Comparison of Learning Outcomes in Cognitive Development between Pre-School Experienced And Non-Experienced Pupils First Chapter Description of the Study 1.1
Early childhood sets foundation for life. Early childhood programs are important, first to guarantee the rights of young children, enshrined in the convention on the Rights of the Child now ratified by 192 countries. Second, early childhood is a highly sensitive period marked by rapid transformations in physical, cognitive, social and emotional development. Under nutrition, deprivation of care and poor treatment are particularly managing to young children with repercussion of ten felt into adult years. Early Childhood is the period when humans are most dependent on relationships for survival, emotional, security and cognitive development. An inadequate nutrition and lack of proper care can have irreversible consequences. The convention the Right of the Child makes children best interests and development a control concern. Early childhood programs are one means of guaranteeing the rights of young children, by improving their well-being and preparing then for primary school. The immediate and long term benefits make such programs a cost effective strategy for reducing poverty and offsetting disadvantage. Commitment to early childhood has increased in recent years. The Convention of the Rights of the Child, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1989 and now endorsed by 192 national, is a unique instrument to protect children right to survival, development and protection. Rapid economic and social change is increasing the need for more early childhood policies and programs. Access to good early childhood programs is not widespread in developing countries. In contrast most children in developed countries have access to at least two years of free pre-school before beginning primary school. (UNESCO, 2007) The theoretical bases of considering early childhood education and care as a public good are outlined by Cleveland and Krashinsky (2003). These Canadian economists suggest that the arguments in favor of treating Early Childhood Education Care as a public good are similar to those used in favor of public education. In sum, early childhood services deliver externalities beyond the benefit of immediate, personal interest or consumption. Early childhood education and care contributes to the public good, e.g. to the general health of a nationâ€™s children, to future educational achievement, to labor market volume and flexibility, and to social cohesion. Early childhood services are also subject to â€œmarket failureâ€?, that is, they have characteristics that are difficult for consumers to judge accurately and purchasing mistakes can have serious consequences on the development of young children. Education is rarely a repeatable process. Unlike buying a product can not compensate to the previous loss of opportunity, while the continued use of an inferior service may actually harm the
development of the child (NICHD, 1997). In addition, early childhood services in market situations are subject to critical shortages and low quality - all of which indicate that government intervention is appropriate. Government involvement is also justified by the fact that the benefits delivered to societies by high quality early childhood services are greater than its costs. (OECD 2006, pp: 36-38) Primary education is the foundation on which the nationâ€™s edifice of education has to be built and the ground laid for the individualâ€™s pursuit of further learning and fulfillment of lifeâ€™s potentials. Bangladesh is committed to EFA and Dakar Framework and U N Millennium Development Goals for 2015. Its national development objectives and plans are guided by a strategy of poverty reduction and human development is which education, especially at the basic level, has a critical role. Early childhood sets foundation for life. Early childhood programs are important, first to guarantee the rights of young children, enshrined in the convention on the Rights of the Child now ratified by 192 countries. Second, early childhood is a highly sensitive period marked by rapid transformations in physical, cognitive, social and emotional development. Under nutrition, deprivation of care and poor treatment are particularly managing to young children with repercussion of ten felt into adult years. Early Childhood is the period when humans are most dependent on relationships for survival, emotional, security and cognitive development. An inadequate nutrition and lack of proper care can have irreversible consequences. The convention the Right of the Child makes children best interests and development a control concern. Early childhood programs are one means of guaranteeing the rights of young children, by improving their well-being and preparing then for primary school. The immediate and long term benefits make such programs a cost effective strategy for reducing poverty and offsetting disadvantage. Commitment to early childhood has increased in recent years. The Convention of the Rights of the Child, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1989 and now endorsed by 192national, is a unique instrument to protect children right to survival, development and protection. Rapid economic and social change is increasing the need for more early childhood policies and programs. Access to good early childhood programs is not widespread in developing countries. In contrast most children in developed countries have access to at least two years of free pre-school before beginning primary school. (UNESCO 2007, pp: 121-161) The children develop for a certain period in his family with a particular set rules and regulation within an influence of social norms and values. But nobody can survive in his own environment for long time because he has to cope up with the larger environment and has to reveal himself with full potential. So that he has to assimilate the social norms and values and prepare himself as social human being. This is the point where the significance of school can not be obliterated and role of school is widely recognized. The school has to take the responsibilities as guardian for the children in transforming them from family to society.
The competency achieved in Primary Education is very low as stated in the Education Watch report 2003. The competency denoted in the primary education curriculum is not being achieved by the learners and without achieving a greater percentage, they are being graduates and entering into secondary education. So the low quality education effects in secondary, higher secondary and higher education and consequently the nation is being deprived from quality human resources. So the information revealing the level of achievement of the learners is important which can contribute for further improvement of primary education system and betterment of the students. (CAMPE, 2005) The report on compulsory curriculum published by the National Curriculum and Text Book Board contain the character of primary level of education as follows: â€Ś.. In the existing education system of our country the primary education is the first step and this education is the right for all eligible school going children. There is no controversy about the necessity of primary education for the socio-economic development of under developed or developing country like Bangladesh. As the Primary Education is the terminal education of most of the children of this country so the particular target should have to be achieved both in qualitative and quantitative aspect. (NCTB, 2004) To implant societal feelings, nationalism, democracy, secularism etc. within the children, education is a must. In this context the first Education Commission in this country comprised in 1972 reveals the following-â€Ś. In our country nationalism, socialism, democracy and secularism have to be developed within learners through education and to do so we have to look after the implication of these things in their real life situation. (Bangladesh education commission report, 1974 ) The said research will reflect the situation of learning outcome achieved by the learners who have and have no the experience of pre-school and might contribute to the significance of establishing preschool for better achievement in primary schools. Some International Research findings show significant changes in children who go through preschooling system. Some longitudinal study had been done under consultation of Myers (1995) and important findings have been derived from those researches. In 10 out of 14 researches, drop out rate was significantly reduced and school performance was increased among the children who went through preschool. Two significant researches (Rickite 1995, Tamis-Lemonda 2001) show that, linguistic stimulation, response and learning through play ensure cognitive and linguistic development of children.
