Cibatex AB-45

Nonionic Softener / To improve handle property Fixing Agent (Formaldehyde Free) Anionic Softener Buffer solution / pH control

Glauber’s Salt

Exhausting Agent

Soda Ash

Alkali / Fixing Agent

Acetic Acid

Neutralization of Alkali (For pH control)

Sapamine FPG

Cibafix ECO Bleaching Powder

Mild Sequestering , Washing off, Dye bath leveling Fixing Agent Oxidizing Agent


Reducing Agent

Carrier MN


Dekol SN

Dyeing (Cotton) Dyeing (Cotton) Dyeing(Cotton) White Dyeing(Cotton)

After treatment After treatment After treatment PES Dyeing Dyeing (Cotton) Dyeing(Cotton), Partial Stripping Pretreatment/Dyeing /After treatment After treatment After treatment Bleaching Stripping of cotton, Reduction clearing of PES PES Dyeing / Partial stripping of PES

Palegal FA-6 Fulysin FA-S

Dispersing Agent Buffer solution / pH control

PES Dyeing PES Dyeing

Eriopron OS

Washing off

PES Dyeing

Uvitex EBF

Optical Brightener

PES Dyeing

Flow chart diagram of each operation Process Flow Chart for 100% Cotton: This is a typical process for 100% cotton fabric dyed to a Bluish pink shade (bleaching , dyeing & rinsing). Batch No : 284888 Batch Date: 09.12.04 Order No : 494930 # 8616 Customer : H & M Color : Bluish pink

Machine No : 04 Water : 4200 Lit Fabric Wt : 508.00 kg GSM : 220 Nature Of Fabric : 2x2 rib

Product Coad

Pre-treatment item TC LUN CRA CBB Jet P. Jrt Caustic

G.L % 0.3 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.1 0.5 2.5

Quantity in Kg 1 kg 600 gm 1 kg 100 gm 2 kg 600 gm 1 kg 100 gm 420 gm 2 kg 600 gm 10 kg 500 gm



10kg 500 gm

PC A.Acid 44L CRA

0.8 1.2 0.7 0.5

3kg 400 gm 5kg 100 gm 3kg 600 gm 2kg 100 gm

DBC Jet P.Jet CO New RG

1.0 0.1 0.5 0.5 0.2

4kg 200 gm 420 gm 2kg 100 gm 2kg 100 gm 900 gm

DR Yellow -K2R DR Red -K7B DR Violet -K2R Salt Soda Acid SN A.Acid

0.0044% 0.215% 0.138% 25 5.0 1.0 0.5 0.2

25 gm 115 mg 1 kg 158 gm 743 gm 102 mg 105 kg 21 kg 4 kg 200gm 2 kg 100 gm 840 gm

SI . No.

Pretreatment: At first fabric is loaded to machine and water is fed to maintain. The auxiliaries are transfer at temperature 500 C. And within 3 minutes temp. increased 60 0 C and add caustic soda. Next 10 minutes temp. raised 850 C and add H202 by dozing system. After that temperature raised 110 0 C and process run for 25 minutes. Then within 7 min. temperature lowered to 94 0 C and wash with hot water keep the temperature 900 C. At this stage peroxide killer is added and run for 8 min. Then washing is done, add acetic acid, keep the temp. 58 0 C and pH at 4.5. After that add enzyme and treat the material for 40 min. Then temp. raised at 90 0 C, run for 10 min. with Invatex CRA ( Sequestring Agent ). At last wash is done and maintained temp. 600, pH 5.7 to make ready the material for dyeing.

Fig : Scheme Dyeing: At temp 600 C added leveling agent and run 10-15 min. then added high by dozing system for 20 min. After that add salt by dozing progress-1 for 20 min. and the process run for 15 min. Add soda ash by dozing progress-3 for 45 min. and run for 10 min. At this stage sample is taken every 10 min. interval and check the shade. In our process shade was lighter. So added extra dye about 30% overall and again taken sample for shade matching. After being the shade ok the material is washed to remove hydrolyzed dye for 20 min. Then acid wash done to neutralized alkali and to improve shade. Then Dekol SN ( for washing off ) is added according to shade. Finally wash add 45 0 C and use soften

Fig: Dyeing scheme Process Flow Chart for white dyeing :

Batch No : 28677 Batch Date : 12.12.04 Order No : 221153 Customer : H & M Color : White 10-100 Product Coad

SI . No.

Machine No : 02 Water : 5600 Lit Fabric Wt : 7000.00 kg GSM : 240 Nature Of Fabric: P/I Pre-treatment item A.Acid LUN 44L

G.L % 0.9 0.5 0.5

Quantity in Kg 5 kg 40 gm 2 kg 800 gm 3 kg 500 gm

Acid TC 44L

0.6 0.4 1.0

3kg 400 gm 2kg 300 gm 7kg

TC LUN CRA P.Jet CBB CS Jet Caustic H2O2

0.4 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.75 1.1 3.5 6.0

2kg 300 gm 51kg 120 gm 2 kg 800 gm 2kg 800 gm 1 kg 120 gm 4kg 200 gm 560 gm 20 kg 34 kg


0.40% 0.20%

3 kg 80 gm 1 kg 540 gm

CS Acid

0.5 0.6

2 kg 800 gm 3 kg 400 gm



11 kg

White Dyeing: White dyeing is done by optical brightening agent which is also done as same process as coloured dyeing. Starting at normal temp. added acetic acid, LUN and when the temp. reached at 58 0 C then enzyme (44L) is added and treat for 40 min. After this dyeing wash is done, temp. may lowered while washing but when the temp. reached again at 58 0 C acetic acid, TC and second enzyme is added. Second enzyme is treated for 50 min. and wash is done for 5 min. At this stage auxiliaries for scouring added and raise temp. 60 0 C. Added caustic and H 202 by dozing system at this temp. And afterward temp. is raised to 90 0 C and then added whitening agent by linear dozing system and temp. raised 1000 C within 10 min. This process is run for about 40-50 min. Sample is cut for matching every 20 min. interval. Then aquchron/ wash is done and the temp. Lowered to 450 C, acid is added and run for 6 min. Again wash is done and after 5 min. added FPG and after another 5 min. unload the fabrics.

Fig: Dyeing scheme Stripping of 100% cotton: Batch No : 28343 Batch Date: 14.12.04 Order No : Customer : Well Lord Color : Asfulto Product Coad

SI. No.

Machine No : 06 Water : 3700 Lit Fabric Wt : 365.00 kg GSM : 140 Nature Of Fabric: S/J Pre-treatment item LUN Caustic Hydrose

G.L % 0.5 6.0 6.0

Quantity in Kg 1 kg 850 gm 22 kg 200 gm 1 kg 850 gm

Soda Bleaching

1.5 1.5

5 kg 550 gm 5 kg 550 gm

LUN Caustic Hydrose

0.5 3.0 3.0

1 kg 850 gm 11 kg 100 gm 11 kg 100 gm

Stripping: Stripping is required when faults appear in the fabrics such as uneven , patches , M2M shade variation etc which can not be removed by other treatment. In the stripping process dye present in the fibre is discoloured by hydrose.To carry out the process at temperature at 600 C wetting agent ,LUN is added and then added custic to create alkaline medium. When the system temperature reached to 900 C then added hydros by linear dozing for 20 minutes. Hydrose which is a reducing agent is responsible in stripping process.Within 3 or 4 minutes temperature raised 1100 C and run for 20 mins. After that cooled the system at 103 0 C and aquachron/overflow is done for 20 mins. Again aquachron done to cool the system at 30 0 C within 20 mins and then drained. After feeding fresh water soda is added at this 30 0 C temperature and afterward bleaching powder is dosed for 20 mins to make the fabric white and to remove all coloring matters. Hold time 30 mins at this temp. At the end of the hold time of bleaching treatment aquachron is done for 20 mins and drained the liquor and again done aquachron for 10 mins and drained .

