The McGill Daily: Vol. 112, Issue 21

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Volume 112, Issue 21 | Monday, March 20, 2023 | Accumulating period underwear since 1911 Published by The Daily Publications Society, a tudent society of McGill University. The McGill Daily is
on unceded Kanien’kehá:ka territory.

3. Editorial In Search of Trans Refuge

4. Food for Thought All You Can Eat Mealplan

5. News Panel with Mohawk Mothers International Women’s Day March

SSMU Presidential Campaign Promises

8. Sports Willie Woo: Forgotten Basketball Player

10. Culture Women’s History Month Book Recommendations

11. Commentary Consequences of Bill C-13

12. Compendium! Spring Horoscope

2 March 20, 2023 | The McGill Daily table of Contents
Table of Contents

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In Search of Trans Refuge

The Daily uses the term “trans” in this editorial as an overarching term to include transgender as well as nonbinary, genderqueer, and genderfluid people.

On January 26, Ontario trans activist Caitlin Glasson opened a petition urging the House of Commons to extend the right to claim asylum in Canada to trans people. The petition states that, across the world, the rights of trans people “to live as themselves are being restricted and removed.” Because of this, some trans people have resorted to flee their country of origin in order to seek asylum in countries that are safe. The Daily stands with Glasson and others who have signed the petition; Canada must affirm its status as a welcoming country for trans refugees.

The petition specifically addresses how trans rights have come under threat in the US and UK. In the UK, Prime Minister Rishi Sunak reported plans in November 2022 to end legal protections for trans people within the Equality Act, the country’s anti-discrimination law. In the US, as of March 2023, over 400 anti-LGBTQ bills have been proposed by several states. Multiple governors have additionally issued directives that violate the rights of trans youth. In 2023 alone, over 100 bills directly attacking trans human rights have been proposed by Republican state legislators. This staggering increase from recent years has been bolstered by egregious antitrans rhetoric, such as the horrifying comments from The Daily Wire ’s Michael Knowles that took centrestage at the most recent Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC). Both the UK and the US have also experienced a stark increase in anti-trans violence in recent years. In 2021, the number of offences against trans people reached a record high in the UK, while the US recorded the greatest number of trans homicides in a single year to date. These disturbing statistics have led many trans people to fear for their safety and seek refuge in other countries.

to seek asylum. This is especially harmful because it is likely that queer and trans individuals who cannot safely come out, would be the ones most likely to seek asylum. Clearly, our existing legislation is outdated and insufficient to address this growing crisis of increased anti-trans violence.

Regardless of whether the petition advocates for the improvement of already existing policies, it is clear that the Canadian government needs to rectify its shortcomings with regard to supporting trans people, internally as well as externally. It’s important to acknowledge that anti-trans violence is present here as well as abroad. Although we call on Canada to open its arms to refugees, significant efforts must be made to address systemic transphobia, notably in its healthcare system. Advocates say that more work needs to be done in order for existing laws to actually protect trans migrants from the US. American trans refugees are technically eligible for asylum in Canada, but the likelihood of any American refugee being approved is extraordinarily low. Of the 642 claims for refugee status made by US citizens in 2018, only two were approved.

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Critics of Glasson’s petition point to how trans people are already able to apply as refugees on the basis of their sexual orientation or gender identity. While it is true that trans refugees are protected in Canada, the application process to apply as a queer refugee is deeply problematic. First, obtaining asylum as a queer refugee is very difficult; only around half of claimants in Canada are successful. Moreover, the application process itself reinforces ignorant perceptions of queer identities. When filing for refugee status, applicants are often required to “prove” their sexual orientation or gender identity. According to the Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants, queer and trans refugees are encouraged to provide supporting documents that verify their “involvement with the LGBTI community,” or provide “letters from [past] romantic or sexual partners confirming [their] relationships.” These requirements perpetuate harmful expectations about what it means to be queer by assuming that gender identity and sexual orientation are defined by a person’s sexual history, as well as require a person to “out” themselves in order

One thing the Canadian government can do to reinforce the safety of trans refugees is declare the US an “unsafe” country under the Safe Third Country Agreement (STCA). The joint Canada-US agreement establishes both nations as safe places for refugees to seek asylum and limits claimants to receiving protection from the first safe country they find themselves in. This means that, unless qualified as an exception, Canada will not accept refugee claims from trans asylum-seekers who are in the US or who travel through the US to make a refugee claim in Canada. Declaring the US an unsafe country will give trans people a channel to remove themselves from what has become a dangerous space. Inaction from the Canadian government is especially hypocritical considering how they describe its “proud history of providing protection to … [the] 2SLGBTQI+ community,” per their website. Denying protection to trans migrants from rampant anti-trans hate is antithetical to this “proud” history.

The wave of anti-trans rhetoric, legislation, and violence we are seeing in the US and UK is not going anywhere anytime soon. Canada must take immediate action. In the meantime, you can help strengthen the voices trying to hold the government accountable by signing Glasson’s petition. The National Center for Transgender Equality and the Beaumont Society are resources available to the trans community in the US and UK, respectively. Support organizations that provide specialized services to queer refugees, like AGIR Montréal, or oppose the STCA, like the Canadian Council of Refugees. If you are a trans person attending McGill, The Union for Gender Empowerment, Queer McGill, and the Centre for Gender Advocacy list free resources and support systems on their websites.

Volume 112 Issue 21
All contents © 2018 Daily Publications Society. All rights reserved. The content of this newspaper is the responsibility of The McGill Daily and does not necessarily represent the views of McGill University. Products or companies advertised in this newspaper are not necessarily endorsed by Daily staff. Printed by Imprimerie Transcontinental Transmag. Anjou, Quebec. ISSN 1192-4608. EDITORIAL March 20, 2023 | The McGill Daily
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Switch to All-You-Care-to-Eat Meal Plan Being Considered

Students express frustration in accessing food in residence cafeterias and declining balance plan

Food for Thought is a new column investigating food services at McGill and documenting the conversations happening on campus around food affordability and accessibility.

McGill Student Housing and Hospitality Services

(SHHS) is considering a switch to an All-You-Care-ToEat (AYCTE) meal plan model in dining halls for students living in residences, to be implemented tentatively at the start of the Fall 2023 semester.

The current model – mandatory for students living in all undergraduate residences apart from Solin Hall – is a declining balance plan. The plan essentially functions as a debit card, with students having to budget their allowance throughout the year. For first year-students in residences, the current plan costs $6,200 in total, which includes the mandatory meal plan, a $975 administrative fee, and $500 OneCard dollars. The Daily spoke with three students regarding details of the AYCTE model, the student consultation process, and whether the plan has potential to mitigate concerns of first-year students regarding food access on campus.