1.2 Pre-schooling Education System In April 2000, The World Education Forum held in Dakar the capital of Senegal. The delegates from more than 180 countries participate in this convention. The convention sets some targets and announces to achieve all those. The convention calls for six targets and among these the first one is for ECCD. The first is -We are being committed to achieve Child care, Development and Preparatory Education; especially for marginalized and under-privileged children. Early Childhood Care and Development is a process which ensures the right of appropriate development of the children from birth to eight years of age. It is comprehensive principles that ensures the physical protection, highly mental and cognitive development and consider such type of development as right of the children through child friendly programs derived from family and society. It considers the early child care, physical, emotional, social, linguistic and cognitive comprehensive development of the children. (Latif A H, pp: 22 - 23) Childhood is the base to be developed as a complete social human being. Healthy, strong and stout body is needed to be successful man at the same time an intelligent and healthy mentality is desirable as well. Early Childhood is the most important period for development of the whole life. Early Childhood is the period from embryonic stage to five years of age. (Plan Bangladesh, 2005) Research finding denotes the development and proliferation of brain takes place within two years of age and the cognitive development, aptitude of study, problem solving capacity depends on the development of brain. So the proper growing of intelligence would be deranged if the practice of intelligence is not been evolved with appropriate stimulating progression. So in early childhood children should have to be in care and development centre where children will be involved with deliberately designed activities and plays. Through these activities their physical, emotional, social and cognitive development could be achieved and the children would be familiar with schooling system which pilots them to achieve in grade one competence. The phenomena depicts that the opportunity of preparedness is essential before attaining the particular skill of education in formal schooling system. In this context the role of care and rare children with deliberately designed plays and activities is being evolved as imperative thing to ensure the comprehensive development in physical, emotional, social and cognitive aspect. On the basis of this perspective the parents, relative of children, child learning method, care and rare procedure and the role of care giver are being well thought-out as the main prerequisite of development of society and individual life. 1.3 Rationale/Significance of the problem: The quality of education is an imperative issue in education sector in Bangladesh. Not only in Bangladesh, is the said notion now a real concern to all over the world. It is more significant in
developing countries like Bangladesh, where the quality of education is very poor. So this is a burning question whether the quality is being achieved which is intended as per curriculum. If the answer is no, then it is important to know the percentage of achievement and reason for better achievement or the hindering issues for deficiencies. These answer will create more options and will dig out further questions to make answer. Such way the research findings will contribute for relevancy of school preparedness through the experiences in Pre-schools and in that means the process of intensification or to way out in achieving quality education. Pre-school is the learning intervention which contributes to the learners for entering into schooling system as preparedness. It contributes in mainly four areas like physical, social, emotional and in cognitive aspect, so that the learners might be competent with a smart personality and could deal with all sorts of challenges in primary schools. As a result the children in primary school could grow with their full potential in all respect. The learners without such type of watchfulness might not be able to face the challenges and consequently their learning outcomes might not be in expected level. In developed countries Early Childhood Care and Development has become a growing concern and widely uttered and the practice is being significant and enthusiastic in Bangladesh also. A series of steps have been taken by Bangladesh government to ensure the basic education. But a great number of disadvantaged and vulnerable children remain excluded; can not let the country to be successful in intended level in primary education. Even though the enrollment rated in primary education is appreciating, the drop out rate and the quality of the primary graduate is very alarming. Pre-school could play a vital role as foundation for making a solution of the said problem. So the study targeting these two sections of pupil who have the experiences of pre-school and who do not have the experiences of pre-school could provide the answer of proper way and means of learning interventions. In this context the study is very much significant which will contribute in long term in building the potential human resources. Education is the means to develop compatible human resource of a nation who will be able to solve contemporary problems, widen and develop their livelihood and finally to sustain in real life situation. So this is essential to make sure how the quality of education might be achieved for building human resource and the findings indicating the quality is similarly important. The Kudrat-E-Khuda Education Commission published the report in 1974 which depicts the significance of Pre-Schooling education and delivered some of the recommendations are as follows: â€˘
Necessary Child Centre and Child Park could be established in our country for Pre-schooling education. In city and industrial area, mainly for the requirement of the children from the labor society the obligatory Pre-schools have to establish.
