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TYPE Auxiliary; be, have, do Modals: can, may, must, ought to, shall, will, used to, had better/sooner, would rather, need, dare




 ,


 ,

( play, played, played) ( go, went, gone)


 

 Tips to use verb tenses correctly: Use and form

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Form (examples)

Possible) Key words


Habits & States (e.g. feelings/opinions)

 He drives to work most mornings

A: I watch / He watches

always, every …, never,


General truths/facts

 Water freezes at 0ºC.

N: We don’t / she doesn’t watch

normally, often, seldom,


actions taking place one after another

 I like coffee.

I: Do you / Does he watch .... ?


action set by a timetable or schedule


Temporary events happening in the present

 I’m living in Madrid at the moment.

A: I am / He is watching


Characteristic behaviour (often irritating)

 She’s always leaving the door open

N: We aren’t / she isn’t watching

just, just now, Listen!,


Changing or developing situations

 It’s getting hotter.

I: Are you / Is he watching .... ?

Look!, now, right now


action arranged for the future


Completed states/ actions

 I painted my room 5 years ago.

A: I watched / He watched


Regular or habitual actions in the past

 He played football when he was

N: We didn’t / she didn’t watch

if sentence type II (If I


action taking place in the middle of another

I: Did you? / Did he watch .... ?

talked, …)

When I arrived home, my wife was

A: I was / they were watching

(While/When) all that time /

watching TV.

N: We weren’t / she wasn’t watching

sometimes, usually if sentences type I (If I talk, …) at the moment

today /tonight/ tomorrow


Ago, yesterday, last






Used to describe..

1. 2. 3.

to describe an action that was happening at a time in the past actions taking place at the same time action in the past that is interrupted by

all evening/ all day

I: Were you / Was he watching .... ?

another action

Tips to use verb tenses correctly: Use and form

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Possible) Key words



action that is still going on

I’ve never been to Australia.

A: I’ve / He has watched

ever/ never/ just / (not) yet


action that stopped recently recent past

I’ve studied English since 1992.

N: We haven’t / she hasn’t watched

already so far, till now, up

(with just)

I’ve just arrived.

I: Have you / Has he watched .... ?

to now

finished action that has an influence on the

(since, for)*

present = Emphasis on result 1.

Actions started in the past and continuing up to the present.

I’ve been repairing the car

A: I’ve / He has been watching


Actions expressing feelings or moods.

She’s been running for 2 hours

N: We haven’t been watching


Emphasis on the course or duration (not the


unreal states/actions


putting emphasis only on the fact (not the

duration) 4.

They’d already gone to bed when

A: I’d watched / He had watched

they phoned.

N: We hadn’t / She hadn’t watched

If I’d seen him I would have told

I: Had you / Had he watched .... ?



before/ after by the time/ as soon as already, just, never, not yet, once, until that day

sometimes interchangeable with past perfect

if sentence type III (If I had



1993, how long?, the whole

when / by

Past states/actions happening before a specific time in the past


I: Have you / Has he been watching .... ?

all day, for 4 years, since

result) 1.


Form (examples)





Used to describe..

talked, …)


Emphasis on duration

She had been running for hours


Actions that took place in the past and the

They had been working hard so

A: I’d / He’d been watching


they looked tired.

N: We hadn’t been watching


They’d been listening to the radio

I: Had you/ he been watching .... ?

all day

results were visible 3.

Temporary actions/ situations before a specific time in the past

Tips to use verb tenses correctly: Use and form

before it stopped worked.

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Used to describe..







A: I’ll (will) / He will watch

Predictions, hopes and fears based on personal opinion or conviction spontaneous



assumption with regard to the future


action in the future that cannot be influenced


Predictions based on evidence


Plans – decisions already made


action that will be finished at a certain time in the future


after verbs: expect, hope,

Lucy will fail that exam.

N: We won’t / she won’t (will not) watch

imagine, suppose, think

Wait. I’ll help you

I: Will you/ he watch .... ?

after adverbs: probably,

etc) 3.

Possible) Key words

perhaps in a year, next …, tomorrow

Look at those clouds! It’s going

A: I’m / he’s going to watch…

in one year, next week,

to rain.

N: We aren’t going to watch …


I’m going to buy a new car.

I: Are they going watch … ?

Next week we’ll be sitting on the

A: He will be speaking.


N: He will not be speaking.

I’ll be seeing you next lesson.

Q: Will he be speaking?

Joan will have gone by the time

A: He will have been speaking.

you arrive.

N: He will not have been speaking.

 

decision made for the future 


Temporary events in progress


Inevitable events

1. 2.

action that is going on at a certain time in the future

Q: Will he have been speaking?

action that is sure to happen in the near future

A: The plane is about to leave.

Future Be about to + Infinitive

Form (examples)


Something that will happen very soon

Tips to use verb tenses correctly: Use and form

The plane is about to leave

N: ----------------------------------I: Is the plane about to leave?

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A. Fill in the gaps using the Simple Present or the Present Continuous Tenses. 1. Every Monday, Sally __________________ (drive) her kids to football practice. 2. Usually, I __________________ (work) as a secretary at ABT, but this summer I __________________ (study) French at a language school in Paris. That is why I am in Paris. 3. Shhhhh! Be quiet! John __________________ (sleep). 4. Don't forget to take your umbrella. It __________________ (rain). 5. I hate living in Seattle because it __________________ (rain, always) 6. I'm sorry I can't hear what you __________________ (say) because everybody __________________ (talk) so loudly. 7. Justin __________________ (write, currently) a book about his adventures in Tibet. I hope he can find a good publisher when he is finished. 8. Jim: Do you want to come over for dinner tonight? Denise: Oh, I'm sorry, I can't. I __________________ (go) to a movie tonight with some friends. 9. The business cards __________________ (be, normally) printed by a company in New York. Their prices __________________ (be) inexpensive, yet the quality of their work is quite good. 10. This delicious chocolate __________________ (be) made by a small chocolatier in Zurich, Switzerland. B. Fill in the gaps using the Simple Past or the Past Continuous Tenses. 1. A: What __________________ (you, do) when the accident occurred? B: I __________________ (try) to change a light bulb that had burnt out. 2. After I __________________ (find) the wallet full of money, I __________________ (go, immediately) to the police and __________________ (turn) it in. 3. The doctor __________________ (say) that Tom __________________ (be) too sick to go to work and that he __________________ (need) to stay at home for a couple of days. 4. Sebastian __________________ (arrive) at Susan's house a little before 9:00 PM, but she __________________ (be, not) there. She __________________ (study, at the library) for her final examination in French. 5. Sandy is in the living room watching television. At this time yesterday, she __________________ (watch, also) television. That's all she ever does!

Verb Tenses: Exercises 2 (Upper Intermediate)

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6. A: I __________________ (call) you last night after dinner, but you __________________ (be, not) there. Where were you? B: I __________________ (work) out at the fitness centre. 7. When I __________________ (walk) into the busy office, the secretary __________________ (talk) on the phone with a customer, several clerks __________________ (work, busily) at their desks, and two managers __________________ (discuss, quietly) methods to improve customer service. 8. I __________________ (watch) a mystery movie on TV when the electricity went out. Now I am never going to find out how the movie ends. 9. Sharon __________________ (be) in the room when John told me what happened, but she didn't hear anything because she __________________ (listen, not). 10. It's strange that you __________________ (call) because I __________________ (think, just) about you. 11. The Titanic __________________ (cross) the Atlantic when it __________________ (strike) an iceberg. 12. When I entered the bazaar, a couple of merchants __________________ (bargain, busily) and __________________ (try) to sell their goods to naive tourists who __________________ (hunt) for souvenirs. Some young boys __________________ (lead) their donkeys through the narrow streets on their way home. A couple of men __________________ (argue) over the price of a leather belt. I __________________ (walk) over to a man who __________________ (sell) fruit and __________________ (buy) a banana. 13. The firemen __________________ (rescue) the old woman who __________________ (be) trapped on the third floor of the burning building. 14. She was so annoying! She __________________ (leave, always) her dirty dishes in the sink. I think she __________________ (expect, actually) me to do them for her. 15. Samantha













__________________ (live) there when the Berlin Wall came down C. Fill in the gaps using the Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Tenses. 1. Robin: I think the waiter __________________ (forget) us. We __________________ (wait) here for over half an hour and nobody __________________ (take) our order yet. 2. Michele: I think you're right. He __________________ (walk) by us at least twenty times. He probably thinks we __________________ (order, already). 3. Robin: Look at that couple over there, they __________________ (be, only) here for five or ten minutes and they already have their food. 4. Michele: He must realize we __________________ (order, not) yet! We __________________ (sit) here for over half an hour staring at him. 5. Robin: I don't know if he __________________ (notice, even) us. He __________________ (run) from table to table taking orders and serving food. 6. Michele: That's true, and he __________________ (look, not) in our direction once.

Verb Tenses: Exercises 2 (Upper Intermediate)

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D. Fill in the gaps using the Simple Past or the Past Perfect Tenses. 1. I can't believe I __________________ (get) that apartment. I __________________ (submit) my application last week, but I didn't think I had a chance of actually getting it. When I __________________ (show) up to take a look around, there were at least twenty other people who __________________ (arrive) before me. Most of them __________________ (fill, already) out their applications and were already leaving. The landlord said I could still apply, so I did. 2. I __________________ (try) to fill out the form, but I couldn't answer half of the questions. They __________________ (want) me to include references, but I didn't want to list my previous landlord because I __________________ (have) some problems with him in the past and I knew he wouldn't recommend me. I __________________ (end) up listing my father as a reference. 3. It was total luck that he __________________ (decide) to give me the apartment. It turns out that the landlord and my father __________________ (go) to high school together. He decided that I could have the apartment before he __________________ (look) at my credit report. I really lucked out! E. Fill in the gaps using the Past Perfect or the Past Perfect Continuous Tenses. 1. I'm sorry I left without you last night, but I told you to meet me early because the show started at 8:00. I __________________ (try) to get tickets for that play for months, and I didn't want to miss it. By
















__________________(have) five cups of coffee and I __________________ (wait) over an hour. I had to leave because I __________________(arrange) to meet Kathy in front of the theatre 2. When I arrived at the theatre, Kathy __________________ (pick, already) up the tickets and she was waiting for us near the entrance. She was really angry because she __________________ (wait) for more













__________________(go) into the theatre without us. 3. Kathy told me you __________________ (be) late several times in the past and that she would not make plans with you again in the future. She mentioned that she __________________ (miss) several movies because of your late arrivals. I think you owe her an apology. And in the future, I suggest you be on time! F. Fill in the gaps using the Present Perfect, Past Perfect, Present Perfect Continuous or the Past Perfect Continuous Tenses. 1. It is already 9:30 PM and I __________________ (wait) here for over an hour. If John does not get here in the next five minutes, I am going to leave. 2. I was really angry at John yesterday. By the time he finally arrived, I __________________ (wait) for over an hour. I almost left without him.