After feeding fresh water second stripping is done adding LUN , caustic, hydrose etc. as same as first process but the amount of caustic and hydrose is 50% of the first process . At this stage less time needed. When the second step of stripping, completed, aquachron is done to cool the system at 500 C and drained the liquor. After feeding water again added chemicals auxiliaries for pre treatment to make ready the fabric for dyeing.

Process flow chart for Polyester & Cotton dyeing : Batch No : 25726 Batch Date : 18.12.04 Order No : 221153 Customer : Wall Mart Color : C-Red

Machine No Water Fabric Wt GSM Nature Of Fabric

: S3 : 300 Lit : 12.9 kg : 150 : S/J

Recipe for PES part: Product Coad

SI . No.

Pre-treatment item TC CS P-Jet

G.L % 0.4 0.5 0.5

Quantity in Kg 120 gm 150 gm 150 gm


0.3 0.2 0.5

90 gm 60 gm 150 gm

CBB P-Jet Jet Caustic H202

0.2 1.5 0.1 2.5 2.5

60 gm 450 gm 30 gm 750 gm 750 gm

PC Acid 44 L CRA AB 45 DP

0.8 1.4 0.6 0.5 1.0 1.0

240 gm 420 gm 180 gm 150 gm 300 gm 300 gm

Tera Red W4BS Tera Red WRS OS

1.14 % 1.20 % 1.0

23 gm 478 mg 201 gm 240 mg 30 gm

Caustic Hydrose

1.0 1.0

300 gm 300 gm

Recipe for Cotton part: Product Coad

SI . No.

Pre-treatment item DBC CO-New P-Jet Jet RG

G.L %

Quantity in Kg

Rema. Orange RGB Rema. Deep Red RGB Rema Blue RR Salt Soda Acid SN Acid

Procedure for Pretreatment : Beginning at the temperature 450 C added TC , CS , P.JET and raised the temp. at 600 C, hold time 10 mins. Then other auxiliaries and caustic are added , raised temp. 70 0 C. Now H2O2 added, raised temp to 1000 C run for 60 mins.Overflow is done for 10 mins which lowered the temperature at 300 C. Now added PC and within 8 mins temperature raised 900 C, run for 10 mins. Again overflow is done for 10 mins and temperature again lowered to 30 0 C.At this stage added acid and checked PH 4.5 , raised temp. 580 C.Added 44L enzyme at this 580 C and run for 60 mins.Overflow done for 8 mins and added CRA, temp raised 800 C ,run for 10 mins. Finally overflow done, drain the liquor and check the PH 4.5 to make ready for next process.

Fig : Scheme Procedure for Dyeing: Auxiliaries are added at 450 C while raising the temp to 800 C within 10 mins. Then add dye by dosing system for 15 mins. at 800 C and continued raising temp. to 1300 C which takes time 10 mins. and run the system / PES dyeing for 40 mins. Cooling the system to 800 C which need 20 mins, cut sample to match PES part. Then overflow done for 20 mins. and lowered temp. to 300 C and added OS, caustic and hydrose and crease the temp. 800 C, run for 10 mins. After that overflow done and added acid at 300 C, run for 6 mins. Starting from 300 C leveling, salt for cotton is added and when temp. reached 60 0 C added dye and treat for 30 mins. Then added soda and treat for 10 mins. Cut sample for shade matching after every 10 mins. Interval. Acid is added after aquachron. SN hot is done 70 0 C and finally use softener. With this step cotton part dyeing completed.

Fig : Scheme Production target and actual production Target production in knit dyeing is 18 Ton per day. But the actual production is 15 Ton per day. YEARLY PRODUCTION REPORT (2003-2004) MONTH DYEING REDYEING NOVEMBER’02 258375 19792 JANUARY’03 437140 6967 FEBRUARY 337236 4747 MARCH 401922 12545

TOPPING 7084 32411 39716 33068


376763 296218 21119 257426 225624 305816 376358 258210

8331 2928 3016 2245 727 4995 10233 5099

27675 32501 18221 16589 17995 12030 11044 12014

Raw materials for product and their combination Raw materials for the product are as follows – • • •

Knit Fabric Dyes Chemicals

Stock /Inventory There is a separate inventory department in Mymun Textiles ltd. the raw materials inventory are sufficient. The flow chart of requisition of raw materials is as follows ------Factory requisition Audit Department Commercial





Accessory store

dyes / chemicals yarn


grey fabrics

Finished fabrics


Quality Management System The Quality Assurance Department is assigned to maintain consistently uniform quality of the material in process and various stages of its manufacturing.

Objects of quality control: 1. Research. 2. Selection of raw materials. 3. Process control. 4. Process development. 5. Product testing. 6. Specification test 7. Quality management system in MTL: Off



-Line Tests: All the Off-Line tests for finished fabrics can be grouped as follows: • Physical tests • Chemical tests Physical Tests: • • • • •

GSM of Fabric Width test Abrasion/pilling resistance Dimentional stability Shrinkage test

Chemical Tests: • • • • • • •

Fastness to washing. Fastness to light Fastness to heat Fastness to actual laundering Fastness to Chlorinated water Fastness to water spotting Fastness to perspiration

Online Tests: Dyed fabric • Shade check • Wash fastness


• Water fastness • Crocking fastness Quality standard Mainly this mill follow ISO standard for testing. But testing standard depends on buyer requirements. Scope of quality control, quality assurance and testing The scope of quality control, quality assurance and testing in Apex is good. It has very well ----• • • • •

Testing Lab Machine auditing system A good training system. Excellent analytical backup. Technical expertise.

RESPONSIBILITY OF OFF LINE Q.C. To check the following things : (a) Inspection of fabric in the inspection M/C under 4-point system . (b) Yarn count and lot no . (c) Buyer . (d) Design . (e) Stitch length of grey fabric . (f) Shade of grey fabric with in one order . RESPONSIBILITY OF ON LINE Q.C. To check the following things : (a) M/C Dia/Gauge (b) Buyer (c) Design (d) Grey fabric GSN & Stitch Length (e) Yarn count & Lot no (f) Yarn whether approved or not by Q.C. Department (g) Finished dia & grey dia . (h) Fabric quality checking under 4-point system . IN CHARGE Q.C. Making report. Supervise the grey Q.C. Check machine is running according to program or not Check program can meet the requirement. Which is mentioned in the order sheet or Check yarn is approved by Q.C. or not.


