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workshops book 1

maria

elvira

villarreal

cuartas


workshops


prologue As experts have said, crisis time is not a moment to be frightened. It is otherwise an opportunity to be reflexive and propositional. Time is shouting out what are its new needs and we as architects must know how to interpret them in the most appropriate way. Modern cities may be more compact, taking out the best of its territory. Infrastructures have been becoming not enough and sustainable actions imply new statements. Collectiveness starts to establish as a necessity of modern citizens, in which values starts to play an important role in order to foster organization and equity. Collective housing for instance, is the gap between the individuality of the house and the relationships between them. Concepts as size, scale, domesticity, density or flexibility enter to play an important reflection of what new necessities must be satisfy.

This book is about seven perspectives exposed in the different workshops held by very recognized professors and professionals during this year of the master. Each of them challenges different tasks in order to introduce reflections about housing and show their own methods in the architectural work. The projects here shown are the sample of each workshop and are one-week developed so are focused in developing conceptual statements as a root for further questioning. They are arranged in different groups depending on my understanding instead of a chronological order. Category number one (1) compares two different methods to develop a project. Category two (2) shows three projects in a scale order, while category three (3) gathers projects aimed to specific inhabitants.


categories

pages 7-12

1

2

3

content FROM CITY TO HOUSE by Dietmar Eberle.

METHODS APPROACHES

SCALES

13-19

GOOD CONDITIONS OF LIFE by Anne Lacaton

21-26

PLAYING IN THE CITY by Francisco Burgos

27-34

INHABITED SCREENS by Cino Zucchi

35-41

DEEP EXPERIMENTS by Andrea Deplazes

43-52

SLOWMADNESS by Juan Herreros

53-57

LIVING LIKE ANIMALS by Hrvoje Njiric

DOMESTICITY PUBLICITY


category 1

METHODS Anne Lacaton and Dietmar Eberle have developed their own approaches to work depending on own experiences and beliefs. The question is not which one is the best but what is more appropriate to the kind of project or the context we are working on. Lacaton starts from a smaller scale to the whole, while Eberle argues the city scale as the shaper of the object created.


w-1

category 1

eberle Introduction Function follows Form? The method defends the architecture as tridimensional, for what it should be thought first in models, developed in models and then why not, starting to think in internal distributions drawn normally in a 2D blueprint. The volumetric proposition comes out from the urban understanding, with its urban fabric and dynamics on the ground floor. Then, decisions on the appearance of the façade should conserve a concordance with its neighbors but also with the epoch it is emplaced. Finally, internal functioning can be developed in order to define circulations and partition walls. Dwelling distribution can be as ambiguous or flexible as the structure allows. In this order of ideas, function is not just a matter of dynamics through the building. It is also a role that the object created plays in the city. Buildings are the real shaper of the city, so it is indeed as our emblematic Louis Sullivan wanted to express “Form follows function”.

FROM CITY TO HOUSE Workshop director Dietmar Eberle (Austria) Assistant Victor Olmos (Spain) Guest none Duration 5 days Collaborators individual work

Work The methodology split the work in three different plots in Madrid, which are located in very different conditions. Each day projects rotate between us, adding complexity in the steps of Eberle’s method. So at the end of the week, we had done three different projects in three different locations, having the last one more developed.

7


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category 1

eberle

FROM CITY TO HOUSE

SANTA ANA. Cruz street-Espoz y Mina street. Madrid

8

SANTA ANA. Valladolid aveniue. Madrid


w-1

category 1

eberle

SALAMANCA. Juan Bravo street. Madrid

Volumetry

9


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category 1

eberle

SALAMANCA. Facade

FROM CITY TO HOUSE

Facade`s section

10

SALAMANCA. Facade`s zoom

Facade`s top view


w-1

category 1

eberle

SALAMANCA. Floor Plan

SALAMANCA. Floor Plan zoom

11


w-1

category 1

eberle

Amount of models at the end of the week made by certain students

12


w-2

category 1

lacaton Introduction This workshop is concerned with urban housing conditions. It is all about the question of how does the quality of life mean to be and what kind of sensations and atmospheres we want to generate. In this way, the methodology of work emphasizes the creation of spaces made by fragments from images and situations. Images have always to be close, as if they were made from the inside, being within a situation, a space, an atmosphere, and showing how it is used, and always close to the subject. They speak about individual space, about program, about life, about movement, about the city, about the relationship with the exterior, the sky, the city, the trees …. These attentively observed and analyzed images will become catalysts for the project, to define some architectural intentions. Work