Verb Tenses: Exercises 2 (Upper Intermediate)

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3. Did you hear that Ben was fired last month? He __________________ (work) for that import company for more than ten years and he __________________ (work) in almost every department. Nobody knew the company like he did. 4. I __________________ (see) many pictures of the pyramids before I went to Egypt. Pictures of the monuments are very misleading. The pyramids are actually quite small. 5. Sarah __________________ (climb) the Matterhorn, __________________ (sail) around the world, and (go) on safari in Kenya. She is such an adventurous person. 6. Sarah __________________ (climb) the Matterhorn, __________________ (sail) around the world and __________________ (go)

on safari in Kenya by the time she turned twenty-five. She

__________________ (experience) more by that age than most people do in their entire lives. 7. When Melanie came into the office yesterday, her eyes were red and watery. I think she __________________ (cry). G. Fill in the gaps using the Present Continuous, Simple Past, Present Perfect Continuous or the Past Perfect Continuous Tenses. 1. My English is really getting better. I __________________ (try) to learn the language since 1985, but only recently have I been able to make some real progress. By the time I started high school in 1988, I __________________ (study) the language for almost three years; however, I was only able to introduce myself and utter a few memorized sentences. For a couple more years, I __________________ (struggle) through grammar and vocabulary lessons, which made absolutely no difference. Nothing worked, so I decided to study abroad. 2. I

found an


program in




like the perfect

answer. I

__________________ (stay) with a host family for one month. It was a huge disappointment! I __________________ (sit) there the whole time staring at the host mother and father hoping that there would be some breakthrough. Nothing. 3. When I returned, I mentioned to a friend that I __________________ (have) problems with the language for years. He recommended that I spend a year in an English speaking country. I decided to go abroad again. I __________________ (research) exchange programs for a couple of weeks and finally decided on a school in the United States. 4. Well, it worked. I __________________ (live) and __________________ (study) in the U.S. for more than two years. I __________________ (stay) here for at least another year before I return home. By then, I should be completely fluent.


Verb Tenses: Exercises 2 (Upper Intermediate)

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KEY A. 1. drives 2. work / am studying 3. is sleeping. 4. is raining 5. always rains 6. are saying / is talking 7. is currently writing 8. am going 9. are normally / are 10. is B. 1. were you doing /was trying 2. found / immediately went / turned 3. said / was / needed 4. arrived / was not / was studying at the library 5. was also watching 6. called / weren’t / was working 7. walked / was talking / were busily working / were quietly discussing 8. was watching 9. was / wasn’t listening 10. called / was just thinking 11. was crossing / struck 12. were busily bargaining / were trying / were hunting / were leading / were arguing / walked / was selling / bought 13. rescued / was 14. was always leaving / actually expected 15. lived / was living C. 1. has forgotten / have been waiting / has taken 2. has walked / have already ordered 3. have only been 4. haven’t ordered / have been sitting 5. has even noticed / has been running Verb Tenses: Exercises 2 (Upper Intermediate)

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6. hasn’t looked D. 1. got / submitted / showed / had arrived / had already filled 2. tried / wanted / had had / ended 3. decided / had gone / looked E. 1. had been trying / had had / had been waiting / had arranged 2. had already picked / had been waiting / had almost given / had gone 3. had been / had missed F. 1. have been waiting 2. had been waiting 3. had been working / had worked 4. had seen 5. has climbed / has sailed / has gone 6. had climbed / had sailed / had gone / had experienced 7. Had been crying G. EXERCISE 15 1. Have been trying / studied / struggled 2. Stayed / sat 3. Had been having / researched 4. ‘ve been living / studying / am staying

Verb Tenses: Exercises 2 (Upper Intermediate)

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 We often use will as a neutral way of expressing the future, but it is not 'the future tense'. It is only one of the forms we can use. In some situations will is not the right word. 

E.g.: After college I'm going to travel around the US. Here Rachel is saying what she intends to do in the future. We cannot use will here.


 We cannot always be sure about the future. To show that we are unsure we can use might or could 

We might go to Canada. It could snow soon.

 To show how sure or unsure we are, we often use phrases like I'm sure, definitely, I expect, I (don't) think and probably. 

I'm sure it'll be all right. We're definitely going to be at the meeting.

I expect everyone will be going home. Rachel will probably be late.

I think I'm going to sneeze. I don't think Tom's coming tonight.


 We also use will for an instant decision, when we decide on something or agree to do it more or less at the moment of speaking. 

I'm thirsty. I think I'll make some tea. NOT l make some-tea.

You've left your computer on. ~ Oh, I'll go and switch it off.

I don't think I'll do any work tonight. I'm too tired.

 We also use it to order things. 

I'll have the ham salad, please.

 We also use will in offers, invitations and promises. 

Offer: I'll peel the potatoes. ~ Oh, thank you.

Invitation: Will you come to lunch? ~ Yes, thank you. I'd love to.

Promise: I'll pay you back next week.


 We can use shall for the future, but only in the first person, after I or we. 

I will be/I shall be on holiday in August.

We will know/We shall know the results soon.

Expressing the Future (Advanced)

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 But NOT Everyone shall know the results-seen.  I will and I shall have the same meaning here, but shall is a little formal. Both I will and I shall can be shortened to I'll, which is pronounced /ail/. 

I'll be on holiday in August. (= I will OR I shall)


 We use be going to to talk about something we have decided to do (an intention). 

I'm going to watch the next programme.

Emma is going to do an experiment this afternoon.

Rachel and Vicky are going to spend six weeks in the State:.

 We can use I'm not going to for a refusal. 

I'm sorry, but I'm not going to walk half a mile in the ram.

 The present continuous can have a very similar meaning to be going to. We can often use either form. 

I'm going to visit my friend at the weekend. I'm visiting my friend at the weekend. We do not use will here.

 We can use be going to with the verb go (We're going to go out this evening), but the present continuous is more usual. 

We're going out this evening.


 We also use be going to for a prediction based on the present situation, when we can see that something is going to happen. 

My sister is going to have a baby in March.

It's nearly nine now. We're going to be late.

Do you think it's going to rain?


 It is often possible to use either form in a prediction. For example, we can also say I think United are going to win the game. Usually be going to is a little more informal and conversational than will. Expressing the Future (Advanced)

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 THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS FOR ARRANGEMENTS  We use the present continuous for what someone has arranged to do in the future. 

I'm meeting Harriet at six o'clock. David is coming round later on.

We're having a party tomorrow. Sarah is going to Paris next week.

 THE PRESENT SIMPLE FOR A TIMETABLE  We can use the present simple for the future when we are talking about a timetable, usually a public one such as a train timetable. 

The train leaves at seven twenty-three tomorrow morning.

The match starts at half past seven.

Next Friday is the thirteenth.


 We use be to for a future event that is officially arranged. It is often used in news reports. 

The Queen is to visit Portugal in November.

The Student Games are to take place in Melbourne next year.

 We could also use the present continuous here. 

The Queen is visiting Portugal in November.

 We use be about to/ be likely to for the very near future. 

The plane is at the end of the runway. It is about to take off.

Do you want to say goodbye to our visitors? They're about to leave.


 Study these examples. 

You'll be exhausted before you arrive, NOT before you'll arrive

I'll need the car while I'm there, NOT while I'll be there

I can sleep when I get home, NOT when I'll get home

 Each of the sentences has a linking word of time, e.g. before, while or when.  We use the present simple for the future (arrive, am, get), not will after these linking words of time: after, as, as soon as, before, by the time, until, when, while. 

I'm starting a job in sales after I finish college. As soon as you hear any news, will you let me know?

I must get to the bank before it closes.

 We can start the sentence with a linking word. 

When I get home, I can sleep.

Expressing the Future (Advanced)

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 We can use will be + an ing-form (the future continuous) to talk about future actions. There are two different uses. 1. WILL BE DOING FOR CONTINUOUS ACTIONS

 We use the future continuous for an action over a period of time. It means that at some time in the future we will be in the middle of an action. 

Andrew can t go to the party. He'll be working all day tomorrow.

I'll be out at three o'clock. I'll be playing golf.

When the men leave the building, the police will be waiting for them.


 We also use will be + an ing-form for an action which will happen in the course of events because it is part of a plan or part of a schedule of future events. 

The party will be starting at ten o'clock, (part of the evening's events)

The ship will be sailing soon, (part of our journey)

 More than one form is often possible. Will or the present continuous often have a very similar meaning. 

The visitors will be arriving/will arrive/are arriving later.

 We often use the future continuous for something that will happen as part of a routine. 

I'll call in and see you tomorrow afternoon. I'll be passing your house. It's on my way home from work.

Trevor and Laura will be cleaning the house tomorrow. They always do it on Sunday.

 We can also use will be + an ing-form to ask about someone's plans. 

Will you be going anywhere near a chemist's this morning? ~ Yes, why?

Could you get me some aspirin, please? ~ Yes, of course.

How long will you be using this computer? ~ You can have it in a minute.

 WILL HAVE + a past participle (the future perfect) for something that will be over in the future. I’ll have finished here by half past eight, so I should be home at nine.

What time will you be home?



 We use will have + a past participle (the future perfect) for something that will be over in the future. Sarah is thinking of a future time (half past eight). At half past eight she will be able to say 'I have finished'.

 Here are some more examples. 

I like looking at these pictures, but I'll have had enough by lunch-time.

Trevor and Laura will have lived here for four years next April.

This chess game is going to last ages. They won't have finished it until midnight.

Will you have read this book by the time it's due back to the library? ~ Yes. I'll have finished it by then.

 We often use the future perfect with expressions of time such as by lunch-time, until midnight, before then, by the time Expressing the Future (Advanced)

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PRACTICE A. Put the verbs into the correct form (will, going to, simple present or present progressive). 1.

I love London. I ___________________ (probably / go) there next year.


Our train ___________________ (leave) at 4:47.


What ___________________ (wear / you) at the party tonight?


I haven't made up my mind yet. But I think I ___________________ (find) something nice in my mum's wardrobe.


This is my last day here. I ___________________ (go) back to England tomorrow.


Hurry up! The conference ___________________ (begin) in 20 minutes.


My horoscope says that I ___________________ (meet) an old friend this week.


Look at these big black clouds! It ___________________ (rain).


Here is the weather forecast. Tomorrow ___________________ (be) dry and sunny.

