Gazipur Sadar Upazila
1.1 Introduction: The history of transport development all over the world a process of gradual evolution. Bangladesh is not an exception in this regard. Over centuries a varied and complex transport system has developed in this country on account of itâ€™s various geographical features and historical facts. Since transport system provides one of the basic infrastructures and acts as a prerequisite for socio-economic development of a country, the GOB has accorded priority to build up a necessary surface transport system, particularly a suitable road transport network. Development of a suitable transport network will play an important role in achieving desired targets of macro-economic development of the country. Identification of the need and the effect of transportation infrastructure investment are particularly important when development resources are limited. This is the true especially in the context of developing country. Transportation is considered to be one of the most important infrastructure components influencing production. For this reason there exists considerable procedure for investment in the transportation sector. The role of road network development in the rural area of Bangladesh is an important issue, especially in case of economic and regional development. The study area for the proposed study is Gazipur Sadar Upazila. The study of the role of road network in development is particularly important for Bangladesh. Because during the last couple of decades transportation attracted more than twenty percent of national investment, most of which is concentrated on road transportation sector. The present road network are playing an important role in the development of Gazipur Sadar Upazila. The proposed study will help to get an idea about the economic and regional development of this upazila. The study will also give knowledge about the road network and itâ€™s impact in the livelihood of this upazila.
1.2 Background of the Study: Although there is overall resource constraints in the country, GOB has been making substantial investments in building social and physical infrastructure including road network because of its paramount need as a pre-requisite for socio-economic development of the country. Road maintenance activities in Bangladesh were carried out mainly as condition responsive repairs which included routine maintenance, pothole patching, seal-coat and thin layered overlay works within the budget constraint. These activities were undertaken rather arbitrarily as and when necessary if fund allowed, without proper planning and employing any analysis in determining and justifying the actual needs. In so far as allocation of fund is concerned, road development program was always given much preference over maintenance works. With the expansion of road network and increase of vehicular traffic on roads, road transport has turned out to be the dominant mode in carriage of freight and passenger traffic in the country. While the traditional water and railway transports have continued to show an overall declining trend in their performance, road transport maintains an increasing role in taking care of goods and passenger traffic movement in the country. According to the estimate of Bangladesh Road Master Plan (BRMP) Study in 1990-91, road transport accounts for about 66 percent of ton-km by mechanized transport (5 billion) and about 73 percent of passengerkm by mechanized transport (37 billion). The general effect of transportation improvement is to allow more location choice for any given economic activity. In a primitive economy, for example, with very limited transportation, people can only choose from resources close at hand, though those resources ma meet their major life requirements. The availability of transport facilities and the cost of transporting raw materials and finished products to and from manufacturing areas have assumed a central position in many treatments of industrial location. Certain heavy industries are expanding in their transport requirements and may need waterside facilities as well as rail connections. Yet the continuous improvements in roads and in the motor vehicles have made many industries virtually independent of other forms of transport and in conjunction with the wider use of electric power, have operated to produce a considerable degree of indeterminacy in the location of some industries. Rural markets, growth centers and industries have important role in the present study. The economic history of the highly developed economies clearly shows that the growth of manufacturing industries has been an important part of the process by which they have been able to attain their present high income levels. Markets may be specific and localized or diverse and widespread. Industries producing goods for farther processing or for assembling in other industries tend to be situated in close proximity to them. Industries producing consumer goods, however, find the increasing concentration of population in large cities that is such a marked feature of countries at a high level of economic development an irresistible magnet. This study presents an objective and comprehensive account of the economic and regional development of Gazipur Sadar Upazila. An attempt is made in this paper to evaluate the growth of the area. A geographical analysis has been made to show the development and also an attempt has been made to construct a fairly complete picture of the area. 1.3 Objectives of the Study: The preliminary aim of this study is to develop a tool for studying the interrelationship between road network and economic and regional development of Gazipur Sadar Upazila. However, the specific objectives of the study area can be summarized as follows:
To develop recent road network map of the study area, Gazipur Sadar Upazila.
• • • •
To assess economic development activities of Gazipur Sadar Upazila. To develop the relationship between road network and regional development. To assess the role of transportation on agricultural products marketing. To find the influence of road network on the development of the livelihood of rural people of Bangladesh.
1.4 Methodology of the Study The study will be carried out by the following systematic and stepwise methodology. The flowchart of the methodology is shown below: 1.4.1. Thesis Initiation: The thesis has been initiated with the conceptualization of the prospects of road network for solving the transportation problems of Gazipur Sadar Upazila. The research also evaluates the event of success and failure of the road network and analyzes the drawbacks of the plan. 1.4.2. Formulation of objectives: Five definite objectives are defined for the study and the entire study has been formulated to fulfill the objectives. 1.4.3. Formulation of thesis plan: After formulation of the objectives, a comprehensive thesis plan has been prepared to carry out the study. The methodology has been designed to guide the succeeding steps to achieve the desired goals. 1.4.4. Selection of study area: The study area is Gazipur Sadar Upazila. This area is divided into nine unions. The study has been conducted with the aim of analyzing the economic and regional development process. 1.4.5. Literature Review: The first step of an organized methodology is the study on the relevant subject. A meaningful literature search is necessary to direct the study. Literature is in the form of text, statistics, thesis and websites has been thoroughly. Different relevant literatures (reports, journals, articles and thesis etc.) on road network has reviewed to get an idea about the study area and it’s problems. Reviewed literature: 1. Impact Assessment of Transport on Regional Economy using Data Envelopment Approach – A Case Study in Bangladesh, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology. This study examines the role of transportation investment in regional economic development of Bangladesh and compares the effectiveness with respect to other input parameters. The investment pattern and criteria under which resources are allocated among competing sectors and projects might have created investment bias towards already developed regions and resulted in economic inefficiency. 2. Regional Inequality of Development in Bangladesh. - Mohammad Shibli Rahman, Department of Geography and Environment. University of Dhaka.