There will be a need to establish an institute of Child Education Research Centre after conducting research on child education and child psychology. (Bangladesh education commission report 1974, p- 1) The Maniruzzaman Education Commission Report published in 2004 set the objectives of PrePrimary Education is as follows: 1) To prepare the children physically and mentally for primary education. 2) To make the children familiar with socialization through playing and child effective activities. 3) To prepare the children familiar with child friendly environment and social principle, discipline, behaviour. 4) To prepare the children familiar with playing and study associated with other children and create appropriate mentality. 5) To help the children in rhyme, dance, song, reciting, drawing, story telling, alphabet, numeric and achieving competence. 6) To create positive attitude attraction to school, teacher and formal education. 7) To create culture and affection to fair within the mind of the children. 8) To help the children to be capable as future active citizen of earth through effective using of the brain, heart and hands. The Maniruzzaman Education Commission Report reveals some very significant recommendation on Pre-schooling system by dint of its utility. The said recommendations are as follows: A. A branch has to open on Pre-School on basis of its significance. B. The National Text Book Board will design a national curriculum and syllabus for Pre-Primary School Education as like Primary Education. Support from UNICEF and British Council could be taken to accomplish the assignment. C. In first stage the Teacher Training Colleges of Dhaka, Mymenshing, Rajshahi and Chittagong will introduce a three months duration short certificate course for Pre-Primary School level teachers. In next phase the course could be designed in more developed form. D. Primary Education Department will determine the qualification, professional expertise and salary scale of Pre-Primary School Teaches. E. The Pre-Primary level schools have to be registered and the child friendly environment has to ensure in those schools. The Municipality Authority in city areas and the Union Council in rural areas could provide fund to Pre-Primary schools. The support from UNICEF could be available for the under developed areas. The quality control authorization could be refer to Primary Education Department and Regional Departments. F. The Day Care Centre should be established in city and industrial area for the children of labors family to prevent the children from diverse environment. This Day Care Centre must have to occupy with opportunity of playing, nutritious food and drinks.
The educational qualification of the Pre-Primary level teachers have to be minimum the level of Primary School teachers and they should have necessary professional training. The professional training course for these teachers should be involved with Child Psychology, the theoretical and practical knowledge on children teaching method, Child Mental Health, Science, Nutrition Science, Moral Education, First Aid, Child Literature, Music, Drawing, simple task for themselves, play etc. (Bangladesh education commission report, 2004, p- 18) The recent Education for All Report - 2007 illustrates a very significant scenario on Early Childhood Care and Education. The Report emphasizes with a significant degree on implementation of Early Childhood Care and Education. The report depicts the importance of Early Childhood Care and Education in this way -Why does Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) matter? •
ECCE is a right recognized in the Convention on the Rights of Child, which has own nearuniversal ratification.
ECCE an improve will-being of young children especially in the developing world where a child a four in ten chance of living in extreme poverty and 10.5 million children a year die from preventable diseases before age 5.
Early Childhood is a time of remarkable brain development that lays the foundation of late learning.
ECCE contributes to the other EFA Foals (e.g. it improves performance in the first years of primary schools) and to the MDG.
To make the significance of Early Childhood Care and Education vigilance the Report expounds the investment on it and return from this education. •
The Early Childhood Care and Education is more cost effective to institute preventive measures and support for disadvantage as they grow older.
Affordable reliable childcare provides essential support for working parents, particularly mothers.
Investment in ECCE yields very high economic returns, offsetting disadvantage and inequality especially of children from poor families. (EFA Global Monitoring Report 2007, p- 17)
The Education for All Report - 2007 illustrates more on consequence of implementing Early Childhood Care and Education programs and its diversified magnitude over other sectors. The Report denotes –
A powerful boost to education and development. Children who participates ECCE and have positive early learning experiences make a better transition to primary school, and are more likely to begin and complete it. By reducing drop out, repetition and special education placements, ECCE can improve the internal efficiency of primary education and decrease costs for both government and households. Many ECCE programs provide cares with access to parenting education and other forms support, which in turn can improve adult learning and skills. ECCE is also an important instrument for promoting gender parity. When young children attend ECCE programs their older sisters or female kin are relieved of care responsibilities, a common barrier to girl enrolment in primary school, some evidence primary school outcomes indicated that girls benefit more than boys from participation in ECCE. The programs also provide an opportunity to9 reduce stereotypes about traditional gender roles a foster gender equality at an age when young children empathy, tolerance and mortality. Participation in good quality ECCE is linked with achievement at subsequent levels of education and contributes to the quality of the education system as a whole. Moreover, when the transition to primary education is well managed, ECCE has the potential to influence the quality of pedagogy in primary school, making it more child-centered. The young children have rights, and early childhood program are one instrument to guarantee on human development emphasizes that young children these are satisfied affects the outcomes of their development perspective, participation in early childhood programs is beneficial because it leads to improved outcomes, including better nutrition, health and education in both the short and long run. Moreover from an economic point of view investment in early childhood programs offers a high payoff in human capital an there is a strong case for public intervention. Early childhood programs not only benefit children and families, they reduce social inequality and benefit communities and societies as large. 1.4 Objective: The General objective of this study is to assess and comparison of the achieved learning outcomes in cognitive aspect of the pupils experienced and non-experienced in pre-school. The specific objective of this study are to find out the difference between pre-school experienced and non-experienced pupils in competency of oral and reading to find out the difference between pre-school experienced and non-experienced pupils in writing competency to find out the difference between pre-school experienced and non-experienced pupils in numeracy
to find out the difference between pre-school experienced and non-experienced pupils in other cognitive competency 1.5 Hypothesis of the study The Hypothesis of the study “A comparison of Learning Outcomes in Cognitive Development Between Pre-School Experienced And Non-Experienced Pupils” are as follows: •
The children who completed the Pre-Schooling system are advanced in oral and reading in comparison to the children who have not the experience of Pre-Schooling.
The Pre-school experienced pupils are advanced in understanding different pattern rather than the Pre -school non-experienced pupils.
The Pre-school experienced pupils are advanced in numeracy rather than the Pre -school nonexperienced pupils.
The Pre-school experienced pupils are more capable in problem solving than the Pre -school non-experienced pupils.