10. What does a blonde say when she sees a banana skin lying just a few metres in front of her? - Oh dear!

I___________________ (slip)

B. Using the words in parentheses, complete the text below with the appropriate tenses. Use the Simple Present / Simple Future/ Present Continuous / Future Continuous/ Future Perfect 1. Right now, I am watching TV. Tomorrow at this time, I ___________ (watch) TV as well. 2. I am going on a dream vacation to Tahiti. While you are doing paperwork and talking to annoying customers on the phone, I ___________ (lie) on a sunny, tropical beach. Are you jealous? 3. We ___________ (hide) when Tony ___________ (arrive) at his surprise party. As soon as he opens the door, we ___________ (jump) out and scream, "Surprise!" 4. When I ___________ (get) to the party, Sally and Doug ___________ (dance), John ___________ (make) drinks, Sue and Frank ___________ (discuss) something controversial, and Mary ___________ (complain) about something unimportant. They are always doing the same things. They are so predictable. 5. By the time he retires Professor Golding ___________ (teach) for almost 40 years. 6. Joan ___________ (have) another baby next June.

C. Put in a form of the verb. Use the future continuous (will be doing) or the future perfect (will have done) ► It's quite a long way, isn't it? We’ll have walked (walk) about five miles by the time we get back, I'd say. 1. It'll be better if you don't ring at one o'clock. We………………………….. ... (have) lunch then. 2. I've got loads of work. I expect I ......................................(work) all night. And I'm not looking forward to it. 3.

I'll have much more time next week because I…………………………….. (do) all my exams then.

4. I know you'll put on a wonderful show. You ...................................... (have) so much practice by the time you perform it that it's sure to be brilliant. Expressing the Future (Advanced)

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D. Will, will be doing and will have done Complete the live news report. Put in will and the simple, continuous or perfect form of the verb. The Quiz Marathon (►) will begin (begin) in five minutes. (1)…………………………… (it / be) a big test for the World Quiz Champion, Claude Jennings, (2)……………………………. (who /answer) questions from a group of quiz writers. Claude (3)............................……….... (answer) their questions for a very long time. In fact, (4)………………………….. ................ (he /still/give) answers when the rest of us are in bed tonight. Claude hopes that after 24 hours (5)...........…………………….. (he /reply) to about seventeen thousand questions. No meal breaks are planned, so (6)…………………………….. (he / not / eat) anything. If all goes well, his name (7)............................................ (be) in the next Guinness Book of Records. Claude has also got a number of sponsors, and by tomorrow (8) ......................................... (he/earn) at least £10,000 for charity. Well, (9)………………………………. (we/return) this afternoon for news of how Claude is getting on. We think that by then (10)……………………………. (he /get) some way past the five thousandth question. E. Complete the conversation. Use will, be going to or a present tense. Choose the best form. Sometimes more than one answer is correct.  Peter: Hello. Where are you going?  Polly: To my evening class. I'm learning Swedish. And next week (►) I’ll have (I / have) a chance to speak it for real. (1)……………………………… (I / go) to Sweden for three weeks. (2)………………………………. (I / leave) on Friday. (3)……………………………… (I / visit) some friends there.  Peter: (4) …………………………… (that / be) nice.  Polly: Well, I'd better hurry. My lesson (5) ....................................... (start) at half past seven, and it's twenty-five past now.  Peter: OK. Come and see me when (6) .................................... (you / get) back from Sweden.  Polly: Thanks. (7) ......................................... (I / send) you a postcard. F. Fill in each blank space with the correct future verb tense 1. By the time I'm 60, I ________ (lose) all my hair. a. will have lost

b. will lose

c. will be losing

2. I won't be able to talk to you in 15 minutes because I ________ (do) my homework. a. will do


will be doing

c. will have done

3. By the time I get home, my wife ________ (eat) the whole cake. a. will have eaten 4.

b. will eat

c. will be eating

I ________ (talk) to my son about his poor test results. a. will have talked

Expressing the Future (Advanced)

b. will talk

c. will be talking

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5. This time tomorrow I ________ (swim) in the ocean. a. will swim

b. will have swam

c. will be swimming

b. will be seeing

c. will see

6. I ________ (see) you at 7. a. will have seen

7. By the time the guests arrive, I ________ (clean) the room. a. will have cleaned

b. will clean

c. will be cleaning

b. will become

c. will have become

b. will have travelled

c. will be travelling

8. I decided that I ________ (become) a doctor. a. will be becoming 9. I ________ (travel) for the next month. a. will travel

10. I'm really tired today - I ________ (do) my exercises tomorrow. a. will do


will have done

c. will be doing

11. I ___________ (call) you tomorrow at 5:00 PM. a. will call

b. call will

c. be calling

12. When she comes here, she ________ (be) disappointed. a. will have been

b. will be

c. is

13. If I watch this episode again, I ________ (see) it three times. a. will have seen

b. see

c. will be seeing

14. What will you be doing at 6:00 PM? I ________ (watch) a movie with my boyfriend. a. watch

b. will watch

c. will be watching

15. She thinks he's telling her the truth, but eventually she ________ (realize) that he's lying. a. realizes

b. will realize

c. will be realizing

16. Do you want to meet me in half an hour? No, I can't, I ________ (study) with my sister. a. will study

b. study

c. will be studying

17. By this time tomorrow, I ________ (finish) this book. a. will have finished

b. will be finished

c. will finish

18. Are you going to tell me or not? Ok, fine, I ___________ (tell) you. a. will tell

b. tell

c. will have told

19. By the time he gets out of jail, he ________ (forget) how to function in the real world. a. forgets

b. will have forgotten

c. will be forgetting

20. I _____________ to let you know as soon as I can. a. will be trying

Expressing the Future (Advanced)

b. try

c. will try

Page 7 of 8

KEY A. 1. 2. 3. 4.

will probably go leaves are you wearing will find

5. 6. 7. 8.

am going begins will meet is going to rain

9. will be 10. I am going to slip


will be watching


will be lying


will be hiding/ arrives/ are going to jump


get/ will be dancing/ will be making/ will be discussing/ will be complaining


will have been teaching


is going to have


C. 1. 'll / will be having

3. ‘ll /will have done

2. ‘ll /will be working

4. ‘ll /will have had

D. 1.

it will/’ll be


who will / who'll answer or who will / who'll be answering


will be answering


he'll/he will still be giving


he'll / he will have replied


he won't/will not be eating or he won't/will not eat


will be


he'll/he will have earned


we'll/we will be returning or we'll/we will return

10. he'll/ he will have got E. 1.

I’m/ I am going or I’m/I am going to go


starts / is starting


I’m/ I am leaving or i leave or I’m going to leave


you get


I’m/ I am visiting or I’m/ I am going to visit


I’ll/ I will send


that'll/ that will be







13. a

17. a





10. a

14. c

18. a





11. a

15. c.

19. b





12. b.

16. c

20. c


Expressing the Future (Advanced)

Page 8 of 8


A/ An

Zero Article

with singular or plural nouns

with singular nouns




DO NOT USE a/an or the before the names of:

1. to talk about something for the first time

1. languages

A. We use the … 1. to talk about something again Ex: a CD player

Ex: The CD player (=the one that Mary bought)

2. with superlatives and ordinal numbers

2. with jobs

3. when there is ONLY ONE possibility

3. After the expression “There is…/ Is there …?”

Ex: The Prime Minister

Exception: The High Street

4. With prices, frequency and speeds

4. with titles without proper names

Ex. The Himalayas / The Azores / The USA / the U.K. 3.






5. cities and most countries

You‟re driving at ninety miles an hour

6. airports, stations

4. musical instruments Ex. I play the guitar. 5. some buildings and places Ex: the station, the library, the shop, the cinema, the

6. some important buildings/ monuments Ex. The Tower of London


1. before consonants 2. before


museums/ like the word

newspapers/ ships

pub, the city, the village

4. meals


2. group of mountains/ islands/ states/ countries

Ex: Tower Bridge

I drink about three cups of coffee a day

B. We use the before names of … 1. seas, rivers, oceans, canals

3. Most bridges

Exception: The Golden Gate Bridge

Ex:. It costs $2 a litre

Ex: The Queen, The President

2. roads, streets, squares, parks


1. before vowel sounds

when it sounds


(ex: a

and before

(ex: a European city)


(a,e,i,o,u) Ex: an apple an interesting film an hour (pronounced „our‟)

7. single mountains/ lakes/ islands Ex: Everest / Lake Michigan/ Cyprus 8. names of sports, activities, colours, substances 9. Titles with proper names Ex: Queen Elizabeth / President Kennedy 10. proper names Ex: John NOT the John




in, Oxford Practice Grammar

A. Insert A, AN or Ø 

My neighbour is (1) ___________ photographer; let’s ask him for (2) ___________ advice about colour films.

We had (3) ___________ fish and (4) ___________ chips for (5) ___________ lunch. That doesn’t sound (6) ___________ very interesting lunch.

A: (7) ___________ Mr. Smith is (8) ___________ old customer and (9) ___________ honest man. B: Why do you say that? Has he been accused of (10) ___________ dishonesty?

A: I’ve (11) ___________ hour and (12) ___________ half for lunch.

B: Well, I only have (13) ___________ half (14) ___________ hour; barely (15) ___________ time for (16)___________ smoke and (17) ___________ cup of coffee.

I want (18) ___________ assistant with (19) ___________ experience of (20)___________ office routine.

B. THE or Ø? 

(1) ___________ youngest boy has just started going to (2) ___________ school; (3) ___________ eldest boy is at (4) ___________ college.

She lives on (5) ___________ top floor of an old house. When (6) ___________ wind blows all (7)___________ windows rattle.

(8) ___________ darkness doesn’t worry (9) ___________ cats: (10) ___________ cats can see in (11)___________ dark.

My little boys say that they want to be (12) ___________ spacemen but most of them will probably end up in (13) ___________ less dramatic jobs.

A: Do you know (14) ___________ time? B: Yes, (15) ___________ clock in (16) ___________ hall has just struck nine. A: Then it isn’t (17) ___________ time to go yet.

He was sent to (18) ___________ prison for (19) ___________ six months for (20) ___________ shoplifting. When (21) ___________ six months are over he’ll be released; (22) ___________ difficulty then will be to find (23) ___________ work.

C. Insert A, AN, THE or Ø 1. There was (1) ___________ knock on (2) ___________ door. I opened it and found (3) ___________ small dark man in (4) ___________ blue overcoat and (5) ___________ woollen cap. 2. He said he was (6) ___________ employee of (7) ___________ gas company and had come to read (8)___________ meter. 3. But I had (9) ___________ suspicion that he wasn’t speaking (10) ___________

truth because

(11)___________ meter readers usually wear (12) ___________ peaked caps.