RESPONSIBILITY OF THE SAMPLE SECTION Sampler helper : (1) Batching of all fabric of sample . (2) Collected the sample status . (3) Packeting the finishing samples with required trimmings for delivery . Sample chaser : (1) Collect sample status & collect special data during samples processing (i.e. Enzyme , type finishing knitting parameter, yarn count lot etc . )

(2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

After unloading from dyeing check shade with standard , give specific instruction in the finishing for finish . After finish proved samples to lab for different test . Check shade , GSM ,Dia & fabric appearance . If every parameter of samples is match with requirement then prepare sample for delivery . Keeping all records of samples (Knitting parameters special process in dyeing and finishing , Lab test report . )

In charge : (1) Receive samples requisition from merchandising department . (2) Make scheduling . (3) Supervise the sample chaser & helper duty . RESPONSIBILITY OF THE SAMPLE SECTION Q.C (Lab) Recipe : (a) Make stock solution . (b) Pipeting and prepare sample for lab dip . (c) Load & unload from machine & soaping . (d) Check shade and produced lab dip with std & the necessary correction in recipe if necessary . (e) If any shade match with standard then make swatch card for shading to customer . Q.C (Lab) Testing : (a) After receiving sample from finishing condition first for four hours . (b) Then pieces for different test . (c) Complete all the required test (requested by buyer) according to standard test method . (d) Make report different types of test of each dye lot . (e) First time re-check problematic batch . (f) After make daily problematic batch re-process job card . Trainee Q.C. To assist the Q.C. for above mentioned work . In charge : (a) (b) (c) (d)

To supply approve shade recipe to dyeing floor for production . Make the first recipe of lab dip for a given std. by using data color . To maintain all approve std. shade at recipe file . Supervise the work of Q.C. & trainee Q.C. working in the lab .

RESPONSIBILITY OF THE FINISHING Q.C. Finishing Q.C. (shade): (1) After unloading from dyeing cut cut small piece , check shade with std/approved lab dip/production sample & previous production batch (if any) . (2) Then instruction to finishing for finish by mentioning specific temperature in dryer . (3) After finish again cut sample & check same way like before at dry state . (4) Keep the record of every lot after dry & after finished state . (5) If any batch is not OK at any stage then make the re-process card for dyeing . (6) If any batch is closer to standard but not exactly pass with standard , then make trial for that batch in finishing to make it OK . (7) Maintain the resister of all batch .


Check the shade of Body to Rib , Body to Collar & Cuff .

Trainee Q.C. (Shade) : To assist the Q.C. of above mentioned worker . In charge : (1) Supervise the trainee Q.C. & Q.C. (2) (3)

Make report every day . Cross check whatever shade already checked by Q.C.

Q.C. (Finishing) : (1) Make the R2R continuity of each dye lot by cutting small piece from each roll of dye lot . (2) Inspect 30-40 % of each dye lot under 4-point inspection system & report accordingly . (3) If found any problem then re-inspect 100% of that dye lot and make report & re-process card (if re-process able) for dyeing . If it is knitting faults then immediately inform to officer asking decision . (4) Check the evenness of a dye lot by checking R 2R continuity . (5) Check the shade of body to rib , body to collar & cuff . Trainee Q.C. finishing : Assist the Q.C. for above work . In charge : (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

Monitor the all Q.C.’S (finishing) work including shade Q.C. Take decision when asking advise from his subordinate . Make daily problematic batch report . Make daily production report . Maintain resister khata . Make daily batch re-process job card .

RESPONSIBILITY OF QUALITY ASSURANCE MANAGER : (1) Responsible for all quality matter of fabric . (2) Yarn selection . (3) Monitoring product development . (4) Organize Laboratory . (5) Control grey and finished fabric inspection under 4- point inspection system (6) Documentation of each dye lot after checking shade . DYEING DEPARTMENT: 01.Measurment the standard sample (CCM). 02.Receipe calculation. 03. To match the batch sample with the standard sample (CCM with the help of spectrophotometer / Verivide light box). 04.To match the sample batch to batch with Verivide light box . 05. To produce : a) Total chemicals solution . b)To prepared different % of dye solution.(Such as 1% , 0.5%, 0.1% ,0.01% etc.) c) To measure the appropriate amount of chemicals and dyes by pipeting (liquid) and balanced with electric balance (solid) for to produce the dip . d) To prepared swatch for buyer’s approval .

06. To measure PH by PH meter . QUALITY CONTROL DEPARTMENT (After finishing) : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Pilling test . Shrinkage/spirality cheek . Color fastness to Rubbing test. Color fastness to water test . Color fastness to perspiration test . Color fastness to wash test. Color fastness to light test . To measure the C/inch & W/inch .

LAB MACHINE&EQIPMENTSNAME/BRAND/ MANUFACTURER AND YEAR OFMANUFAC-TURE : Machine no Company name Machine name(Functional) Manufacturing Country Pilling Measurement M/C Name of the M/C Manufacture Year

: 01 : James H Heal & Co Ltd : Pilling Tester : Halifax England : Pilling assessment viewer : Veri Vide : 2001

Machine no : 02 Company name : James H Heal & Co Ltd Machine name (Functional) : Rubbing Tester Manufacturing Country : Halifax England Pilling Measurement M/C : With Grey Scale / Data Color Manufacture Year : 2001 Machine no : 03 Company name : James H Heal & Co Ltd Machine name (Functional ): Perspirometer (Alkaline/Acidic) Model : 290 Manufacturing Country : Halifax England Measuring system : Grey scale / DataColor Manufacture Year : 2001 Machine no : 04 Company name : CARBOLITE Machine name (Functional) : Drier Manufacturing Country : England Manufacture Year : 2001 Machine no : 05 Company name : WTW Machine name (Functional) : PH meter Manufacturing Country : Germany Manufacture Year : 2001 Machine no Brand name


Machine name (Functional) : Sample Dyeing m/c / Wash-Fastness Manufacturing Country : U .S .A . Manufacture Year : 2001 Machine no Brand name Machine name Model Manufacturing Country Machine function Manufacture Year

: 07 : RAITECH ( Partner of textile test product ) : Quick Wash Plus : EC 300 : Halifax England : To assessment the shrinkage : 2001

Machine no : 08 Brand name : INDESIT Machine name (Functional) : Washing Machine Model : LB 2000 Manufacturing Country : ITALY Machine function : To measurement the shrinkage / spirality Manufacture Year : 2001 Machine no : 09 Brand name : INDESIT Machine name (Functional) : Tumble Drier Model : M 2000 Manufacturing Country : ITALY Machine function : To measurement the shrinkage / spirality Manufacture Year : 2001 Machine no : 10 Company name : James H Heal & Co Ltd Brand name : Microsol Machine name (Functional) : Light-Fastness Tester Manufacturing Country : Halifax England Measuring system : Blue scale / Datacolor Manufacture Year : 2001 Machine no : 11 Company name : Data color Machine name (Functional) : Color fastness test(CCM) Manufacturing Country : U .S .A . Manufacture Year : 2001 Machine no : 12 Company name : Verivide Model : CAC 60 Machine name (Functional) : Color match / Metamerism Test Manufacturing Country : Halifax England Manufacture Year : 2001 Machine no : 13 Company name : RAININ Instrument Co Ltd Machine name (Functional) : Pipeting Manufacturing Country : U.S.A. Manufacture Year : 2001

Machine no : 14 Company name : James H Heal & Co Ltd Machine name (Functional) : GSM Cutter Manufacturing Country : ENGLAND Manufacture Year : 2001 Special features of Rapid Sample dyeing Machine • • • • •

19 samples can be dyed at the same time Auto time & temperature controller Speed controller unit Good steam inlet & outlet system Good movement of liquor

Procedure of lap dip The main objectives of lab dip preparation: # For good dyeing. #For good shade matching. # Mass production suitable Procedure for the 100 % cotton fabric • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Calculate the recipe. Weight the fabric. Take the beaker keep the fabric in to the beaker. Then the dyes, chemicals & required amount of water take in to the beaker by the digital pipeting. Then weight the salt by the electric balance and add in to the beaker. Then the beaker set in to the lab dyeing machine for dyeing. Start the program for dyeing the whole dyeing time 60 min at 60 °C temperature. (The dyeing time and temperature depends on which classes of dyes are used for dyeing.) After 30 min add the then add the soda ash. By pipeting. Again run the program next 30 min at the same temperature. Finished the dyeing time then the sample taken from the beaker first cold wash & then cold wash. Then acid wash as for neutralization. Then soaping required soap solution 10 min at 90° C temperature. After the fabric again cold. Then dry the lab dip and compare with the standard.