1.6 Delimitation of the Study To conduct the study the researcher had to fetch some inconveniences in time, opportunity and different hassle due to different adverse situation. The limitations through which the study had to accomplish are as follows: •
The sample size is small because of time limitation.
The rural specimen could not been reached due to time and budget limitation.
Urban samples are confined in only in slum context in Dhaka City.
The observation and interview with the targeted pupils, teachers and parents ought to be more qualitative.
The specimen teacher number should be more.
1.7 Operational Definition Pre-school experienced pupil: The pupil who have the formal experience in school preparedness through pre-schooling system like Pre-School, Baby class, Play Group, Nursery etc. Pre-school non-experienced pupil: The pupil who have not the formal experience in school preparedness through pre-schooling system like Pre-School, Baby class, Play Group, Nursery etc. Cognitive development:
The development of attention, planning, decision making and memory based capability is called Cognitive Development. The issues which are very much related to cognitive development are as follows:
To identify different things and to understand their uses.
To understand different phenomena.
To understand good and bad.
To understand cause and effect.
To solve entitled problems.
1.8 Organization of the Study The study on “A comparison of Learning Outcomes in Cognitive Development Between PreSchool Experienced And Non-Experienced Pupils” focuses on the comparison of two groups of pupil intending the question whether the pre-school experienced pupils are advanced in cognitive aspect than the non-experienced pupils. The thesis report is divided into five chapters in addition to overview of the study. Following the overview; Chapter - 1: presents the description of the study including introduction, a brief description of preschooling system, rationale/significance of problem, objective, hypothesis, delimitation, and operational definition of the study. Chapter - 2: presents a brief account of the review of related literature. This chapter reveals the related issues and different study conducted by different researcher and findings from these studies. Chapter - 3: describes the methodology adopted for the study including the sampling design, instruments and data collection. Chapter - 4: deals with the data analysis and presentation including the data from different sources, data processing and its systematic representation. Chapter - 5: presents the result of the study, recommendations regarding the issues pertinent with the study and the conclusion of the study.
Second Chapter Review of Related Literature 2.1 Introduction The review of related literature provides the researcher the opportunity to get the information about the previously conducted researches in related field and the produced result. This information guides the researcher what has been done and what he should do. With the done works the researcher could make sure the way out of his intended task. The review of previous researches related to the new one gives the researcher a background to give some thoughts on problem area. The researcher can have a clear idea of the subject of research by going through those related literatures. The related literature review, criticism of the previous works prevents the duplication of same works, loss of energy, time and resources. That also leads the future research area and information collection. Standardized research is conducted based on previously gained knowledge. The knowledge of whole human kingdom has been accumulated as reports in various books and other resources. The researcher should be acquainted with that source and be equipped with that knowledge so that he will be confident to perform the intended activities with due goal and objectives. No study on the comparison of cognitive development of pre-school faced and non-faced pupils has been done. Only the brief summaries of the works and of the books very closely related to the study have been illustrated bellow. 2.2 Review of International Treaties that support ECCD: 2.2.1 Human Rights - some of the article of human rights reveal the right to education. •
Article 25: Everybody in childhood and motherhood has the right to special care and help.
Article 26: Everybody has the right to education. Education will be conducted for growing of personality and respect to human and fundamental rights.
2.2.2 Child Right Convention has been accepted in 1989 and it appears as an international law in 1990. This is the most widely accepted treaty in the history of the world. Every article of the convention reveals the interest of child, yet some articles directly denote the right of education. •
Article 28: Every child has the right of education. The state has main role to make sure mandatory of primary education and ensure the opportunity of education without cost.
Article 29: The main objective of education provided to child is to ensure the growth of the child with its full potential in individuality, talent, physical and mental aspect.
2.2.3 The World Education Forum announced six goals in Dakar conference 2000. The first two are related to education. Goal - 1: To pay endeavor for child care, development and preparatory education; especially for the vulnerable and disadvantaged children. Goal - 2: To ensure quality primary education to all children without cost with especial attention to girl child. 2.3 Review of researches in national context. 2.3.1 Save The Children USA (2002) conducted a study on the title, “Evaluation of Early Childhood Program of Grameen Shikkha”. The foremost objectives of the study are •
To know about existing situation of the program.
To determinate the influence of the program on the parents.
To identify the factors which influence the Pre-school.
To identify the effectively of the instructional design of the training and materials.
To find out the mechanism of community participation.
To recommend for future program.
Methodology of the study – The study was qualitative in nature depicting the immediate result or change. The method and techniques used in study was critical analysis of the existing situation of the program revealing influencing factors. Focus group discussion, interview and observation techniques were used. The results derived from the study are as follows: •
The parents have been more aware of due to integration of Pre-school and Parenting program.
The teacher and learners involved very effectively with classroom activities due to childfriendly environment.
The supervision has to be well-organized in Pre-school.
The program is conducted for the benefit of the community and they are prepared to participate in this program.
2.3.2 Bangladesh Forum for Education Development (BAFED) conducted a research (2001) on Early Childhood Care and Education. The prime objective of the study was to help the government in formulating principles and strategy for early childhood care, education and development program for children by providing fact and information on present situation and other relevant issues. In this study, the early childhood care, education and development meant by school preparedness program for 3 to 5
years children which ensure their physical, social, mental, emotional, cognitive and moral development and skill for pre-literacy. The salient feature of the results gained from the study is as follows: •
Ten types of child care and education institutions (Government primary schools, private primary schools, NGO conducted schools, Bangla medium secondary schools, English medium secondary schools, government day care centre, government parentless children care centre, Maktab or Madrasa, Chittagong Hill tract para centre.) generally have not include early childhood care, education and development program which is most effective for child development.