A spatial analysis of the ‘Levels of Development’ obtained from the factor analysis of 25 selected indicators of development covering a wide ranging field of ‘Regional Inequalities of Development in Bangladesh’ is presented. The selected indicators include five major components viz. general feature and environment, social and manpower, infrastructure, agriculture and general economy conclude with the overall development. This work gives the summary results and a clear picture of the different aspects of development. 3. The Role of The Transport Road Network in The Economic Development of Saudi Arabia. The proper development of the transport road network not only reduces the cost of transportation, both in terms of money and time, but also helps in the integration of various regions within the country and the better understanding of neighbouring countries at the international level. The transport road network in Saudi Arabia contributed to the development of the country by bringing in direct benefits from its role in the development of some sectors, such as minerals, agriculture, industry and commerce. In vast countries like the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, where the main population centres are not only scattered all over the country but are also separated by deserts, sand dunes, valleys and mountains, a reliable transport road network becomes all the more important and essential. Therefore, this paper aims to identify the level of the transport road network in Saudi Arabia. 4. Infrastructure Development for the Economic Development in Developing Countries: Lessons from Korea and Japan - Byoungki KIM. Infrastructure is indispensable to achieve the main development targets in developing countries, such as urbanization, industrialization, export promotion, equitable income distribution, and sustainable economic development. Late developing countries can benefit from previous development experience provided they choose the right model. However, the relationship between infrastructure and economic growth is still frequently debated. This paper examines the experience of Korea and Japan in infrastructure development for economic growth to acquire some valuable lessons that infrastructure development contributes to economic development in developing countries. 5. Transportation and Economic Development 2002. This research paper covered a variety of themes related to the crosswalk between transportation and economic development. Some sessions focused on rural development, with an especially close look at the role of the Appalachian Development Highway System in addressing the rural poverty that characterized pockets of Appalachia throughout much of the 20th century. Another series of sessions explored the overlap of transportation and economic development in major urban areas throughout the world, including Paris, Mexico City, and London. Other speakers focused on various aspects of causation; while speakers and attendees generally recognized a correlation between transportation and economic vitality, a number of speakers discussed the roles of benefit.cost analysis, new econometric modeling tools, and case studies in exploring the actual causal relationship between forms of transportation investment. 6. Role of public investment to promote eco-efficiency of infrastructure such as public transport - M A Malek, Department of Environment, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh.
The role of an efficient transport and communication system is extremely critical for the socio-economic progress of a country. As physical infrastructure is indispensable, a well-knit transport and communication network ensures a well balanced distribution system for the means of production, efficient marketing of produced commodities, maintaining stability of price and rapid industrialization. In the current context of globalization and market economy, there is a critical need for evolving a developed and well knit transport and communication system that should be able to integrate Bangladesh with the international transport and communication network. Realizing this importance, the concerned ministries and their agencies continue to exert their concerted efforts to develop the system.
Identification of Data Source: Through literature review and discussing with relevant professionals of different organization the sources of data has identified. Advice of the thesis supervisor is the main guideline for this activity. The data can be categorized as(a) primary data and (b) secondary data. (a) The primary data has been collected through socio-economic survey and locate the growth center and rural markets. (b) The secondary data has been collected from Roads and Highways Department (RHD), Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS), Department of Urban and Regional Planning (URP) of BUET, Department of Civil Engineering of BUET, Center for Environmental and Geographic Information Services (CEGIS). 1.4.7 Data Collection: After the identification of the data sources, necessary data has been collected to assess and evaluate the existing situation. Data has been collected both from the primary and the secondary sources. The required data has been collected from different sources need assessment. The basic categories of data has used in this study are: a) GIS Data: b) Attribute Data:
Administrative boundary (District, Upazila, Union etc.) Road Network: GIS layers of Gazipur Sadar Upazila which includes National Highways, Regional roads, Zila roads, Upazila roads, Union roads, Village roads. Connectivity maps of Gazipur Sadar Upazila. Hospital and health centers location. Educational Institute location. Data of growth centers. Road inventory data. Socio-economic data.
220.127.116.11 Primary Data Collection: Majority information about the present condition from the direct observation of the study area. The information about the physical, economic and infrastructure condition have been collected from the primary sources through field survey. Field survey has been conducted from 5th July to 13th July.
18.104.22.168.1 Questionnaire Survey: Maps from secondary sources are used as a based map. A predefined survey has been conducted to collect information about the land use pattern, roads types and pattern, which helps to perceive a detail view of the area. Questionnaire survey is a direct procedure for the collection of data, which gives a clear opinion of the respondent regarding the subject. A questionnaire survey has been conducted to collect detail information of roads, growth centers, agricultural products manufacturing and socio-economic condition within the study area to get a real picture of the development process of Gazipur Sadar Upazila. 63 places are randomly selected as sample from the area for detail questionnaire survey. 22.214.171.124 Secondary Data Collection: Secondary data has been collected mainly through consultation with the related officials and personnel and from relevant literature. The prime two sources of collecting secondary information are from previous works and from concerned departments. 1.4.8 Data Processing: The spatial or GIS data has been processed using GIS software such as ArcGIS. The attribute data or time series data has been interpreted and processed using Microsoft Access. Statistical analysis has been carried out using Microsoft Excels. After processing all the data, a well organized database has been developed for analysis. 1.4.9
Data Analysis & GIS Mapping:
After processing and database development data has been analyzed for generating the required outcome of the study. The different analytical modules of ArcGIS software has been used to analyze the GIS data and generating GIS maps. Spatial Analyst module of ArcGIS has been used to analysis the spatial distribution road network and growth centers (hat, bazaar) of Gazipur Sadar Upazila. Different types of GIS maps has been generated under this step. The Attribute and time series data has been analysis using Microsoft Access. Statistical analysis has been carried out using Microsoft Excels. The relation between road network and economic or regional development has been done by the analysis in Microsoft Excels. 1.4.10 Thesis Report Writing with Conclusion & Recommendation: After data analysis and GIS mapping a comprehensive thesis report has been written. From the analysis potentials and drawbacks of Gazipur Sadar Upazila has been predicted. Finally, some recommendations have been put forward and necessary measures have been suggested in order to improve the present condition and also for better future development to make an effective use of Government efforts and resources. 1.5 Scope The road network can show the economic and regional development of Gazipur Sadar Upazila. The population of Gazipur Sadar Upazila is increasing gradually. But the land area is limited. The occupation of the most of the people of this upazila is farming. The farmers are growing multiple crops in a same land for their sustainable economic development. For marketing farmerâ€™s products, planned rural road network development is essential. The study will assess the existing road network status in terms of farmerâ€™s product marketing. The second occupation of the people of this upazila is business. There is an important impact of road network for improving their business and economic activities. The study will also try to find out the relationship between rural economic development and road network. To develop the economic and regional condition of this upazila reconstruction and practical oriented plans are needed. Proper implementations of these plans are required with the sustainable maintenance. The present study has also been carried out identify the functions of rural markets of Gazipur Sadar Upazila, functional gap to be filled up for enhancing rural
development and to formulate a policy guideline for the development of rural markets as the growth centre of integrated rural development. The study will illustrate the role of road network in economic and regional development of Gazipur Sadar Upazila. 1.6 Limitations The study was initiated with a view to cover all the aspects of development process and growth pattern of the study area to fulfill all the objectives and requirement. But the study area is not free from limitations. Like other research works, this study also has few obvious constrains, difficulties and limitations. These problems may not be totally overcome but tried to mitigate as far as possible. These are as follows: a) Somewhere people were reluctant to answer some questions and some of them also gave incorrect answer. Hence, it created some problems. b) Time constraint is one of the difficulties to collect primary data. c) Communication is other difficulty to collect primary data. d) Credibility of secondary data is a problem in collection of secondary data. PROFILE OF GAZIPUR SADAR UPAZILA 2.1 Introduction: Gazipur Sadar is an upazila of Gazipur District in the Division of Dhaka. Gazipur was upgraded as a district in 1984. Formerly it was part as its sub-division. Gazipur disrtict is located between 23째53' and 24째21' north latidutes and between 90째09' and 90째22' east longitudes. It consists of 5 upazilas, 67 unions, 825 mouzas. In respect of size it ranks 7 th among in Dhaka Division. The upazilas of the district are 1. Gazipur Sadar Upazila 2. Kaliakair Upazila 3. Kaliganj Upazila 4. Kapasia Upazila 5. Sreepur Upazila
Map 1. Gazipur District
Gazipur Sadar Upazila is the largest upazila in terms of population and is the second largest upazila in terms of area in the district. It is comprised of former Joydevpur and Tongi thanas. 2.2
Joydeb Narayan Roy Chowdhury, the zamindar of Bhawal built his residence at Pirabari on the southern side of the river Chilai and named it Joydebpur. Kalinarayan Roy Chowdhury got the title of 'Raja' in 1878 and the residence of the zamindars of Joydebpur became to be known as the 'Rajbari' (Royal Palace). Three persons were killed in a resistance movement at Tangi on 4 March 1971. The Pak army killed Hurmat, Manu Khalifa (tailor), Niamat and Kanu Mia at Joydebpur and Chandana Chowrasta on 19 March 1971. It is not definitely known about the origin of name of the upazila. There is a hearsay that in the past it was an abode of a famous Gazi family. The upazila might have derived its name from the name of the Gazi family. 2.3 Profile of Gazipur Sadar Upazila: To analyze the economic and regional development of Gazipur Sadar Upazila, consideration of the regional setting of the upazila and physical and socio-economic condition are very important which have discussed in this chapter. 2.3.1 Location: Gazipur Sadar Upazila is located between 23°53' and 24°11' north latitudes and between 90°20' and 92°30' east longitudes. 2.3.2 Area: Gazipur Sadar Upazila (GAZIPUR district) with an area of 446.38 sq. km, including 0.31 sq. km. river area and 54.52 sq. km. forest area. This upazila is bounded by Sreepur upazila on the north, Savar upazila and Uttra thana and Rupganj upazila on the south, Kaliganj upazilas, Rupganj upazila of Narayanganj and Sreepur on the east, Kaliakair and Savar upazilas on the west. Main rivers are Turag, Balu, Labandaha and Salda. Tongi Khal is noted. 2.3.2 Soil Condition: The soil of the upazila is mainly dominated by the extension of shallow up land soil of the Modhupur Tract. There are high ridges with dissected terrace alluvium in the valley. The western part of the upazila is composed of some red and brown clay of the mixed variety of deep dissected terrace soil. In the extreme south, there are some areas of fertile land with grey and brown flood plain clay. 2.3.4 Climate: As the upazila is situated in the tropical belt it experiences fairly equitable tropical monsoon climate. The temperature is almost uniform throughout the year. The maximum and minimum average monthly temperatures vary from 35.1°c to 14.2°c. The level of humidity varies from 83% to 56%. Winter steps in the month of November and continues up to February. Rainy season comes in May and continues up to September. 2.3.5 Population: The population of Gazipur Sadar Upazila was 866,540 out of which 471,768 were males and 394,772 were females in 2001. According to population census 2001 population density in the upazila was 1,941 persons per sq. km. which was more than that of 1991 by 623 persons per sq. km. Decadal population growth rates of the upazila since 1951 are shown at table T1:
Table 1. Decadal Growth in Population (1951 - 2001) Decade
Decadal Growth Rate (Per Thousand)
1951-61 1961-74 1974-81 1981-91 1991-01
35.1 72.5 74.9 56.0 47.3
It is evident from the table that decadal growth of the population of Gazipur Sadar upazila during 1991 - 2001 was less than that of the previous decade by 8.7 percentage points. Age sex distribution: Population of all the villages, mauzas/mahallahs and unions/wards for broad age groups are shown at table T2. Age - sex distribution of the population of the upazila are shown below: Table 2. Age - sex Distribution of the Population of the Upazila
Both Sexes 866,540
0-4 9-May 14-Oct 15-17 18-49 50-59 60 and above
90,354 87,483 95,747 50,123 465,823 37,388 39,622
47,712 45,902 50,047 27,652 254,387 22,912 23,156
42,642 41,581 45,700 22,471 211,436 14,476 16,466
It is evident from the table that child women ratio in the upazila and urban area had been 386 and 386 in 2001. The dependency ratio in the upazila was 57 and index of ageing was 14.5 area. It had increased from the corresponding sex ratios of 1991 which were 117 and 117 by 3 and 3 percentage points respectively. Population Density: According to population census 2001 population density in the upazila was 1,941 persons per sq. km. which was more than that of 1991 by 623 persons per sq. km.