Throughout the past semester, there has been an increase in concerns among students surrounding food prices and quality within residence cafeterias. “Lets Eat McGill,” a campaign with the goal of creating affordable, sustainable, and cooperative food options on campus, arose partly due to the concerns first-year students have about having enough to eat.

in accessing food in residence cafeterias. Students mentioned struggling to budget in a way that allows for the plan to last the entire year. This is challenging given that the meal plan is only enough for two meals a day due to high cafeteria prices. Students also expressed their disappointment with the limited variety and lowquality options that often do not reflect the high price of items. One student said that food rationing and skipping meals has become the norm for many living in their residence.

dine-in model will encourage students to socialize. Those not enrolled in the meal plan, but who may still want to access the cafeterias, will be required to pay an entrance-fee. According to Yang, SHHS are still working out the details of the plan, and weighing different options for students. Further details about the plan will tentatively be posted in May and will be ready to be rolled out in the new academic year.

been going on behind the scenes … without students.” Student consultation regarding the plan has been limited to the food representatives on residence council, per O’Connell.

At an assembly on food insecurity, hosted by Let’s Eat McGill on March 8, students expressed their frustrations

Kerry Yang, VP University Affairs at SSMU, has met with SHHS and relayed information from their February 24 meeting to the Daily . Yang believes this switch to an AYCTE meal plan model will be a step in the right direction within residences because it might help with the current plan being either too much or too little money for students. According to Yang’s meeting with SHHS, he told the Daily that SHHS began to review the current model in September and that SHHS is quite serious about the AYCTE switch. Once students are enrolled into the meal plan, they will be able to swipe their card whenever they want to access the cafeteria. Additionally, the model is only dine-in, with hopes to reduce the use of packaging and single-use containers. SHHS also hopes the

The Daily spoke to Liam O’Connell, the Food Representative on the Environmental Residence Council, about the prospective ACTYE plan. As the food representative, O’Connell attends University Residence Council (URC) meetings to advocate for improved sustainability practices, increased variety, and affordability in pricing within residence cafeterias. According to O’Connell, members of SHHS started developing this new model in response to students wanting a change from the declining balance plan currently in place. He expressed that SHHS is open to ideas and change; “I just feel like they don’t have these ideas,” he says, “so if people have any ideas, it would be very helpful for them to tell SHHS and talk about it.”

O’Connell says that although he has attended most meetings that took place, “a lot of it has

Marcel Bendaly, VP External at RVC, told the Daily that “since we [RVC] are the main cafeteria on campus, I have heard a lot of stories of people foregoing their meals or skipping meals or budgeting to extreme lengths because of the student security issues.” When the Daily asked Bendaly if he believes the AYCTE meal plan will remedy the food issue for firstyear students living in residences, Bendaly said in interviews with media outlets regarding food security, McGill’s response has been to refer to the AYCTE model. Bendaly said that the pricing and sustainability details of the plan

are still unknown: “they have not defined exactly what it will be like. All they have given us are just the usual marketing slogans that students will have to select from natural or whatever locally sourced, that sort of thing,” said Bendaly. Bendaly also commented on McGill’s lack of collaboration with student groups: “If McGill does really want to provide us with a good solution to the food insecurity issues, it would start first by working with the student groups, which are tackling the issue and establishing some sort of rapport where we are able to review the plans they have, give our opinion on them and be agents and actually changing that into something that would be good for students.” Such groups may include Midnight Kitchen, Let’s Eat Mcgill and Macdonald StudentRun Ecological Gardens.

Food for thought 4 March 20, 2023 | The McGill Daily
“Since we [RVC] are the main cafeteria on campus, I have heard a lot of stories of people foregoing their meals or budgeting to extreme lengths because of the student security issues,”
- Marcel Bendaly, VP External at RVC
Clement Veysett
|Illustrations Editor
Students mentioned struggling to budget in a way that allows for the plan to last the entire year.

A Panel with the Mohawk Mothers

Discussion about the New Vic case

On March 8, International Women’s Day, SSMU hosted a panel with the kanien’kehà:ka kahnistensera (Mohawk Mothers) to discuss their ongoing fight over land and human rights recognition. The talk was chaired by Nancy R. Tapias Torrado, a human rights lawyer and visiting fellow at the McGill Centre for Human Rights & Legal Pluralism (CHRLP).

During the talk, the Mohawk Mothers discussed the New Vic case; their experience dealing with the Canadian legal system; the importance of raising awareness about the human rights violations and injustices that Indigenous people still endure; and their responsibilities and duties as Ka’nisténhsera’.

Panelists began by defining the word Ka’nisténhsera’, or “lifegiver,” which refers to women and mothers, and includes

their connection to nature and creation. Ka’nisténhsera’ have a responsibility towards Ienthi’nistenhah tsi ionhontsá:te’, Mother Earth, and to the tahatikonhsontóntie, the children yet to come.

The Ka’nisténhsera’ then discussed how their language highlights their ties to the earth. Engaged in the struggle for Indigenous rights since the 1960s, Kahentinetha added that “our language is the vehicle of our way of life”.

During a discussion with the Daily , Kwetiio emphasized the importance of the role of women and specifically mothers:

“Women have a specific duty of caring and nurturing [which] comes from their way of living.

Ka’nisténhsera’ comes from the word O’nísta, which means the umbilical cord connecting a child to its mother and a community to Mother Earth.”

When asked about their activism and fight in the New

Vic case, the Ka’nisténhsera’ responded that “this is not simply activism, this is our life [...] to us, it’s just survival”.

In 2015, speculation started to circulate that there may be unmarked graves of Indigenous people, including children, present at the Royal Victoria Hospital site resulting from unethical experiments carried out in the 1950s and 1960s.

On October 27, 2022, the Mohawk Mothers made history when Justice Gregory Moore granted them an interlocutory injunction to immediately halt

“any excavation in furtherance of the redevelopment of the Allan Memorial Institute or the Royal Victoria Hospital.” This decision marked the first time in Canadian history that selfrepresented Indigenous people won an injunction without the use of attorneys, and instead based on their own governance system, the Kaianere’kó:wa (Great Peace). When discussing the New Vic case, the Mohawk Mothers agreed that “this is an opportunity for Canada and Quebec to have a new relationship with the people and the land.”

