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South Florida Aquatic Plant Management Society General Meeting Announcement Date: Thursday, July 26th 2012 Where: Broward County Extension 3245 College Avenue Davie, FL 33314 Time: 8:00 A.M. - 1:00 P.M.

Agenda 8:00am – 8:15am

Registration and Refreshments

8:15am – 9:05am

Truck and Trailer Driving Safety Elliot Rosen, FHP – ProTech Driving Safety Solutions

9:05am – 9:55am

Granular Aquatic Herbicide Applications and Equipment Michael Blatt Vortex Systems

9:55am – 10:00am


10:00am – 10:50am

Natural Area Snakes and Reptiles Liz Barraco / Jennifer Ketterlin Eckles Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission

1 Natural Area

10:50am - 11:40am

Right of Way Design and Maintenance Jay Vadaie EnviroScape Nursery

1 Right of Way

11:40am – 12:30pm

Habitat Enhancement in Everglades Mitigation Bank Joseph SicBaldi Florida Power & Light Company

1 Natural Area

12:30pm – 1:30pm

Complimentary Lunch Sponsored TBA

*C.E.U’s will be available for paid members.*

2 Natural Area + 1 Aquatic + 1 Right of Way

1 Aquatic

President’s Message Wow, what a first quarter for the year 2012! In addition to our March General Meeting with over one hundred attendees, we have held special events at the local water control districts. Our membership has “blossomed” and we have added some additional heavyweights to our Board. Our volunteers have participated in Water Matters Day and the Youth Fishing Event at the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission’s Boca Fish Laboratory.

Page 3 Officers and Board Members - 2012 Officers 2012 Mark Weinrub: President ……………………………. Joel Wolf: Past President ………………………….… Linda Wolonick: Secretary/Treasurer……………….

T: 954.972.8126 T: 305.582.1913 T: 954.370.0041

Board Members 2012 John Baylor………………………………………………………. James Boggs……………………………………………….……. Dr. Tina Bond……………………………………………….….. Adam Gardner………………………………………………….. Dr. Lyn Gettys………………………………………………….. John Keating……………………………………………………. John Lepage…………………………………….………………. John Lynch………………………………………………………. John Raymundo……………………………………………….. Jason Rivera…………………………………………………….. Steve Weinsier…………………………………………………..

T: 407.472.0520 T: 863.557.0076 T: 407.808.2035 T: 954.831.0754 T: 954.577.6331 T: 954.831.0756 T: 954.654.1150 T: 561.633.7226 T: 561.965.4159 T: 954.572.2388 T: 954.382.9766

Joshua Glasser: Editor ……………………………….

T: 954.414.4100

The Hydrophyte has increased in size and popularity due to new advertising income and interesting articles for the trade. Our members look forward to our continuing success in 2012! Sincerely, Mark Weinrub President South Florida A.P.M.S

Cover Photo by Holly Sutter

Congratulations to Jason Rivera The 2012 Recipient of The "Francis E. Chil" Rossbach Scholarship Fund

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Summer Weather Conditions & Your Lake Management Program The purpose of lake management services is to control algae and undesirable aquatic weed growth, test the lake water for oxygen, pH, clarity and temperature and monitor beneficial aquatic plants. Fish and wildlife observations should be made and recorded during each visit.

Most algae and aquatic plant problems that occur in South Florida are prompted by high nutrient levels in the water along with warm water temperatures. Springtime fertilization of lawns and seasonal summer rains induce algae growth. This situation is normal and should be anticipated between treatments.

Lake management programs should not be designed to eliminate all aquatic vegetation. Algae forms the broad base upon which the food pyramid in ponds and lakes are built. In manufacturing food, algae and plants in the water release oxygen, increasing the amount dissolved in the water. This helps to sustain fish and to reduce undesirable bacteria that may thrive in warm-water lakes. Therefore, some algae is necessary in a healthy aquatic environment.

Water level fluctuations that occur throughout the year may expose some beneficial aquatics that are normally submersed. This should not cause alarm during low-water periods.

Lakeside homeowners can help to maintain their shoreline areas by following certain guidelines. Fertilizer should not be placed within ten (10') feet of the water’s edge. Never discard grass clippings or landscape cuttings into the lake. Leave beneficial emergent aquatic plants such as rush, arrowhead, pickerelweed, which provide a filtering mechanism for runoff.

Service visits for the care of your lakes should be scheduled. Problems that may arise can be handled during these visits.

Credit: Allstate Resource Management

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Stocking Largemouth Bass? Make Sure They’re Legal It’s that time of year again: spring. Landowners, homeowner associations and sportsmen look for native fish suppliers from which to buy Florida’s favorite freshwater game fish, the largemouth bass, to stock in their ponds or lakes.