The district headquarter is housed at Gazipur Sadar Upazila. There are 9 unions, 21 wards and 183 mouzas in the upazila. The number of populated mouzas are 246 and depopulated mouzas are 6. 2.3.7 Union, Mauza, Village, Ward and Mahallah Characteristics: The upazila consists of 9 unions, 183 mauzas, 261 villages and 2 municipalities, 21 wards and 68 Mahallahs. The average size of each union/ward, mauza/mahallah and village was 29,881 persons, 3372 persons and 3320 respectively. The distribution of mauzas and mahallahs are shown in table T3: Table 3. Distribution of Mauzas / Mahallahs by Size Class of Household Size Class of Number Mauzas/Mahallahs Depopulated 1-50 51-200 201-400 401-600 601 & above Total
of Household and Mahallah 2001 10 19 75 43 31 73 251
1991 13 27 82 55 28 45 250
Difference (-)3 (-)8 (-)7 (-)12 (+)3 (+)28 (+)1
It is evident from the table that according to PC - 2001 there were 10 depopulated mauzas in this upazila. The modal size class of the mauzas was 51 â€“ 20 households. It is also evident from the table that the size classes of 31 mauzas had increased. The distribution of villages by size class of population is shown at table T4: Table 4. Distribution of Villages by Size Class of Population Size Class of Population Number of Village Up to 250 251-750 751-1500 1501-2500 2501 & above Total
2001 18 87 53 43 60 261
1991 18 87 58 42 39 244
Difference (-)5 (+)1 (+)21 (+)17
It is evident from the table that 17 new villages had been created and the size- classes of 22 villages had increased during the decade 1991 â€“ 01 . The modal size class of villages was 251 - 750 population. 2.3.8 Housing and Household Characteristics: Household: There were 194,945 households in Gazipur Sadar Upazila out of which 186,856 were dwelling households, 1958 were institutional households and 6131 were other households in 2001. During 1991 - 2001 the decadal growth rate of household was 67.82%. In case of urban area it was also 67.82%. Slum and Tribal Household: In the upazila there were 327 tribal households with 1326 population and 3266 slum households with 12533 population in 2001. The average size of household was 4.06 persons in tribal areas and 3.84 persons in slum areas. Household Size: Size of dwelling households was 4.4 persons with 4.4 persons in urban area in 2001. As compared to population census 1991 household size had decreased in the
upazila by 0.7 persons. The modal size class of household at the upazila level was 4 persons household and average size was 4.64 persons. Housing Structure: There were 232,768 housing structures in the upazila in 2001. On the average there were 1.19 structures per household. Distribution of dwelling households by type of main structures were â€“ Table 5. Households by Type of Main Structures Type of Structure
Number of HH
Jhupri Katcha Semi-Pacca Pacca Total
10,825 98,588 54,156 23,287 186,856
6 53 29 12 100
It is evident from the above table that in the upazila 52.77% of the households were katcha which was followed by semi-pacca 28.98%) pacca (12.46%) and jhupri (5.79%). Main Source of Household Income: The main source of household income of each village, mauza and union of the upazila employment (32.22%) which was followed by business (19.76%), agriculture (17.86%), construction (3.97%), transport (7.03%), non-agricultural labour (2.58%) and others (10.74%) in 2001. Source of Household Income Others, 10.74 Non-Agricultural Labor, 2.58 Transport, 7.03
Construction, 3.97 Agriculture, 17.86
Figure 1. Source of Households Income 2.3.9 Economic Situation: Agriculture plays an important role in the rural economy of the upazila. Farmers who are engaged in agricultural activities and produces varieties of crops namely local and HYV paddy, pulses, vegetables, oilseeds and other minor crops jackfruit, palm and wood trees (Shal) brings handsome earning to big farmers. Non farm economic activities has also a substantial share in revenue earnings and livelihoods of the rural of the upazila. The only Machine tools factory of the country, The Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, The Agricultural Research Institute, Institute for post graduate studies in Agriculture, the National Park etc. create employment opportunities to the local people which ultimately helps economic development of the locality as well as for the country. Besides farming activities, non-farm economic activities are also provide sources of livelihood to the households. 2.3.10 Ownership of Agricultural Land:
In the upazila 54.83% of the household own agriculture land which was less than that of zila (62.39%) by 7.56 percentage points in 2001. In case of urban area it was 54.83%. 2.3.11 Major Sites and Organization: • • • • • • •
Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI) Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) Central Extension Resources Development Institute (CERDI) Seed Certification Agency (SCA) Bangladesh Ordnance Factory (BOF) BRAC Dairy Farm Dhaka University of Engineering and Technology (DUET)
• • • • • • •
Bangladesh Machine Tools Factory (BMTF) National University (NU) Bangladesh Open University (BOU) Bangladesh Institute of Technology (BIT) Islamic University of Technology The Security Printing Press. Diesel Plant Cremation Ghat
2.3.12 NGO Activities: NGO activities BRAC, ASA, CARE, Hunger, PROSHIKA, World Vision, ABC, Swanirvar Bangladesh (Self reliant Bangladesh), Pidim.
2.3.13 Major Industries of Gazipur Sadar Upazila: Manufactories: • • • • • •
Aluminium factory Textile Pharmaceutical industry Cosmetics industry Machine tools factory Diesel plant
• • • • • •
Security printing press Ordnance factory Ceramics factory Packaging industry Brick field and garments industry BSIC industrial area 2 (Tongi and Konabari).
• • • •
Bamboo and cane work Tailoring Bidi Woodwork
Cottage Industries: • • • •
Weaving Goldsmith Blacksmith Potteries
2.3.14 Literacy Rate (age 7+ years): Literacy rates for population 7 years and above can be seen from the literacy rate in the upazila was 62.56% with 67.33% for male and 56.79% for female. It had increased from the corresponding rates of 1991 by 28.77%, 17.88% and 49.57%. In case of municipality area the corresponding rates had been 65.3%, 70.0% and 59.6%. It is evident that literacy rates of the population 7+ years had substantially increased for both the males and females during the decade 1991 - 01 in Gazipur Sadar Upazila. 2.3.15 Urbanization:
The entire Gazipur Sadar Upazila are urban area. 2.3.16 Religion: Household and population of each village, mauza/mahallah and union/ward of the upazila was that 94.39% of its population were Muslims, 5.20% were Hindus, 0.37% were Buddhists and 0.02% were Christians in 2001.
100.00% 80.00% 60.00% 40.00% 20.00% 0.00% Muslims
Figure 2. Percentage of Different Religion People Table 6. Gazipur Sadar Upazila at a Glance Variable
Cen - 2001
A) General Variable 1. Area In Sq. Km 446.38 In Sq. Mile 172.35 2. Geographic Area Union 8 Mauza 183 Village 261 Municipality 2 Ward 21 Mahallah 68 3. Population Upazila 866 540 Both Sexes Male
Female 394 772 4. Population Density Per Sq. Km 1 941 Per Sq. Mile 5 028 5. Literacy Rate (Age 7+ Years) Upazila Growth rate (2001) Both Sexes 62.6 Male 67.3 Female 56.8 Source: BBS
Cen - 1991
8 189 244 2 6 61
1 318 3 415
42.92 31.19 63.69
3.64 2.75 5.05
Growth (1991) 43.8 51.3 34.7
INFLUENCE OF ROAD NETWORK IN ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT 3.1 Introduction Bangladesh has a rural society most of the population live in rural areas. Agriculture is the main occupation of rural people. The rural markets (hats and bazars) are the only outlets for village produce. Not only farmers but many kinds of traders and craftsman have been engaged in trading at these markets. At the same time these hats and Bazars are the only channels through which urban, agricultural and industrial products and other daily needs of rural life enter into the village economy. Besides, these rural markets attract people from surrounding areas not only as the organization of exchange but also as a socio- economic, cultural and political situation. Accordingly place institutions located in or around it. Moreover, these hats are the only centers in the rural area where off farm employment can be generated through improving different modes of transport and establishing rural and cottage industries there. 3.2 Criteria of Economic Development A Considerable numbers of tests have been used to throw light on the level of economic development. Attained by the various countries of the world. These tests may relate to either the technological or the demographic situation of a nation but by and large they all tell the same story. The criteria used here to determine the main patterns of development in the world area) per capita national product, b) The occupational distribution of the population c) The urban rural population ratio d) The age structure of the population, e) The rate of economic growth the world situation in relation to the first four can be presented in cartographic form. 3.3 Concepts of Region and Regional Development A first step in an outline of the concept of the region is to examine whether regions are natural phenomena or merely mental constructions. There are two divergent views- one objective, the other subjective. The subjective view sees a region as a means to an end, simply an idea, a model, to help in the study of the world. It is a method of classification, a device to segregate racial features, with the only natural region being the surface of the earth on which and finds his home. The objective view adopts an opposite stance, seeing the region as an end in itself, a real entity, an organism, that can be identified and mapped. The subjective view is now generally accepted. Regions are seen as descriptive tools, defined according to particular criteria, for a particular define them. In this contest they perform a particularly useful function, avoiding the extremes of description. The concept of development as applied to society is a complex one. Development is not the same as societal change. The latter includes changes in society which may be detrimental as well as beneficial, whereas development tens to be equated with the beneficial side only, with progress or improvement for example, improvements in living standards, the adoption of new technologies, the establishment of new institutions. Development as such involves implicit and explicit value judgments about the direction and speed of change. However, it should be noted that the distributional impact of development may not be even and development for one person may not be development for anotherâ€™s regional development can be seen as the process of development in a particular area. Regional development concerns the incidence of economic growth. It is ultimately the result of the location of economic activities in response
to differential regional attractions. Shifts in the location pattern have direct repercussions on income, employment and welfare. Since spatial organization is a function of activity and interaction patterns, regional development is simply an expression of these patterns. Regional development is often used in a relative context, comparing problem regions with the prosperous regions, or with the national context, on the basis of a variety of socio economic indicators. It can also be used in an absolute context the development within a particular region. The objectives of rural development can be described substantial increases in per capita output and income, and greater equity in the distribution of the benefits of and human misery by increasing the productivity of the to goods and services. (WB, 1975:16).