However, the Mohawk Mothers emphasized the crucial importance of raising awareness and consciousness of our surroundings and of how we act. They said that “this knowledge will no longer stay silent [...] if you know something and do nothing, then you are part of the problem.” They added that things needed to change.

Kwetiios’s mother emphasized the fact that “being sorry is not enough,” to which Kahentinetha responded that “the word sorry is empty. In our language, there is no word to say sorry [...] instead you make it right.”

Finally, the Mohawk Mothers explained the necessity to uncover the truth and end these human rights violations by reevaluating the whole judicial system, which systematically reproduces injustices while giving the “illusion of empowerment.” The last question asked by Torrado was about their vision for the future, to which they responded that they would like “the land to be respected again, returning to a value system and stop taking things for granted.” They added that they would like women to be able to properly care for their children. Kwetiio said, “We will do whatever we have to do to have our dignity respected. Creation stands with us.”

March for International Women’s Day

On March 8, in honour of International Women’s Day, hundreds gathered in front of the Roddick gates in support for all women and the fight for equality. The march was organized by Women of Diverse Origins, a grassroots antiimperialist women’s network based in Montreal.

One of the speakers addressed the crowd, saying: “We stand by the brave women of Iran or Afghanistan protesting oppressive regimes, and fight for their fundamental rights, such as freedom of speech, freedom of opinion and right to receive a proper education [...] and we are here [to] request the recognition and protection of the rights of all women.”

“The struggle for equality is worldwide and intersectional,” said another speaker, before adding that “intersectionality is a unifying force.” Intersectionality demonstrates the way in which even inequality is not equal; women suffer in different ways depending

on the different characteristics of their identity. This idea expresses how people’s social identities can overlap, creating compounding experiences of discrimination.

During the march, the Daily spoke with Marie Boti, one of the organizers of the march and spokesperson for Women of Diverse Origins. She noted that “this is the 22nd year in a row that we have organized this march.” She then added that one of the main demands was to regularize the “500,000 people in Canada that don’t have regular immigration status.” Women living without regular status are especially at risk; Boti explained that “they are totally vulnerable to any form of exploitation, including sexual abuse or being taken advantage by a landlord or an employer.”

Another important demand of the march was related to the inequality sustained by an unjust economic system. “There is still an economic system that is based on exploitation and making profit more important than women and human beings. This is the system of capitalism and imperialism, where rich countries exploit the resources of poorer countries forcing people to migrate in search of a better life. They end up dying on our doorstep because we are not letting them in,” concluded Boti.

The Daily also spoke with Ambrine Lambert, a student at McGill and head delegate of the IRSAM Youth Advisory Delegation, who participated in the 67th Commission on the Status of Women at the United Nations. The McGill delegation team met

with multiple permanent missions to discuss “global health, climate change, and inequality” in relation to women’s rights. Ambrine emphasized the “importance of educating people on women’s rights.” Her main take away from the commission was that “the state of women’s rights and the solutions that can be offered varies significantly depending on geography. And we are seeing a positive evolution, but events in

the US and Iran for example are proof that we should be cautious in claiming victory.”

When asked about the future of feminist activism, Boti told the Daily , “We’ve been doing this for over two decades and we are getting tired, we need more young people joining us [...] We shouldn’t take things for granted, the struggle for women’s rights won’t end until they are recognized for every woman everywhere.”

news 5 March 20, 2023 | The McGill Daily
“In our language, there is no word to say sorry [...] instead you make it right.”
- Kahentinetha
“The struggle for equality is worldwide and intersectional”
“We shouldn’t take things for granted, the struggle for women’s rights won’t end until they are recognized for every woman everywhere.”
- Marie Boti
India Mosca Staff Writer

A Decade of Promises

presidential candidates

The past ten years have been tumultuous for SSMU. In 2014, the union was attracting scandals, starting with its failed building fee renewal and then the invalidation of the president’s election. Three years later, SSMU was forced to create a sexual violence policy following sexual violence allegations against the VP External. In 2018, there was a sudden and uncommunicated University Centre closure and a contentious collaboration between SSMU and the Association for the Voice of Education in Quebec (AVEQ). Current undergraduate students may recall the president’s leave of absence for the majority of his term in 2021, and the allegations of racism and worker oppression that surfaced in 2022. More of these conflicts can be found in the 2021 McGill Student Union Democratization Initiative Policy, which thoroughly tabulates instances of elected representative misconduct, undemocratic practices, and lack of student participation in General Assemblies and referendums.

Despite the organization’s disappointing track record, every March hopeful SSMU executives continue to envision a brighter tomorrow. In studying the past ten years, we have seen platforms fall in and out of favour, such as political neutrality and financial reform. We have also seen election campaigns detail projects that take years, rather than a single term, to come to fruition: notably, a fall reading week and the sexual violence policy, which cropped up many times before being implemented – or, in the case of the fall reading week, partially implemented.

Process and Caveats

In the following piece, I look at the promises SSMU presidential candidates have made in the last ten years at a quantitative level. Although I was able to access pen sketches dating back a few years, candidate platforms have not been systematically archived. As a result, the keywords I used were plucked from endorsements written by the Daily , The McGill Tribune , and The Bull & Bear . When a candidate attaches a key tenet to their platform, I record the tenet, in a phrase of one to four words, in a spreadsheet that can be accessed on the online version

of this article. I select the six most stressed tenets from each candidate unless the candidate has fewer than six tenets. The project is to record the trajectory of the past ten years – to identify promises that resurface time and again – and to contemplate why some concerns are never resolved.

I have merged the terms “sexual assault policy” and “sexual violence policy” into “sexual violence policy” given the recent semantic shift to using the word “violence” in place of “assault.” Some candidates mentioned a desire to hold office hours without using that phrase – I took the liberty of assuming these candidates referred to office hours. My only other amalgamation is “marginalized groups.” Some candidates mentioned specific demographics – for instance, women or racialized students – and since I was interested in capturing the broader trend of advocating for marginalized demographics as a platform, I grouped all relevant uses into the term “marginalized groups.”

I acknowledge that secondary sources are not an ideal way to capture the platforms of candidates. There is the potential for bias on behalf of student newspapers, especially when it manifests in censorship or the undue stressing of a relatively minor tenet. This issue has been somewhat mitigated by using multiple sources, but it will not disappear entirely.

The platforms of candidates sometimes change, and one could not expect to capture all the nuances of a platform in a spreadsheet. That being said, I was surprised while reading the platforms at how easily the candidates’ ideas could be collapsed into a select few phrases. It seems there has been a consistent use of one-word values - take our trio of sustainability, accountability, and communication - without elaboration.