Procedure for the Polyester & cotton blend • • • • • • • •

Calculate the recipe. Weight the fabric. Take the beaker keep the fabric in to the beaker. Then the dyes, chemicals & required amount of water take in to the beaker by the digital pipeting. Then weight the salt by the electric balance and add in to the beaker. Adding the soda ash in to beaker by the pipeting. Then the beaker set in to the lab dyeing machine for dyeing. Start the program for dyeing the whole dyeing time 30 min at 130°C temperature.

• • • • • • • •

Run the program 30 min at the same temperature. Finished the dyeing time then the sample taken from the beaker first cold wash & then cold wash. Then reduction clearing by using caustic & hydrose. Then soaping required soap solution 10 min at 90° C temperature. After the fabric again cold wash. Then dry the lab dip and compare with the standard. Then carbonized the fabric 70 % sulphuric acid solution. Then cotton part dyeing by the before system.

Amount of salt soda used on the basis of shade %: REACTIVE/REMA RR/CIBA

Shade % 0-0.49 0.5-0.75 0.76--1.0 1.1 – 1.5 1.6 – 2.0 2.1 – 2.5 2.6 – 3.0 3.1 – 3.5 3.6 – 5.0 5.1 – 8.0

Salt mg/l 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 80

Soda mg/l 10 12 16 17 18 18 20 20 20 20


Shade % 0.1-0.5 0.51-1.0 1.01-1.5 1.51-2.0 2.01-2.5 2.51-3.0 3.01-4.0 4.01-5.0 5.0-8.0 Liquor ratio = 1 : 8

Salt mg/l 30 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 80

Preparation of dye bath stock solution for cotton: 1)Cibacell DBC ------------- 40cc (1.2 g/l) 2)Cibafluid c ---------------- 20cc (.5g/l) 3)Irgasol conew-------------- 40cc (1g/l) 4)Lyoprint RG---------------- 40cc (1g/l) 5)Water ---------------------- 852cc --------------------------------------Total = 1000cc

Soda mg/l 6 10 12 13 14 15 18 20 20

Take 1ml solution in to each dye pot from stock solution. Preparation of dye bath stock solution for PES: 1)Invadine DP---------------- 40cc(1g/l) 2)Cibacell AB-45------------ 40cc(1g/l) 3)Water ---------------------- 920cc ------------------------------------Total = 1000cc Take 1ml solution in to dye pot from stock solution. Color fastness to rubbing (wet & dry) Procedure: *Rubbing cloth: Take rubbing cloth at 5*5cm size. *Sample size : Take the specimen at 14*5cm at wales & course wise. Put the rubbing cloth on to the grain & stag by steel wire & run 10 times manually & asses the rubbing cloth with gray scale. Place the rubbing cloth on the water & socked & squeeze.Place the wet rubbing cloth on to the grain & stag with stainless steel wire & run 10 min. manually. Then asses the rubbing cloth by scale for wet rubbing. Result: *Dry rubbing ---- 4-5 *Wet rubbing ---- 2-3 Lab dip test for 100% cotton. After completion lab dip we compared our batch with with standard by computer & given a result – Fail. Then we observed the CMC curve & decided that if we increase red – 20% & Blue – 12% for rib then we can get a good result & started our programme. Finally our batch were matched with standerd. Name of Expt.: Color fastness to washing.(ISO/05-CO6) Buyers requirement: 1) ECHO sourching : ISO 105 CO6 A2S 40*c 2) Well lord : ISO 105 CO6 A2S 40*c 3) EURO centra : ISO 105 CO6 A2S 40*c Procedure: 1. Size of specimen : Cut sample & multifibre at 10*2cm then stitch. 2. Detergent : 4g/l ECE detergent (WoB) + 1g/l sodium per borate put in distilled water & colled at 20*c & measure pH(where necessary) 3. Run the program in the following way:Test no. Temp.*C Liq.volume ml Time min. Steel balls Adjust pH C2S 60*C 50 30 25 10.5+_ .1 4. Rinse the sample twice with cold water. 5. Dry at 60*c by hanging or by flat iron pressing but temp. should not less more than 150*c. Result: Measured by computer. Color change – 3-4


-- 4 – 5

Color change—5 Staining -- 3-4 Pilling test. Procedure : Cut the fabric 12.5*12.5cm & balance mark should be 10cm by using template.Then sewn the fabric so that it can be firmly fit in the tube a moulded polyurethane tubes.Then four tubes are placed in a box & start 60+_ 02 rev/min for 5 hrs.or according to buyer requirement.Here mainly used 3hrs(1100 cycle). Then asses the pilling by putting tested specimen on the viewing cabinate & compare with std. photographs. Result: Visually measured by compare with std. photographs. Length wise--- 4 Width wise ---- 4 Shrinkage & spirality test. Buyer’s requirements : Template size : 50cm & 35cm , 25.5cm &18cm(use after quick wash) Shrinkage: length wise--- 5% Width wise----5% Spirality :

Left ------- 5% Right -------- 5%

Procedure : At first take two ply of fabric & put the template(50cm) on to the fabric.The template has 8 holes.Both length & width wise the template holes can measured 35cm at 3 places.Then we mark the 8 holes by parment marker & also at the edges of the template. Then sewn the fabric & it is given washing m/c run at 60*c for 60min.with water .After that dry the sample & then measurement the fabric. ( only for H & M buyer used 4 rinse + 4 spin ) Spin speed --- 500rpm Drum speed—500rpm Calculation : Length wise= 34.5+34.3 +34.4 ------------------------3 = 34.4 = 34.4- 35= -0.6 = (0.6/35 )* 100= -1.71% By shrinkage scale : -1.5- 2- 1.5 --------------3 = -1.6% Width wise : = (32.5+32.6+33.3 )/3 =(32.8-35 ) / 35* 100

= - 6.1% #Spirality test : 1.5 +1.5 --------------2 = 1.5/ length = 1.5/ 50 =.03*100 = 3% Color fastness to water ( ISO105 EO1& EO2) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Sample size : Cut the specimen & multifibre at 10*2 & sewn together. Solution : Wet in distilled water at room temp. & socked. Place it in acrylic resin plates & put the wt. on to the plates. Keep it in oven & keep the temp. at 37+_ 2*c for 4hrs. Open the specimen & dry it in the air hot exceeding 60*c. Asses the staining & shade change with gray scale.