as the process which would include expansion of productive employment growth. This implies reducing poverty poor and providing the greater access
While considering the economic development of different regions of a country, transportation infrastructure and system may play a significant role in removing regional-economic disparities. 3.4 Influence of Road Network in Agricultural Activities It has often been observed that agriculture is and always has been the leading occupation of mankind. It is less often remarked that this fact is indicative of the generally low level of economic development of the world as a whole and of the enormous scope that exists for economic progress. The great majority of the worlds farmers are subsistence farmers; that is their production is primarily intended for the needs of the cultivator himself and his family. Only when these needs have been met and an allowance has been made for seed is any surplus offered for sale. If the road network is in good condition then the farmer can get seeds, fertilizer, pesticides etc. easily and can grow more products. The surplus product is sold easily in the market by good road network. Agricultural is the whole complex of social and economic relations existing between the procedure of agricultural products and consumers through the term is often used in a more restricted sense. It includes farm size and layout, tenure and marketing arrangements for the products. Agricultural productivity depends on good road network. The direct access of agricultural products to regulated markets depends on road network. 3.5 Influence of Road Network in Industrial Activities Although Bangladesh is predominantly an agricultural country a good number of large scale industries based on both indigenous and imported raw material have been setup. Among them jute and jute goods cotton textile, paper and newsprint, sugar, cement, chemicals, fertilizer, and tanneries are important. Other notable industries are engineering and ship building, paints, colors and varnishes, electric cables and wires, electric laps, florescent tube lights, other electrical small scale industries; handlooms, carpet making, shoe making coir bamboo and cane products; small tools and implements ornament etc are worth mentioning. Road network has great influence in production of industry by getting easily raw materials, labor etc. Road network helps industries grow by selling the products easily. Road network also plays a vital role to transport the industrial goods from industry to market. 3.6 Influence of Road Network on Growth Centers The role of rural hats and bazaars in the development process is immense. In Bangladesh, traditional markets have played important role in rural areas. At the same time, these hats and bazars are also the only channels through which urban based products, modern agricultural inputs and other daily needs of rural life enter the village economy.
First of all as places of trade and commerce play a significant role in the rural economy. Secondly, these hats and bazaars provide horizontal and vertical linkage with other centers of trade and commerce. Thirdly, some of these market places act as growth centers in the dissemination of technology including modern agricultural techniques. Growth centers connect an area with another by road network. Economic activities of an area can be showed by growth centers. Good road network is very important to communicate all the commodities through growth centers. 3.7 Classification of Road Network In Bangladesh Roads in Bangladesh are classified by Roads and Highways Department (RHD) and Local Government Engineering Department (LGED). Table 7. Roads Type and Definition Sl. Type Definition Ownership and No. Responsibility 1. National Highways connecting national capital with RHD Highway Divisional HQs or sea ports or land ports or Asian Highways 2. Regional Highways connecting District HQs or main river or RHD Highway land ports or with each other not connected by National Highways 3. Zila Road Roads connecting District HQs with Upazila HQ/s RHD or connecting one Upazila HQ to another Upazila HQ by a single main connection with National/Regional Highway, through shortest distance/route 4. Upazila Roads connecting District HQs with Growth Centers LGED/LGI** Road or one Growth Center with another Growth Center by a single main connection or connecting Growth Center to Higher Road System,* through shortest distance/route 5. Union Roads connecting District HQs with Upazila HQs, LGED/LGI Road growth centers or local markets or with each other 6. Village a) Roads connecting Villages with Union HQs, LGED/LGI Road local markets, farms and ghats or with each other b) Roads within a village * Higher Road System â€“ National Highways, Regional Highways and Zila Roads; ** LDI â€“ Local Government Institutions. Source: Roads and Highways Department (RHD) Table 8. LGED Road Network Division
Dhaka Gazipur Dhaka Gazipur Dhaka Gazipur Dhaka Gazipur Dhaka Gazipur Source: LGED, Sep. 2005.
Upazilla Gazipur-S Kaliakoir Kaliganj Kapasia Shreepur
Total Length Total Paved Total (km) Length (km) Unpaved Length (km) 388 135 258 567 27 537 290 34 254 235 28 205 1097 16 1080
3.8 Road Network Situation of Gazipur Sadar Upazila In this study, Gazipur Sadar Upazila is the study area. This upazila is connected with Mymensingh, Kishorgonj, Narsingdi, Narayanganj, Tangial and Dhaka by road. Table 9. District wise Length of Road by Classification in 2004 & 2005 under RHD Length in (km) Year National Region Feeders Total Surveyed Road Length Length Total highways al roads of road Paved HBB Earthe not highwa road d road surveyed ys 2004
2005 138.87 Source: BBS
Table 10. Width of Roads under RHD (in feet) Name of Roads Width (in feet) National Highways 40 Regional Highways 24 Zila Roads 12 Source: RHD In past, the Zila roads were 8 feet in width. But now the width of these roads is 12 feet. In Regional Highways, Gazipur – Azmotpur highway is 4 km. brick – built. Different types of vehicles, available in these roads are motorcycle, auto rickshaw, pickup van, microbus, minibus, bus, rickshaw, van etc. Table 11. Length of National Highways, Regional Highways and Zila Roads
Length in (km)
Station Feeder road
Shahid Jaman Sharak
Shreepur-Boiragir chala road
Raedia-Bongobondhu bazar road
Board bazar-Jugitola road
Source: RHD Table 12. Width of Roads under LGED (in feet)
Name of Roads Width (in feet) Embankment
Village Road (A)
Village Road (B)
Source: LGED 3.9 Sample Site Selection To study the area, LGED map has been used as base map. By using LGED map, sample sites have been selected. The sample sites are randomly selected. Random sampling has been taken for• •
Market place. Educational Institution.