In ten years, there have been 25 presidential candidates, meaning each election has had an average of 2.5 students running for president of the union.

There are 99 tenets in total. Some are quite specific, such as “restore McGill’s institutional reputation” (2014, Johnson) and “group therapy sessions” (2016, Ger). Others seem like peculiar strategies: I think of the mySSMU app proposal from Darshan Daryanani (2021), or the 2015 candidate Alexei Simakov, who said to the

Daily that rather than politics, he wants to focus on issues that have broad student support, such as how cold the McLennan Library is. (Another gem from Simakov: “I’m not someone who’s been engaged with student government at any point, I’ve always been the opposition.”)

The values that come to the forefront during presidential campaigns are markers of broader issues on campus. For instance, two out of the four mentions of a proposed sexual violence policy take place in 2017, following the allegations against the 2016 VP External. This increase in attention can also be seen in action; in 2018, SSMU hired a sexual violence policy project coordinator and created the Gendered and Sexual Violence Policy (GSVP). On the other hand, it is disheartening to note that the creation of a sexual violence policy was proposed as early as 2015. The candidate who proposed the policy lost, and the lack of a sexual violence policy presumably contributed to SSMU’s inaction after the allegations. This year, presidential candidate Alexandre Ashkir aims to expand the grocery program, and candidates for other SSMU positions have similarly voiced concerns about food insecurity, a hotbutton issue on campus spearheaded by Let’s Eat McGill.

Features 6 March 20, 2023 | The McGill Daily
Rasha Hamade | Photos Contributor
“Sustainability, accountability, communication” are the tired taglines of SSMU

It’s obvious that 2016–17 was an especially tense year from reading the 2017 candidates’ platforms. Tojiboeva started by acknowledging student distrust, Ogendeji’s platform centered on “rebuilding trust,” and Shannon wanted to introduce more opportunities for students to voice their concerns.

How does a candidate’s platform correlate with their success at the polls? Considering that there have been ten winners, I filtered the successful candidates from the rest and reran the program. Unsurprisingly, similar values rose to the top.

One key takeaway from the timeline of the three most common platform promises is that they don’t follow a linear path. That being said, we see sharp increases in concern over accountability in 2019 and 2020, with every single candidate mentioning accountability. I hypothesize that this is in part due to controversies surrounding a free trip to Israel offered to SSMU executives and a failed General Assembly. Communication falls in favour slightly over 2015 to 2022, perhaps due to its vagueness. Sustainability is in a recent upward trend since 2018, and might be resurfacing in popularity due to increasing interest in environmental sustainability. Now, we take a look at the less popular, but perhaps more telling, values.

Sustainability, accountability, and communication are over-represented in the winning faction (3/10 compared to 3/15), while prioritizing office hours is less popular among winners (1/10 compared to 3/15). Half of politically neutral candidates win their campaigns. The first mention of it came from Larson in 2013 (won), then Simakov in 2015 (lost), then Sinder in 2016 (lost), and then Mansdoerfer in 2018 (won).

Perhaps most notably, all candidates to mention fall reading week won their campaigns, highlighting the chokehold the issue had on McGillians’ hearts (while also being a concrete and feasible goal).


This year’s SSMU presidential election is different from any of the previous elections analyzed. We have no choice between platforms and only one voice to define the upcoming academic year. For the first time since SSMU Elections has kept accessible records on election results, a presidential candidate is running unopposed.

Although the results of previous elections reveal a steady stream of nearly identical, often one-worded campaign promises, and although the repetition of these platforms suggests that SSMU presidents are not entirely able to deliver on their assurances, a diversity of voices is essential to a functioning democratic student society.

Here, we see the partial success of the fall reading week promise, and we can track the advocacy work toward it; fall reading week is mentioned in 2018, 2019, and 2020. The three consecutive years of effort accentuate the inability of SSMU presidents to achieve concrete action within their one-year terms. They also suggest that candidates often borrow from previous candidates’ platforms, perhaps because they are aware that certain issues were important to previous voters.

Even when participation in the SSMU end-of-year elections was higher, attendance at general assemblies (GAs) was a concern for candidates, first being mentioned by unsuccessful candidate Chris Bangs in 2013. Interestingly, the winner, Katie Larson, held a staunchly opposing stance. She did not plan to modify the structures of either the GA or of SSMU itself, and she was decidedly apolitical. Perhaps students saw her as a more realistic candidate than the Divest McGill activist Bangs, or they didn’t see GA participation as important to campus life.

Concern for marginalized groups has seen a consistent increase over time. This is perhaps unsurprising, as issues of racism, sexism, and queerphobia have broken into mainstream discourse. We can also track the slow creation of the sexual violence policy over the years. Funnily enough, there is one mention of interest in a sexual violence policy after the sexual violence policy was created in 2017.

2022 saw the lowest voter turnout since SSMU election turnout was recorded in the elections archive in 2012. The turnout was only 12.9 per cent of students voting. The 2023/2024 presidential candidate running unopposed is the most recent symptom of mistrust in and apathy toward SSMU. We can’t fault students: SSMU’s rocky history, evidenced by its inaction, by executive missteps, and by a lack of diversity in candidate platforms, creates a (perhaps not incorrect) impression that voting is merely an illusion of choice. A deeper dive into issues of student governance which lead to student apathy can be found in clumsy voting portals, insufficient training for incoming executives, and unpaid labor are some of the factors causing students to give up on SSMU.

Student participation is mentioned as a platform in three of the campaigns I looked at, engagement in two more. GA engagement is also mentioned twice. It is disheartening to realize that these were central platforms even in times of higher participation and engagement.

Future Work

This sort of analysis is ripe with potential. The main concern is the small sample size; a sample of ten is not large enough to conduct most statistical inquiries, such as whether any platforms are able to predict the success of a candidate.

While I’m not qualified to try to solve the incredibly complex issue of voter apathy, I suggest that more concrete platforms, along with recognition of multi-year projects and an attention to our student government history, are essential in rebuilding trust in SSMU.