The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) wants to remind those who live south and east of the Suwannee River that, legally, they may purchase and stock only authenticated Florida largemouth bass. These bass are from suppliers whose fish have been genetically tested and authenticated by the FWC as pure Florida largemouth bass. Anglers come to our state from all over the world to catch trophy Florida largemouth bass, so the FWC is doing everything possible to protect the genetic purity of this ecologically and economically important subspecies of bass.

Currently, no out-of-state farms meet FWC requirements. Companies that stock largemouth bass must be registered with the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services and sell authenticated, pure Florida largemouth bass. Violation of this rule is a criminal offense and also may result in federal prosecution under the Lacey Act if fish are transported across state lines. Civil penalties can reach $5,000 per fish.

The FWC passed a rule (Florida Administrative Code 68-5.002[r]), which went into effect July 1, 2010, making northern largemouth bass and intergrades (hybrids) of northern largemouth bass “conditional species” south and east of the Suwannee River and banning possession or release in those peninsular areas.

Credit: Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Photo Credit:

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Plant of the Month - Spider Lily (Hymenocallis latifolia) Spider Lily is a Florida native that is commonly observed in backdunes, coastal habitats, such as coastal hammocks and mangrove swamp edges, and swampy areas of central and southern Florida and the Keys (zones 9a through 11). It likes full sun, but will also grow in partial shade and is moderately salt tolerant. Spider Lily, Hymenocallis latifolia has a similar look to the Swamp Lily, Crinum americana. Spider Lilly is distinguished from Swamp Lily by its bloom, and by its leaves which are arranged on one plane. Those of the Swamp Lily are arranged spirally. They both are in the Amaryllidaceae family and grow from underground bulbs/tubers, though the flowers of the Spider Lily are more showy. It’s white flowers are fragrant and long lasting. The delicate flowers are 5� in diameter and have 3 petals and 3 petal-like sepals that unite in the center under a saucer-shaped corona and occur in clusters at the top of flowering stalks which can bloom in late spring, summer and fall. The flowers appear above attractive strappy dark green leaves.

Hymenocallis latifolia

Crinum Americana

Spider Lily

Swamp Lily

Photo Credit: Holly Sutter; Allstate Resource Management

Credit: Rose BĂŠchard Butman; Certified Arborist and Horticultural Consultant

Photo Credit: Adam Grayson; Lake and Wetland Management

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The Case for Native Plants As the use of native plants in urban landscaping has increased, a number of articles have been written questioning their value. A few of the articles have appeared in trade journals primarily for growers of non-natives. Others have appeared in more general publications. No one seems to question the value of natives for restoration of landscapes that have been badly damaged by industrial activities, such as phosphate mining. The questions instead revolve around their advantages for use in urban and suburban landscapes, and whether the claims that have been made for their value are valid. Particularly questioned are the suggestions that natives, because they have evolved in their natural sites, require fewer inputs of water, fertilizer and pesticides. As an owner of a native plant nursery my bias is certainly toward natives, but I think it is useful to see whether more modesty about our claims for natives is warranted. One of the first questions to be answered is what do we mean by a native plant. In Florida we mean plants which were here prior to the arrival of Europeans. The question then becomes where is here? The boundaries of any state, county, or municipality are human constructs. Since that is the case, can any plants grown outside of their current natural areas truly be called native? Is silver saw palmetto really a native plant in Sarasota because it occurs naturally on the southeast coast of Florida? Are trees that are found in North Florida to be considered natives in more southerly regions of the state? Plants grown in different parts of the state clearly differ in morphological characteristics. Do they also differ in their physiological characteristics sufficiently to reduce their survival when they are grown elsewhere? One of the criticisms levied against native plants is that in some instances their native status is more apparent than real. The question becomes how far can they be removed from their native habitat and still be considered natives. This is a contentious question even among native plant enthusiasts. A major advantage claimed by native plant aficionados is that native plants have evolved to be able to thrive in their present natural locations. One of the arguments used against this assertion, however, is that urban and suburban backyards and streetscapes are a far cry from the woods, fields, wetlands, and beaches that are natural settings for native plants. Can one expect a native plant to necessarily thrive in a yard that was filled and may contain construction rubble buried around the house? Furthermore, these areas will also differ in their microclimates from the native habitats. In fact, we have very little data about the survivability and longevity of natives under such conditions except perhaps as anecdotal evidence. We can say, however, that in Florida plants have evolved under conditions that are often stressful such as high temperatures, high humidity, drought, flooding, and nutrient poor soils. In some instances such as on coastal sites, very few non-natives can survive because of their lack of salt tolerance. It may well be that because of these types of stresses, natives are better able to withstand a wider range of environmental conditions than plants that have not evolved under such conditions. Without data, however, perhaps we should be more modest in our claims. Another advantage touted for native plants is that their evolution has involved exposure to insect pests and fungi that inhabit the region in which they occur, and that they have had to develop defenses enabling them to survive. Non-natives that have not had the benefit of such an evolutionary history are more likely to fall prey to such insects and diseases. The latter's survival, therefore, will require applications of pesticides and fungicides. The coevolution of plants and animals means that a dynamic equilibrium has been reached between the two but clearly the animals must eat to survive. Although a population of plants may survive in the presence of various predators, this does not mean that individual plants won't fall prey. In addition, there are very few plants that will be completely resistant so they may sustain some damage although not fatal. It is possible that natives grown under non-natural conditions, and therefore stressed, lose some of their natural resistance. It is also true that insects have evolved mechanisms to key in on chemical cues from their host plants, and often non-natives may be less prone to attack since they do not emit these cues. Indeed, one of the advantages of natives is that they are recognized by a variety of fauna such as birds, butterflies and other insects that do not recognize exotics.