The institutions which have the school preparedness or care giving activities are mainly providing literacy skill. The opportunity of learning with enjoyment is limited.
Teachers, parents and children are aware of the negative effect of physical punishment.
Torture in home and the threatening voice of teacher in school impact negatively on the child.
Each and every replier is agreed that intelligence of child could be increased.
2.3.3 Sabira Sultana conducted a study (2001) on “The implementation status of Early Childhood Care and Development Program of Some Selected NGOs in Bangladesh: An Explorative Study”. Objectives of the study were •
To illustrate the nature of ECCD practices in terms of target population, area coverage, objectives and major activities/component.
To identify the physical facilities and financial assistance for ECCD program.
To explain the implementation process in terms of teaching learning activities, materials, teacher training, monitoring and supervision mechanism.
Major findings derived from the study are •
The ultimate goal of ECCD program is to prepare the children for primary schooling.
Community is very much aware of ECD and they contribute and support ECCD program run by the NGOs very well.
Different learning teaching activity in the program to ensure the holistic development of the learners.
Most of the learners were quite spontaneous in their activities.
The learners were quite good on rhyme, singing, playing.
The parents of the learners were very much satisfied about the NGOs ECCD program.
Most of the learners liked to come to the centers than staying home.
2.3.4 M Mohsin Ali conducted a study on “Determination of Difference Among The Learners Experienced And Non-Experienced Of Kinder Garten In Preparedness of Grade One”. Objective of the study were to know difference if any in preparedness for grade one among the learners who faced and not faced Kinder Garten. Key findings resulting from the study reveal significant difference among the children in picture reading, identifying the similarity and dissimilarity between two pictures, providing information on pictures, identifying Bangla Alphabet, identifying small letter of English and determining English numbers. The pupils who have the experience of Kinder Garten are more prepared for grade one than who have no experience of Kinder Garten. Third Chapter Method of the Study 3.1 Introduction The aim of the study “A Comparison of Learning Outcomes in Cognitive Development Between Pre-School Experienced And Non-Experienced Pupils” is an in-depth probe of advancement of Pre-School experienced pupils in cognitive aspect. The methodology demanded by the research questions was a mixture of both quantitative and qualitative techniques. This chapter presents the research question, approach and methodology. This chapter also depicts the development of the instruments, the sample design and the report preparation process. 3.2 Field of the Study The grade one of 10 schools of Dhaka City has been taken as Field of the Study. To select the schools the condition was identified as pupils of 5 schools will have the experience of preschools and 5 schools will have no experience of preschools. 3.3 Sample Selection To conduct the study the 10 teachers of grade one (One teacher from one school) of Surovi (a NGO) schools will be selected. The Surovi schools are established in slum context of Dhaka city for serving the marginalized children, especially the poorest of the poor. For controlling the variable socioeconomic status, no government school has been selected as there is no government school in that marginalized slum area. The population will be 300 pupils of grade I of 10 Primary Schools at Amlirtek, Sunibir, Adabar and Bawniabad of Mirpur area. From 300 pupils, 120 pupils have been selected through Systematic Sampling. 120 parents have been selected of the responded learners. Respective class teachers of the learners have been selected as responded for their assessment of the learners.
In the said study, a comparison has been made between two independent variables that are learning outcomes of pre-school experienced and non-experienced learners in cognitive aspect. An independent group design has been used in the experimental research. Information has been collected from the parents and school teachers of the respondent students. 3.5
Nature of Research
This study is an experimental classroom research on grade I pupils at the end part of the year who had or had no experiences on pre-schools. Some interviews have been accomplished among the parents and school teachers of the respondent pupils. The classroom research will be on two group design method on two variables that are learning outcomes of pre-school experienced and non-experienced pupils in cognitive development. 3.6 Data gathering Tools The following tools will be used in the study for data collection. â€˘
A set of questions prepared on the basis of terminal competency of grade one for assessing the learners.
A set of questions for teacher for observation of number of selective learners.
Interview sheet: o
An interview sheet for parents comprising 5 questions.
The white paper, pen, pencil, calculator etc will be used for data collection. 3.7
Data Gathering Process
The Researcher collected the questionnaire from each teacher after one day supplying of the questionnaire. The teachers collected score achieved by the learners through oral test and written answer sheet. In addition to that, some other information provided by respondent teacher; as their observation of selective learners. The researcher observed every targeted learners of their behavior, problem solving process, interpretation, questioning skill and other aspect of cognitive development. He observed all these things staying minimum 50 minutes in every school. The Researcher collected information from parents through set of questions. Parents of both group pupils were provided with question paper in parents meeting and asked to response. They respond in written and orally.
The aspects of observation of the Researcher are as follows: •
Question apprehension capacity.
Spontaneous of right answering.
Problem solving capacity.
The score has been gathered by the Researcher in score sheet for analysis. (see appendix) 3.8
After collection the questionnaire and other data, The Researcher statistically analyzed the data of two groups of pupils, articulated in percentage and frequency. A significant comparative cognitive difference has been observed from the percentage of that data presentation. Then the hypothesis has been tested on the basis of the result provided by the data.