Features 7 March 20, 2023 | The McGill Daily
Made in Python. Grouped in units of two years of campaigning Made in Python. Grouped in units of two years of campaigning

Willie Woo

The Forgotten Story of “The First Great Chinese Allround Athlete in Canada”

A century ago, Chinese faces were a rare sight on the McGill campus, let alone in McGill stadiums and gymnasiums. Then, in the early 1930s, a ChineseCanadian McGill athlete named Willie Woo stunned Canadian sports fans with his stellar performance on the basketball courts, football fields, hockey rinks, and softball turfs. Though once celebrated as the “the first great Chinese all-round athlete in Canada,” Woo’s name remains mostly unknown to both Chinese and Canadians today. Piecing together the fragmented information about this former sports star, we find a truly extraordinary life story that illustrates how sports can serve as a unifying force, bridging the divide between different cultures.

Woo’s Early Years in Montreal

The second son in a well-off family, Willie Woo (also known as William Woo, Woo ChingKooi, or Hu Zhengqu) was born on February 26, 1912 in Montreal. His grandfather left Enping, Canton in the second half of the nineteenth century when the state was still under Manchu rule, and made his first fortune in the Australian gold rush.

Following in his grandfather’s footsteps, Woo’s father, Woo Chong Kee (Wu Changqi), later made his way to Melbourne to run a tea dealing business. He returned to China after a decade but soon decided to leave due to the numerous uprisings and the looming threat of Western imperialist powers. After a brief venture in California, Woo’s father decided to settle in Montreal at the turn of the century. Despite barely speaking English or French, Woo Chong Kee worked hard to hawk his tea and other goods to locals, and his effort paid off. Within a decade, he had set up his own store on Sainte-Catherine Street.

Willie Woo grew up in the Golden Square Mile, enjoying a relatively happy childhood compared to his father’s generation. At the age of 11, Woo became a member of the YMCA, the key promoter of basketball worldwide. By his teenage years, his exceptional sports talent became clear. In the 1929-30 season, he was selected by the Montreal Central YMCA (Central Y) to play for the national junior basketball championship and led the team to the Eastern quarterfinals. Despite the team’s

loss, The Montreal Gazette recognized him as the “most effective player [in the team]” and highlighted him as a “Chinese star.” Woo remained one of the most prolific scorers for the Central Y in the next two seasons and led the team to the Quebec finals in the 31-32 season of the premier men’s championship.

Although basketball was the sport for which Woo was best known, he also demonstrated remarkable athletic ability in American football. While attending Montreal High School, he stood out as a talented player and was once referred to as a “stellar quarte[rb]ack” by local media. When Woo turned 18 in 1930, he served as the captain of the Montreal Westwards, the city’s football team at the time.

Becoming a McGillian

In Fall 1932, Woo entered McGill University and soon became an active participant in university sports. His previous experiences made him a player that “shows considerable promise,” as The McGill Daily put it, earning him the position of quarterback on the McGill freshman football team.

In addition, Woo continued to stun sports fans both on and off-campus with his exceptional performance in his top sport, basketball. As an Arts student at McGill, he played for the Arts I team in the Interfaculty basketball league in 1932, impressing a commentator of the Daily with his “usual brilliant play” as a “stellar wingman.”

Outside McGill, Woo shifted his loyalty from Central Y to play for the Montreal Notre-Dame-deGrace Community Team. Despite the team’s 96-46 loss in the 19321933 Eastern finals, Woo still “drew merited applause from the crowd” as a skilled forward.

Apart from football and basketball, Woo’s talents extended to ice hockey and softball/ baseball. As a “hefty defenseman” for the McGill ice hockey team, he helped McGill defeat the Loyola team in the Junior Amateur Hockey Association’s 1932 championship. He also played both infield and outfield positions in baseball and softball.

Across the early 1930s, Woo’s incredible athleticism across multiple sports resulted in frequent appearances in the sports sections of Canadian newspapers like The Montreal Gazette, The Montreal Daily Star, and The Windsor Stars. Woo was so athletically versatile that the Canadian media gave him the

title of an “all-round athlete.” He was the first Chinese athlete in Canada to achieve such a high level of success and renown.

In contrast to the copious amount of information about his life on the sports fields, little is known of Woo’s academic life at McGill, save that he once studied Chinese with Professor Kiang Kang-hu (Jiang Kanghu, 1883-1954), a renowned yet controversial Sinologist and chair of the newly founded department of Chinese studies. Woo’s brief acquaintance with Kiang would be a turning point in his life.

“Back” to China

Just as Woo’s athletic career was on the rise, it was brought to a sudden halt in 1933. According to a news report in The Brandon Daily Sun, Woo’s father, blind, elderly, and suffering from the grief of losing his wife, decided to spend his last days back in his hometown, Canton. This decision resulted from advice from his doctor to move to a warmer climate and encouragement from Professor Kiang to “find his roots at the ancestral home.” Accompanying him was none other than his son, Wille Woo, who had just finished his freshman year at McGill.

Not surprisingly, this plan was met with strong opposition from the young Willie Woo, who by then had spent over two decades in Montreal. But eventually, Woo conformed to his father’s wish on the condition that he would stay in China for no more than six months.

News of Woo’s impending departure soon covered the pages of Canadian newspapers. Following his final game for Westwards in November 1933, Woo embarked on a journey across the Pacific Ocean to China, a land in which he had never before set foot.

Woo first sailed to Hong Kong, and then traveled to Shanghai. In China, he was welcomed with open arms. Woo’s success in the Canadian sports scene was viewed as an honour to Chinese people, who were often typecast as physically weak and not valuing physical education. His “homecoming” thus took on a nationalistic hue (figure 3). As a commentator of the Chinese newspaper The China Times (Shishi xin bao) wrote:

“Given that the situation in China is becoming worse and worse, the crux of the problem lies in the debility and weakness of our citizens [...] With his excellent athletic skills, [Mr. Woo]

is to generously serve Chinese sports upon his return to the country and train budding young athletes, in hope of washing away the humiliation of ‘The Sick Man of Asia’. His ambition is indeed admirable!”

Bringing with him some prior coaching experience from Canada, Woo quickly established himself as a highly soughtafter coach among universities and institutions in China. In February 1934, he was recruited by the Liangjiang Women’s Sport Institute in Shanghai as a general physical education teacher. Upon his arrival, the school principal, Lu Lihua, held a welcome party

for Woo, anticipating that he would bring about changes to the school’s sports teams.

Woo proved to be not only a talented athlete, but an excellent coach as well. His tutelage enabled the sports teams at Liangjiang school to progress rapidly, achieving remarkable results in a variety of sports. With only two months of training, the Liangjiang softball team was able to defeat a high school team from the United States in a friendly competition. Moreover with Woo serving as coach, the Liangjiang basketball team made history. During the team’s three-and-ahalf-month tour of five Southeast

SPOrts 8 March 20, 2023 | The McGill Daily
Figure 1: Clipped from The Gazette, January 26, 1939.