SEC_The Articles_Exercises_1

Page 1 of 3

4. However, I took him to (13) ___________ meter, which is in (14) ___________ dark corner under (15)___________ stairs ((16) ___________ meters are usually in (17) ___________ dark corners under (18) ___________ stairs). 5. I asked him if he had (19) ___________

torch; he said he disliked torches and always read

(20)___________ meters by light of (21) ___________ match. 6. I remarked that if there was (22) ___________ leak in (23) ___________ gas pipe there might be (24)___________ explosion while he was reading (25) ___________ meter. 7. He said, ‘ As (26) ___________ matter of (27) ___________ fact, there was (28) ___________ in (29)___________ last house I visited; and Mr Smith, (30) ___________ owner of (31) ___________ house, was burnt in (32)___________ face. 8. Mr Smith was holding (33) ___________ lighted match at (34) ___________ time of (35) ___________ explosion.’ 9. To prevent (36) ___________ possible repetition of this accident, I lent him (37) ___________ torch. 10. He switched on (38) ___________ torch, read (39) ___________ meter and wrote (40) ___________ reading down on (41) ___________ back of (42) ___________ envelope. 11. I said in (43) ___________ surprise that (44) ___________ meters readers usually put (45) ___________ readings down in (46) ___________ book. 12. He said that he had had (47) ___________ book but that it had been burnt in (48) ___________ fire in (49)___________ Mr Smith’s house. 13. By this time I had come to (50) ___________ conclusion that he wasn’t (51) ___________ genuine meter reader; and (52) ___________ moment he left (53) ___________ house I rang (54) ___________ police.

SEC_The Articles_Exercises_1

Page 2 of 3

KEY A. (1) A

(5) Ø

(9) An

(13) Ø

(17) A

(2) Ø

(6) A

(10) Ø

(14) An

(18) An

(3) Ø

(7) Ø

(11) An

(15) Ø

(19) Ø

(4) Ø

(8) An

(12) Ø

(16) A

(20) Ø

B. 1.




11. The

16. The

21. The





12. Ø

17. Ø

22. The





13. Ø

18. Ø

23. Ø





14. The

19. Ø



10. Ø

15. The

20. Ø

C. (The) indicates that the article is optional. (1) A

(12) Ø

(23) a/the

(34) The

(45) (the)

(2) The

(13) The

(24) an

(35) The

(46) A

(3) A

(14) A

(25) the

(36) A

(47) A

(4) A

(15) The

(26) a

(37) A

(48) The

(5) A

(16) Ø

(27) Ø

(38) The

(49) Ø

(6) An

(17) Ø

(28) An

(39) The

(50) The

(7) The

(18) (the)

(29) The

(40) The

(51) A

(8) The

(19) A

(30) The

(41) The

(52) The

(9) A

(20) The

(31) The

(42) An

(53) The

(10) The

(21) A

(32) The

(43) Ø

(54) The

(11) Ø

(22) A

(33) A

(44) Ø

SEC_The Articles_Exercises_1

Page 3 of 3

►in, OUP, unit 83 (83,1; 84, 1; 84, 3; 86, 2; ) 87, 1; 87, 2 A. Complete this true story. Put in a/an or the. A man decided to rob (1) ................... bank in the town where he lived. He walked into (2) .................. bank and handed (3) .................. note to one of (4).................... cashiers. (5)…………….. cashier read (6)…………….. note, which told her to give (7)...………….. man some money. Afraid that he might have (8)…………….. gun, she did as she was told. (9) ................... man then walked out of (10)…………….. building, leaving (11)...................note behind. However, he had no time to spend (12)………………. money because he was arrested (13) .................. same day. He had made (14) ................ mistake. He had written (15)................... note on (16).................... back of (17)………………. envelope. And on (18) .................. other side of (19).............. envelope was his name and address. This clue was quite enough for (20).................. detectives on the case. B. Complete these sentences about pollution and the environment. Put in a/an or the. There was a programme on television about dangers to the environment. 1. There was also ................. article about pollution in ............... paper. 2. …………………ozone layer will continue to disappear if we don't find way to stop it. 3. ………………'s weather is changing. Pollution is having ........... effect on our climate. 4. Last week .................. oil tanker spilled oil into ................... sea, damaging wildlife. 5. Some professors have signed .................. letter of protest and have sent it to.................... government. 6. If.................. earth was ................... human being, it would be in hospital.

C. A or an? Put in the abbreviations with a or an. a Personal Assistant

a PA

a National Broadcasting Company reporter

An NBC reporter

1. a Disc Jockey


2. a Very Important Person


3. an Irish Republican Army member


4. a Personal Computer


5. a Los Angeles suburb


6. an Unidentified Flying Object


7. an Annual General Meeting


8. a Member of Parliament


SEC_The Articles_Exercises_2

Page 1 of 4

D. General and specific meanings. Complete the conversations. Put in the nouns and decide if you need the. Tom: Did you see the football (football) on television last night? Melanie: No, I hate football (football). I was watching the news (news) on the other channel. 1. Rachel: Did your family have a dog when you were younger? Vicky: No, thank goodness. I'm afraid of…………………………………… (dogs). I didn't like …………………………(dogs) that were running around in the park yesterday. I was afraid they were going to attack me. 2. Melanie: You shouldn't drive so much, Mark. You know that…………………………………… (cars) cause ……………………………(pollution), don't you? Mark: Yes, but ............………………............ (cars) these days are cleaner than they used to be. Isn't







for.................................................... (pollution) of the atmosphere? 3. Melanie: I've put some bread out in the garden for …………………………………… (birds). Tom: You like ........................................................ (birds), don't you? Melanie: Yes, I do. I love …………………………………… (wildlife), in fact. I'd much rather live in the country if I could. 4. Laura: You're always reading books about ………………………………….. (history), aren't you? Harriet:












................................................ (history) of this area? Laura: No, but if you like looking round .......................................... (museums) and …………………………..(old buildings), we could find out about it together. E. Prison or the prison?Put in the words in brackets. Decide if you need the. The four members of the gang were sent to prison (prison). Their wives drove together to the prison (prison) every week to visit their husbands. 1. Not many people go to................................... (church) regularly nowadays. I saw some tourists walking to .................................(church) last week, but they only wanted to take photos of it. 2. A group of people came out of...................................(cinema), crossed the road and went into ………………………………….(pub). 3. When my father was ill and had to go to................................... (hospital), my sister went with him in the ambulance. She's a doctor, and she works at ....................................(hospital). 4. Mark has always known what he wanted to do in life. After leaving……………………….. (school),he took a course in business studies at....................................(college). SEC_The Articles_Exercises_2

Page 2 of 4

F. Prison, school, etc. Complete this paragraph from a magazine article about Melissa Livingstone. Put in the words with or without the. Today Melissa Livingstone is a popular actress and star of the TV soap opera 'Round the Corner'. But as a child she was very unhappy. She didn't do well at (0) school (school), and she never went to (1)....................................... (college). Her greatest pleasure was going to (2) ................................ (cinema). Her family lived in an unattractive town and their home was next to (3) ...................... (station). Melissa's father, Tom, was a sailor, and he spent months at (4) ........................ (sea). He was hardly ever at (5)......................................... (home) and when he was, he didn't do very much. Sometimes he spent all day in (6) ........................................ (bed). Melissa's mother, Susan, had to get up at five o'clock every day to go to (7)........................................ (work). When Tom lost his job he stole a gold cup from (8)........................................ (church) Susan used to go to. He had to go to (9) .............................. (prison) for a year. Melissa's mother was horrified at the shame he had brought on the family.

SEC_The Articles_Exercises_2

Page 3 of 4

Key A. (1) A

(5) The

(9) The

(13) The

(17) An

(2) The

(6) The

(10) The

(14) A

(18) The

(3) A

(7) The

(11) The

(15) The

(19) The

(4) The

(8) A

(12) The

(16) The

(20) The

B. 1.

An /the


The/ an


A /the




An /the


The/ a










AN LA suburb




AN IRA member






THE / Ø / Ø


Ø / Ø / Ø / Ø / THE


Ø / THE / Ø / Ø




Ø (IN AmE = the hospital) / THE








F. (1) Ø (2) THE (3) THE (4) Ø (5) Ø (6) Ø (7) Ø (8) THE (9) Ø

SEC_The Articles_Exercises_2

Page 4 of 4

A. COMBINING SENTENCES Note the changes made when sentences are combined using a relative clause A bus goes to Cairo. It leaves from here.  The bus that/which goes to Cairo leaves from here. We took a road. It led to an ancient temple.  The road (that) we took led to an ancient temple. We spoke to a woman. She gave us directions.  The woman (that) we spoke to gave us directions. A woman teaches us music. She also plays in an orchestra.  The woman who teaches us music also plays in an orchestra. Note that articles are often changed e.g. from a/an to the when sentences are combined. A girl’s case was stolen. She went to the police station.  The girl whose case was stolen went to the police station. I spoke to a doctor. She told me not to worry.  The doctor I spoke to told me not to worry. Note this common error. The bus that/which goes to Cairo it leaves from here. The subject IS NOT repeated (The bus... it) in a relative clause. B. DEFINING CLAUSES Defining clauses give information which cannot be left out because it gives important information about the subject. The doctor who treated me told me not to worry. (This describes which doctor we are talking about.) Whose Whose means 'of whom’.  The girl whose case had been stolen went to the police station.

SEC_Relative_Clauses_ Explanations

Page 1 of 2

Which, that Which and that refer to things. That is less formal than which, and some speakers prefer to use which. That is also used to refer to people in speech and informal writing in defining clauses.  The bus which goes to Cairo leaves from here.  The road that we took led to an ancient temple.  The woman that we spoke to gave us directions. Who and Whom Who and whom refer to people. We use whom in formal speech and writing to introduce an object clause. Whom is used after a preposition in formal language. In informal language, many people prefer to use who, or that, instead of whom. Many speakers never use whom. (See also Leaving out relative pronouns.)  No one knows by whom the victim was shot. (formal)  No one knows who the victim was shot by. (informal) C. NON-DEFINING CLAUSES Non-defining clauses give extra information. This is separated from the main sentence by commas. Pablo Picasso, who died in 1973, was a painter and sculptor. D. LEAVING OUT RELATIVE PRONOUNS We cannot leave out the relative pronoun in non-defining clauses. Pablo Picasso, who died in 1973, was a painter and sculptor. We CAN leave out the relative pronoun in defining clauses which are object clauses. The doctor I spoke to told me not to worry. We CANNOT leave out the relative pronoun in defining clauses which are subject clauses. The doctor who treated me told me not to worry. We can also leave out the relative pronoun after a superlative. That was the best meal I’ve ever eaten!