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Continued from page 8 The fact that we have exotic pests such as Brazilian pepper, melaleuca, Australian pine and carrotwood as well as an ever increasing list, is testimony to the lack of serious pests in their new locations. Conversely, it is also true that in a time of great mobility in which we live, the importation of foreign pests occurs regularly. That has occasionally led to disastrous results for natives: e.g., Dutch elm disease and the chestnut blight. The dogwoods in the southeastern U.S are being decimated by a foreign fungus and the oaks in California are in similar danger. It may well be that on balance natives do present a better naturally protected group of plants than those which are not native to an area. It may be our mind-sets that need changing. It is really not necessary to try to kill all of the pests that attack plants. Do we really need perfect plants in our yards? Another assertion made about natives is that they require less fertilizer, if any, compared with non-native plants and therefore groundwater supplies as well as surface water run-off will be less contaminated by excess nitrogen and phosphorus. In most cases, however, there is little evidence that plants, native or non-native, won't benefit from fertilizer applications if one is interested in flower or fruit production or rapid biomass accumulation. The major difference is that in most cases native plants are not installed for any of the above reasons while non-natives frequently are. In fact, it seems likely that the major culprits in such excess fertilizer applications are lawns, and that substitution of shrubs and trees, whether native or non-native, would be advantageous. Perhaps it is not so much that natives require fewer inputs than non-natives, but that growers of the latter are better able to accept a less manicured and lush appearance of plants that are not subjected to continual pesticide and fertilizer application. Again, it may be the mind-set and not the plants that are most in need of changing. Often asserted by native plant aficionados is that native plants require little or no watering. Firstly, one must acknowledge that natives most certainly need water for some time after planting. How much will depend on the species, its size, the time of year and the type of environment in which they are planted. Secondly, it is also clear that natives, as is the case for other plants, differ in their abilities to extract water from droughty environments and to survive under drought conditions. Merely planting natives will not necessarily absolve the homeowner from watering. As the old saying goes, the proper plant in the proper place is also necessary for natives. Members of the public unfamiliar with natives sometimes have the erroneous impression that xeriscaping and natives are synonymous. As is the case with pesticides and fertilizer, the major users of water in urban areas are lawns. If reduced requirements for water, pesticides and fertilizers are attributes that are at least questionable, are there claims for native plant use that do not seem so? One claim for which there is good supporting evidence is that natives are important in maintaining populations of many types of native fauna including birds, butterflies, and a wide variety of insect pollinators. In Britain it has been found that native trees such as oak and hawthorn support several hundred invertebrates. The horse chestnut, widely planted in Britain, supports only 4 invertebrates in Britain but more than 100 in its native Mediterranean region. These invertebrates are food sources for birds and other wildlife and the replacement of native species with introduced ones can disrupt many food chains. Native wild flowers are often the food sources for butterfly larva as well as nectar sources for butterflies and many pollinators. As more land is developed, urban and suburban areas become more important for wildlife. A second important role for native plants in urban areas is aesthetic and more subjective. We obtain our sense of place in many instances from the flora without even knowing the identity of the plants. One of the ways that we know we are in Florida and not in Ohio, other than the absence of winter snow, is the presence of massive live oaks and stately cabbage palms as well as other less well-known plants. Non-native plants have their place in our urban spaces, but surely the almost total replacement of our native flora with exotics is comparable to replacing all of our native birds with species of parrots because we enjoy their colorful plumage. In summary, I believe that native plants have an important role to play in the urban and suburban environments. I have written this to suggest that we be a bit more modest in our claims about natives, not because many of these claims are necessarily wrong, but because in most cases we do not have sufficient evidence based on research to support them. Credit: Dan Walton; Florida Native Plant Nursery

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Calendar of Events June 18-21, 2012 FLMS Annual Conference Gainesville, FL

July 26, 2012 South Florida APMS General Meeting Broward County Extension Davie

August 19-23, 2012 American Fisheries Society St. Paul, MN

October 25, 2012 South Florida APMS General Meeting TBA

Classified Broward area. Passed Core Exam and ready to do inside or outside field reporting. Have done water quality and mitigation area monitoring. Contact Michelle at For a complete list of job openings visit and click "Job Postings"

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Predator VS The Alien Whiteflies are now being found on aquatic plants!

