Activities and the operational strategies of Mascot group.
CHAPTER-1 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
INTRODUCTION ORIGIN OF THE REPORT OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY SCOPE OF THE STUDY METHODOLOGY LIMITATIONS
1.0INTRODUCTION As early as 1860 the manufacture of ready-towear clothing became one of Cleveland's leading industries. The garment industry probably reached its peak during the 1920s, when Cleveland ranked close to New York as one of the country's leading centers for garment production. During the Depression and continuing after World War II, the garment industry in Cleveland declined. Scores of plants moved out of the area, were sold, or closed their doors. Local factors certainly played their part, but the rise of the ready-to-wear industry in Cleveland, as well as its decline, paralleled the growth and decline of the industry nationwide. Thus the story of the garment industry in Cleveland is a local or regional variant of a much broader phenomenon. In the early 19th century clothing was still handmade, produced for the family by women in the household or custom-made for the more well-to-do by tailors and seamstresses. The first production of ready-to-wear garments was stimulated by the needs of sailors, slaves, and miners. Although still handproduced, this early ready-to-wear industry laid the foundations for the vast expansion and mechanization of the industry. In general, however, the great expansion of the ready-to-wear
industry coincided with and was partly the result of the tremendous urbanization and the great wave of immigrants that came to the U.S. in the last decades of the 19th century and early decades of the 20th. Industrial cities such as Cleveland also experienced rapid growth, and it was during this period that Cleveland's ready-to-wear clothing industry blossomed. Now-a-days the wearing of clothing is exclusively a human characteristic and is a feature of nearly all human societies. The amount and type of clothing worn depends on functional considerations (such as a need for warmth or protection from the elements) and social considerations. Clothing performs a range of social and cultural functions, such as individual, occupational and sexual differentiation, and social status. A uniform, for example, may identify civil authority figures, such as police and military personnel, or it may identify team, group or political affiliations. In many societies, norms about clothing reflect standards of modesty, religion, gender, and social status. Clothing may also function as a form of adornment and an expression of personal taste or style.
“MASCOT GROUP” is a private limited company established in the year of 1994. This company is one of the leading and reputed manufacturers and exporters of the ready-made garments for men, ladies & children to Europe, Us, Canada & South American (Non- Quota items) Chain stores/ Catalogues/ Hypermarkets/ Importers. The year Two thousand five marks the eighth anniversary of business operation of “MASCOT GROUP” With efficiency, Quality assurance, Commitment, Reputation and entrepreneurial edge, the group is looking forward to a very rapid growth in its business. The group has now various individual fully fledged production/ trading units under corporate management for achieving high goals and standards and to render best efforts & services to its esteemed customers from all over Europe, South America, Canada and USA.
1.2OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY MAIN OBJECTIVES: The main objectives of this study are known about the merchandising system and how a merchandiser work in Mascot group of industry. Academic knowledge is not perfect, practical knowledge is essential with it. The objectives of the study are to gather knowledge through practical work. It will fulfill the experience through theoretical as well as practically. So it is essential to rapid development of merchandising of a company especially in garments industry. RMG is the most important area of earning foreign currency.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: The followings are the specific objectives of the present study: • To define and evaluate the merchandising system of Mascot group.
To observe the effectiveness of merchandising department.
To find out some problems and limitations of merchandising of Mascot group.
To gather knowledge about merchandising work.
To understand the organization structure or hierarchy of the company.
To understand the working of the various departments.
To understand the various responsibilities and duties of a merchandiser.
1.3SCOPE OF THE STUDY
In garment industry, merchandiser is the BRIDGE between the management (or) industry and the buyer. He have to look after every job like buying the raw material (which is required to finish the product), making the garment, finishing the garment, documentation (over all view), finally shipping. He is the responsibility person to make the product. The merchandiser who creates a good relationship in between exporter & buyer. This report will give a clear idea about ‘Activities of a Merchandiser.” How efficiently they work for the garment? What types to benefits them provide to the garment and their employees to motivate their work? Does the training program that they organized is effective or not? What are the aims to develop training program? To have answers of all these questions, it is tried to go through their training policies; with three months working experience in a garment under a merchandiser and had discussions with officials of different wings.
1.4METHODOLOGY In order to attain the objectives, collection of primary data is necessary. This data will be used to analyze the problem statement. The largest part of the analysis however would obviously be conducted by carrying out the employee satisfaction survey. Therefore the methodology would include relevant information is collected from interviews, Surveys, observation and annual reports of the Mascot Group. The relevant information is collected from the primary sources and also uses the secondary sources of information.
PRIMARY DATA ARE COLLECTED THROUGH: •
Observation for the total internee period
Open ended and closes ended questions
Conducted discussions with Officials and senior merchandisers.
SECOANDARY DATA ARE COLLECTED THROUGH: •
Manuals and Annual Report of Mascot Group Ltd.
1.5LIMITATIONS The sources of the report are collected from different desks, various documents of Mascot Group Ltd. Though the entire staff member remains busy all the time for their desk work they helped a lot to manage and collect the data & information. But it was very difficult to collect information on the employee as it is very sensitive and secret issue for the organization. Every task has some limitations. So, there have also some limitations of the study. These are as follows-
A. SHORTAGE OF TIME PERIOD: This report is written within a shorter period of time since many days have passed during the training session. So the time constraint of the study hindering the course of vast area and time for preparing a report within the mentioned period is really difficult.
B. BUSY WORKING ENVIRONMENT: The officials had some times been unable to provide information because of their huge routine work. That is why we do not gather vast knowledge about the critical issues.
C. SECRACY OF MANAGEMENT: There some information which are confidential for collecting the data. So, some data could not been collected for confidentiality or secrecy of management.