Fourth Chapter Data Analysis and Interpretation 4.0 Introduction The study “A Comparison of Learning Outcomes in Cognitive Development Between Pre-School Experienced And Non-Experienced Pupils” is an experimental classroom research on grade I pupils at the end part of the year who had or had no experiences on pre-schools. Data have been collected form total 120 students among them there are two group pupils who are•
60 pupils are have pre-school experience and
60 pupils have experience on pre-school
Data have been in three fold process •
Oral and written Test
Observation of Teacher
Observation of Parent
This chapter presents the data analysis, comparison and interpretation. Data analysis and comparison from Test of the Pupil Data analysis and comparison of score from Test on cognitive development of the two group Pupils. Each category analysis has been done in four step scale. 4.1 Oral and Reading Table - 1: Pre-school experienced pupils
(N = 60) Grade Frequency Very Good 49 Good 11 Poor 0 Bad 0 Table - 2: Pre-school non-experienced pupils
Percentage (%) 82 18 0 0
(N = 60) Grade Very Good Good Poor Bad
Frequency 35 19 6 0
Percentage (%) 58 32 10 0
Here in this oral and reading part we see that, 82 percent pupils who got preschool experience obtain oral and reading ‘Very Good’. Where as 58 percent possess ‘Very Good’ in oral and reading who did not get preschool experience. 18 percent preschool experienced pupils achieved the second grade that is ‘Good’ and there is no pupil in ‘Poor’ and ‘Bad’ grade. But 32 percent pupil achieved ‘Good’ in oral and reading and 10 percent in ‘Poor’ who have no preschool experience. So, obviously preschool experienced pupils are in advance position than non-experienced pupils. 4.2 Writing Table - 3: Pre-school experienced pupils (N = 60) Grade Very Good Good Poor Bad
Frequency 46 13 1 0
Percentage (%) 77 21 2 0
Table - 4: Pre-school non-experienced pupils (N = 60) Grade Very Good Good
Frequency 32 22
Percentage (%) 53 37
77 percent preschool experience pupils are ‘Very Good’ in writing ability. Where as writing ability of 53 percent pupil is ‘Very Good’ who did not get preschool experience. 21 percent preschool experienced pupils are ‘Good’ in writing and 2 percent pupil in ‘Poor’ and there is no pupil of both categories in ‘Bad’ grade. 37 percent pupil achieved ‘Good’ and 10 percent in ‘Poor’ who have no preschool experience. So, here in writing section we see that, preschool experienced pupils are in advance position than nonexperienced pupils. 4.3 Numeracy Table - 5: Pre-school experienced pupils (N = 60) Grade Very Good Good Poor Bad
Frequency 38 19 3 0
Percentage (%) 63 32 5 0
Table - 6: Pre-school non-experienced pupils (N = 60) Grade Very Good Good Poor Bad
Frequency 23 21 15 1
Percentage (%) 38 35 25 2
In Numeracy part, who got preschool experience 63 percent pupils are ‘Very Good’. 32 percent pupils are ‘Good’ and 5 percent are ‘Bad’ in Numeracy. Only 38 percent pupils are ‘Very Good’ in Numeracy who did not get preschool experience possess grade 35 percent in ‘Good’ and 25 percent pupil in ‘Poor’; 2 percent in ‘Bad’ in Numeracy who did get preschool experience. So, exquisitely preschool experienced pupils are in advance position than non-experienced pupils. 4.4 Others Table - 7: Pre-school experienced pupils
(N = 60) Grade Very Good Good Poor Bad
Frequency 53 6 1 0
Percentage (%) 88 10 2 0
Table - 8: Pre-school non-experienced pupils (N = 60) Grade Very Good Good Poor Bad
Frequency 38 18 4 0
Percentage (%) 63 30 7 0
In other cognitive competencies we see that, 88 percent pupils who got preschool experience are ‘Very Good’ in other cognitive competencies. Where as 63 percent pupils are ‘Very Good’ other cognitive competencies who did not get preschool experience possess grade 10 percent preschool experienced pupils achieved the ‘Good’ in other cognitive competencies and 2 percent pupil in ‘Poor’ and there is no pupil of both preschool experienced and non-experienced categories in ‘Bad’ in other competencies. 30 percent achieved ‘Good’ and 7 percent in ‘Poor’ who have no preschool experience. So, obviously here also preschool experienced pupils are in advance position than preschool nonexperienced pupils. Data analysis and comparison from Observation of Teacher 4.5 Expression of feeling without Hesitation Table - 9: Pre-school experienced pupils (N = 30) Grade Yes No
Frequency 24 6
Percentage (%) 80 20
Table - 10: Pre-school non-experienced pupils (N = 30) Grade Yes
Percentage (%) 37
In expressing feeling without hesitation, teachers observe that, 80 percent pupils who got the preschool experience can express their feeling without feeling. Where as, only 37 percent pupil who did not get preschool experience can express feeling without hesitation. So, in comparison of the capability of expressing feeling without hesitation preschool experienced pupils are advanced than preschool non-experienced pupils.
4.6 Providing and Following Rule in Group Play Table - 11: Pre-school experienced pupils (N = 30) Grade Frequency Yes 28 No 2 Table - 12: Pre-school non-experienced pupils
Percentage (%) 93 7
(N = 30) Grade Yes No
Frequency 9 21
Percentage (%) 30 70
In case of capability of providing play rules and following provided rules, teachers observe that, 93 percent pupils who got the preschool experience can provide rule if necessary and also follow set rule while play. Conversely, only 30 percent pupil who did not get preschool experience can set rules or follow provided rules while play. No doubt, the pupil who got preschool experience are significantly advanced than preschool nonexperienced pupils in setting play rules and follow play rules as per criteria.