Result: Color change – 4-5 Staining ----- 4-5 Color change --- 4-5 Staining ------ 4-5 Color fastness to perspiration Alkaline & Acid solution. Buyers requirements :

Carre four : ISO 105 EO4 Well lord : ISO 105 EO4 EURO centra:ISO 105 EO4

1) Procedure: Cut the specimen &multifibre at 10*2cm & sewn together 2) Prepare solution : Alkaline Solution : # 0.5g/l of 1-histadine mono hydrochloride monohydrate # 5g/l of sodium chloride This solution is brought to pH -8 with 0.1 mole/l caustic solution. Acid solution : # 0.5 g/l of 1-histadine monohydrochloride monohydrate # 5g/l of sodium chloride. # 2.2 g/l of sodium dihydrogen orthophosphate dyhydrate. This solution is brought to pH-5.5 with 0.1 mole/l caustic solution. 3) M : L = 1 : 50 4) Wet the specimen in flat dish containing acid & alkaline solution & keep for 30min. Then take the specimen & squeeze the excess solution by two glass rods . 5) Put the specimen in to the acrylic resin plates & put wt. on the plates. 6) Keep it in the woven at 37*cc +_ 2*C for 4hrs. 7) Open the specimen 7 multifibre & dry separately in the air temp. not exceeding 60*C. 8) Access the staining & shade change with grey scale. Result:

Alkaline: Peacock blue: color change—4 Staining --- 4-5 Acid: Blue : color change—3-4 Staining --- 4-5 Fabric Inspection The inspection of fabric is a procedure by which the defects of fabric are identified and fabric is classified according to degree or intensity of defects. The fabric inspection is done for both grey and finished fabric. Grey Fabric Inspection: In this mill grey fabric inspection is performed according to 4 point system. Finished Fabric Inspection: 4 point numbering system is followed for finished fabric inspection. Checking for final inspection: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Uneven shade Oil spot Neps Crease mark Line mark Bowing Machines &


Name of the machines (functional), Brand name& Model,Manufacturer’s name & year of Manufacture Machine Name (Functional): Turning Machine Brand Name : Santex Model Name : RPM Country Name : SWITZERLAND Year of Manufacture : 2000 Production dyeing machine Machine No : 01 Machine Name (Functional): Production Dyeing Machine Brand Name : SCLAVOS Model Name : VENUS : 4 Country Name : ATHENS - GREECE Year of Manufacture : 2000 Machine No : 02 Machine Name (Functional): Production Dyeing Machine Brand Name : SCLAVOS Model Name : VENUS : 4

Country Name : ATHENS - GREECE Year of Manufacture : 2000 Machine No : 03 Machine Name (Functional): Production Dyeing Machine Brand Name : SCLAVOS Model Name : VENUS : 4 Country Name : ATHENS - GREECE Year of Manufacture : 2000 Machine No : 04 Machine Name (Functional): Production Dyeing Machine Brand Name : SCLAVOS Model Name : VENUS : 3 Country Name : ATHENS - GREECE Year of Manufacture : 2000 Machine No : 05 Machine Name (Functional): Production Dyeing Machine Brand Name : SCLAVOS Model Name : VENUS :3 Country Name : ATHENS - GREECE Year of Manufacture : 2000 Machine No : 06 Machine Name (Functional): Production Dyeing Machine Brand Name : SCLAVOS Model Name : VENUS : 3 Country Name : ATHENS - GREECE Year of Manufacture : 2000 Machine No : 07 Machine Name (Functional): Production Dyeing Machine Brand Name : SCLAVOS Model Name : VENUS : 1 Country Name : ATHENS - GREECE Year of Manufacture : 2000 Machine No : 08 Machine Name (Functional) : Production Dyeing Machine Brand Name : AK Dyeing Machine Model :AK --70600 Manufacturer’s Name : Asia Kingdom Machinery Industries Ltd Year of Manufacture : 2001 Country Name : TAIWAN Machine No : 09 Machine Name (Functional) : Production Dyeing Machine Brand Name : AK Dyeing Machine Model Name : AK – TC 400 Manufacturer’s Name : Asia Kingdom Machinery Industries Ltd Year of Manufacture : 2001 Country Name : TAIWAN Machine No : 10 Machine Name (Functional): Production Dyeing Machine

Brand Name : AK Dyeing Machine Model Name : AK – TC 200 Manufacturer’s Name : Asia Kingdom Machinery Industries Ltd Year of Manufacture : 2001 Country Name : TAIWAN SAMPLE DYEING MACHINE Machine No : 01 Machine Name (Functional) : Sample Dyeing Machine Brand Name : AK Sample Dyeing Machine Model Name : AK – ET 50 Manufacturer’s Name : Asia Kingdom Machinery Industries Ltd Year of Manufacture : 2001 Country Name : TAIWAN Machine No : 02-03 Machine Name (Functional) : Sample Dyeing Machine Brand Name : FONG’S Model Name : FFT55-26 Manufacturer’s Name : FONG’S NATIONAL ENGENERRING (SHENZHEN) Co Ltd Year of Manufacture : 2001 Country Name : CHINA Machine No : 04-05 Machine Name (Functional) : Sample Dyeing Machine Brand Name : SCLAVOS Model Name : APPOLON H.T.S.F:B Country Name : ATHENS - GREECE Year of Manufacture : 2000 Production capacity /hour or shift (12 hours) M/c No Name Port 01 Sclavos 4 02 Sclavos 4 03 Sclavos 4 04 Sclavos 3 05 Sclavos 3 06 Sclavos 3 07 Sclavos 1 08 AK m/c 3 09 AK m/c 2 10 AK m/c 1

Capacity/Shift(12 hrs) 720 Kg 720 Kg 720 Kg 540 Kg 540 Kg 540 Kg 180 Kg 600 Kg 400 Kg 200 Kg

SAMPLE DYEING CAPACITY /HOUR or SHIFT (12hours) M/c No 01 02 03 04 05


Capacity/Sift(12 hrs) 50 30 30 10 50

Diagram of basic mechanism of Winch Dyeing Machine Winch dyeing machinery: The Winch dyeing machine is one of the oldest known dyeing machines of the textile processing house for stock. Construction and operation of the Winch are very simple. It forms one of the low cost units in a dye house. The Winch dyeing machine is suitable for all types of wet processing operations such as desizing, scouring, bleaching, dyeing, washing- off and softening. The Winch is suitable for practically all types of fabric, which can withstand creasing in rope-form processing, especially woollen fabrics, loosely woven cotton and man-made fibre fabrics, nearly all circular knitted goods and some types of warp knit materials. Tension characteristics of Winch dyeing machines: The most popular machine in a dye house is the dyeing Jigger. During the running of the fabric on the jigger, a certain amount of tension is unavailable. During the operation of the winch, however, the tension exerted on the fabric is far less than that on the jigger. The folds in the length of the fabric are continuous formed, deformed and reformed. These movements on the part of the cloth provide more mechanical interaction with the dye liquor and hence improve the scouring efficiency of the machine. In the winch machine, the above mechanical action takes place at a considerably low tension, which encourages development of crimp in the yarns of the woven fabrics and also in the loop length of the knit goods. In spite of this, adverse factor, it must be said that the conditions in the winch machines are very favourable for creating a “Fuller� handle. These conditions also can produce more cover of the dye or the softening agents, as also a better crease recovery. As compared to the results in the pressure beam dyeing machines, which impart a very clean and smooth appearance to the fabric, the mechanical in the winch produces a softer handle and a resilient finish. Working principle of the winch: The basic principle of all winch dyeing machines is to have a number of loops or ropes of the fabric in the dye bath. This ropes are of equal length which are mostly immersed in the liquor in the bath. The upper part of each rope runs over two reels, which are mounted over the dye bath. At the front of the machine, above the top of the dye liquor, is the smaller reel, which is called the Jockey of the fly roller, which remains free-wheeling along with the fabric rope. At the back of the winch tank, i.e. the dye bath, there is a much larger driven wheel, which is known as the winch wheel. This winch wheel pulls the fabric rope from the dye bath over the jockey reel for dropping into the dye bath for immersion. From the drop location, the fabric rope travels backwards, to be lifted by the round wheel and to be passed on again to the winch wheel. Material of construction: The earlier winches are based on wooden dye baths. With the advent of the new dyeing processes, however, stainless steel has been selected as the main material of constructions. All the joints and supporting members of the machine are welded. The corners are smoothen and every internal weld s thoroughly ground and well polished to avoid any rough points, which are likely to cause snagging and damaging the delicate filaments of the fabrics. The shape, dimension of the vessel, the jockey reel and the winch-wheel vary from maker to maker. The total design and accessory devices are arranged according to the types of fabric to be dyed. In the case of woollen fabrics and heavy cotton goods, the vessel has a deep tank and a sloping back. Whenever filament viscose fabric and acetate materials are to be processed, however, the vessel is constructed so has to have shallow draught and so minimize the creasing tendencies.