CHAPTER-2 2.0 2.1 2.2
HISTORYCONCEPTUAL OF BANGLADESHFRAMEWORK GARMENTS CONCEPT OF MERCHANDISING RESPONSIBILITIES OF A MERCHANDISER
FUNCTIONS OF A MERCHANDISER QUALITY OF A MERCHANDISER
2.0HISTORY OF BANGLADESHI GARMENTS The garments industry of Bangladesh represents one of the recent success stories of industrial development in a poor, developing country. Starting from scratch in the late 1970s, the industry is now Bangladesh's most important source of foreign exchange earnings. It currently exports about $5 billion worth of products each year; this is a little over threefourths of our annual export earnings. This note describes what happened in the early years of the industry. The story of the The catalyst for the birth of the industry was the South Korean company, Daewoo, whose collaboration with the Bangladeshi enterprise, Dash Garments, led to the growth of the industry. The first ready-made garment factories in Bangladesh aimed at the export market were opened in the late 1970s by investors from other Asian countries whose exports had been restrained by quotas imposed by importing nations. By the mid-1980s, the ready-made garment industry had become a strong export earner. Garment exports brought receipts of only US$3 million in FY 1981, but by 1984 exports had risen to US$32 million, and the following year revenue soared to US$116 million. For FY 1985 and FY 1986, ready-made garments were the second biggest foreign exchange earner for Bangladesh after jute. The surge in Bangladeshi exports eventually caused a reaction among some industrial nations. Canada, the European Economic Community, and the United States expressed concern that inexpensive Bangladeshi garments were flooding their markets. In 1985, after a series of notices as called for by multilateral agreements, the United States--which was the destination of about 25 percent of Bangladesh's garment exports--began imposing quotas on Bangladeshi garments, one category at a time. Bangladeshi manufacturers, working with the government, organized with remarkable speed efficiency to adapt to changing conditions. They policed themselves to stay within quotas, allocating production quotas according to equitable criteria, and began diversifying their production into categories where there were not yet quotas: for example, cotton trousers,
knitwear, dresses, and gloves. After a period of adjustment, during which some of the least well-established firms closed and workers were laid off, the industry began stabilizing, and growth continued at a more moderate pace. Exports in FY 1986 rose another 14 percent, to US$131 million, and prospects were good for continued growth at about that rate
2.1CONCEPT OF MERCHANDISING The term “Merchandising” is well known to the person specially involved in garments trade. The term merchandising has been derived from the term “merchandise”. Merchandise means goods that are bought and sold. The term merchandiser may be defined as the person who merchandises the goods especially for export purposes. Garments merchandising means buying raw materials and accessories, producing required garments, maintaining required quality level and exporting the garments within schedule time frame.
2.2RESPONSIBITIES OF A MERCHANDISER Major responsibilities of a Merchandiser are given below: •
Calculating Yarn/Fabric consumption
Calculating costing of the product
Monitoring Quality aspect
Liaison with Buyers Customers & Factory
2.3FUNCTION OF A MERCHANDISER When a next port order is placed to a merchandiser, he has to schedule the following main function to execute the export order perfectly in time.
Fabric requirement calculations
Accessories requirements calculation
Sources of fabrics
Possible date of arrival of fabrics And accessories in the garments factory
C o s t i n g .
Garments production planning
Pre shipment inspection schedule
S h i p m e n t d o c u m e n t.
2.4QUALITY OF A MERCHANDISER From the above definitions we can assume that a person involved in garments merchandising needs a wide range of knowledge and skill. • Good command of English and adequate knowledge of technical terms for accurate and efficient communication. •
Good knowledge of yarn, fabric, dyeing, printing, finishing, dyeing color fastness, garments production etc.
Clear conception of the usual potential quality problems in the garments manufacturing.
Good knowledge of the usual raw materials inspection systems and garments inspection systems.
Knowledge of the quotas system used in each of the producing countries, duty rate ,custom regulation, shipping and banking documentation etc
CHAPTER-3 COMPANY PROFILE 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3
HISTORY OF THE COMPANY VISION, MISSION AND VALUES AT A GLANCE OF THE COMPANY BOARD OF DIRECTORS
3.4 3.5 3.6
RULES AND REGULATIONS COMPANY PRODUCTS AND SERVICES WORKING PROCESS
HISTORY OF THE COMPANY “MASCOT
private limited company established in the year of 1994. Company is one of the leading and reputed manufacturers and exporters of the ready-made garments for men, ladies & children to Europe, Us, Canada & South American (Non- Quota items) Chain stores/ Catalogues/ Hypermarkets/ Importers. The year Two thousand five marks the eighth anniversary of business operation of “MASCOT GROUP” With efficiency, Quality assurance, Commitment, Reputation and entrepreneurial edge, the group is looking forward to a very rapid growth in its business. The group has now various individual fully fledged production/ trading units under corporate management for achieving high goals and standards and to render best efforts & services to its esteemed customers from all over Europe, South America, Canada and USA. “MASCOT GROUP Limited” believes in professional approach and in providing with the best exportable to its customers. The company’s customers are also reputed and the sharp rise of export during the last few years is due to the group’s commitment to quality, experience, dynamism, leadership and successful international marketing. As a matter of fact, from the very inception, the company enjoyed the buyers trust and the Groups fashionable items are supported by the Designers on regular basis. They have their own in house circulating knit department which produces Single Jersey, Lycra, Pique Polo, Lycra Single, 2 Thread fleece, 2 Thread Lycra Fleece, Plain Rib, Lycra Rib, Plain Interlock, Lycra Interlock, Yarn Dyed single Jersey, Interlock Feeder Stripe, 2X2 Rib etc. Electro Jet (automatic vacuum cleaner) is also available and used to ensure free of foreign object in the fabric. Electro Jet (automatic vacuum cleaner) is also available and used to ensure free of foreign object in the fabric. Mascot garments Ltd Pants, Trousers and Jeans. Production lines 5 Each Line has 65 machines Production Capacity 150000 pieces per month. Mascot Apparels Ltd Pants,
Trousers and Jeans Production lines 5 Each Line has 65 machines Production Capacity 150000 pieces per month. Mascot Fashions Ltd Men & Women’s Tops Production Lines 5Each Lines has 62 machines Production Capacity 120000 pieces per month. Mascot Knits Ltd All knitwear items Production Lines 5Each line has 43 machines Production Capacity 250000 per month Circular Knitting Production Capacity 3 tons per day. Mascot Plaza Ltd15 storied commercial building for office and shop rentals. Compliance Factory as per I.L.O, In House Medical facility for workers, Day Care, Dining and Prayer halls, Compliance Department, Strict rules against hiring workers under 18. 3.1
VISION, MISSION, AND VALUES Mascot
behind their garments products with quality assurance. They believe quality is never an accident. It is always the result of high intention, sincere, effort, intelligent direction and skilful execution. Mascot groups vision, mission, and values are given below: VISION: To provide customers with the most comprehensive sourcing, production, design and product development service, guarantee of quality, competitive price and quick turnaround times with a world class professional personalized service. MISSION: To provide our clients with high quality garment products, competitive pricing and on time production. CORE VALUES: •
Leadership: to be a leader, both in thought and business.