SEC_Relative_Clauses_ Explanations

Page 2 of 2

Practice A. Choose the correct word underlined in each sentence. 1. An old man, who/which was carrying a suitcase, knocked at the door. 2. The girl who / whom lives here knows my sister. 3. The box that/whom Jean picked up had a hole in it. 4. The winner, whom/whose bike was an unusual design, won a medal. 5. The girl who/whom spoke to me turned out to be in my class. 6. The museum, which/whose was in a beautiful building, was closed. 7. A policewoman that/which we asked told us how to get there. 8. The boy whose/whom house I was staying at was an old friend. 9. The last person which/whose pen I borrowed didn't get it back! 10. The train which/who leaves at 8.00 stops at every station. B. Choose the correct word underlined in each sentence. 1. The train which/who goes to Brighton leaves from here. 2. That/What I like best is an afternoon at the beach. 3. I didn't know who/which to ask about my timetable. 4. The people which/whose luggage was lost had to wait a long time. 5. Where's the ruler whose/that I left on this desk? 6. The shop what/that I went to didn't have any milk. 7. Do you know whom/whose bag this is? 8. Everyone who/which was there will remember the day forever. 9. The second bus, which/whose was full, didn't stop either. 10. Jim was helped by someone who/whom told him the answer. C. Add a relative pronoun to each sentence. 1. Friday was the last time I saw Jim. Friday was the last time that I saw Jim. 2. The island we visited was extremely beautiful 3. The girl I met was a friend of Harry's. 4. The meal we ate was not very tasty. 5. Mary was the first person I asked. 6. The book I read didn’t explain the problem. 7. The teacher we usually have was away ill. 8. The friends I met last night send you their love. 9. Unfortunately I’ve lost the pen I always use. 10. The bus I catch stops outside the university.


Page 1 of 10

D. Put either who or whom in each space. 1. The waiter by ..Whom we were served expected a large tip. 2. The teacher.............. taught us yesterday also teaches my brother. 3. The friend to .............. I lent my basketball managed to lose it. 4. The boy.............. opened the door looked familiar. 5. The man to.............. I spoke told me to wait outside the office. 6. The people with.............. I travelled were good company. 7. The assistant.............. sold me the computer made a mistake with the bill. 8. The player.............. had the ball was tripped by the goalkeeper. 9. The girl from.............. I received the card was someone I met on holiday. 10. A strange man.............. said he knew you phoned while you were out. E. Put who, whose or that in each space. 1. The friend ...whose.... house I stayed in is coming to stay with us. 2. The guidebook............... we bought explained everything. 3. It’s difficult to say............... this portrait was painted by. 4. The couple............... house I bought both worked in my office. 5. I’d like you to tell me............... you were talking to. 6. The girl............... ruler I had borrowed wanted it back. 7. The game............... we played was difficult to understand. 8. I can’t remember............... I lent my bike to. 9. Do you know ............... Catherine works for? 10. The places ............... we visited were all very interesting. F. Decide whether the clause underlined is Defining or Non-defining. Write down next to each sentence. 1. The girl who was waiting was becoming impatient. Def. 2. The room, which was enormous, was filled with lines of chairs. 3. The students, who were late, waited in the playground. 4. The food which was left was eaten the following day. 5. A tall girl, who was wearing a hat, came into the room. 6. The dog, which was lying on the sofa, had long pointed ears. 7. The train which leaves at 8.00 doesn't stop at Bath. 8. Two boys, who were playing football, saw the robbery.


Page 2 of 10

G. Underline relative pronouns which can be left out in these sentences. 1. The book that John was reading was a bit frightening. 2. The travel agency which sold me the ticket was near my office. 3. The name of the girl who lived next door was Ellen. 4. In the end, our holiday was the best that we had ever had. 5. The dentist who I go to isn't very expensive. 6. The film which we saw last week was much better than this one. 7. The people who were leaving couldn't find their coats. 8. The garden, which wasn't very large, was full of flowers. 9. The car which David bought was not in good condition. 10. The girl who I sit next to in class is my best friend. H. Rewrite each formal sentence as an informal one, ending with the word given. 1. These are the boys with whom I went on holiday. (with). These are the boys I went on holiday with. 2. This is the letter for which I have been waiting. (for) ___________________________________________________________________________ 3. That is the shop from which Sue bought her bike. (from) ___________________________________________________________________________ 4. That is the bed-and-breakfast at which I stayed. (at) ___________________________________________________________________________ 5. Tim is someone to whom I hardly ever write. (to) ___________________________________________________________________________ 6. Do you know by whom this book was written? (by) ___________________________________________________________________________ 7. Ravenna was the most interesting town in which we stayed. (in) ___________________________________________________________________________ 8. United were the best team against which we played. (against) ___________________________________________________________________________

I. Rewrite each pair of sentences as one sentence, and include the word given. Begin as shown, and make any necessary changes. 1. We want to visit a museum. It opens at 12.00. (that) The museum that we want to visit opens at 12.00. 2. A boy’s bike was taken. He visited the police station. (whose) The ________________________________________________________________ SEC_Relative_Clauses_Exercises

Page 3 of 10

3. A friend met me at the airport. He carried my suitcase. (who) The ________________________________________________________________ 4. Tom cooked a meal. It was delicious. (that) The ________________________________________________________________ 5. A friend is staying with me. She comes from Paris. (who) The ________________________________________________________________ 6. I found a man's wallet. He gave me a reward. (whose) The ________________________________________________________________ 7. I go to a shop in the centre. It is cheaper. (that) The ________________________________________________________________ 8. I went to a girl’s party. She phoned me. (whose) The ________________________________________________________________ 9. I know someone. This person likes you. (who) I ________________________________________________________________ J. Say whether these sentences are defining or non-defining and join them by means of a relative. 1. The boy is going to travel with me. You saw him sitting next to me yesterday. _____________________________________________________________________________ 2. My brother Dick is going to travel. You saw him sitting next to me yesterday. _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. She was thinking about the two jobs. They had been offered her. _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. He was smoking a cigarette. It was forbidden there. _____________________________________________________________________________ 5. She didn't see the man. He had stolen her bicycle. _____________________________________________________________________________ 6. The boy is my best friend. You see him sitting over there. _____________________________________________________________________________ 7. The gentleman must be rich. His car is a Jaguar. _____________________________________________________________________________ 8. That old gentleman must be rich. His car is a Jaguar. _____________________________________________________________________________ 9. The well-known politician has just returned. He has been to Paris in a secret mission. _____________________________________________________________________________


Page 4 of 10

10. Mr. Murphey, the well-known politician, has just returned. He has been to Paris in a secret mission. _____________________________________________________________________________ 11. Their house was completely ruined. It could be seen from the distance. _____________________________________________________________________________ 12. I think it was your sister Jenny. She was responsible for all that gossip. _____________________________________________________________________________ 13. Don't accept any of the suggestions. The management makes you. _____________________________________________________________________________ 14. Here is the address. You should write to this address. _____________________________________________________________________________ 15. What’s the name of the programme? We're listening to it. _____________________________________________________________________________ 16. Any man should be sent to prison. He commits crimes against nature. _____________________________________________________________________________ 17. His latest book is autobiographical. It was published before he died. _____________________________________________________________________________ 18. The sound was like a shot. It woke me up. _____________________________________________________________________________ 19. The gentleman is my English teacher. You spoke to him on the street. _____________________________________________________________________________ 20. The architect has come from abroad. I most admire his works. _____________________________________________________________________________ 21. Bob Fisher flew to Beirut. The international police have been looking for him. _____________________________________________________________________________ 22. France is going to reduce her armaments. Her army has a great tradition. _____________________________________________________________________________ 23. Flats are usually advertised in local papers. It can be useful. _____________________________________________________________________________ 24. Mr. Smith retired to his office. He had refused to speak to the reporters. _____________________________________________________________________________ 25. He is planning to go to university. This makes his parents very proud of him. _____________________________________________________________________________ 26. He sat down at a small table, opposite a girl. He did not at first recognize her face. _____________________________________________________________________________


Page 5 of 10

K. Join those sentences by means of a relative. Some are defining, others are non-defining. Mind the punctuation. 1. The speech aroused strong opposition. The Prime Minister made it. _____________________________________________________________________________ 2. Only by protesting can we get the promotion. We deserve it. _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. The International Energy Agency in Paris was set up in 1973. It is facing the worst crisis since the founding. _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. Inflation is sure to accelerate. It rose to 9, 8% a year. _____________________________________________________________________________ 5. He wasn't allowed to work with computers. It was a great disappointment. _____________________________________________________________________________ 6. The supervisor said that two of the men had suddenly disappeared. He was responsible for them. _____________________________________________________________________________ 7. The factory has been demolished. It stood in the middle of the forest. _____________________________________________________________________________ 8. They wouldn't let the boy operate the machine. This was no surprise considering the danger involved. _____________________________________________________________________________ 9. Let me introduce you to Mr. Jones. I have placed the matter in his hands. _____________________________________________________________________________ 10. They are bringing water into regions. Man has never dared to live in them before. _____________________________________________________________________________ 11. The farmers are getting completely desperate. They face big losses in crops. _____________________________________________________________________________ 12. Philip Chow is one of the most successful drivers. The newspapers have spoken a about him. _____________________________________________________________________________ 13. Nuclear plants should be destroyed. The atom bombs are produced in them. _____________________________________________________________________________ 14. The laws should be banned. They protect the enemies of the forest. _____________________________________________________________________________ 15. Most adolescents blame their parent’s for everything. I think that very unfair. _____________________________________________________________________________ 16. The supersonic transport was considered a dream. They proposed it in 196'3. _____________________________________________________________________________ 17. They raised everybody's salaries. You can conclude by this that they were trying to win the workers' sympathy. _____________________________________________________________________________


Page 6 of 10

18. He invested his money in a Research Foundation. By this means he intends to implement public health. _____________________________________________________________________________ 19. A new world seems to be emerging. In it we can enjoy peace and progress. _____________________________________________________________________________ 20. A group of young migrant workers began the brawl. They were returning from a pub. _____________________________________________________________________________ 21. They showed me the plant. They fabricated nuclear energy in it. _____________________________________________________________________________ 22. We need a definitive policy for controlling the size, density and distribution of towns. The neglect of this may be responsible for unpredictable social and ecological consequences. _____________________________________________________________________________ 23. The body of architects thought that the tall blocks would cost too much. In addition to this they would look out of place among existing buildings. _____________________________________________________________________________ 24. The weather throughout the country has been favourable. Due to this they had a bumper _____________________________________________________________________________ L. Join each pair of the sentences in three different ways: 1. He’s the man. I sent the money to him. a. He’s the man to whom I sent the money. b. He’s the man who(m) I sent the money to. c. He’s the man I sent the money to. 2. She’s the nurse. I gave the flowers to her. a. ______________________________________________________________ b. ______________________________________________________________ c. ______________________________________________________________ 3. That’s the chair. I sat on it. a. ______________________________________________________________ b. ______________________________________________________________ c. ______________________________________________________________ 4. He’s the boy. I bought this toy for him. a. ______________________________________________________________ b. ______________________________________________________________ c. ______________________________________________________________ 5. That’s the building. I passed by it. a. ______________________________________________________________ b. ______________________________________________________________ c. ______________________________________________________________ SEC_Relative_Clauses_Exercises

Page 7 of 10









Friday was the last time that I saw Jim.






The island that /which we visited was extremely beautiful.






The girl that/who I met was a friend of Harry's.






The meal that/which we ate was not very tasty.






Mary was the first person that I asked.






The book that/which I read didn't explain the problem.






The teacher that/who we usually have was away ill.






The friends that/who I met last night send you their love.