Asian countries starting in February 1935, it achieved an unprecedented winning streak, dominating its 28 games against other local women’s basketball teams by wide margins. The Liangjiang team also won six victories in twelve games played against local male teams.

This was no small feat for a young all-female basketball team, whose country was still mired in war and political turbulence. The young women’s victories left local audiences awestruck, fueling Chinese people with a sense of national pride while sensationalizing the entire sports scene in both China and around Southeast Asia. When the team returned to China in May, they were greeted as national heroes, hailed for their remarkable achievement and bringing glory to their country. Needless to say, Woo’s leadership and dedication as the head coach were crucial contributors to the team’s success.

As a result of his impressive coaching accomplishments, Woo stayed in China for a longer period than he had anticipated.

In 1936, he moved to Hong Kong and began coaching for the South China Athletic Association (SCAA, also known as Nanhua hui). The SCAA basketball team soon became another display of Woo’s aptitude in coaching. In 1939, Woo led the team to a hardfought triumph over the Sing Tao (Xingdao) basketball team, earning them the Hong Kong basketball championship that year.

Over the following years, Woo worked as a physical education instructor, teaching both English and sports in numerous institutions across Hong Kong and mainland China, notably Hong Kong University, Canton University, and Zhejiang University. Despite his distance from North America, Woo maintained a connection with his hometown. He made regular trips to Canada during vacation periods, and in 1939 he even made a brief comeback in Montreal, playing for the city’s basketball team alongside his old friends (figure 1).

“Back” to Montreal

The late 1930s and early 1940s saw the steady growth of Woo’s reputation as an excellent coach within China’s sports circle. However, the Japanese invasion of mainland China and Hong Kong brought the nation into chaos and derailed Woo’s career.

In August 1942, eight months after the Japanese occupation of Hong Kong, Woo fled the city to find refuge in the areas not under the heel of Japanese domination, which were collectively known as “Free China.” He lived amongst the masses under the shadow of war and was amazed by their determination to resist the enemy. While Woo’s life in “Free China” allowed him to survive Japanese aggression during these years, it was by no means easy.

On January 5, 1943, Woo’s

former Central Y teammate, Scotty Brotman, became concerned by a letter from Woo that described the physical suffering and poverty he was facing. Not only was his health jeopardized by sunstroke, malaria, typhus, and malnutrition, but after losing nearly all his belongings, Woo could not afford to buy the clothes he needed.

In response to his plight, a committee was set up on Woo’s behalf. Affiliated with the Central Y and chaired by Brotman, the committee was tasked with devising solutions to Woo’s pressing needs. The Central Y established the “Willie Woo fund,” created from the proceeds of several benefit basketball games held by the committee and a performance staged by Montreal High School.

It was reported that Woo received around $350 in September of 1943, equivalent to $6000 today. Having endured various physical and mental afflictions, Woo eventually returned to his birthplace of Montreal in 1944. Perhaps a winding, if not adventurous, journey, Woo traveled via Kunming in Yunnan province, the Himalayan hump, Kolkata, Brisbane, and Los Angeles, all while dealing with his declining health.

Upon his arrival in Montreal, Woo picked up his previous profession as a basketball coach. For two years, he brought a remarkable improvement to the Sir George William College basketball team, the Georgians. In the 1944-45 season of the senior men’s basketball championship, the Georgians went on to the Eastern finals (figure 2). Although the team was ultimately eliminated, Woo was delighted to see the achievements this local Montreal basketball had made. “We’ve come a long way in the playdowns,” Woo said after

the Georgians’ victory in the Eastern semifinals in 1945. “[B] ut we won’t be satisfied until we return to Montreal with the title and let the rest of Canada know that Montreal also can produce prominent basketball clubs.” Residing at the intersection of different cultures, Woo always

“People in the world knew little about Hong Kong in terms of basketball,” said Woo after his return from Rome in 1960. “I hope one day Hong Kong can reach international competitions.”

After retiring in the mid-1960s, Woo moved back to Canada, where he enjoyed a comfortable life and maintained his passion for sports by following NCAA basketball games and hockey competitions. He returned occasionally to Hong Kong to catch up with old friends and students, many of whom, including Shi Zhenda and Pan Kelian , had become established athletes.

Chinese? Canadian? Or Montrealer?

saw himself as a bridge builder, not only between Montreal sports and the rest of Canada but also between Chinese and Canadians. Motivated by this perspective, Woo founded and presided over the Chinese Athlete Club, one of the thirteen branches of The International YMCA, in 1945 for the sake of “foster[ing] health-giving recreation for Chinese youngsters in this area and to stimulate goodwill and understanding between two races.” It was Woo’s conviction that sports, and basketball in particular, could bridge the gaps between different races and cultures.

Post-war Life in Hong Kong

As the catastrophic war ended in China in summer 1945, Woo,

inspired by the will of the Chinese people during his hazardous stay, saw a way to devote himself to rebuilding the country in the post-war period. In April 1946, Woo traveled back to China, and spent much of the rest of his professional life in Hong Kong, which was relatively impervious to the ensuing political upheavals in the mainland.

In Hong Kong, Woo resumed his affiliation with SCAA, where he served as the coach for both the basketball and softball teams. He also assumed several administrative roles within Hong Kong’s sports circles, serving as the chair of the Hong Kong badminton, softball, and most importantly, basketball associations.

As the main contributor to the post-war revival of softball in Hong Kong, Woo acted as both a coach and an ambassador between Hong Kong and the West by attending international softball conferences and hosting visiting softball teams from other countries.

As for basketball, with his rich experience and impressive track record, Woo was once acclaimed as “the only best basketball coach in South China so far” by the Hong Kong newspaper Overseas Chinese Daily News (Wah Kiu Yat Po) in 1948. Woo proved himself worthy of this title, when his basketball team won three championships in the Hong Kong Basketball League in the 1950s (54-55, 57-58, and 59-60).

Serving as the Chinese basketball team delegate for five Olympics and the representative for the SCAA and Hong Kong Basketball Association, Woo attended FIBA conferences in Rome in 1960 and in Tokyo in 1964. Through his frequent travels, Woo recognized basketball’s potential for putting Hong Kong on the map and enhancing its global visibility.