Respect and humility: to respect every individual and be humble in our conduct.
Simplicity and positivity: simplicity and positivity in our thought, business and work.
Adaptability: to be flexible and adoptable, to meet new challenges.
AT A GLANCE OF THE COMPANY Mascot group of
industries overall information are given below: Company Name:
146, Zirabo, Dewan Idris Rd Ashulia, Address:
Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh Telephone: 880-2-7791582
Western Europe. Employees:
Above 1000 People
Men/Women, T-shirts, Polo shirts, Trousers, Jeans, Cargo, Pants, Shirts, Blouse, Kids' Items.
Each Line has 65 machines
12500 dozen/ month
Mascot Fashions Ltd Men & Womenâ€™s Tops: Production Line:
Each Lines has 62 machines
Mascot Knits Ltd all knitwear items: Production Lines:
Each line has 43 machines
22000 dozen/ month
Production capacity is 3 tons.
BOARD OF DIRECTORS The flow chart of board of directors
of Mascot group is given below:
Figure: 1 Board of Directors:
BOARD OF DIRECTORS CHAIRMAN: F.M. Zubaidul Haque
MANAGING DIRECTOR DIRECTORS T.M. Enamul Haque S.M. Rezaul Haque
GENERAL MANAGER N.M Ziaul Haque S.M. Rezaul Haque
PRODUCTION MANAGER 3.4
RULES & REGULATIONS The company respects the local
laws and ILO’S directives with regard to employment and adheres to the following policy: •
No child labors in the factory
Good environment in the factory with new location where more fresh air is available.
Huge organized space for manufacturing the products with quality further expansion plans.
Sanitation for staff & workers according to ISO level & Fire Safety.
Medical Center and facility for staff and workers at factory premises.
All injuries, no matter how slight, must be immediately reported to your Supervisor.
Any unsafe condition, unsafe practice or hazard should be immediately reported to your Supervisor.
Employees shall not make unauthorized repairs to
Employees must wear all Mascot supplied safety equipment.
Employees are required to wear closed-toe shoes for their own protection. Sandals, flip flops, slippers, torn tennis shoes, open toe and high heel shoes are prohibited.
Employees may not engage in solicitation during work time.
Employees may not distribute literature in the work place at any time.
Employees must observe any rules or regulations, including smoking, set forth by Mascot and the client/tenant.
PRODUCTS AND SERVICES Products
Mascot groups are given below: PRODUCTS: Figure: 2 Products flow-chart:
SERVICES EXCELLENCY: • Tremendous human resource development has been achieved through training and short courses by employing professional management development companies. •
Multi step quality assurance system introduced in order to ensure ultimate product quality.
Separate department installed to monitor every step of business in order to ensure successful shipment in time.
Moreover, a team is always involved in research and development of total systems keeping an eye on global demand and accordingly they are giving training to the staff in order to up-date their professional knowledge and proficiency at work place. Hence, the company is confident of delivering quality products to their esteemed customers in the rapidly changing fashion world
through creativity and dedicated skilled
The working industries are
processes of Mascot group
The following flow-chart shows the product production process:
below: basic steps requirements to
Figure: 3 Working Process:
Finishing Ironing Checking
Price and hang Folding tag Poly Packing Carton
o ROW COTTON:
Cotton is a soft fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant . The fibre is most often spun into thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile. Cotton is a valuable crop because only about 10% of the raw weight is lost in processing. o KNITTING: Knitting is a method by which thread or yarn may be turned into cloth or other fine crafts. Knitted fabric consists of consecutive rows of loops, called stitches. As each row progresses, a new loop is pulled through an existing loop. The active stitches are held on a needle until another loop can be passed through them. This process eventually results in a final product, often a garment. Knitting may be done by hand or by machine. o
WASHING: Washing is an important method under the work in process. By washing clean-up the product and send in next process.
CUTTING: Cutting is another important method under the WIP. Cutting process give a structure of the product. It is a very important part of the production process.
DYEING AND PRINTING:
Dyeing is the process of adding allover color. Printing is the selective process of placing color onto the surface of a fabric, creating a partial or allover color or pattern. Coloring can be added at any stage in the development of fibers, yarns and fabrics, but printing is generally reserved for constructed fabrics. Printing is the application of color in the form of a paste or ink to the surface of a fabric, in a predetermined pattern. It may be considered as localized dyeing. Printing designs on to already dyed fabric is also possible. o
Sewing is the Long, temporary stitches that holds two or more layers of fabric together; con be done by hand or machine. o
FINISHING: Finishing is the grey cloth, woven cotton fabric in its loom-state, not only contains impurities, including warp size, but requires further treatment in order to develop its full textile potential. Furthermore, it may receive considerable added value by applying one or more finishing processes. •
Price and hang tad
CHAPTER-4 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6
ACTIVITIES OF A MERCHANDISER
MERCHANDISING ACTIVITIES HIGH LIGHTS OF MERCHANDISING WORK PRICE NEGICIATION AND OTHER CONFIRMATION MERCHANDISIND ACTIVITIES ON PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT MERCHANDISING ACTIVITIES ON PRODUCTION FOLLOW UP MERCHANDISIND ACTIVITIES ON QUALITY CONTROL MERCHANDISING ACTIVITIES ON GOODS DELIVERY
The “Merchandising “is known to the persons specially involved in garments trade. The term has been derived from the merchandise. Merchandise means goods that are bought & sold. The term “Merchandising” may be defined as: Person who merchandises the goods, specifically for export purpose. Garments merchandises means buying raw materials & accessories, producing garments, maintaining required quality level and exporting the garments within schedule time. From the above definitions, we can 4.0
Merchandising department and its activities
say that a person involved in garments merchandising needs a wide range of knowledge & skill to perform his job successfully. The job itself is “technical and general as well”. Merchandisers should have the following basic qualifications: •
Good Command in English and adequate knowledge of technical terms for accurate and efficient communication.
Good knowledge of fiber, yarn, fabric, dyeing, printing, finishing, dyes, color fastness, garments production. Etc.
Clear conception of the usual potential quality problems in the garments manufacturing.
Good knowledge of the usual raw material inspection systems &garments inspection systems.