Agro- products poultry etc.)
3.10 Sampling Site Database Table 13. Sample Site Location Sample Site Id Union 1 Baria 2 Baria 3 Baria 4 Baria 5 Baria 6 Baria 7 Baria 8 Basan 9 Basan 10 Basan 11 Basan 12 Basan 13 Basan 14 Basan
Mouza Uttar Daulia Kamaria Khaita Baria Kesastia Sukundi Kayer Itahata Bariahi Jogitala Telipara Mogorkhal Bhogra Naojasi
15 Gaccha 16 Gaccha 17 Gaccha 18 Gaccha 19 Gaccha 20 Gaccha 21 Gaccha 22 Kasimpur 23 Kasimpur 24 Kasimpur 25 Kasimpur 26 Kasimpur 27 Kasimpur 28 Kasimpur 29 Pubail 30 Pubail 31 Pubail 32 Pubail 33 Pubail 34 Pubail 35 Pubail 36 Kayaltia 37 Kayaltia 38 Kayaltia 39 Kayaltia 40 Kayaltia 41 Kayaltia 42 Kayaltia 43 Gazipur 44 Gazipur 45 Gazipur 46 Gazipur 47 Gazipur 48 Gazipur 49 Gazipur 50 Konabari 51 Konabari 52 Konabari 53 Konabari 554 Konabari 55 Konabari 56 Konabari 57 Mirzapur 58 Mirzapur 59 Mirzapur 60 Mirzapur 61 Mirzapur 62 Mirzapur 63 Mirzapur Source: Field Survey
Baliass Khalikais Kalemeswas Gaccha Kunia Cheragali Chandra Lohakair Kasimpur Purba soldhabi Souldnbi Panisal Barenda Bara Bhabanipur Bilasara Pubail Basugaon Sorul Bindan Nandibari Komasgaon Kayaltia Uttar Salna Naga Ara-isprasad Gazipur Ara-isprasad Bahadurpur Jiarpur Bhurulia Gazipur Harinal Noagaon Nilerpara Kania Tilenagar Mirpur Bagla Purba Kholapara Uttar Krishnapur Pratapur Jayartek Baimali Pirujali Bokran Mainpur Mohana Bhabanipur Bisaiya kunibari Dagari Painsail Mirzapur
Name of Rural Markets of Gazipur Sadar Upazila
Table 14. Rural Markets of Gazipur Sl No. Union 1 Gazipur 2 Gazipur 3 Gazipur 4 Gazipur 5 Gazipur 6 Gazipur 7 Gazipur 8 Gazipur 9 Gazipur 10 Gazipur 11 Gazipur 12 Gazipur 13 Gazipur 14 Gazipur 15 Gazipur 16 Gazipur 17 Gazipur 18 Gazipur 19 Gazipur 20 Gazipur 21 Gazipur 22 Gazipur 23 Gazipur 24 Gazipur 25 Gazipur 26 Basan 27 Basan 28 Basan 29 Baria 30 Baria 31 Baria 32 Gachha 33 Gachha 34 Gachha 35 Gachha 36 Gachha 37 Gachha 38 Gachha 39 Kasimpur 40 Kasimpur 41 Kasimpur 42 Kasimpur 43 Kayaltia 44 Kayaltia 45 Kayaltia 46 Kayaltia 47 Kayaltia 48 Kayaltia
Sadar Upazila Name of Rural Markets Dhir Asram Bazar Titakkrul Hat Harinal Bazar Kania Bazar Kaler Bazar Haque Bazar Natun Bazar T&T Bazar Gazipur Madhumita Bazar Pagarjhicu Bazar Bonmala Market Gazipur Bazar Tongi Bazar Cheragali Bazar Mill Gate Bazar Baradeora Fakir Market Satish Chaurasta Bazar Satish Bazar Gazipur Bazar Ershad Nagar Bastuhara Bazar(1) Ershad Nagar Bastuhara Bazar(2) Bidc Bazar Shimultali Bazar Chatar Bazar Fakir Bazar Chandana Chaurasta Bazar Bhasanshark Naya Bazar Codda Hat Kesharita Bazar Kumun Bazar Baria Sonar Hat Ichar Kandi Bazar Hajir Pukur Bazar Board Bazar Gassa Bazar Sayadana Maleker Bari Market Khondaker Market Konia Borobari Bazar Bagbari Madrasha Hat Zirani Hat Kazi Bazar Sultangong Bazar Rajendrapur Chourasta Bazar Bangla Bazar Jularpur Nutan Bazar Master Bari Kacha Bazar Salna Bazar Kayaltia Hat
49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74
Kayaltia Porabari Bazar Kayaltia Karkhana Bazar Konabari Kunabari Hat Konabari Noser Market Konabari Baghia Hat Konabari Konabari Bazar Mirzapur Bhabani Pur Bazar Mirzapur Moni Pur Bazar Mirzapur Pirojali Hat Mirzapur Mondal Bari Chourasta Bazar Mirzapur Pirojali Hatkhola Bazar Mirzapur Sarkar Para Bazar Mirzapur Hotapara Bazar Mirzapur Sharakaghata Bazar Mirzapur Bagher Bazar Mirzapur Fakir Bari Bazar Mirzapur Member Bari Bazar Mirzapur Rajendrapur Cantt Bazar Mirzapur Natun Bazar Mirzapur Purba Dogory Hat Pubail MajuKhan Bazar Pubail Mirer Bazar Pubail Harbaid Bazar Pubail Akkas Bazar Pubail Sukundir Bag Bazar Pubail Megdubi Bazar Source: LGED Road network is the vital infrastructure for rapid socio-economic growth of Gazipur Sadar Upazila. FIELD SURVEY 4.1 Introduction Bangladesh is one of the developing countries. She is a country of small area with large population. Bangladesh has a total land area of about 1, 47,370 Kilometer and a total estimated population of about 120 million at present. On the other hand, total road length of all types of paved road under these agencies is about 25,000 km at present. Therefore in relation to area, Bangladesh has got at present about 1507 km of road of all types and about 169 km of paved road per one thousand sq. km; while in relation to population the country has got about 1.85 km of road of all types and about 0.21 km of paved road per on thousand people. For showing the role of road network on the economic and regional development of Gazipur district as a whole, Gazipur Sadar upazila have taken as the study area. The present condition of the roads and the location of agricultural land, industry and growth center will reflect the development of this upazila. The livelihood of the people of Gazipur Sadar Upazila which is influenced by the road network. 4.2
Table 15. Main Occupation Occupation Businessman
Percentage (%) 28.57
Farmer Businessman +Farmer Service holder Fisherman Others Total
14 14 7 3 7 63
22.22 22.22 11.11 4.77 11.11 100
The table shows that, most of the people of Gazipur Sadar Upazila are businessman. They are engaged in many types of business. Their business is expanding by following the road facilities. Most of the people have dual occupation. Some of them are owner of agricultural land and some have different types of business. Some of them are both farmer and businessman 4.3
Land Ownership Status