Like any second-generation immigrant or cultural wanderer in general, questions about Willie Woo’s identity were always present. He has been referred to in various ways such as a “Chinese player [of the team],” “Canadian-born Chinese,” “exMontrealer,” and “former local athlete” by Canadian media, and “overseas Chinese” (huaqiao) or “a member of the national community” (guomin yifenzi) by Chinese media. To be sure, it is always tricky to say whether China was a place for Woo to “go” or “return.”

Having spent his formative years in Montreal, Woo identified himself more as a Canadian in his youth: “I felt I was totally Canadian, except for the colo[ur] of my skin.” However, in an interview in the 1980s (figure 8), when explaining his rationale for spending most of his time in China, Woo reflected that “[as] much as I loved my boyhood in Montreal, I feel better being one of the majority.”

To be sure, Woo’s Canadian culture never hindered his commitment to fostering crosscultural connections through sports. He utilized his ability and expertise in sports to build bridges between different cultures. He aided Chinese athletes in adapting to the local culture in Canada while introducing novel viewpoints and basketball tactics from abroad to China, using sports as a vehicle to increase China’s global exposure. Unlike George Orwell, who believed that sport “is bound up with hatred, jealousy, [and] boastfulness,” Woo dedicated the better half of his life to demonstrating its potential to promote mutual understanding.

Woo passed away in Vancouver in March 1990 after battling cancer. In an obituary in The Gazette, Woo was hailed as “the first great Canadian-born Chinese athlete.” Meanwhile, in Hong Kong, his contributions to the development of basketball were spotlighted in Overseas Chinese Daily News. As it is widely known that basketball was invented by a McGillian, perhaps it is also worth remembering that another McGillian played an important role in the development of the sport in East Asia.

Sports 9 March 20, 2023 | The McGill Daily
Residing at the intersection of different cultures, Woo always saw himself as a bridge builder, not only between Montreal sports and the rest of Canada but also between Chinese and Canadians.
Figure 2 : Woo and Georgians. Clipped from The Gazette, April 13, 1945.

Women ’ s History Month Book Recommendations

March is Women’s History Month! To celebrate, the Daily ’s editorial board has compiled a list of book recommendations related to women’s history. Below are works that are written by female authors, contain plots that focus on women’s achievements, or have a unique take on gendered subject matter overall. Enjoy!

FICTION – Bunny by Mona Awad

Bizarre, beautifully evocative, and darkly humorous, Mona Awad’s Bunnytells the story of New England MFA student Samantha Mackay as she uncovers the supernatural underbelly of her English major classmates. Surrounded by “the fake poor and fashionably deranged” of an art school student body, Samantha’s classmates appear at first glance to be caricatures of privilege and hollow femininity. However, when the workshop’s central group — four close female friends with a penchant for calling each other “Bunny” — invite Samantha to their personal writing getaway, she is suddenly faced with their strange, grotesque reality. In part satirical, the novel reflects Awad’s own experience in her BFA program, as she criticizes the hypocrisy entrenched in modern literary institutions. Bunny covers a range of themes from girlhood to cults to the destructive power of love, imbued with stylish elements of cult classic horror.

FICTION – Glory by Noviolet Bulawayo

Bulawayo’s second novel is a unique take on the 2017 Zimbabwean military overthrow of then Prime Minister Robert Mugabe. She draws inspiration from George Orwell’s Animal Farm , setting the story in the fictional African nation of Jidada, whose residents are all animals. The word ‘people’ never appears in this novel, and gender is not defined by men and women, but by ‘mals’ and ‘femals.’ This post-colonial masterpiece tackles the long-standing effects of European colonization on Zimbabwe’s political systems, ultimately culminating in the 2017 coup. This brilliant work of political satire uses familiar allegories in a groundbreakingly new way.

FICTION – Severance by Ling Ma

In her debut novel Severance, Ling Ma tells the story of apocalyptic dystopia, alienation and cruelty under global capitalism, and the moving struggle of reconnecting with a mother’s heritage. Our protagonist Candace Chen embodies the millennial condition — she is a first-generation American and corporate office drone, grasping for comfort in routine following the passing of her Chinese immigrant parents. Although published in 2018, Ma’s novel centers around an eerily familiar pandemic in NYC, as we witness the selfdestructive nature of loneliness and grief. A post-capitalist satire under the guise of one Asian-American woman’s journey into adulthood, Severance is a delightful treatise on the human condition.


– We Have Always Lived in the Castle by Shirley Jackson

Jackson’s final work is widely considered to be her best. WeHaveAlwaysLivedintheCastle is a gothic mystery novel that follows the lives of sisters Mary Katherine ‘Merricat’ and Constance Blackwood. This novel takes the idea of the ‘home’ and its association with traditional femininity, and flips it on its head. In the Blackwood home, food always has a chance of being poisoned, eerie wards surround the house to “keep it safe,” and family members can be mysteriously killed off at any time. Although Jackson’s novel can be quite jarring and unsettling at times, the story ultimately hinges on close female relationships; in this case, the unwavering love the two sisters have for one another. In a world where everyone else — the townsfolk, their childhood friends, and even their own family — has turned against them, Merricat and Constance find their strength in each other.

NONFICTION – Braiding Sweetgrass: IndigenousWisdom, Scientific Knowledge, and theTeachings of Plants by Robin

BraidingSweetgrass is a nonfiction book about the traditional Indigenous uses of plants in medicine and science. Robin Wall Kimmerer, a Potawatomi professor of Environmental and Forest Biology at the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), organizes her book as a series of essays divided into five sections. “Planting Sweetgrass,” “Tending,” “Picking,” “Braiding,” and “Burning Sweetgrass” each give wonderful insight into the world of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) and ethnobotany. A must read for everybody!

Milkweed Editions

NONFICTION – WhyWomen Have Better Sex Under Socialsim by Kristen R. Ghodsee

Kristen R. Ghodsee, professor of Russian and East European studies at the University of Pennsylvania, offers an engaging and deeply researched analysis of the lives of women under state socialism in Eastern Europe. She examines the lives and legacies of prominent female activists and politicians in state socialist countries, as well as how policies shaped the daily lives of women and in many cases, afforded them more independence and opportunities than before. She argues that socialism done right leads to increased economic independence, better work-life balance, and more political participation for women.

CULTURE 10 March 20, 2023 | The McGill Daily
Hamish Hamilton Penguin Publishing Picador Publishing
Bold Type Books
Penguin Publishing

The Erosion of Official Bilingualism The potential consequnces of Bill C-13

In March 2022, the federal Liberal government introduced Bill C-13 to amend the Official Languages Act of Canada. At the time, the government suggested that the amendments were intended to strengthen the ability of Francophones in both Quebec and the rest of Canada to receive services in French in federally regulated private businesses.