Knowledge of the quota system used in each of the producing countries, duty rates, customers regulations, shipping and banking documents etc.
Highlights of merchandising works
1. To collect buyers addresses. 2. To establish contact with the buyers sending formal letters/profile. 3. Receiving buyer’s response and providing price quotation along with making of sample as counter/approval. 4. Receiving samples comments from the buyer. 5. To furnish the pro-forma invoice and sending the buyer. 6. Taking necessary steps to develop lab-dips of the materials (FAB & ACC) 7. Receiving the master L/C & verify clauses of the L/C both in technical and commercial point of view. 8. To confirm floor booking of the order with factory. 9. To confirm transfer authentication of the L/C in favor of fact. 10. Pushing the factory taking initial procurement to open the back-to-back L/C by bank. 11. Searching reliable fabric and accessories sources and finalize supplying of the required materials relevant to the order. 12. To monitor the shipment of raw materials and arrival in the factory. 13. To monitor of the supplying materials while receiving factory. 14. To order the test cutting with quality. 15. To check/inspect/advise for the bulk production. 16. To monitor production, quality and delivery.
17. To advise factory if buyer change any instruction both in technical/commercial point of view to the order. 18. Collecting order from the buyers. 19. Sending Samples to the buyer for approval. 20. Collecting accessories form different Suppliers. 21. Giving order to the specified garment factory. 22. Communicate with all the respective parties. 23. Coordinating the whole process at a regular manner.
Price negotiation & Order confirmation
negotiation is the most important part of merchandising and marketing. Order confirmation depends on how cleverly and logically one can negotiate price with buyer. Competitive price is the key element of price negotiation. To make competitive price first of we have to know about the product that buyer want to buy from us. Then we will calculate the raw material price, manufacturing cost & shipping terms of the product and know that how to prepare garment price. There are processes for fixation of export prices which are--1. FOB (Free On Board). 2. C & F (Cost & Freight). 3. CIF (Cost, Insurance & Freight). FOB means ‘free on board’ exporter doesn’t bear the cost of freight of ship or air. It is buyer (Importer) who himself bears the freight of ship or air’s & F means Cost of Freight. FOB (Cost) + Freight of Ship = C & Fin the case ship or air freight is carried by the exporter while quoting price, the exporter quotes price a bit higher than FOB. The whole responsibility including the sending of goods to the selected port of the importer is shouldered by the exporter ship or air. Freight may vary from place to place and shipper’s toshippers.CIF means cost insurance & Freight. In this case in addition to the bearing of freight the cost of insurance is also borne by the exporter. The exporter, while quoting CIF price, quotes much higher than C&F value. C & F + Insurance=CIF. Normally we can add 1-2% insurance charge with CIF price.
Merchandising activities on Product development
merchandisers. Before go to bulk production various stage of sampling has topazes in order to develop a product for end user. SEQUANCE OF SAMPLEING: Counter sample/Style sample/Salesmen sample •
Fitting sample/ Size set sample
Photo/ Advertisement/ Catalog Sample
STEPS OF GARMENTS SECTORS APPROVAL: Step-1:
Merchandising activities on production follow up
After receive a purchase order from buyer merchandiser have to sit with production planner to make a production plan. Production plan contain below things: •
Planned date to start knitting to make the required fabrics.
Planned date to start dyeing to color the fabrics.
Planned date to start cutting fabrics.
Planned date to start sewing the required garments.
Planned date to start packing the required garments.
Planned date to hand over finished goods to buyer nominated sea or air forwarder.
After that other work is following up. They are•
Trail/ Test cutting.
Merchandising activities on Quality control
The main objective of quality control is to ensure that goods are produced to the first customer (Direct Order) and hopefully to the second customer (Recorder/Alter order/ new order) as well. If both customers can be satisfied then the manufacturer products are more likely to continue to be in demand. Satisfactory quality can only be ensured through (from the manufacturer pinto view) •
Knowing the customers’ needs.
Designing to meet them.
Faultless construction- manufacture.
Certified performance and safety.
Clear instruction manuals.
Feedback of field experience. Satisfaction quality can be ensured from the customer from the customer’s point of view by providing: o Right Product. o Right Quality. o Right Time. o Undamaged Condition.
HOW CAN QUALITY BE ACHIEVED?
Goods must be designed to meet customer’s needs and make manufacturing process and maintenance easily. •
They must be made exactly and consistently to the specified design.
Marketing must ensure accurate advertising, trade description with constant feedback for improved design.
Total commitment to organized design.
Merchandising activities on goods delivery to buyer’s destination:
BOOKING IN FORWARDING: After making final inspection merchandiser received packing list from packing section which contain the list of carton, how many pieces garments in the carton, weight of the carton, number of pieces of garment to be shipped etc. Refer to this information merchandiser make booking to sea or air forwarder. EXPORT DOCUMANTATION: The documents which to be submitted by a C&F agent for export: An exporter should have to submit the following documents to the customs authority of a station: •
Shipping bill of entry.
VBF-9A. From to be supplied by the C&F agent.
Export Permission form (EXP).
BILL OF LANDING (B/L): It is document issued by an eerie (railroad, steamship, or trucking Company) which serves as a receipt for the goods to be delivered to a designed person or to his order’s/L describes the conditions under which the goods are accepted by the career and details•
The quantity of the goods.
Name of vessel.
Identified marks and numbers.
INVOICE: Below point are including in the invoice: •
Name and address of the buyers and the seller.
The Date and term of the sale.
A description of the goods.
The price of the goods and
The mode of transportation.
PAYMENT RELEASE: After prepared invoice, bill of landing and other required documentation we send it to buyer’s nominated bank for payment release.