GOOD CONDITIONS OF LIFE Workshop director Anne Lacaton (France) Assistant Diego García-Setién (Spain) Guest Duration 5 days Collaborators Jon Ander Mendiola Johanna Cevallos

Stimulation We study a very determinant condition in the atmosphere of spaces, which is the climate. Climate is about thermal conditions made by the season, natural ventilation, lighting and also the levels or heights. Furthermore, it is also produced by materials, textures and colors. Architects challenge is to understand those natural conditions to take advantage of the climate, in order to know how to manipulate them aimed to exalt or stimulate sensations.

13


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category 1

lacaton

Spaces are rather deďŹ ned by the activities and appropriation that each climate allows, instead of being the use the determination of its creation.

1. HOT

14


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category 1

lacaton

2. WARM

15


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category 1

3. TRANSITION

16

lacaton


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category 1

lacaton

4. COLD

17


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category 1

lacaton

Considering dierent levels would allow the house to have various thermal conditions for convenient appropriation according to its necessities.

SECTION

18


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category 1

lacaton

TRANSITION

- THE CITY

19


category 2

SCALES Starting from Francisco Garrido workshop, we developed an object settled in a neighborhood scale. Then, following by Cino Zucchi project, it focused on that in-between layer of interior and exterior. At the end with Andrea Deplazes experiments, about the depth of the building itself and the development of its interior functioning.


w- 3

category 2

garrido Introduction The scale of the neighborhood implies all that spaces and objects that are collective in the sense of appropriation by all the ages. Sometimes unexpected places are the best ones to play in; or objects designed with other purposes are also great playgrounds. Designers often make the mistake of overfiguration. But we all know that for a child just any stone can be a boat, a branch can be a horse and a lot of sand a castle. Those shapes that are not completely certain are the ones that stimulate more the imagination and the creative development of a child. Is then a wise move to shape the slides as elephants in city playgrounds?

Work

PLAYING IN THE CITY Workshop director Francisco Burgos (Spain, Madrid Rio) Assistant Javier Malo de Molina Guest Ginés Garrido (Spain, Madrid Rio) Duration 5 days Collaborators Pablo Marcet

Red ribbon playground Play should be an everyday experience. It is not necessary going to park for fun and hang out with friends. What about the neighborhoods where parks or green areas are kilometers of walking distance?. Streets should provide elements to pedestrian in order to be interpreted in different and funny ways. Pedestrian flows behave as water flows. There are positive zones in streets where velocity increases and negative zones at plazas or parks where flows get stabilized. Different ages follow different flows; kids for instance may choose the one which offers variety. We purposed a red ribbon as allegory of the river flow, which would be an object settled on the streets as an alternative path for kids.

21


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category 2

garrido

WATER FLOWS BEHAVIOUR

ACTIVITIES ACCORDING TO FLOWS

RAPIDS FLOW BY EDGES

22


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category 2

garrido

RED RIBBON

SECTION

23


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category 2

garrido MOUNTAINS...

Hey , Look at that red ribbon in the middle of the street!

Cool, is that a sculpture?

3.02 14.57

...LOOP....

...MEANDERING CURVES!

2.50 1.05 2.55 1.50

2.35

24

22.86


w- 3

category 2

garrido

...TURNPIKE?!...

...SCREW...

1.50

3.15

6.36

8.97

JUMP STEPS!

and SLIDE!.