4.7 Capability of Prediction (as story) Table - 13: Pre-school experienced pupils (N = 30) Grade Yes No
Frequency 24 6
Percentage (%) 80 20
Table - 14: Pre-school non-experienced pupils (N = 30) Grade
In comparison of capability of prediction (as story), 80 percent pupils who got the preschool experience can assume next sequence or happening (in story). Conversely, 43 percent pupil who did not get preschool experience can assume next happening. Hence, the pupils who got preschool experience are advanced than preschool non-experienced pupils in prediction capability. 4.8 Questioning for making clear of predicted thing Table - 15: Pre-school experienced pupils (N = 30) Grade Yes No
Frequency 23 7
Percentage (%) 77 23
Table - 16: Pre-school non-experienced pupils (N = 30) Grade Yes No
Frequency 7 23
Percentage (%) 23 77
In comparison of capability of Questioning for making clear of predicted thing, 77 percent pupils who got the preschool experience can question to make predicting thing clear. On the contrary, only 23 percent pupil who did not get preschool experience can question to make predicting thing clear. Hence, the pupils who got preschool experience are advanced than preschool non-experienced pupils in predicting capability.
4.9 Capability of Comprehending Pattern (rhythm, word, sentence) Table - 17: Pre-school experienced pupils (N = 30) Grade Yes No
Frequency 20 10
Table - 18: Pre-school non-experienced pupils (N = 30)
Percentage (%) 67 33
Grade Yes No
Frequency 7 23
Percentage (%) 23 77
In case of capability of comprehending pattern, teachers observe that, 67 percent pupils who got the preschool experience can comprehend pattern of rhythm, word or sentence in their level. Conversely, only 23 percent pupils possess the capability of comprehending pattern who did not get preschool experience. No doubt, the pupils who got preschool experience are significantly higher than preschool nonexperienced pupils in capability of comprehending pattern. Qualitative analysis and comparison from Observation of Parent 4.10 Questioning Skill Parents of pupils who are preschool experienced respond that the questioning skill has been developed of their kids after attending in preschool. The children could make questions sometimes their exploration is rapid and profuse. The parents of preschool non-experienced pupils were respond in a way that their children could make question sometimes, but most of the time they could not or donâ€™t try to explore. Sometimes their question is not meaningful or structured. In comparison of the observation of the parents in terms of questioning skill we see that experience of preschool make the pupil skilled on questioning. 4.11 Problem Solving Parents were asked about the skill of their kids in solving little problems like exploring things needed or providing things as directed. Parents of pupils who are preschool experienced reported that their children could solve these sorts of little problem confidently. They are enthusiastic to solve these problems. Where as pupils are non-experienced through preschool are not smart in solving problems as their parents observed. Some of them could also solve problems but this might derived from experience from real life situation (as per age) and all those are not promptly. 4.12 Questioning for making things clear As parents observed this is also achieved by the preschool experienced pupil higher than that of preschool non-experienced pupils. From experiencing preschool, pupils got the capability to make questions objectively to comprehend things that they felt hazy. The pupils who did not experience preschool are not enthusiastic to make it clear by asking questions.
4.13 Capacity of Story Telling (story which has starting, body and end) The parents were happy to tell that after experiencing preschools the children achieved the capacity to tell story (might be small) which has much more distinct starting, body and end. On the contrary, the parent of the children who have preschool experience reported that most of the cases their children are not capable to tell story which has distinct starting, body and end. 4.14 Speaking Structurally Parents observed that the preschool experienced children could speak structurally and this skill has been achieved after getting the experience. Sometimes they enjoy speaking as the parents feel. On the other hand, the children who did not experience preschool could not speak structurally in many cases. They could speak but the sentences are not well structured and sometimes these are not meaning worthy. So pupils who experience preschool are higher in capacity to speak structurally, than the pupils who did not experience preschool. Fifth Chapter Findings, Discussion, Recommendations and Conclusion of the Study 5.1 Introduction In the study “A Comparison of Learning Outcomes in Cognitive Development Between PreSchool Experienced And Non-Experienced Pupils” result has been determined on the basis of the data collected from pupils, teachers and parents. 5.2 Findings of the Study (Result derived from Test Score of the Pupils) In which areas the significant variations have been observed are as follows Preschool experienced pupils are significantly advanced in oral and reading abilities. •
Preschool experienced pupils could present rhyme with more appropriate pronunciation, rhythm and speed than preschool non-experienced pupils.
Preschool experienced pupils could read with clear pronunciation and speed than preschool non-experienced pupils.
Preschool experienced pupils could write better than non-experienced pupils
Preschool experienced pupils could write words and sentences more clearly than nonexperienced pupils
Preschool experienced pupils could write letters in right direction
Preschool experienced pupils significantly advanced in numeric competencies than nonexperienced pupils •
Preschool experienced pupils are more capable in number identification and application of numbers.
Preschool experienced pupils are higher than non-experienced pupils in mathematical process like addition and subtraction.
In comparison to other cognitive competencies, preschool experienced pupils are advanced than non-experienced pupils. •
Preschool experienced pupils are advanced in classification
Preschool experienced pupils are more capable in solving puzzle or ideas on shape and size.
Preschool experienced pupils are more capable than non-experienced pupils in expressing feeling without hesitation.
Preschool experienced pupils could set rules for play and follow provided rules while play.
In assuming next happening or sequence (like in story) preschool experienced pupils are advanced than non-experienced pupils.
Preschool experienced pupils are capable and enthusiastic to make questions for clearing the assuming things.