CHAPTER-5 MAJOR DEPARTMENTS 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8
COMMERCIAL DEPARTMENTS FINANCIAL DEPARTMENTS STORE ROOM SAMPLE & PATTERN SECTION CUTTING DEPARTMENT SEWING DEPARTMENT QUALITY DEPARTMENT FINISHING DEPARTMENT OTHER DEPARTMENTS
PAYMENTS BY L/C, D/P, AND D/A: Business transactions usually begin with a purchase order placed by a buyer with a seller. It is very easy to understand, the order, represented by a piece of paper written by the buyer, or a fax received from the buyer, is not something very reliable and secure. Although the order should be treated as an agreement binding both parties, the buyer and the seller, it is not a guarantee or an instrument for the seller to use to obtain payment for the merchandise shipped. For this reason, the "L/C" comes into the picture. The full name of "L/C" is IRREVOCABLE LETTER OF CREDIT" which means once it is issued by the bank for the buyer and received and accepted by the beneficiary (the seller), it cannot be cancelled or withdrawn by the buyer or the opening bank, unless with the consent of the beneficiary. In short, once the buyer opens the L/C from his bank to cover the goods he has purchased, he will have to pay for the goods when the seller ships the goods exactly as per the terms stipulated in the L/C. Therefore, as far as the seller is concerned, the sooner he has the L/C on hand, the safer he is. L/Cs can be opened in many ways, but in essence, it is a promise the buyer's bank makes to the supplier, to pay him when he does certain things with evidence to pay him when he does certain things with evidence to prove. the L/C opening bank wants the supply. This is normally used by the opener, party â€˘
To assist the beneficiary, party
Or for party :
To guarantee party For certain reasons. The following example will illustrate the function more clearly. D/P TEAM: D/P (Documents against payment) means that after shipment, the shipper should present his documents to his bank to forward to his bank's correspondent bank in the city where his customer is, with instructions for them to notify his customer to pay and take possession of the documents to clear the goods. In other words, without paying for the goods, his customer cannot take possession of the goods. D/P Term will provide the following advantages to the buyer and the supplier: 1. The buyer dose not has to have a credit line with the bank to open an L/C to the supplier to cover his purchases in advance. He only has to have the money ready to pay for the goods when the shipment arrives. 2. The supplier would not have to worry that his customer may take the goods without paying him because without paying the bank to pay him, the bank would not release the documents. However, D/P term cannot save the supplier in the following case :
After the supplier ships the goods and sends the documents to the bank for his customer to pay and to take possession of the documents, his customer at this time, still may change his mind to renounce the goods by ignoring the bank's notification, or simply inform the bank that he is no longer interested in the goods. Under the circumstances, the bank will notify the supplier's bank accordingly and ask for his bank's decision the documents. There is nothing the supplier's bank or its correspondent bank can do to force the customer to pay. In this case, he may ask his bank to call bank the documents. Although the supplier has not lost the goods, he owns the goods in an overseas country creating demurrage charges every day. To resolve the situation, the supplier will have to resell the goods to another customer. D/A TERM: D/A (Documents against Acceptance) term as a payment method is far more risky than D/P term to the supplier. D/P terms usually come with a time before a certain date, and not after a certain date so as to give a time limit for this matter to end. When such L/C is received by (b) will surrender it to his bank with the invoice or receipt prepared as required by the L/C for a loan of $ 10,000.00.
DOCUMENTATION: When we refer to documentation in the process of export, we usually refer to the process of documents which the shipper uses to collect money for the goods shipped. Therefore, this is the finale of the transaction and an important step. Depending on how the payment term is set up between you and your buyer, we should prepare the documents accordingly. However, no matter it is L/C payment or DP/DA or open account, you must prepare your documents to satisfy the following parties: â€˘
The buyer's bank that has open the L/C to you if it is L/C payment, otherwise you will have delay in receiving the proceeds of the goods you have shipped.
The customs, otherwise you will have delay in clearing the goods through customs.
COMMERCIAL INVOICE: This is the document that you use to collect money from your buyer. Therefore, it must contain the correct unit price with the indication of FOB the shipping port, or CIF or CNF at the shipping port, then it is simple and easy. The following example will satisfy the bank and customs:
STYL E NO
UNIT PRICE TOTAL FOB FOB AMOUNT BANGLADESH Men’s 100% Cotton woven US$ 80.00 US$ 80,000 shirt
Based on the above, the customs will impose duty on US$ 80,000.00 when you show the above CIF breakdown on the invoice; the customs will impose duty on the FOB value. However, please note you have to be truthful about the sea freight amount and insurance premium. You must get them from the Bill of Lading, where the freight amount prepaid is shown, and the insurance premium from the insurance company. You cannot inflate these figures to save duty. Otherwise, you may create delays or even bigger trouble for your buyer. The second import things in the preparation of your invoice are that you must provide a full description of the merchandise so that the customs officer can determine what duty rate he should use. DUTY: Please refer to chapter 20 for more information like the above. Anyway, your buyer or his agent should provide you with this information is 20.9 % •
PACKING LIST: There is no hard and fast rule as to how exactly it should be prepared. You can use your own format. As long as you can show the following, it will be acceptable: a) The content of each of the cartons shipped, including the color and size assortment. b) The measurements and gross weight of each carton. Please note, some garments are subject to duty by percentage of the FOB value only, but some garments are subject to duty by percentage of the FOB value and weight (How much per kilo). Therefore, on your packing list you must indicate the gross weight, net weight and net weight clearly (See full detail on "weight list" later.)
WEIGHT LIST: Sometimes the buyer may ask for this on the L/C. If he does, then you should prepare it and submit it to the bank as one of the documents required for L/C negotiation. If your buyer doses not ask for it, then you should you can handle the weight information as follows:
If the L/C says such weight information is needed on the
invoice, you follow the L/C and put such information on the invoice, and repeat it on the packing list. b)
If the L/C does not specify the need of weight information on
the invoice, you may omit it on the invoice, but put it on the packing list. If the L/C requires a weight list, then you put the weight information on the weight list and repeat it on the packing list, but you may omit it on the invoice. Weight information should truly be put on the packing list where it belongs. That is says it should be on the invoice, you follow the L/C too. If the L/C requires a weight list, you follow it also. The weight information in question should consist of: •
GROSS WEIGHT: Gross weight means the weight of the goods including all packing materials. You should provide weight per carton and the total weight of the shipment which should be the same as, or similar to that on the Bill of lading.
NET WEIGHT: Net weight means gross weight less only the export carton and inner boxes if used. Net weight will include the packing materials used for the individual piece of merchandise, for example, the individual poly bag, cardboard and paper hangtag etc. Net weight means the weight of the merchandise excluding all packing materials. In order words, it is the weight of the garment without hangtag, price ticket or even a piece of pin.