Ballooning of the rope and its regulation: Fabrics which have a tendency to curl at the edges, example- the warp knit materials, are chainstitched to join the opposite edges along the length, so that they are dyed almost in a tubular form. This system has been found to be very effective. Whenever possible, therefore, flat knit fabrics should be dyed in this manner and slit length wise after dyeing. When loading such fabrics, care must be taken not to twist the fabric. The joint should be completely round the fabric. Owing to air pocket formation, tubular fabrics are likely to create a ballooning tendency in the fabrics. The ballooning tendency is more in the case of tight knit structures and much less when open texture fabrics are process. Some dyers are therefore known to bubble air into the dye bath encourage formation of ballooning. It is customary to arrange an adjustable horizontal bar half way back in the winch, with a view to keep the fabric submerged in the dye liquor and also to minimize the tendency the fabric rope to entangle. Enclosed winch: All modern winch dyeing machines are manufactured in the enclosed execution, in order to achieve excellent results such as: • • • •

Uniformity of processing temperature. Minimum heat losses. Protection from adverse departmental environments. Doors of hood open easily giving access to cloth under process from the front as well as from the back.

The door panels are made of toughened glass and are fitted in such a manner that they can be lifted up vertically, assisted by counter balancing weights at the size. Water channels are arranged at the top portion of the main bottom part, on winch the SS door frames can raised, thus forming good water seals. A small opening duct is provided at eh top of the hood with a suitable damping arrangement. This damper helps controlling the quantity of the vapour and other gaseous products formed inside the hood. Whenever the doors are to be lifted, the damper should open slightly, so that, on opening, no outrushes of steel comes on the body of the operator, especially when process involved working at boiling temperatures. On the top portion of the hood, a vent is provided to ext ract steam and films when bleaching with sodium chloride and films also the carrier when the same is used to assist the dyeing process of polyester and similar materials. The vent is connected to extraction dirt so as to lead these films impurities outside of the machines. This vent is located at one end of the machine to ensure that any condensation product such as droplets containing condensed steam or other impurities do not drop on the fabric rope. Loading and unloading of the winch machine: For the purpose of loading the winch for processing, the leading end of the cloth rope is taken from the transport trolleys and is thrown over the winch wheel, then drawn forward and tied to the peg rail. The winch wheel is then set in motion and the requisite length of the roll is taken in. Utmost care must be taken to see that the fabric rope is not twisted any where at all. This process should be repeated for each of the fabric rope which is taken in for processing. At the end, when the specific lengths have been taken in the winch dye-bath, the end of the rope is joined with the initial ends which is untied and taken out from below the peg rail. The total length taken in is equivalent each rope length multiplied by the number of rope introduced. Dyeing process in the winch dyeing machine: The dyeing process in a winch machine is based on a higher liquor to material ratio as compared to other dyeing machines. The process, however, is conducted with very little cloth tension. The total

dyeing time i.e. dyeing cycle is, therefore, lengthier than several other dyeing units. The following variables influenced the dyeing result: i.

Continuous movement of the fabric in relation of the dye liquor. Movement increases with speed. ii. Turbulence created by the design feature of the winch wheel and the jockey reel in the dye bath. iii. The dye liquor temperature can be varied as recommended by the dyeing recipe. Dyeing results in the winch machine are generally of an acceptable quality. Some fabrics such as heavy cotton drill or suiting are unsuitable for dyeing on the winch unit. Draw back in the dyeing process on winch machines: Although the winch is being used by many processors for all sorts of dyeing trials, there are certain intrinsic draw backs in the dyeing process as conducted on the winch. They are summarized as follows: i.


iii. iv.

The whole process is to be conducted in batches consisting of a certain length of material and also a certain weight of cloths. Trimming, sewing, opening out the rope, loading, unloading etc must be done for the individual batch, whether the size of the batch is small or big. Several attempts made so far to have one continuous length of the fabric in the rope form have failed. Certain devices can be suitable only for specific varieties of cloth. No universal solution is leading to one continuous length per machine had been found out. If there are ten pegs on the peg rail, ten equal lengths of fabric are required to be processed. The winch treats the fabric only in the rope form. These rope form fabrics some time show crease marks after dyeing. This effect is marked in the case of heavy and thickly woven cloth and some thin and light synthetic fibre materials. The normal execution of winch machines allows the dyeing of fabrics at temperatures below and near the boiling point of the aqueous solutions. This temperature is unsuitable of dyeing of synthetics. Necessitates the use of carriers and much longer dyeing times.

Modifications in the winch dyeing machines: There have been certain important modifications oif the designs of the winch dyeing machine. Only two versions are, however, worth carefully study. They can be summarized as follows: 1. There has been one very significant development on the part of Japanese machine designers. They have introduced certain new constructional features as also made use of to additional variable features as under: a. Arrangement of a false bottom below the material, however, above the main tank bottom. This false bottom which is made of a perforated stainless steel has an oscillatory motion, which moves the false bottoms upwards and downwards dying the dyeing process. b. In addition on the above novel modification, there has been one more important change which consists of a liquor circulation pump. This pumps draws the dye liquor from the bottom part of the dye liquor vessel and allows it to be introduced from the top portion of the dye bath. This device can keep the dye liquor in continuous circulation and is able to improve the uniformity of dying result. 2. The second modification consists of an arrangement to place the dye vessel and the machine with all other parts including the wheels, i.e. the winch reel and the jockey reel, in a cylindrical auto clave. With the help od the closed steam coils, which can raise the

temperature up to 1250C, pressure up to 35 psi can also be generated., thus having, infect, a high temperature high pressure (HTHP) winch dyeing machine. This modification brought the winch execution to the level of the jet dyeing machine. FINISHING AREA The list of machine : 1. De-watering machine 2. Dryer 3. Compacting machine

2 1 2

1. De-watering machine : After finished the dyeing process from the dyeing machine then the fabrics are ready for de-watering . This is the process to remove the water from the fabric completely by squeezing . This is the main function of the de-watering machine . But here also control the some important factor of the fabric quality . The basic function of the de-watering machine : • • • • • •

To remove the water from the fabric . To control the width of the fabric . To control the length of the fabric . To control the spirality of the fabric . To control the grain line of the fabric . To control the over feeding system

Follow the following fabric process routine : The over stretching depends on this requirements . Item 1x1 Rib Interlock Single jersey Polo PK 2x1 Rib