Unfortunately I’ve lost the pen that/which I always use.

10. which

10. who



10. The bus that/which I catch stops outside the university. F.






1. D


The book that John was reading was a bit frightening.





2. N


The travel agency which sold me the ticket was near my office.





3. N


The name of the girl who lived next door was Ellen.





4. D


In the end, our holiday was the best that we had ever had.





5. N


The dentist who I go to isn't very expensive.





6. N


The film which we saw last week was much better than this one.





7. D


The people who were leaving couldn't find their coats.





8. N


The garden, which wasn't very large, was full of flowers.






The car which David bought was not in good condition.

10. who

10. that

10. The girl who I sit next to in class in my best friend.

H. 1.

These are the boys I went on holiday with.


This is the letter I have been waiting for.


That is the shop Sue bought her bike from.


That is the bed-and-breakfast I stayed at.


Tim is someone I hardly ever write to.


Do you know who this book was written by?


Ravenna was the most interesting town (that) we stayed in.


United were the best team (that) we played against.

I. 1.

The museum that we want to visit opens at 12.00.


The boy whose bike was taken visited the police station.


The friend who met me at the airport carried my suitcase.


The meal that Tom cooked was delicious.


The friend who is staying with me comes from Paris.


The man whose wallet I found gave me a reward.


Page 8 of 10


The shop in the centre that I go to is cheaper.


The girl whose party I went to phoned me.


I know someone who likes you.

J. 1.

Def. The boy (that) you saw sitting next to me yesterday is going to travel with me.


Non-def. My brother Dick, whom you saw sitting next to me, is going to travel.


Def. She was thinking about the two jobs that (which) had been offered her.


Non-def. He was smoking a cigarette, which was forbidden there.


Def. She didn't see the man that (who) had stolen her bicycle.


Def. The boy (that) you see sitting over there is my best friend.


Def. The gentleman whose car is a Jaguar must be very rich.


Non-def. That old gentleman, whose car is a Jaguar, must be very rich.


Def. The well-known politician that (who) has been to Paris m a secret mission has just returned.

10. Non-def. Mr. Murphey, the well-known politician, who has been to Paris in a secret mission, has just returned. 11. Non-def. Their house, which could be seen from the distance, was completely ruined. 12. Def. I think it was your sister Jenny that (who) was responsible for all that gossip. 13. Def. Don't accept any of the suggestions (that) the management makes you. 14. Def. Here is the address you should write to. 15. Def. What’s the name of the programme we're listening to? 16. Def. Any man that (who) commits crimes against nature should be sent to prison. 17. Non-def. His latest book, which was published before he died, is autobiographical. 18. Def. The sound that (which) woke me up was like a shot. 19. Def. The gentleman you spoke to on the street is my English teacher. 20. Def. The architect whose works I most admire has come from abroad. 21. Non-def. Bob Fisher, whom the international police has been looking for, flew to Beirut. 22. Non-def France, whose army has a great tradition, is going to reduce her armaments. 23. Non-def. Flats are usually advertised in local papers, which can be useful. 24. Non-def. Mr. Smith, who had refused to speak to the reporters, retired to his office. 25. Non-def. He is planning to go to University, which makes his parents very proud of him. 26. Non-def. He sat down at a small table opposite a girl, whose face he did not at first recognize. K. 1.

The speech the Prime Minister made aroused...


Only by protesting can we get the promotion we deserve.


The industrial Energy Agency in Paris, which is facing the worst crisis since the founding, was set up...


Inflation, which rose to 9, 8 % a year, is sure...


He wasn't allowed to work with computers, which was...


The supervisor, who was responsible for the men, said that two of the men...


The factory that (which) stood in the middle of the forest has been demolished.


They wouldn't let the boy operate the machine, which was no surprise...


Let me introduce you to Mr. Jones, in whose hands I have placed the matter.


Page 9 of 10

10. They are bringing water into regions where man has never dared to live before / that man has never dared to live in before. 11. The farmers that (who) face big losses in crops are getting completely desperate. 12. Philip Chow, who the newspapers have spoken about, is one of ... 13. Nuclear plants, in which the atom bombs are produced, should be ... 14. The laws that (which) protect the enemies of the forest should be banned. 15. Most adolescents blame their parents for everything, which I think very unfair. 16. The supersonic transport (which) they proposed in 1967 was considered ... 17. They raised everybody's salaries, by which you can consider that ... 18. He invested his money in a Research Foundation, by which means he intends to ... 19. A new world, in which we can enjoy peace and progress, seems to be emerging. 20. A group of young migrant workers, who were returning from a pub, began the ... 21. They showed me the plant in which (where) they fabricated ... 22. We need a definitive policy for controlling the size, density and distribution of towns, the neglect of which may be responsible ... 23. The body of architects thought that the tall blocks would cost too much, in addition to which they would look out . 24. The weather throughout the country has been favourable, due to which they had... L. Join each pair of the sentences in three different ways: 2. a. She’s the nurse to whom I gave the flowers. b. She’s the nurse who(m) I gave the flowers to. c. She’s the nurse I gave the flowers to. 3. a. That’s the chair on which I sat. b. That’s the chair which/that I sat on c. That’s the chair I sat on. 4. a. He’s the boy for whom I bought this toy. b. He’s the boy for who(m)/that I bought this toy for. c. He’s the boy I bought this toy for. 5. a. That’s the building by which I passed. b. That’s the building by which/ that I passed by. c. That’s the building I passed by.


Page 10 of 10

Phrasal verbs 1. Complete with one of these phrasal verbs: be through, go on, fill in, take off, stay out, speak up. 1. Could you ………. this application form, please? 2. I´ll never talk to you again. We ………. ! 3. If you don´t ………., we can´t hear you. 4. I´m tired because I ………. too late last night. 5. The plane ………. late because of the bad weather.

2. Complete with one of these phrasal verbs: go off, put off, see off, take off, turn off. 1. Let´s go to the airport to ………. them ………. 2. The plane doesn´t ………. till 5 o´clock. 3. He was sleeping soundly when the alarm clock ………. 4. The meeting has been ………. till next month. 5. Don´t forget to ………. all the lights when you leave.

3. Complete with: carry on, get on, hold on, put on, try on. 1. Hi! Is Mr. Knight in? ………., I´ll call him. 2. Excuse me, could I ………. this dress, please? 3. How are you ………. at college? 4. Are you still ………. with your tennis lessons? 5. It was a bit chilly, so she ………. her jacket.

4. Complete with: give up, hang up, look up, wake up, wash up. 1. The kind of housework I hate most is ………. 2. If he rings back, just ………. 3. I didn´t know that word, so I ………. it ………. in a dictionary. 4. Don´t ……….. You can do it if you try hard. 5. When I ………. in the middle of the night, I had some temperature.

5. Match the phrasal verbs with their corresponding synonyms. 1. put off 2. call off 3. look up 4. go off 5. carry on 6. turn off

a. cancel b. switch off c. postpone d. continue e. explode f. check

Los mejores recursos gratuitos para aprender y enseñar inglés

Answers Exercise 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

fill in are through speak up stayed out takes off / took off

Exercise 2 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

see them off take off went off put off turn off

Exercise 3 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

hold on try on getting on carrying on put on

Exercise 4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

washing up hang up looked it up give up woke up

Exercise 5 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

put off – postpone call off – cancel look up – check go off – explode carry on – continue turn off – switch off

Los mejores recursos gratuitos para aprender y enseñar inglés

A. Work in Groups of 5. Using ALL the words from the list below write a story, a newspaper article, a letter, a poem, ‌

1. mystery

21. green

41. legs

2. fencing

22. assassin

42. guy

3. Miami

23. gardening

43. charity

4. cash

24. lazy eye

44. ex-boyfriend

5. successful

25. lottery

45. magazine

6. naked

26. scarf

46. heart

7. magic

27. diet

47. tools

8. cow

28. belt

48. debts

9. google

29. finance

49. spa

10. investment

30. mortgage

50. fear

11. NBA player

31. fish

51. stole (past of steal)

12. morning coffee

32. glasses

52. family

13. shoes

33. love

53. international

14. money

34. web

54. outdoor

15. aunt

35. devil

55. advice

16. journalist

36. tent

56. hot-dog

17. butter

37. underwear

57. saving

18. credit card

38. toast

58. smell

19. tequila

39. leather

59. store

20. mail

40. interviews

60. 6 months, 3 weeks, 4 day

Notes: 

This is an activity I’ve chosen to introduce the topic: Consumerism. (But I didn’t mention this fact to students. I just gave the handout with the words from exercise A.)

After students finished their written production and read it to class I’ve shown the film: The confessions of a shopaholic.

You can watch the trailer @

While watching the film students have to identify the words used in activity A. At the end students answered some questions about the film and compared orally their story with the story of the film. It turned out to be a very amusing and relaxing activity.

A. Fill in the gaps. Use the following verbs (believe, fill, get, look, put, switch, take, throw, turn, try) and the prepositions (away, down, for, in, off, on, out) and form meaningful sentences. 1. Quick! __________________ the bus. It's ready to leave. 2. I don't know where my book is. I have to __________________ it. 3. It's dark inside. Can you __________________ the light, please? 4. __________________ the form, please. 5. I need some new clothes. Why don't you try on these jeans? 6. It's warm inside. __________________ your coat. 7. This pencil is really old. You can _____________ it _____________. 8. It's so loud here. Can you __________________ the radio a little. 9. The firemen were able to __________________ the fire in Church Street. 10. Does your little brother __________________ ghosts? @,

B. Choose the right option to replace the words in italics. 1. It began to rain so we cancelled the match. a. called off b. carried on c. got off 2. I asked him if he wanted to remove his coat. a. put on b. put out c. take off 3. Sally resembles her mother, doesn't she? a. looks at b. looks like c. looks after 4. His new novel will be published next summer. a. come in b. come out c. go out

5. He resigned from his job when the truth about his past became known. a. gave up b. gave back c. went out 6. That's a good idea but I need time to meditate about it. a. run over b. think over c. get over 7. The World War I began in 1914. a. broke down b. broke into c. broke out 8. We never discovered why the accident happened. a. tried on b. found out c. worked out 9. You must search the meaning of these words in the dictionary. a. look at b. look on c. look up 10. A good friend will always support you. a. stand for b. stand by c. turn down

C. Fill in the gaps with the suitable preposition. 1. Look _________ that girl. She's gorgeous! 2. I'm thinking _________ taking a language course. 3. You're right. I absolutely agree _________ you. It's getting late. 4. We can't wait _________ you much longer. 5. She doesn't depend _________ her parents' money. 6. He worries _________ his future. 7. Listen _________ your parents' advice. 8. Thanks _________ your precious help. 9. He's going to apply _________ a new job. 10. Can I speak _________ you alone? @

KEY A. 1. Get on

6. Take off y

2. look for

7. throw it away.