You should provide this information for each dz, each carton and for the whole shipment. Based on this information provided, weight duty, if any, will be paid. If the L/C requires you to provide Gross weight and Net weight, you should know, it is Gross weight and Net weight needed, and you provide Gross weight and Net weight, but call it Net weight on the document. Net weight is needed for duty purpose; Net weight is of no practical purpose – it is for reference only. •
BILL OF LADING: If the shipment is to be mead by boat, B/L (Bill of lading) is usually used. In preparation of the B/L the most important thing is the use of the correct consignee and notifies party. Should use the exact wording as stated on the
L/C opened by your buyer so that you will not have any discrepancy against the L/C. In regard to the other aspect of the B/L, you can just follow the format as provided by the shipping line However, sometimes the buyers' L/C may require you to do the following for their convenience: a) They want you to send one original B/L to their customs broker directly by courier service, and submit the balance 2 original B/C. b) They also want you to consign the shipment to them (use their company name as the consignee) instead of the shipment to their bank. •
AIR WAYBILL: Air waybill is used for air shipment; with similar function of B/L on boat shipment. However, there is some important difference between Air waybill and Bill of Lading. Please note the following to guard you accordingly. On boat shipments, the buyer needs at least one original B/L to take possession of the goods. However, on air – shipments, the buyer does not need the original Air waybill, or even a copy of the Air waybill to take possession of the goods. If the shipment is consigned to the buyer, the buyer can legally claim the goods from the airline. In fact, the airline will notify the buyer to claim the goods. As long as the buyer can identify himself as the consignee, he is allowed to take the goods from the airline. Therefore, when we make shipments by air, unless we have received payment up front, we should not consign the goods to the buyer. We should always consign the goods to the bank making the bank the legal owner of the goods. The bank will only pass the title to your buyer when your buyer pays the bank for the goods.
FINANCIAL DEPARTMENT The
responsible for managing all the financial and administrative affairs of the company. Finance department main function are•
Providing mgt. information
Accounts: Maintain record all kind of earning and expenditure of the company including salary and wages.
Export Earnings Over Last 5 Years
This is the five years financial positions of Mascot Group.
5.2STORE ROOM A.
They have one store. The store in charge receives
goods according to the Purchase Order (PO) sheet and after receiving the goods Quality Merchandiser. The merchandiser takes decisions on the basis of this report. If any goods failed to pass the inspection they are returned to the supplier or in some cases the order is canceled. As for example; A button supplier is asked to supply buttons for a particular order. But the buttons failed to pass the pull test three times, finally the order has been canceled and new supplier is asked to supply the same order. The goods are arranged in the store very nicely and the inventory control system is also good. IN STORE THEY CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING POINTS: o Inspection (Fabric, Trims and Accessories and Others Materials) o Testing Materials o Swatch Board Making o Cleanliness o Reporting. QUALITY OBJECTIVES OF STORE ROOM: o Received items should be recorded within 2 working days (or at least 3) with perfect inventory report. o Any discretionary shall be reported to the merchandising or production department o Procedure store received/ Issued CG (0) 150 shall be following strictly. o Procedure store received/ Issued CG (0) 150 shall be following strictly. They use BIN card to write the information about the product. In BIN card they use the following points: FABRIC STORAGE: Supplied Grey fabrics are first subjected to the 4 point inspection system and fabric allowance point is 20 per 100 yards. Only those goods are stored here which are passed from the quality control department. And defected fabric is back to the supplier. FABRIC INSPECTIONS: The Most important quality control activities in the clothing industry are fabric inspection. This involves the inspection of the fabric in order to quantify the patent defect of the fabrics. During this process other details can be collected to minimize waste.
After fabric received it should be inspected to determine its acceptability from a viewpoint otherwise extra cost in garment manufacturing may be incurred due to either the loss of the material or time to say nothing of customer returns and dissatisfaction due to poor quality. 5.3
SAMPLE & PATTERN SECTORS In Sample Section we
talked with pattern master and a marker planner. They helped us to get the proper information of the sample room. PHOTO SAMPLE: Samples are made with color and material to be worn by the models on the event of Shooting for catalog. APPROVAL SAMPLE: In any discrete period of time, whenever it required and revision in the sample, a new sample is made (sometimes mock-up is workable too) as per new specification. It is sent to buyer for his approval of the conformity that the revision is done correctly. SIZE SET: Consists of one piece from each size color combination. PRE-PRODUCTION SAMPLE: When materials for bulk production arrive, then the factory makes a sample with the actual material and sends it to the customer. PRODUCTION SAMPLE: It is a reference to the buyer that the bulk is being produced as per specifications. Buyer wants to be assured that correct material is sourced and Line Workmanship conformed to the quality level. SHIPPING SAMPLE: A sample is kept from every pre-shipping inspection to be referred, if required after the order has been delivered. Usually for any disputes (e.g. claim) shipping sample is important. SEQUENCE SAMPLE: Fit sample
Photo Sample Garments test
The parts which are equal and same as every parts of a garment are made with flat, hard board paper are called patterns. Patterns are made for every different parts of garment. In other words, patterns are representative forms of the individual parts of a garment. OBJECTIVES OF THE PATTERNS: •
To develop a set of patterns or templates.
To produce a specific shape and quality of garments according to buyer demand.
To minimize wastages and cost of garments.
To make a large amount of production at a time.
ACTIVITIES OF CUTTING ROOM IN CLOTHING INDUSTRIES: •
Planning/cut plan according to shipment schedule.
Fabric, interlining receives from store as per the plan.
Approved pattern receive from pattern section/PDS section.
Marker generation or coping/Marker receives from CAD section.
Spreading as per cut plan.
Cut panel checking.
Cut fabric issue/Supply to sewing floor.