One way that the government hoped to achieve this was by permitting such businesses operating in the province of Quebec to follow either the Official Languages Act or the province’s Charter of the French Language – known as Bill 101 –which entrenched French as the official language of Quebec and restricted the use of English in the province. In May 2022, Bill 96 was passed in Quebec, amending parts of Bill 101 and causing further problems with the bill. To pass Bill 96, the government of Premier François Legault, used the Notwithstanding Clause – a constitutional mechanism that allows a government to override certain parts of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms – to preemptively shield the law from any potential court challenges. By making explicit reference to Quebec’s Charter of the French Language, Bill C-13 now effectively endorses the preemptive use of the Notwithstanding Clause in federal law, something that the federal government has never done before.

of the Notwithstanding Clause in a federal law. They have also raised concerns about the possibility that the inclusion of a reference to the Charter of the French Language in the Official Languages Act could limit access to English services in federally regulated businesses in Quebec. The Charter of the French Language explicitly guarantees service in French – but does not guarantee service in English. The old Official Languages Act, on the other hand, guarantees access to services in both English and French.

Bill C-13 has received second reading and is now in front of the Standing Committee on Official Languages, which is reviewing the bill and considering proposals for amendments. A number of Liberal Members of Parliament representing ridings on the island of Montreal—including Anthony Housefather, Emmanuella Lambropoulos, and Marc Garneau—have raised concerns about this apparent endorsement

In Committee, the Bloc Québécois has introduced a number of amendments intended to further entrench the Charter of the French Language in any updated version of the Official Languages Act. The Conservative Party has joined the Bloc Québécois in its attempt to weaken the rights of Englishspeaking Quebecers, most recently when Joël Godin, Member of Parliament for a riding in the

Quebec City region, introduced an amendment that would have the federal government recognize Quebec’s distinctive character when formulating language policy. Another member of the Committee – Liberal Francis Drouin, who represents an Eastern Ontario riding – dismissed the concerns of English-speaking Quebecers when he tweeted “the island of Montreal does not have a monopoly on Canada’s linguistic policy.” Niki Ashton, meanwhile, a NDP member on the Committee who represents a northern Manitoba riding, finds it “extremely concerning” that Liberal members are expressing reservations about a bill that originated from their own party. Why it is “extremely concerning” that a Liberal member might wish to fix or improve a bill put forward by their own party is not entirely clear. Furthermore, Arielle Kayabaga, a Liberal committee member who represents a riding in London, Ontario, seems to agree with the Bloc Québécois, Conservatives, and NDP when she says it is imperative that the House of Commons pass the bill “as soon as possible.”

The problem with Bill C-13 is that it entrenches the Charter of the French Language – and by extension the use of the Notwithstanding Clause – into federal law. It also introduces into the Official Languages Act the principle of asymmetry when it comes to language rights. Under the original Official Languages

Act, the English and French languages were accorded equal status across the country. Should Bill C-13 pass, however, the Official Languages Act would be amended in such a way as to define Quebec as a French-speaking region of the country with a special responsibility to promote the use of the French language according to the terms of the province’s own Charter of the French Language. In the rush to advance the rights of French-speaking Canadians to access services from federally regulated businesses, the members of the Subcommittee on Official Languages, and the overwhelming majority of the rest of the House of Commons, appear intent on forsaking the rights of English-speaking Quebecers to access services in their language in their province

In addition, Bill C-13 seems to put forward the notion that Quebec should be treated in federal law as a distinct society when it comes to matters of language. Especially given that the Meech Lake Accord was defeated in large part over this issue three decades ago,this is a significant development that warrants further reflection and that should not be rushed through Parliament “as soon as possible.”

This debate is also extremely troubling for another reason. If we, as a society, decide that it is acceptable to limit the rights of English-speaking Quebecers today, we are also opening the door to one day limiting the rights of French-speaking Canadians

elsewhere in the country. The principle of asymmetry leads us on this path of revoking the rights of a minority group when that minority group no longer has the means to defend itself.

It is thus time for members of the Subcommittee on Official Languages, Members of Parliament from all parties, and all Canadians, to stand up for the rights of linguistic minorities across the country. It is time for us all to slow this process down and to think about how minority groups across this country will be adversely affected by the proposed amendments to the Official Languages Act.

Commentary 11 March 20, 2023 | The McGill Daily
Genevieve Quinn | Photos Editor
[...] Bill C-13 now effectively endorses the preemptive use of the Notwithstanding Clause in federal law, something that the federal government has never done before.
The principle of asymmetry leads us on this path of revoking the rights of a minority group when that minority group no longer has the means to defend itself.

Aries (Mar 21 - Apr 19)

Leaf them alone, they are not worth your time or energy.

Cancer (Jun 21 - JUL 22) Jul 22)

poppy-n to your local bookstore, spring is your reading era.

Libra (Sept 23 - Oct 22)


Taurus (Apr 20 - May) 20)

this winter you rose to the occasion. take a break this spring, relax.

Leo (Jul 23 - Aug 22)

chop that hair off! you’ll look iris-istible.

Gemini (May 21 - Jun 20)

do your roomie’s dishes, it will make their daisy.

Virgo (Aug 23 - Sept 22)

get clover that old f lame, they are not worth your spring.

Scorpio (Oct 23 - Nov 21)

Sagittarius (Nov 22 - Dec 21)

you won’t be-leaf your luck this season, take risks!

don’t be ranunculus, text that crush, spring love is here.

focus on your buds this season, have a cute picnic.

Capricorn (Dec 22 - Jan 19)

reconnect to your roots this spring, call your old friends and catch up.

Aquarius (Jan 20 - Feb 18)

try collaging, thistle help you move on from them...

Pisces (Feb 19 - Mar 20)

perk up buttercup! this spring, hike! reconnect with nature!

compendium! 12 March 20, 2023 | The McGill Daily
Last week’s crossword:
leguin 2. caceres 3. marsha 4. reproductive 5. chytilova 6. kahlo 7. federici 8. butler 9. jacobs 10. lovelace 11. luxemburg 12. crenshaw 13. heyinzhen 14. kollontai 15. idabwells 16. green 17(across). davis 17 (down). debeauvoir 18. assata 19. kahnistensera 20. newzealand 21. russianrevolution 22. zetkin 23. tereshkova 24. varda 25. billiejeanking 26. johnson 27. parent