1.00 15.57

3.00

1.50 2.00

4.75

25


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category 2

garrido I think it should be a playground

It`s the funniest way to school

26


w-4

category 2

zucchi Introduction This scale explores a specific problem of the “interface” or “buffer” between the private realm and the collective one and of its possible evolutions in the light of the ongoing changes on urban and natural environments. This interface is a mediating element which is indeed the depth of the building envelope. One of the tasks it has to deal with is the natural effects as light related to orientation, wind, rain, noise, pollution, ventilation; but also it may provides inhabitable open air spaces to the dwellings and act as a social mean of communication, giving a meaningful form to the collective urban spaces. In this scale we also should think about the way the building touches the ground and the dynamics it provides, but also how this would end up to the top. The workshop based the work in a master plan of a sector in Madrid made by the professor. Buildings were divided by groups so each one should look after the conditions its emplacement conditioned. Work

INHABITED SCREENS

Workshop director Cino Zucchi (Italy) Assistant Belén Hermida Guest Richard Plunz (Columbia University) Fernando Porras (Spain) Duration 5 days Collaborators Jose Alberto Bethencourt

Our patient had north-south orientation and twelve meters deep. We faced this premises on one hand with two radically different answers to each façade. On the other hand, shaping the “mass” into “fingers”, we reduced depth to obtain cross ventilation. Also, these fingers oriented to the south, allowed us to generate terraces and shadow to the interior of the dwellings.

27


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category 2

zucchi

EMPLACEMENT Master plan

PROCESS OF THINKING 1

2

3

4

Geometry composed into thirds and middle divisions

28


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category 2

zucchi FLOOR PLAN

PERSPECTIVE. The top is deямБned by duplex

29


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category 2

zucchi

SOUTH FACADE

BIRD`S EYE VIEW. Terraces overlaped

Each floor is presented as a strip which shapes the fingers, with movil sun protectors.

31


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category 2

zucchi

CROSS SECTION

PERSPECTIVE. Permeability to the park through the ground ямВoor

GENERAL SECTION

30


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category 2

zucchi SOUTH FACADE DETAIL.

Parapet detail

32


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category 2

zucchi

NORTH FACADE Porous facade made by bricks, oering few and selected balconies to the park.

CASA MASHRABIYA Senan Abdelqader Architects Jerusalem

33


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category 2

zucchi

MASTER PLAN All models of each group arranged as a collectivity

34


w-5

category 2

deplazes Introduction On the scale of the building, the depth enters to play a decisive role in order to understand how the building will work, for instance circulations system and the amount of light and ventilation we can provide. The ability to know how to manage those premises when we get an emplacement will facilitate the work and guarantee the final result. Our challenge was to face six meters deep. We had to define the character of the dwelling we wanted and then, the way it was going to group as a collectivity. The plot was 100 mts by 100 mts without a specific location or conditionings.

Work

DEEP HOUSING EXPERIMENTS Workshop director Andrea Deplazes (Switzerland) Assistant Fernando Altozano (Spain) Guest Valentin Bearth Duration 5 days Collaborators Jon Ander Mendiola

6 meters depth means cross ventilation guaranteed and the possibility to have relation to both facades at the same space. It also determines the access by one side in order to optimize circulation area. Due to this conditions, our dwellings are patio houses on height, which their patio or veranda would work as a transition on the entrances. This open space requires all the areas of the house are faced towards this, which a duplex would allow.

35


w-5

category 2

deplazes

SECOND FLOOR PLAN

37


w-5

category 2

FIRST FLOOR PLAN

36

deplazes


w-5

SECTION

38

category 2

deplazes


w-5

category 2

deplazes

GROUPING One possibility CLUSTER

39


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category 2

deplazes

EMPLACEMENT Studying possibilities

PLOT 100 meters x 100 meters

40


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category 2

deplazes

EMPLACEMENT AND GROUPING Second possibility CHAIN

FACADE

41


category 3

s

DOMESTICITY/ PUBLICITY Both Juan Herreros and Hrvoje Njiric encouraged students to study and understand a speciďŹ c user`s necessities, in order to rethink preconceptions and paradigms about domesticity and collectiveness inside and outside in the public space.