PRODUCTION FLOW CHART IN THE CUTTING ROOM:
Cut ratio Markers Spreads Production
Manual Spreading Machine Machine Cutting
Die press Computer Shade Cut
Objective Maintain by Cutting Section Of The
Mascot Group: o Cutting Procedure CG (P) 094. Shall be followed strictly. o Before cut the fabric shall be check 10% and acceptable o Fabric shall cut and shall maintain shade lot property. o Panel rejection and cutting wastage should not be exceeding 2%. CUTTING SECTION: This is for separating the fabric parts as replies of the pattern in the marker plan. Cutting is done for sewing preparation. The following things we observed during cutting: o Accuracy of Cutting o Frayed edges, Scorched or Fused edges caused by knife fault o We also have seen Bundling, Numbering, Cut panel checking and reporting o Cutting in charge showed us how they maintain this section. They followed the following points: Key points of marker making: o To reduce cost; o To improve the quality of the garments; o To reduce the cutting time;
Problem they faced while cutting: Inaccurate Cutting: o
Notches misplaced, too deep angled, omitted or wrong type
Dill marks- wrong drills, omitted, angled
Knife cut- Garment parts damaged by careless use of knife
Frayed edges scorched or fused edges caused by faulty knife
Slits opened inaccurately or omitted etc. Reporting and Marking Procedure:
They use arrow sticker to mark the fault
These faults recorded in the given format of the co. They keep records of the faults, type of faults, percentage, and time date. METHODS OF FABRIC CUTTING: Fabric cutting methods are as followsManual Method
o Round knife
o Band knife
o Straight knife
Plasma torch cutting
SUMMURY WORKING PROCEDURE IN CUTTING SECTION : o
Follow production planning
Collect P.O sheet from merchandiser o
Sample collect from sample section with pattern and aments approved
Trim. Accessories & fabric all in-house in store or not. If ok
Lay order sheet/ docket / ratio sheet fill up by cutting section (fabric width. Item. Color. Size. Style. Buyer. P.O country )
Lay order sheet fill up ok then send to cad section for marker making
Marker making ok \ o
Fabric requisition from cutting section to store for cutting according to plan.
Fabric is coming in cutting table as per marker and cutting plan.
Fabric match to trim card by merchandiser approved fabric width & length as per
marker. Its ok then layering start manual & machine all fabric pocketing and interlining.
After lay then spread marker upon on the fabric.
Marker check by pattern in quality people. Keep all document make & style. Color. And size wise send report to store &
sewing line. Before cutting cutter man attach clamp. Gum tap on the layer.
If marker has drilled mark then need to drill.
SEWING SECTION SEWING;
The process of joining of fabrics by the use of needle and sewing thread or by other techniques is called sewing. The line of joining fabric is called seam. The arrangement of fabric ends at the seam line called seam type. In Mascot Group they have one main sewing floor. In this floor they have 15 line for three sewing floor manager. Every line has one line chief and 2 supervisors. For sewing quality control each line 2 QC and end of the line 2 table QC and every 2 line for one QC supervisor. During Inspection they consider the following point in: o
In line inspection performed @ the workstation
No. of inspection in the line depends on the no. of operator of the style being produced.
Defect & Measurement both should be checked in the line
Number of pcs. Should be inspected : •
The inspector should check complete bundle complete process
¼” masking tape or arrow sticker to be used to indicate the defect.
WORKING PROCESS OF SWEING DEPARTMENT: Planning: 1.
Layout for man and machine
Standard Minute Value SMV declares. Layout by IE department: 1. Line Balancing 2. Machine setup (computerized or normal) 3. Process distribution. Sewing : Parts received from cutting department Parts storing and distribution to operators Position mark where necessary Parts making Parts Assembling. PREPARATION OF FINISHING DEPARTMENT: Quality Inspection Thread Trimming Garments measuring. 5.6
QUALITY CONTROL DEPARTMENT
INSPECTION: Upon receipt of the fabrics, the fabric inspector at the factory shall be responsible for making arrangements to inspect for visual and technical defects present in the fabric rolls. If passed on unnoticed, fabric defects cause-increased problems in successive manufacturing stages. This section explains the steps necessary to conduct an effective piece goods inspection. Steps: •
Select at least 10% of the fabric rolls randomly in the case of woven and 20% of the fabric rolls randomly in the case of knits.
Determine the yardage of the fabric to inspect.
Verify that there is enough light for clear vision.
Run the roll at a sufficient speed to identity the defects, approximately 25-30 yds/min.
ORGANIZATION OF QUALITY DEPARTMENT Director Q C Manager Quality Controller Cutting
Sewing Finishing Fabric Inspection Cutting Inspection
Before Iron Quality Inspection After Iron Quality Inspection GET-UP Inspection Quality Inspection In Process Quality Inspection Director Q C Manager Quality Controller Cutting
Sewing Finishing Fabric Inspection Cutting Inspection
Before Iron Quality Inspection After Iron Quality Inspection GET-UP Inspection Quality Inspection In Process Quality Inspection Director Q C Manager Quality Controller Cutting
Sewing Finishing Fabric Inspection Cutting Inspection
Before Iron Quality Inspection After Iron Quality Inspection GET-UP Inspection Quality Inspection In Process Quality Inspection Final Table Quality Inspection Shell / Linen Quality Inspection Director Q C Manager Quality Controller Cutting
Sewing Finishing Fabric Inspection Cutting Inspection
Before Iron Quality Inspection After Iron Quality Inspection GET-UP Inspection Quality Inspection In Process Quality Inspection
FUNCTIONS OF QUALITY CONTROL:
They ensure quality control at the floor level. The functions of Quality controller are as follows. •
Ensure quality productivity in the production floor.
Ensures proper shedding.
Certify correct market. & certify correct cutting.
Certify numbering process. & certify correct placement.
Ensures correct measurement.
Ensure quality requirements as per buyers need.
Ensure correct allowances.& ensure SPI (Stitch per inch)
Specify needles and the accessories & Ensures right materials.
Specify proper cutting making ironing, folding, and packing.
Allocation of line Quality control Inspection.
The quality controllers ensures for the very beginning to the ends of the process. He should be a technical person in the field of Quality department.
Activities of Finishing Section: •
Garment receive from sewing or washing department
Thread Trimming or Cutting
Garment Inside Ironing or Pressing
Garment Inside quality inspection (Process ways)
Garment top side ironing or pressing
Top side quality inspection (process ways)
Re- ironing or pressing
Final quality attached
Poly Packing or Hanger packing
Quality audit by auditor (Factory people)
Packing list making
Packing list send to buyer or buyer’s or buyer’s representative
Final audit by the buyer or buyer’s representative.
Get up Check
Hang tags, etc.
POLYBAG: Strength, Chemical mixture, Thickness (micron/mm; 1mm = 1000 micron). BLISTER BAG: •
0.05 mm in thickness
Loaded capacity is higher than poly bag.
Size (L, W, and H).