Un-loading dia from de-watering machine IN DIA + 20 % TO + 30 % OUT DIA IN DIA + 20 % + 30 % OUT DIA IN DIA + 10 % TO + 20 % OUT DIA IN DIA + 10 % TO + 15 % OUT DIA IN DIA + 15 % TO + 20 % OUT DIA

2. Dryer : After de-watering then the fabric through the dryer . The main function of the dryer to dry the fabric . And full fill the other fabric properties according the to Buyer’s requirement . This the four chambers dryer . The speed of the dryer depends on the temperature of the machine & the GSM of the fabric . The vibration speed of the machine for heavy jersey / GSM high is 750 m/min & Single jersey / normal GSM is 500 m/min . The temperature of the machine depends on the temperature high then the machine speed high & the temperature low the speed of the machine low . The basic function of the dryer are as follows : To dry the fabric . To control the over feed system . (Shrinkage control) To control the vibration . (To increase the GSM)

The temperature of different chambers according to the shade of the fabric are : Shade Light

Chamber 1 120° C

Chamber 2 115° C

Chamber 3 110° C

Chamber 4 105° C

Medium Deep

120° C 170° C

130° C 160° C

140° C 150° C

150° C 140°C

3. Compactor : The mechanism of the compactor machine classified in the four sections . The section wise mechanism in the first section to entry the fabric in to the machine by the tube form . In the second section Edge driver . The function of edge driver to increase & decrease the GSM & dia of the fabric . Here also passed the steam to soft the fabric & slightly shade match . This is the third section of the machine it’s also called the compaction station . Here to control the GSM & challendering the fabric . Here also a blade to smooth the fabric surface . In the section four the out put section of the machine . Here the fabric keep on to the up & down moveable table . The up & down movement of the table control with the photo detector (Sensor) . In case of deep shade the steam & roller pressure high & light shade steaming & roller pressure low . Suppose ,We input fabric GSM 220 . Then we control the out put GSM maximum 225 & minimum 212 . The main function of the compactor machine : • To control the GSM .(Increase & decrease) • To control the dia . • To control the shrinkage . (Increase & decrease) • To smooth the fabric surface . • To challender the fabric . Suppose , We input fabric GSM 220 .Then we control the GSM maximum 225 & minimum 212 . FINISHING MACHINE Machine No Model Machine Name (Functional) Manufacturer’s Name Manufacturing Country Year Of Manufacture

: 01 : STH - PLUS : De-watering / Squeezing Machine : Santex – Group . Com :SWITZERLAND : 2001

Machine No : 02 Model : STH - PLUS Machine Name (Functional) : De-watering / Squeezing Machine Manufacturer’s Name : Santex – Group . Com Manufacturing Country :SWITZERLAND Year Of Manufacture : 2001 Machine No Model Machine Name (Functional) Manufacturer’s Name Manufacturing Country Year Of Manufacture Machine No Model Machine Name (Functional) Manufacturer’s Name Manufacturing Country

: 03 : SANTASRINK 4K/300 : DRIER : Santex – Group . Com :SWITZERLAND : 2001 : 04 : BM-9557 60/PK II FOLDING : Compacting Machine : Tubetex :U .S. A .

Year Of Manufacture

: 2001 Generator house

THE LIST OF MACHINE : 1. Generator 2. Panel 3. Distribution Board 4. Generator Control Panel

2 3 1 1

1. Generator : To generate the power(volts & amps) for every section in the Factory . 2. Panel : To store the power (volts & amps) from the generator for every section in the factory . There are two types of panel a) PFI (Power Factor Improvement)panel b) LT panel a) PFI panel : To store the power (volts & amps) from the generator for the boiler house , finishing section & dyeing section in the factory . Supply AC current . 4 Amps & 400 volts . b) LT panel : To store the power (volts & amps) from the generator for the boiler house , finishing section & dyeing section in the factory . According there need . Supply AC current . 4 Amps & 400 volts . 3. Distribution : To supply the power(volts & amps) for the light , AC , fan etc in the different section . Supply AC current . 4 Amps & 400 volts . 4. Generator control panel :To control the generator for generate power . Machine No : 01 Machine name : WUEKESHA POWER SYSTEM ENGOMATIC ® CONTROL Model : 3080 Date : Aug 2001 Serial : C – 94265 – 9021/ 1 Capacity : 1100 kw Amps AC – 1913 DC – 10 Volts AC – 415/240 DC – 24 Fuel Type : Gas Country Name : USA . Wt : 17000 kgs Kva : 1375 Hz : 50 Amps : 1913 Rpm : 1000 Max. ambient temp : 41 deg C

Machine No : 02 Machine Name (Functional) : Current Generate Brand Name : CATEPILLER Model Name : 3512 Manufacturer’s Name : Trade Marks Of Caterpillar Inc . PEORIA . ILLINOIS . USA . Fuel Type : Disel Year of Manufacture : 2001 Country Name : USA . Boiler house These two types of boiler are fire tube horizontal fire boiler . At first the boiler take NTA (Natural gas) from the gas line and suck air . Then through the air and gas inside the boiler . For this reason the water is boiled water and produce steam . The steam is supplied by the steam line in the different section . The list of machine : 1. Boiler 2 2. Hot water tank 1 3. Condense pump 1 4. Feed pump 1 5. Steam receiver 1 6. Compressor 2 7. Chemical dosing tank 1 8. Water softener vessel 1 Hot water tank : Condense water receive in to the hot water tank . That’s mean water which produce water from the steam line .

n condense

Condense pump : The hot water transfer in to the feed water tank with the help of condense pump Feed pump : The hot water transfer in to the boiler with the help of feed pump . Produced steam in to the boiler . Steam receiver : Supply steam in to the different line . Suppose have any problem in Sclavos line then we can also running the other lines . Chemical dosing tank : Chemical is used to no scale form in to the boiler . Compressor : To open and close the valve with the help of compress air to produce by to the compressor . There are two compressors producing in the compressor separately 7.0-9.5 bargs & 7.0-9.0 bargs . If the producing in both compressor < 7.0 bargs then auto start & >9.0 & > 9.5 bargs then auto stop . There is also a compressor drier it’s remove the moisture & oily content from the air pressure . Water softener vessel : There are two vessel . Which are full fill the cationic resin . If the p H of water is < 7.5 & > 7.0 . Then using common salt with the resin to neutral the pH . THE LIST OF MACHINERIES : 1. Two Boilers

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Boiler water softener plant De-alkalizer Four Condensed pump One hot water tank One water feed tank

Boiler No : 01 Machine Name (Functional) : Steam Generate Brand Name : COCHRAN BOILER Model Name : 35/2884 Manufacturer’s Name : Year of Manufacture : 2001 Country Name : USA . BOILER DATA PLATE Year of Manufacture Design Pressure Design Temperature Hydrolic tested date Hydrolic tested Press Boiler Design To Maxm Continuous rating Maxm Continuous rating Maxm Operating prusser Maxm Nett heat input Fule type GAS minm supply pressure GAS maxm supply pressure Oil minm supply pressure Oil maxm supply pressure Oil supply temperature Supply Voltage

: 2001 : 11.0 BARGS : 188°C : 21/2/01 : 16.5 BARGS : BS 2790 – CLASS 1 : 11340 kg/hr : 11340 kg/hr : 10.00BARGS : 8127 kW (GAS) : R.O/NAT GAS : 135 mb : 300 mb : 0.137 BARGS : 1.034 BARGS : 81-87°C : 400-3-50