Table 16. Land Ownership Status Status Owner Owner + Land use farmer Leased farmer Agreement Others Total
Frequency 14 2
Percentage (%) 50.00 7.14
8 3 1 28
28.57 10.71 03.58 100
Most of the people of Gazipur Sadar Upazila are owner of cultivable land. Among them 50% of owner of land cultivate their land by themselves, while 28.57% owners lease out their land. Farmers who have no cultivable land takes lease on the basis of agreement. 4.4 Relation with the Owner Table 17. Relation with the Owner Status Frequency Percentage (%) Owner Occupier 22 78.57 Share-cropper 2 7.14 Tenant 4 14.29 Total 28 100 The above table mentioned that most of the farmers have own land. From the sample survey it was found that 78.57% farmers have own land and 14.29% farmers are tenant. 4.5 Types of Crops that are Produced by Farmers Table 18. Types of Crops Type Aus + Amon + Boro Boro Boro + Vegetables Vegetables Total
Frequency 3 3 18 4 28
Percentage (%) 10.71 10.71 64.29 14.29 100
In Gazipur Sadar Upazila farmers are producing various types of crops. Different kinds of rice are produced by them. Most of them cultivate Boro. Some of them are cultivating Aus, Amon and Boro also. 64.29% farmers are trying to produce Boro and vegetables. They grow different types of vegetables such as capsicum, broccolie, lattuce, different kinds of beans etc. Some of them are also cultivating â€˜mushroomâ€™. They supply all these types of vegetables to Chinese restaurants of Dhaka and other greater cities. 4.6 Amount of Crops Sale in Percentage Terms 100 80 80%
Figure 3. Amount of Crops Sale In the sample survey 28 respondents are farmer. All of them sale their crop in the market, which is produced by them. Among them 66.67% farmers sale the half portion of their production. 4.7 Transport Facilities for carrying Crops to Market Table 19. Modes of Transport that carry Crops to Market Modes of Frequency Percentage (%) transport Head Load 2 7.14 Paddle Rickshaw 3 66.610.117 Bullock cart 0 0.00 Push cart 7 25.00 Mechanized 15 53.58 Others 1 3.57 Total: 28 100 Farmers of Gazipur Sadar Upazila Produce different type of crops. They produce Aus, Amon, Boro and vegetables. In Gazipur Sadar Upazila, Baria union is single cropped land. Boro is the main crop of this Upazila. Farmers use various types of transport modes for carrying crops to market 53.58% of farmers use mechanized transport. Most of them use pick up Van to transport their crops to different market places.
4.8 Fishing Practices 100 80 60
Figure 4: Fishing Practices Fish farming has been practiced for thousands of years using ponds and fenced- off enclosures of rivers to rear fish. 4.76% people of Gazipur Sadar Upazila are fishermen 4.9 Transport Facilities for carrying Fish to Market Table 20. Transport Facilities for carrying Fish to Market Transport mode Frequency Percentage (%) Head load 0 0 Bullock cart 0 0 Paddle rickshaw 1 33.33 Push cart 0 0 Mechanize transport 2 66.67 Others 0 0 Total: 3 100 Majority of fishermen of Gazipur Sadar Upazila carry their fishes to market by mechanized transport, only 33.33% of fishermen transport their fish by paddle rickshaw. 4.10 Types of Working Place of Service Holders
Types of Working Place of Service Holders 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Figure 5. Types of Working Place of Service Holders
Most of the service holders of Gazipur Sadar Upazila work in garments factory. Generally they work in spinning mills, knitting mills, fabric factory, textile mills etc. 71.43% service holders are working in garments factory. 4.11 Modes of Transport used by the Service Holders Service holders of Gazipur Sadar Upazila use various types of transport for going to their work place. Most of them use bus as mode of transport. Because they can go quickly and easily to their destination by bus.
4.12 Types of Business Types of Business
Construction business Shopkeeper
Figure 7. Types of Business Most of the businessmen of Gazipur Sadar Upazila are involve in construction business. 56.25% businessmen supply and get their construction materials such as sand, brick, iron rod, cement etc. by various types of vehicles. Shopkeepers also use different types of vehicles to transport their goods. 4.13 Modes of Transport used for Business Purpose Table 21. Modes of Transport used for Business Purpose Modes of transport Frequency Percentage (%) Bus 1 3.125 Paddle rickshaw 1 3.125 Auto rickshaw 5 15.625 Pickup van 1 3.125 Push cart 1 3.125 Truck 20 62.5 Others 3 9.375 Total: 32 100 People of Gazipur Sadar Upazila use different types of transport mode for their business purpose. They mainly use truck for transferring their commodities. They transfer sand, bricks, cement, iron rod by truck. Shopkeepers mainly use pickup van to collect their goods. Businessmen collect goods from many distance places by different types of transport modes. 4.14 Distance of Working Place from Home Table 22. Distance of Working Place
Distance (km) Frequency Percentage (%) Below 1 km 24 38.10 1 – 2 km 9 14.29 2 – 3 km 6 9.52 3 – 4 km 8 12.69 4 -5 km 7 11.11 5 -6 km 9 14.29 Total 63 100 In Gazipur Sadar Upazila, most of the people travel 0.5 km to go their work place. 38.10% people work in the place adjacent to their home. Farmers work at the fields that are very close to their home. Shopkeepers also have shops close to their home.