WORKING ENVIRONMENT: Management is fully aware of the importance of healthy and suitable working environment and is taking all necessary steps to provide mist appropriate suitable working environment to our people for better working relations efficient production and to achieve the desired quality from company force. Following are the areas being gives to priority to ensure the provision of conducive working environment. a. Health and Hygiene b. Cleanliness c. Disposal of waste and Effluents d. Ventilation and temperature e. Dust and fumes f. Lighting g. Drinking water h. Latrines and urinals i. Spittoons j. Fencing of moving parts of machine. k. Eye protection l. Day care centre m. Canteen facility to provide the hygienic food. n. Private lockers for personal belonging.
Human Resource Management: Having consideration to have latest technology skills development is an immediate concern to the management of the Evince Group. At present necessary procedures has been defined documented and being implemented under the direct supervision of foreign expert for the following. a. Employment criteria and policies b. Hiring and staffing policy and procedure.
c. Orientation/Induction procedure. d. Procedure for probationary employment e. procedure for service award f. Procedure for incident reporting g. Rules and code of conduct h. Development of leadership skill i. Compensation administration procedure j. Policies and procedure for salary and salary structure. k. Polices and procedure for work schedule and tine away. l. Working hours.
CHAPTER-6 Major FindingsFINDINGS AND ANALYSIS SOWC Analysis
Major Findings Merchandising is the methods, practices, and
operations used to promote and sustain certain categories of commercial activity. In the broadest sense, merchandising is any practice which contributes to the sale of products to a retail consumer. At a retail in-store level, merchandising refers to the variety of products available for sale and the display of those products in such a way that it stimulates interest and entices customers to make a purchase. The major findings of activities of a merchandiser given below:
The communication is very much important to promote the business activity. The merchandiser should remember that communication must be lurid and should having face to face conversation with the buyer.
Merchandiser should be capable of planning, based on the planning the order is to be followed. If the planning is not done properly it will directly affect the delivery time of the order.
For a Merchandiser, decision making power is most important. He should think about the decision to be taken and to act in a right way.
Loyalty is an essential character of human beings. Especially for the business people like merchandiser it is a must.
Merchandiser should have adequate knowledge about the garments, Computer knowledge, and technical knowledge to communicate with different people in the business is a must.
Merchandiser is the person who is actually co-ordinate with the number of departments. To Co-ordinate with different people in the industry he should be cooperative.
Merchandiser should monitor to expedite the orders.
Education, Experience, Situational Management, Ability to Evaluate, Dedication, Knowledge of expediting procedures
Developing new samples, execute sample orders
Raw materials / Accessories arrangement
Production scheduling (or) route card drafting
Approval of various Process, Pattern and size set
Conducting research based on lifestyle concepts and trends, as well as store and/or regional attributes
Developing floor plans and sketching designs
Sourcing materials and display elements, such as lighting, props and accessories
Maximizing the space and layout of the store
SWOC is a strategic planning tool. The acronym SWOC stands for: S= Strengths W = Weaknesses O = Opportunities C = Challenges
STRENGTH: The low labor cost, along with availability of workforce and other raw materials are the basic strengths of Mascot knits limited. it provides an alternative to advance early stages of industrialization with high potential of employment generation and export expansion. It has traditionally been the stepping-stone towards industrialization. The sector not only forms a significant share of GDP and foreign exchange earnings, but it also contributes to human development objectives such as (female) employment, diffusion of knowledge and technology, and generation of revenue.
Some of the basic weaknesses of the Mascot groups are given below:
The industry faces a demand and supply gap of cotton. Moreover, contamination of cotton results in its low quality.
The low labor productivity, along with high-energy cost and subsequent high input costs are serious weaknesses of the industry
Lack of research & development has made the industry uncompetitive.
The poor infrastructure of the industrial sectors and the high utility expenses are also obstacles to proper growth
Lack of some coordination and synergy between the public and private sector.
Mascot groups are one of the potential markets for exports from
Bangladesh. Quality and fashion conscious is importing readymade garments from Bangladesh at an increasing rate even though this increase is very negligible. An extremely large program has to be taken to increase the exports. There exists supportive policy environment in the RMG sector of Bangladesh. The package of Mascot groups incentive has been aimed at primarily to boost up the exporters. Government has extended some major incentives and facilities for the local and foreign investors to help increase investment in the country for all industrial sectors including garments industries.
The local fabric manufacturers currently supply less than 19% of total woven fabric requirement. About 70% of the total fabric requirement of the knit sector is domestically produced as reported by the BTMA industry policy 1995 envisages established of 246 spinning mills with 25000 spindles each, 481 weaning mills each with capacity to produce 17 million meters of fabrics, 481 dyeing-printing-finishing units each with same capacity for yarn and woven fabric by the year 2005.
CHAPTER-7 7.0 7.1
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMANDATION
Conclusion During my ongoing training it is a good pleasure to work
in knitting Company like Mascot Group. I conducted their Trainee merchandiser. It introduced me to a whole field I didnâ€™t know existed. The experience taught me that it is a great field to know about, for merchandising to use as a resource, but not something I would want as a job. During the training period, the whole 50 days were segmented and schedule to a systematic routine. First of all, it should be mentioned that the Mascot Group is a 100% export oriented Garments industry. For producing a quality product above all export quality it is desirable that the processes should be highly standard. For this purpose Mascot Group has a very good quality control department.
I was almost there long enough to see the process for entire season. I saw not just what an assistant executive does but the entire design office and Merchandiser, even the GM of the division. My internship gave me a prospective about what happens in the merchandising process and how many people are involved in it. I developed my artistic skill during my internship. I saw the layout and line balance process including the ways buyer’s suggestion change the final production. I Sat in on PP meeting and learned how to put together a presentation board for buyer meetings and the all department.
The government's announced strategy of treating all firms equally still apparently needs to be implemented more vigorously in the garment industry.
Private firms continue to face major obstacles to growth. These obstacles appear to be concentrated in the areas of access to land and credit, but in addition bureaucratic complexities and harassment retard their expansion.
Linkage analysis should be avoided as a basis for industry promotion. All sectors and firms within would desirably be treated equally. Where the government believes that certain sectors may not develop in such a policy environment
Import protection for the industry should take the form of a uniform and low tariff rate, consistent with Vietnam's economy-wide obligations to AFTA, APEC and (in prospect) the WTO.
Import-export procedures appear to be unnecessarily complex, especially for firms located outside the EPZs, and these need to be reformed so as to match international standards in terms of simplicity and transparency.
Published on Nov 17, 2013
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