3. switch on

8. turn down

4. Fill in

9. put out

5. try on

10. believe in

B. 1. a. called off

6. b. think over

2. c. take off

7. c. broke out

3. c. looks after

8. b. found out

4. b. come out

9. c. look up

5. a. gave up

10. b. stand by

C. 1. at

6. about

2. of

7. to

3. with

8. for

4. for

9. for

5. on

10. to

A. We use a GERUND: 1. as Present Participle

Ex: Smoking is bad for your health. 2. after prepositions 3. Instead of

I’d rather stay at home instead of going to that party. 4. After “to”

Look forward to Be used to 5. After the following verbs (See TABLE 1)

B. We use an INFINITIVE after: 1. Some adjectives:





2. Some nouns:

a wish a decision 3. The following verbs: (see TABLE 2)

C. We use a BARE – INFINITIVE after: 1. The modal verbs: can/ could; may/ might; will/ would; shall/ should; must 2. Let, make and help 3. Some expressions: would rather/ would sooner/ had better 4. Some connectors: but, except

D. We use GERUND OR INFINITIVE (Advanced) 1. After the following verbs. (See TABLE 3 and INFO 4)

TABLE 1 Verbs Followed by Gerunds admit

He admitted cheating on the test.


I anticipated arriving late.


I appreciated her helping me.


He avoided talking to her.

can't help

He can't help talking so loudly.

can't see

I can't see paying so much money for a car.


He completed renovating the house.


She considered moving to New York.


He delayed doing his taxes.


He denied committing the crime.


We discussed working at the company.


She dislikes working after 5 PM.


We enjoy hiking.


He imagines working there one day.


The job involves travelling to Japan once a month.


She kept interrupting me.


He mentioned going to that college.


Do you mind waiting here for a few minutes?


She misses living near the beach.


He postponed returning to Paris.


Tom recalled using his credit card at the store.


She recollected living in Kenya.


Tony recommended taking the train.


He reported her stealing the money.


Nick resented Debbie's being there.


He resisted asking for help.


He risked being caught.


They suggested staying at the hotel.


I tolerated her talking.


I understand his quitting.

TABLE 2 Verbs Followed by Infinitives advise

He advised her to stay.


Tom agreed to help me.


His health appeared to be better.


Naomi arranged to stay with her cousin in Miami.


She asked him to leave.


He doesn't care to participate in the activity.


She claimed to be a princess.


We decided to go to Hawaii.


He demanded to speak to Mr. Harris.


He deserves to go to jail.


They expect me to arrive early.


He failed to get enough money to pay for the new project.


She happened to be at the bank when it was robbed.


She hesitated to tell me the problem.


I hope to begin college this year.


We intend to visit you next spring.


I learned to speak Japanese when I was a kid.


He managed to open the door without the key.


Frank offered to drive us to the supermarket.


We plan to go to Europe this summer.


The child pretended to be a monster.


She promised to stop smoking.


The guard refused to let them enter the building.


Nancy seemed to be disappointed.


She swore to tell the truth.


He tends to be a little shy.


She waited to buy a movie ticket.


I want to study Spanish. would like/ love / prefer/ hate (somebody) to + INFINITIVE

TABLE 3 Verbs followed by gerunds or infinitives with similar meaning can't bear

He can't bear being (to be) alone.

can't stand

Nancy can't stand working (to work) the late shift.


The government ceased to provide (providing) free healthcare.


She continued to talk (talking).


He hates cleaning (to clean) dishes.


Samantha likes reading (to read).


We love swimming (to swim).


She neglected to tell (telling) me the date of the meeting.


He prefers eating (to eat) at 7 PM.


Drew proposed to pay (paying) for the trip.


BEGIN o She began singing/ She began to sing. 

When "begin" is used in non-continuous tenses, you can either use a gerund or an infinitive.

o She is beginning to sing. 

When "begin" is used in continuous tenses, an infinitive is used.

FORGET o She forgot reading the book when she was a kid. 

When "forget" is used with a gerund, it means "to forget that you have done something." The sentence above means that she read the book when she was a kid, and that she has forgotten that fact.

o She forgot to pay the rent this month. 

When forget is used with an infinitive, it means "to forget that you need to do something." The sentence above means that she forgot that she needed to pay the rent.

KEEP o She kept talking. 

"Keep" is normally used with a gerund to mean that you continue doing an action.

o The attackers kept hostages to prevent the police from entering. 

Keep" can also be used with an object followed by an infinitive, but then the infinitive takes on the meaning of "in order to... ." In the sentence above, the attackers kept hostages in order to prevent the police from entering.

NEED o He needs to call his boss. / He needs him to call his boss. 

"Need" is usually used with an infinitive or an object + an infinitive.

o The house needs cleaning. 

When "need" is used with a gerund, it takes on a passive meaning. The sentence above means "the house needs to be cleaned."

REGRET o I regretted being late to the interview. 

"Regret" is normally used with a gerund.

o We regret to inform you that your position at the company is being eliminated. 

"Regret" is sometimes used with infinitives such as "to inform." In the sentence above, "We regret to inform you" means "We wish we did not have to tell you (bad news)."

REMEMBER o I remember posting the letter. 

This means that I have a memory now of a past action: posting the letter.

o He remembered to post the letter. 

With an infinitive, it means "to remember that you need to do something." The sentence above means that he remembered that he needed to turn the lights off.

START o Marge started talking really fast. / Marge started to talk really fast. 

When "start" is used in non-continuous tenses, you can either use a gerund or an infinitive.

o Marge is starting to talk really fast. 

When "start" is used in continuous tenses, an infinitive is used.

o I started to learn Russian, but it was so much work that I finally quit the class. 

In other situations, an infinitive means that you did not complete or continue an action.

STOP o He stopped smoking for health reasons. 

"Stop" is normally used with a gerund.

o He stopped to rest for a few minutes. 

When "stop" is used with an infinitive, the infinitive takes on the meaning of "in order to." In the sentence above, he stopped in order to rest for a few minutes.

TRY o I tried to sleep. 

When you "try to do" something, you want to do it, but you do not succeed in actually doing it. = I wanted to sleep but it was

difficult. o I tried counting sheep and taking sleeping pills. 

"Try + gerund" is often used when you experiment with something, but you do not really like it or want to do it again.

o Try not to wake the baby when you get up tomorrow at 5 AM. 

An infinitive is also used if you are asking someone to try something they may or may not be able to accomplish.


A. Put the verb in brackets into the correct Form (Gerund or Infinitive) 1. H e h a t e s ______________ ( a n s w e r ) t h e p h o n e a n d v e r y o f t e n j u s t l e t s i t ______________ (ring). 2. W o u l d










______________ (make) a phone call. 3. I h a v e n o i n t e n t i o n of ______________ (go)



fil m,


cou ldn 't

bear______________ ( see ) my favou rit e actress in su ch a dreadfu l part . I su ggest ______________ (t e lepho ne) th e h os pitals before ______________ ( a sk ) th e police ______________ (look) for him. 4. A f t e r ______________ (hear) the conditions I decided ______________ (not enter) for the competition. 5. H e e x p e c t s m e ______________ ( a n s we r ) b y r e t u r n b u t I h a v e n o i n t e n t i o n o f ______________ (reply) at all. 6. By









______________(leave) their present jobs and ______________ (work) for him. 7. A t f i r s t I e n j o y e d

( list e n )



bu t

a ft er


wh i le


g ot

t ir e d

o f______________(hear) the same story again and again. 8. I t i s u s u a l l y e a s i e r ______________ (learn) a subject by ______________ (read) books than by______________ (listen) the lectures. 9. Did you remember ______________ (give) him the key of the safe? 10. H e m a d e a l o t o f m o n e y b y ______________ ( b u y ) t i c k e t s i n a d v a n c e a n d ______________ (sell) them. 11. I d idn 't fe e l lik e ______________ ( wo rk ) s o I d e c id e d ______________ (spend) the day in the garden. 12. I’m for ______________ ( d o ) n o t h i n g t i l l t h e p o l i c e a r r i v e . T h e y d o n ' t l i k e y o u ______________ (move) anything when a crime has been committed.

B. Gerund or Infinitive? 1. Sh e has t o work hard but sh e doesn 't min d . She doesn't mind _________________________________________ ____________________ 2. Don't switch the T.V. on when I am at home . Please avoid ______________________________________________ ____________________ 3. Don't try to stop progress as that will have no effect at all. It’s no use _________________________________________________________________ ___ 4. Th e y c ou l dn 't wat ch T .V . in t h e ev en in g b u t t h ey we r e an x i ou s a b ou t it . They were looking forward to ______________________________________________ ___ 5. Don't switch it on as it doesn't work . It’s no good __________________________________________ _____________________ ____ 6. They would rather watch T .V. than play domin oes . They'd prefer to ________________________________________ _______________________ 7. Some parents let their kids view television hours on end. Some kids are ____________________________ _____________________________________ 8. It was her father's wish that she would take a different career. Her father expected _______________________________________ ____________________ 9. Y ou s h ou l d s e e a d oct or . I suggested that _________________________________________ _____________________ 10. It seems they have found each other again. Th e y s e e m ______________________________________________________ _____________ 11. Teachers are forced to keep up with the times. Teachers can't help _________________________________ __________________________ C. STOP + ing or infinitive? 1. They stopped ______________ (speak) because they couldn't hear one another. 2. T h e t e l e p h on e s t o p p e d

(ring) when I look the receiver.

3. He has stopped ______________ (visit) the famous cathedral. 4. Th e s p eak e r s t op pe d ______________ (look) at them in astonishment. 5. H e s t o p p e d ______________ (write) postcards because he had already written more than a hundred.

KEY A. 1. a nswe ring / ring 2. lending/ t o make 3. go in g/ se e in g / telephoning/ asking/to look 4. hearing/ not to enter 5. to answer/ replying 6. offering / to leave/ wo rk 7. listening/ hearing 8. to learn / reading/ listening 9. to give 10. buying/ selling 11. working/ to spend 12. doing/to move


1. wo rk ing ... 2. swit ching... 3. trying to stop ... 4. watching TV in the evening. 5. Switching 6. to watch TV rather than play(to play) 7. a llo we d t o v ie w 8. he r t o t a k e 9. you sa w/should see 10. reading to have found 11. keeping up

C. STOP + ing or infinitive? 1. speaking 2. ringing 3. t o v i s i t 4. t o l o o k 5. w r i t i n g

The common pattern of the English sentence is: S V O

Inversion is used in … 


If- clauses without if:

Neither, nor, so + Auxiliary verb + S

Negative adverbial expressions:

V S _____ ? Had I been there …

(= If I had been there)

e.g. Nor am I.