w- 6

category 3 herreros Introduction When the speed is decreased, it affects the different scales and provides a new interest to the domestic space, its surroundings and the rest of the city understanding it as a continuous transition. The models of quality, prestige and comfort established during the “boom” have failed, but it is necessary to act quickly inventing new options. Otherwise, we will be ran over by the anxiety of the uncertain. Embajadores is the neighborhood in Madrid which population is dramatically mixed in the sense of social and cultural groups coexisting. Foreigners, middle-class adults, young workers, activists, artists and new families are looking for affordable living spaces for rental, good connectivity, participating processes and places to start and launch new adventures. Work

SLOWMADNESS Workshop director Juan Herreros (Spain) Assistant María Auxiliadora Gálvez (Spain) Guests Solano Benitez Duration 7 days spead in 4 weeks Collaborators Yichi Wang Gabriela Macías Borja Navarro

Considering the urban tissue, preservation values of the catalogued buildings and the social richness, we worked with total freedom to design at a scale that is somewhere in between a building and an urban plan. These conditions generate residential projects that read the diversity of its users and the demand of new building and housing types. Facilities, collective programs and public space are ingredients of this project.

43


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category 3 herreros

EMBAJADORES

Introduce a sample of every kind of group in one block

EMBAJADORES

Introduce a sample of every kind of program in one block

44


w- 6

category 3 herreros

DOMESTICITY AND PUBLICITY CONCEPT

THE “UNIT”

45


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category 3 herreros

THE “UNIT”

Negociation with the outside space

Interchange of program as a life definer

46


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category 3 herreros

Interior atmospheres

Visual connections

47


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category 3 herreros

EMPLACEMENT

48


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category 3 herreros

49


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category 3 herreros

LONGITUDINAL SECTIONS

ss

50


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category 3 herreros

s

51


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52

category 3 herreros


w- 7

category 3 njiric Introduction “Living like animals” fosters to rethink housing and how it has been developed. Standardization is a model that avoids specific users and their necessities, perhaps due to the globalization of ideals or maybe for economic ambitions. Although quality of life is a minimum requirement by everybody, necessities are linked to cultures and societies generating differentiation in types. The client this workshop chose to work for is a specific animal. Species habitats are determined by their physiology and necessities, so the only way to offer them an alternative shelter is to study and understand carefully.

Work

LIVING LIKE ANIMALS Workshop director Hrvoje Njiric (Croatia) Assistant José María Sanchez (Spain) Guests Angel Borrego, Jacobo García Germán Duration 1 week Collaborators Silvia Melis Johanna Cevallos

Crab is the animal chosen because to his contradictory but particular characteristics, not to different from human conditions. He can live alone and in herds, aquatic and terrestrial. He is self- builder of his own shelter. He climbs, walks to different sides, digs, swims. Also, he changes habitat depending on the season, so he presents a life cycle very particular. We proposed a skyscraper for crabs, which works as a monumental object into human context, but it is also a laboratory of crabs production because it interprets his life cycle in a literally way.

53


w- 7

category 3 njiric

RED CRAB - CHRISTMAS ISLAND-AUSTRALIA - 12,75 CM LONG - SIDEWAY MOVEMENT

BIRTH Eggs Aquatic Temporal swimming WATER

54

SHELTER Couples Privacy Temporal Mating CLIFFS

MIGRATION Herds Exposure Temporal Walking/climbing PATHS

SHELTER Solitary Shadow Longer stays Carving SAND TUNNELS

CRABS LIFE STAGES


w- 7

category 3 njiric SHELTER MIGRATION

SHELTER SCHEME. Process of life interpretation BIRTH 3 METERS

BIRTH SHELTER MIGRATION SHELTER

SCHEME. Expressing Crab`s like cycle

LAYOUT

55


w- 7

category 3 njiric

1 WATER CORE

4 TUNNEL HOUSING

2 POROUS HOUSING

3 MIGRATION STREET

5 ENVELOP

TENSORS INNER METALIC STRUCTURE CLAY ENVELOP 56


w- 7

category 3 njiric

ALIVE ICONIC ELEMENT EMPLACEMENT IN A HUMAN CONTEXT

MASTER PLAN MADE BY ALL THE GROUPS

57


grateful


MCH MASTER IN COLLECTIVE HOUSING

maria

elvira

villarreal

cuartas


Workshops