Preschool experienced pupils are more capable than non-experienced pupils in comprehending pattern •
Preschool experienced pupils advanced in comprehending rhythm pattern
Preschool experienced pupils could comprehend pattern in words and sentences in their level.
In questioning skill, preschool experienced pupils are advanced than non-experienced pupils.
Preschool experienced pupils are more capable than non-experienced pupils in simple problem solving in their level
For making things understandable, preschool experienced pupils are more capable than nonexperienced pupils.
Preschool experienced pupils are advanced than non-experienced pupils in story telling. •
Preschool experienced pupils could tell story with distinct starting of the story.
Preschool experienced pupils could tell story with body and a finishing.
In speaking structurally Preschool experienced pupils are more capable than non-experienced pupils. â€˘
Preschool experienced pupils could speak meaningfully
Preschool experienced pupils could express tidily
5.3 Discussion 5.3.1 Discussion on student performance: The preschool experienced pupils are distinctly advanced in cognitive development than the pupil who did not get the opportunity of preschool experience. In language interpretation in oral and written, numeracy and other cognitive areas like puzzle solve, classification skill in all those areas preschool experienced pupils are highly developed than the non-experienced pupils. The environment where a child develop plays key role for revealing the potential and early age the high time when brain circuits configured through grasping the experience. Children's early reading and writing learning is embedded in a larger developing system of oral communication. Writing and reading with an alphabetic system involve an extra layer of symbols, where the phonemes are represented by letters. This is an indication that beginners must learn both the extra symbols as, letters of the alphabet and raise their consciousness of the phonemes. Early mathematics possesses the importance to initiate logical thinking by the young children. The conception of rationality comes from mathematics mainly. So early mathematics is very important which impacts on later part of life. The number operation is the early conception which helps to grasp other concepts on mathematics. That is why the deliberate presentation of mathematics concepts with lots of nun and games could make convenient for the children to achieve it. Teacher has to be conscious and put vigorous endeavor to make the session effective and meaning-worthy for the children. The total activities offered for the learner in preschool are pertinent to brain development and other related cognition and the pupils who got the preschool experience deliberately attacked the activities and could have been shown their capability. Conversely the pupils who did not get the opportunity to have the experience of preschool could not attack the activity deliberately that have been shown in their performance and this reveals the cognitive development. There is a distinguishing deficiency of cognitive development of two group pupils demonstrate the significant impact of preschool intervention. 5.3.2 Discussion on teacher observation: The teacher is the key player in classroom situation in revealing the potential of the learners could observe significantly than others. The result from teacher observation offers the clear advanced progress of the preschool experienced pupils. Teachers observe the preschool experienced pupils are advanced in clear interpretation, following provided instruction, prediction capability than the
preschool non-experienced pupils. All this progress of the preschool experienced pupil shows their cognitive development which has been derived from the structured activities of preschools. The pupil who missed the experienced in preschool could not get prepared cognitive development domain that has been demonstrated in their classroom performance as observed by their teachers. 5.3.3 Discussion on parent observation: The children spend most of the time of a day with their parents, so parents are the significant observer of the progress of the children. Parent’s observation shows that preschool experienced pupils are more sophisticated in questioning skill, problem solving, comprehending, story telling etc. On the contrary the pupils who are not preschool experienced are in position of deficiency of those skills demonstrate the imperativeness of preschool intervention that could make impact on cognitive development of the children. The total progress due to having the experience in preschool make the parents enthusiastic and proving the consequence of preschool experience in cognitive development. 5.4 Recommendation Grasping the result from the study, it is obviously notable that preschool is imperative. On the basis of the study, the following recommendations have been drawn: •
Age appropriate all children should be covered by preschool program.
Enrollment in preschool before primary school should be compulsory.
Making parent awareness on the importance of preschool.
Appropriate curriculum has to be prepared and ensure proper implementation.
All preschool teachers should be trained properly.
Appropriate materials have to be developed and ensure proper use.
Quality in preschool has to be maintained through proper supervision and monitoring.
There should be a remedial support system for children who did not experience preschool.
Establishing preschool in all primary school.
Infrastructures have to be developed.
There should be parity with different pre-schooling approach.
A coordination system should be developed among the different implementation organization.
Ensure participation of comm8nity, civil society and NGOs with government effort.
Advocacy on pre-schooling.
Institutionalization of preschool.
Prepare a national pre-schooling policy and plan of action.
5.4 Conclusion Unavailability of preschools creates serious deprivation of children of 3-5 years age. Due to unavailability or deprivation from enrollment in preschool, many children are getting admission in grade one directly. So, the children who do not get experience of preschool fall in set back of cognitive development and many other competencies. Conversely the children who go through preschool achieve essential cognitive and other competencies and get prepared for accepting formal schooling system. This section of children goes through a structured system in preschool, introduce with many activity corners, play with so many materials, have option of thinking and innovation, interact with peer and teacher, work with age appropriate reading-writing materials and other so many activities. All these activities make a good impact on cognitive development of the children and also on other development domains. Keeping all these in mind, government and other stakeholders should pay endeavor for creating opportunity for all children enrollment in preschool. Ensuring all children in preschool, nation will get better human resource. Probable next Research: 1. Longitudinal study on preschool experienced learners. 2. Impact assessment of preschool in Physical, Social, Emotional and Linguistic domains.
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Early childhood sets foundation for life. Early childhood programs are important, first to guarantee the rights of young children, enshrined...
Published on Nov 10, 2015
Early childhood sets foundation for life. Early childhood programs are important, first to guarantee the rights of young children, enshrined...