Often when new pests arrive, they can reach very high populations and can be extremely damaging. After several years, the impact can be naturally reduced. It is very important to understand the importance of natural enemies and the need to focus on long-term, biologically based management. Softscapes, has been releasing predators as a green option to the whitefly invasion. Our goal is to get the best control with the least amount of damage to the environment. Change is difficult to accept and utilizing biological control can be misunderstood. Insecticide sprays can wipe out beneficial insects and must have contact to be effective. Protecting natural enemies is very important so they are not also killed while trying to control the target pest. Protecting natural enemies is a critical component in long-term control!

The sticky honeydew that they excrete can accumulate on cars, pool decks and patio furniture from infested trees overhead. Black sooty mold can grow on the insect’s honeydew.

Rugose Spiraling Whitefly

Native Lady Beetle eating Whitefly Larvae Photo Credit: Tony Lanza - Nature Photographer

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“The Alien” (Insect is believed to originate from Central America. ) White spirals on the underside of leaves are a sign of spiraling whitefly. Infested plants become covered with a white waxy substance. These insects typically feed on the underside of leaves with their “needle-like” mouthparts. Whiteflies can seriously injure host plants by sucking nutrients from the plant causing wilting, yellowing, stunting, leaf drop, or even death. Whiteflies do not have a hibernation period. Winter weather will generally reduce their numbers. The female lays about 200 eggs on the underside of the leaves. The eggs hatch and the nymphs quickly start to feed on the sap of the plant in cottony colonies. When mature they develop wings and fly off onto other plants to lay their eggs. “The Predators” such as ladybugs (beetles) and Lacewings, feed on predators as they do aphids. Broad spectrum or persistent insecticides often kill a high proportion of predators and parasites, especially when applied as a foliar spray . Don’t expect biocontrols to act quickly. They have to acclimate to their new surroundings, locate their food or their hosts and then act. Predators eat the pests but Parasitoids often have to mate first, then lay eggs in the pests before results can be expected. Patience is required. The ladybeetles released to control the whitefly at Softscapes are Delphastus cataliniae. They are native to Florida. Ladybugs, as they are commonly called are voracious predators. The orange/red, black-spotted beetles are recognized the world over. They are considered an aphid predator. Most beetles however are ver y opportunistic and will eat pests other than aphids (mites, insect eggs, whitefly larvae, etc…) Aside from watering the site before releasing them in the evening, there are other things you can do to ensure that the maximum number of beetles stick around. Flowering, pollen producing plants are a big plus. Pollen isn’t the only thing these beetles will eat. They will also consume the honeydew! The other Predators we released are the Green Lacewings ,Chrysoperla spp.: C. carnea and C. rufilabris They are aggressive aphid predators that have an appetite for other soft-bodied pests, such as white fly. These nocturnal predators come in three stages: eggs, larvae and adults. The eggs are useful when you’re in no great hurry to get rid of the pests. The larvae are useful for the quick cleanup. The adults, being nomadic, are useful in plant, tree and scrub applications. The larvae are the only predatory form of this insect. Like the ladybeetles, they can tackle a great number of aphid species. Moreover these predators eat outside of their aphid-preference diet to enjoy other soft-bodied pests including mealy bugs and whitefly.

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Mated females will lay their light green eggs on top of long filaments. The eggs hatch into larvae and are extremely aggressive feeders. They will go right to work eating their prey. Our industry is positively changing and trying to curtail insecticide applications by integrating biological controls. Reach first for a safe insecticidal soap and a strong spray of water to cleanse small plants. Try organic oil such as Neem for land based plants. For Aquatic use there are no approved insecticides. Even natural Neem oil is not recommended for aquatic use. The use of Bio-Controls can be the environmentally sound long term solution for aquatics. Allstate Resource Management has a Department of Business and Professional Regulation accredited course for CAM Licensed Property Managers. It provides one (1) CEU credit for this educational course. For details call (954) 382-9766. Credit: Rose Bechard-Butman; Certified Arborist, Allstate Resource Management

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The Hydrophyte

South Florida Aquatic Plant Management Society proudly thanks New SILVER Sponsors:

And Bronze Sponsor:

South Florida APMS 6900 SW 21st Court Building 9 Davie, FL 33317

Place stamp here

2012 QTR 2  

Our mission is to provide a forum for an exchange of ideas, news and information on plants that grow in and around water in South Florida. A...

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