Boiler No : 02 Machine Name (Functional) : Steam Generate Brand Name : COCHRAN BOILER Model Name : 35/2884 Manufacturer’s Name : Year of Manufacture : 2001 Country Name : USA . BOILER DATA PLATE Year of Manufacture Design Pressure Design Temperature Hydrolic tested date Hydrolic tested Press Boiler Design To Maxm Continuous rating Maxm Continuous rating Maxm Operating prusser Maxm Nett heat input Fule type GAS minm supply pressure GAS maxm supply pressure

: 2001 : 11.0 BARGS : 188°C : 21/2/01 : 16.5 BARGS : BS 2790 – CLASS 1 : 11340 kg/hr : 11340 kg/hr : 10.00BARGS : 8127 kW (GAS) : R.O/NAT GAS : 135 mb : 300 mb

Oil minm supply pressure Oil maxm supply pressure Oil supply temperature Supply Voltage

: 0.137 BARGS : 1.034 BARGS : 81-87°C : 400-3-50

Water treatment plant There are two deep tubeweel by the two side of the treatment plant . There are also two submersible pump in the deep tubeweel one is 100 ft deep and another is 140 ft deep . The submersible pump transfer raw water in the water tank by create force . The formation of oxidation of the water by showering with the help of another two pumps in the water tank . Iron content removes by the oxidation . Two circular transfer raw water in the (vessel no 1) Multigrade filter unit . The large size plastic , iron that means solid content are removed in the multigrade filter unit . The water is transferred in to the (vessel no 2) Activated carbon filter unit . In the (vessel no 2) Activated carbon unit to remove chlorine that means bad smell . The water then transfer in to the (vessel no 3) softener unit from the activated carbon unit at the presence of cationic resin (Zeolite) is reacted with water to remove the hardness of water . The water is transferred in to the reserve tank from the softener unit . The soft water is supplied from the reserve tank by the 7 Boosting pump in the different section of the factory . The back wash & regeneration process : The back wash process to clean the vessel no 1 , 2 , & 3 . The back wash process should be done after 8 -12 hrs .After 40-48 hrs later the regeneration process should be done . It should be done after back wash process . After back wash the common salt dissolved with water in to the STT (salt saturated tank) The solution of common salt is ringing the resin by the injector . The use of 18% salt in the total solution . ( Suppose , 5000 lit of solution the amount of salt 600 kg) . The resin is activated by the salt rising . Here used cationic resin (NaHSO 3) . If the pH of the water increase or decrease it should be control by the dosing chemical (Sodium Hypochlorite) from the chemical tank . Standard water quality for dye house : Minimum standard Color Smell Water hardness PH Value Dissolved solid Inorganic salt Iron (Fe) Manganese (Mn) Copper (Cu) Nitrate (NO3-) Nitrite (NO2-)

Permissible concentration Colorless No bad smell <5° 7 – 8 Neutral < 1 mg/l < 500 mg/l < 0.1 mg/l < 0.01 mg/l < 0.005 mg/l < 50 mg/l < 5 mg/l

Hardness check : The hardness should be checked after every 6 hrs . It should be checked by the hardness test kits . The using hardness test kits is Hanna Instrument . Made in Italy .If the hardness is

going to be 0.5 on the syringe scale. Then have to do the regeneration process . The capacity of the vessel 115 m3 / hr or 115 ton / hr . Test procedure : 1. At first to get the 50 ml of soft water in a beaker . 2. Then add of 5 drops of hardness buffer solution & 1 drop of Calmagite indicator . 3. Then add reagent EDTA (Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid) indicator by a syringe It should be mixed until the water color light blue . 4. If the syringe indicator indicate 0.1 then hardness of water 3 & 0.2 then the hardness 6. SPECIFICATION OF THE VESSELS Vessel no : 01 Company name : ION EXCHANGE (INDIA) LIMITED Unit : Multigrade filter unit Size : 2600 dia x 2300 HOS Design pressure : 3.5 kg/cm2 Operating pressure : 3.0 kg/cm2 Capacity : 115 m3/hr Vessel no : 02 Company name : ION EXCHANGE (INDIA) LIMITED Unit : Activated carbon filter Size : 2800 dia x 2300 HOS Design pressure : 3.5 kg/cm2 Operating pressure : 3.0 kg/cm2 Capacity : 115 m3/hr Vessel no : 03 Company name : ION EXCHANGE (INDIA) LIMITED Unit : Softener unit Size : 2000 dia x 2300 HOS Design pressure : 3.5 kg/cm2 Operating pressure : 3.0 kg/cm2 Capacity : 115 m3/hr Maintenance scheduling & tactics Maintenance All Machines In Routine Basis Per Week : Day Saturday Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday

Name of machines M/c of Sclavos line De-watering m/c-1 De-watering m/c-2 Tube-tex – 1 Tube-tex – 2 M/c of AK line Dryer, cable tray light shed (if fabric is covered and given trolley movement space in finishing floor)

Time will be given 9 AM to 11 AM 9 AM to 10 AM 9 AM to 10 AM 9 AM to 10 AM 9 AM to 10 AM 9 AM to 10 AM 8 AM to 10 AM

Procurement / Inventory Management The type of inventory carried in this mill is as follows: • • • • •

Grey Fabric: Imported/ Own factory. Dyes and chemicals: Imported. Spare parts and Consumables: Local/ Imported. Packing materials: Local/ Imported. Finished fabrics: Good/Reject.

The prime responsibility for the inventory management function in the company including the estimation of consumption quantities of raw materials over the forecast period and initiation of a purchase requisition keeping in view quantities is transit and an order and the adequacy as otherwise of material coverage during lead time is as follows: Type of inventory Imported Grey Fabric Grey fabric – local Dyes & chemical-Imported Dyes & Chemical-Local Spare parts & Consumables Finished Fabric

Department primarily responsible Marketing Production Marketing Production Maintenance Marketing

The Procurement Department is responsible primarily for the sourcing of raw material. The flow chart of requisition of raw materials is as follows ------Factory requisition Audit Department Commercial





Accessory dyes / chemicals yarn


grey fabrics Finished fabrics Finished store

Marketing Information The declining retail sales and the losses shows by big retailer’s worldwide and consequent drop in order in the world wide garment industry proved to be a major challenge to our marketing efforts and strategy. The very fact that in spite of the factors mentioned earlier MTL maintained more or less the sales of last year showing a fall on only 3.32% is a credit to their marketing. In an uncertain world market, MTL doubled their efforts with our design team leading the way; they increased their calls as the customers & looked for ways to add new ones also. Having established a strong relationship with H & M and becoming one of their core suppliers, MTL targeted Europe & Australia also and made in roads there. MTL added new and dynamic designers to the existing team & can proudly say that their Spring and Autumn collections were hailed as some of the best to be presented. These meetings boosted the confidence of existing buyers and attracted new customers. MTL continued with their strategy to market value added products like dyed fabrics with special finishes. This is reflected in the increase in average price per linear meter. MTL now in a strong position to take on the challenge of WTO in the end of 2004 when quotes will be abolished and only those company’s with a reputation for innovative, creativity and reliability and the ones having strong strategic relationships and business alliances will survive and benefit. Social & Environmental Information Waste disposal System There is no effluent treatment plant in MTL The waste is directly through into the sewage which is further goes into the river. A pure biological plant is proposed to be constructed. Capacity : 4000 cubic meter/day

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