4.15 Distance of Pucca Road from Home
Distance of Pucca Road from Home 50
40 30 20 10 0
5 Below 1 – 2 1 km km
2–3 3–4 km km
4 -5 km
5 -6 km
Figure 8. Distance of Pucca Road from Home Gazipur Sadar Upazila has very improved road network. Pucca roads are not so far from home. People can get into any kind of transport, such as rickshaw, trolley, auto-rickshaw, tempo etc. from their home. 4.16 Distance of Growth Center from Home
Distance of Growth center from Home 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
Below 1 1 – 2 km 2 – 3 km 3 – 4 km 4 -5 km 5 -6 km km Figure 9. Distance of Growth center from Home Most of the people of Gazipur Sadar Upazila can get facilities of growth center between 1 – 2 km. There are 74 rural markets in Gazipur Sadar Upazila. Peolple can meet their daily necessities from their nearest markets. 4.17 Satisfactory Rate of Road
Satisfactory Rate of road 11 Yes No 52 Figure 10. Satisfactory Rate of Road Maximum people Gazipur Sadar Upazila are satisfied with road network. 82.54% people have good opinion about road network of their locality. 17.46% people are not satisfied with the road network. They suggested that number and width of roads should be increased. 4.18 Time of Road Constructed Table 23. Time of Road Constructed Year Frequency Below 5 years 5 5-10 7 10-15 2 15-20 21 20-25 5
Percentage (%) 7.94 11.11 3.17 33.33 7.94
25-30 30-35 35-40 Total
0 0 23 63
0 0 36.51 100
From the very beginning Gazipur Sadar Upazila has a planned road network. Most of the roads of this area are constructed 35 â€“ 40 years ago. Mainly the National Highways, Regional Highways and Zila roads are the ancient roads. LGED has constructed the Union roads, Upazila roads and Village roads later. 4.19 Regularly Used Vehicles Table 26. Regularly Used Vehicles Mode of transport Rickshaw Auto-rickshaw Bus Push Cart Tempo Car /jeep Truck Others
Number of Transport 63 63 40 34 61 61 20 43
Percentage (%) 100 100 63.49 53.97 96.83 96.83 31.75 68.25
People of Gazipur Sadar Upazila use many kinds of vehicles for their daily purpose. Rickshaw and trolley are available in village roads where all kinds of vehicles can not run. People use auto-rickshaw to travel from place to place. Businessmen mainly use trucks and pickup van to transport their goods. Most of the people use tempo for going to market or other place. 4.20 Repair of Damaged Road
Repair of Damaged Road
Figure 11. Repair of Damaged Road The damaged roads are repaired by those government department which are responsible in this sector. When roads are damaged by any natural hazard, government try to repair those immediately. 4.21 Importance of Road The growth of an area is mainly depend on planned road network. Roads play very important role in the life of the local people of Gazipur Sadar Upazila. 100% people agree with importance of planned road network. 4.22 Major Reasons of Development Table 24. Major Reasons of Development Reasons Frequency Proper road network 52 Community facilities 0 Proper social environment 0 Service facilities 11 Proper security system 0 Housing 0 Total 63
Percentage (%) 82.54 0 0 17.46 0 0 100
People of Gazipur Sadar Upazila emphasized on proper development of this area. 17.46% people give importance on for development. Because in Gazipur Sadar Upazila, there poultry farms, hatcheries etc. and people of this area work service sectors are influenced by the road network. Proper good environment and facilities for service sectors.
road network for the better service facilities are lots of factories, in this sectors. These road network provides
FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
A) Road network has great influence on the economy of Gazipur Sadar Upazilla. Per capita income of this upazilla was less in 1991, but for good road network income increases.
Per Capita Income Income (in taka)
1000 800 600 400 200 0
857 600 200 260 1991
Figure 12. Per Capita Income
Gazipur sadar Upazilla Bangladesh
B) Organized road network has helped to increase literacy rate in Gazipur Sadar Upazilla. Literacy rate of this upazilla was less in 1991. But in 2001, literacy rate has increased due to good road network .
70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Gazipur sadar Upazilla Bangladesh
Figure 13. Literacy Rate C) Organized road network helps industrialization and urbanization in Gazipur Sadar Upazilla. Number of industry increased in Gazipur Sadar Upazilla with the increasement of roads. Situation of Hatcheries, Poultry & Dairy farm 385
400 200 0
153 3 7 Hatcheries
1991 55 80
EMBED Excel.Chart.8 \s Figure 14. Situation of Fishery, Poultry and Dairy Farm D) The agricultural product marketing is dependent on rural road network. If the road network is in good condition then the farmer can get seeds, fertilizer, pesticides etc. easily and can grow more crop. The surplus products are sold easily in the market through good road network. E) Organized road network helps cultural and social change in Gazipur Sadar Upazila. People migrate in this area for suitable road network. F) For planned road network inventory cycle time of Gazipur Sadar Upazilla is less than any other upazila in Bangladesh.
Figure 15. Inventory Cycle Organized road network helps to transfer commodities to market and proceed rapid sale. For this, cash back process from retailer to manufacturer takes few times and manufacturer again starts produce commodities, which indicates rapid economic growth. In Gazipur Sadar Upazila, the inventory cycle is always active for planned road network
Household & intrahousehold behavioral outcomes
Government prices & other policies
OUTPUT MARKET Infrastructural investments (Road, electricity etc.)
Figure 16: Flow chart of the relationships among road investment, input and output markets and household and intra-household outcomes People of Gazipur Sadar Upazila need access to markets and may wish to participate in civic, religious, and leisure activities. Accessibility can be measured in time, effort, and cost. It depends on road network and available and affordable transport options for people and their loads. CONCLUSION Conclusion Transportation and economy of a region cannot be discussed in isolation of each other. The movement of people and goods has become more and more necessary due to realization of
more and more individual needs. Today people need expedient movement hence the existence of various transportation modes to meet the numerous challenging needs and situations. Transportation facilities are constructed because they provide benefits to society as a whole or as individuals. Good transportation facilities raise the level of the entire economy by providing ready transportation of goods; they make easier the provision of community services like police and fire protection, medical care, schooling, and delivery of mail; they are of assistance in problems of national defence; they open added opportunities for recreation and travel. From the findings and analysis of data we can conclude that road network is in good condition in Gazipur Sadar Upazila. So that the upazilla is more urbanized and industrialized. Literacy rate and per capita income is also high compared to other upazilla of Gazipur, even Bangladesh. Planned road network helps regional development of Gazipur Sadar Upazila. The role of transportation on agricultural products marketing is very important in Gazipur Sadar Upazila. The influence of road network on the development of the livelihood of rural people is remarkable in this upazila. In Gazipur Sadar Upazila, the maintenance of existing road network is more important and economically beneficial than going for construction of new roads. As such, maintenance of existing road network starts getting momentum these days. Better transport services can stimulate economic activity and social improvement, leading to easier access and reduces poverty and improves the lives of poor rural residents. Improving rural people's access to essential services requires improving mobility through planned road network. Better mobility gives people access to services (education, health, finance), markets, income earning opportunities, and social, political and community activities. In Gazipur Sadar Upazila, present road network helps easier and rapid access of people. Road network plays vital role in alleviating poverty of this area. From above discussion, we can say that the development of a country is dependent on the organized road network . In the above scenario, it is imperative to further develop and modernize the road network by widening and strengthening the existing roads and by constructing new roads, specially in the rural areas of Gazipur Sadar Upazila in a planned manner.
The history of transport development all over the world a process of gradual evolution. Bangladesh is not an exception in this...
Published on Jun 23, 2013
The history of transport development all over the world a process of gradual evolution. Bangladesh is not an exception in this...