Neg. adv. phrase + S + V

1. In case you are in the presence of an action VERB in the PRESENT SIMPLE or in the PAST SIMPLE you will need to use the auxiliaries DO/DOES/DID in your inversions. 2. In the sentences started with ONLY WHEN, ONLY BEFORE, NOT UNTIL, NOT AFTER, etc, the inversion is used only in the sentence that comes immediately after. 3. "NO SOONER...THAN" will replace a sentence with "as soon as" where both clauses are either in the Present Simple or in the Past Simple. As the two actions are not simultaneous, you’ll make of the following combinations:  No sooner/past perfect ... than/Simple past  No sooner /present perfect … than/ Simple present  When "hardly" or "scarcely" start the first of two clauses the second clause always starts with "when". (They function like “no sooner … than”).  Expressions containing the word "No" like at no time,

Rarely Hardly Never (Again /Before) Seldom Under no circumstances On no account Not Only ... but also In no way At no time Nowhere Not Until No Sooner...Than Hardly / Scarcely... (When) Ever Only (When /Before/After) Only Nor

under no circumstances, in no way, on no account, when used at the beginning of a sentence also "demand" inversion (and the verb in the positive form).

A. Rewrite the following sentences starting them with the word given. 1. He had no sooner arrived than he was asked to live again. No sooner ____________________________________________________________ 2. John had hardly finished his phone call when Mary knocked at the door. Hardly _______________________________________________________________ 3. She didn’t know that he was planning to take a gap year. Little _______________________________________________________________ 4. They seldom have a chance to go to the cinema alone. Seldom _______________________________________________________________ 5. I never have felt so happy before. Never _______________________________________________________________ 6. They will never admit their mistakes. Never _______________________________________________________________ 7. She did not only join the football team, she sang in the choir as well. Not only ____________________________________________________________ 8. We can seldom go to such good concerts. Seldom ______________________________________________________________ 9. If he had seen her, he would have recognized her. Had _________________________________________________________________ 10. She has never succeeded. Never _________________________________________________________________ 11. Parents know little of what goes in their children's minds. Little _________________________________________________________________ 12. He will never in his life make such a big profit. Never _________________________________________________________________ 13. It was only by chance that selling old Chinese clothes in the street market became so lucrative. Only by chance ______________________________________________________________ 14. It has at no time been more difficult to fight forest fires than nowadays. At no time _________________________________________________________________ 15. The immigrants' children have seldom been given more benefits and facilities. Seldom _________________________________________________________________ 16. The foreign advisers won't accomplish their jobs until their contracts are ratified. Not until _________________________________________________________________

17. The museum is not only undergoing extensive restoration but it is expected to reopen to the public until 1992 as well. Not only _________________________________________________________________ 18. The indignation of the students' deputies was such that they argued and shouted for more than 11 hours. Such _________________________________________________________________ 19. The refugees could be found nowhere between the north coast and the Southern Alps. Nowhere _________________________________________________________________ 20. They were not only considered as a menace but they were also persecuted as being the worst of the enemies. Not only _________________________________________________________________ 21. I rarely saw a doctor in the course of these four years of captivity. Rarely _________________________________________________________________ 22. I could only teach local workmen how to restore those old precious houses after learning it. Only after _________________________________________________________________ 23. The winds had diminished and the temperature had also got cooler, which made the flames die down. Not only _________________________________________________________________ 24. Some coloured people have to undergo some kind of shocking personal occurrence before they realize the kind of society they are in. Not before they _________________________________________________________________ 25. And they can’t count on foreign help to clean the beaches. Nor __________________________________________________________________________ 26. As soon as production rises, the living conditions improve. No sooner _____________________________________________________________________

KEY 1. No sooner had he arrived than he was asked to leave again. 2. Hardly had John finished his phone call when Mary knocked at the door. 3. Little did she know that he was planning to take a gap year. 4. Seldom do they have a chance to go to the cinema alone. 5. Never have I felt so happy before. 6. Never will they admit their mistakes. 7. Not only did she join the football team, but she sang in the choir as well. 8. Seldom can we go to such good concerts. 9. Had he seen her, he would have recognized her. 10. … she succeeded. 11. … do parents know of what goes in their children's minds. 12. … in his life will he make such a big profit. 13. … did selling old Chinese clothes in the street market become so lucrative. 14. … has it been more difficult to fight forest fires than nowadays. 15. … have the immigrants' children been given more benefits and facilities 16. … their contracts are ratified, will foreign advisers accomplish their jobs 17. … is the museum undergoing extensive restoration but it is expected to reopen to the public until 1992 as well. 18. … was the indignation of the students' deputies that they argued and shouted for more than 11 hours 19. … between the north coast and the Southern Alps could the refugees be found 20. … were they considered as a menace but they were also persecuted as being the worst of the enemies. 21. … did I see a doctor in the course of these four years of captivity. 22. … learning it could I teach local workmen how to restore those old precious houses. 23. … had The winds diminished but also the temperature got cooler, which made the flames die down 24. Not before they undergo some kind of shocking personal occurrence do some coloured people realize the kind of society they are in. 25. Nor can they can’t count on foreign help to clean the beaches. 26. No sooner does production rises than the living conditions improve.



"Where did this curious form of entertainment spring from and what mad fascination makes some of us out in a rash if we miss any episode of it?” The author asked … Those 300 new stories were published because Mrs. Smith found them. If Mrs. Smith hadn't … She frequently watched TV drama. She was used to … You should have left it where you found it. It … I had no sooner gone to bed than someone rang my doorbell. No sooner … "Children under sixteen mustn't work in factories." The inspector said … People leave their umbrellas out of the class. Their umbrellas … Being quite illiterate he couldn't get the job. As … I would like someone to take me to the theatre. I would like to … Environmentalists protested so vehemently because the government projected to destroy the rain forest. If the government hadn't … I expected that he'll get here by lunch time. I expected him … Who composed this piece of music? Who … ? I wish I had seen that film. What a pity … The town people only changed that way because the TV station was sabotaged. If the TV station hadn't … It seemed that no one predicted the possibility of such an explosion. No one seemed … The applicant wouldn’t have got the job unless he had had the right qualification. If the applicant … It is advisable to keep quiet in such circumstances. You'd better …

















































INV I have never heard such nonsense!























































Never … He didn't study hard so he failed his exams. If he had … It was her father's wish that she would take a different career. Her father expected … You should have come before in order to get an autograph from the President. If you had … I most certainly did not take any money from your wallet. She denied … I realized what had happened only later. Only later … "Speak softly because the baby may be asleep." "Speak softly in case ..." It seems they have found each other again. They seem … The manager not once offered us an apology. Not once … The goods arrived in time, so the costumer paid at once. If the goods hadn’t … The question was so difficult that I had to ask for help. It was … It's believed that the murder occured at 3 o'clock. The murder … Bill's plan wasn't rejected because the scientists pressed the New Zealand government. If the scientists … Take an umbrella with you because it may rain. Take an umbrella with you in case … The patient was so ill that he couldn’t leave the hospital. The patient was too ill … They have built factories there because they found out coal in the soil. If they hadn't … The Environmental Protection Association made the right recommendations and so the town were able to avoid the disaster. If the Environmental Protection Association didn't … She only referred that because he was complaining. If he hadn't … As soon as she entered the room, Emma met the old woman. Scarcely … You're hungry now because you didn't have breakfast. If you had breakfast … The workers are doing their best so that the management should give them more facilities. The workers want …



















































How much do you earn? Do you mind… Are you sure that Byron wrote this poem? Are you … In fact unskilled workers accept anything readily. In fact unskilled workers are ready … The supervisor told the girls all they had to do. The girls … Will someone send me the documents? Shall … School-leavers must assert their rights not to be regarded as cheap labour. If school-leavers … If you don't pay your taxes, you'll be taken to court. I must warn you against … Didn't they promise him a rise in the salary? Wasn't … "What a pity I don't know her address." I wish … The parcel was so heavy that he couldn't carry it. The parcel … He would be ashamed to have to repeat the examination. He would be ashamed if … They didn't pay the workers the due subsidy. The workers … You seldom get such a changeable weather. Seldom … I ate the chocolate cake and the lemon pie. I ate the chocolate cake as well as … I remember the boy guiding the blind old man. I remember the blind old man … Has anybody taught the pupils that kind of exercise? Have … "In the 16th century, the first settlers found the Native Americans or Indians, as the settlers called them later, inhabiting a land, which was vast and free." The author stated … I'm going to the hairdresser’s. He’ll cut my hair. I'm going to the hairdresser’s to … You should see a doctor. I suggested that … I have seldom stayed in a worse hotel. Seldom … "The first and most important step is to talk things over with someone and it may help if that person has some understanding of the problem of drugs." The author said …

60 61 62 63 64 65

A PASV It is expected that the President will arrive tomorrow. The President … A PASV Why didn't they offer me a job? Why … A CONJ He was so surprised that he couldn’t reply. He was … A CONJ Despite her age Mrs Evans was very sharp witten. Although … G/I Don't try to stop progress as that will have no effect at all. It's no use … INV He wrote the letter so badly that I couldn't read it. So …

KEY 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43

… where that curious form ...... had sprung from and what mad ...... made… some of them .... they missed .... … found the 300 ...., they wouldn't have been published. … watching TV drama. … should have been left where it was found. … had I gone to bed than someone rang my doorbell. … that children under sixteen mustn't work in …. … are left out of the class. … he was quite illiterate he couldn't get the job. … to be taken to the theatre. … projected to destroy the rain forest, environmentalists wouldn't have protested … … to get here by lunch time. … was this piece of music composed by? … I didn't see the film. …been sabotaged, the town people wouldn't have changed that way. … to predict the possibility … … hadn't had the right qualifications, he wouldn't have got the job. … keep quiet in such … … have I heard such …. … studied hard, he wouldn't have failed his exams. … come before, you would have got an autograph … … he had forgotten the man's name. … having taken money from … … did I realize what had happened. … the baby is asleep. … to have found each … … did the manager offer us an apology. … arrived on time, the costumer wouldn't have paid at one. …such a difficult question that I had to ask for help. … is believed to have occured at 3 o'clock. … hadn't pressed ... Bill's plan would have been rejected … it rains. …. to leave the hospital. … found coal, they wouldn't have built factories there. … make the right recommendations, the town people wouldn't be able to avoid … … complained, she woldn't have referred it. … had she entered the room she met the old woman. … you wouldn’t be hungry. … the management to give them more … … telling how much do you earn? … sure that this poem was written by Byron? … to accept anything readily. … were told all they had to do. … I be sent the documents?

44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65

… don't assert their rights, they will be regarded as cheap labour. … not paying the taxes … … he promised a rise in the salary? … I knew her address. … was too heavy for him to carry. … he had to repeat … … weren't pay the … … do you get such a …. … the lemon pie. … being guided by the boy. … the pupils been taught that kind of exercise? … ... in the 16th century ... had found ... had called ... had been … have my hair cut. … you saw / you should see a doctor. … have I stayed in a worse hotel. … the first and most important step was to talk things over with someone and it might help if that person had some understanding of the problem of drugs. … is expected to arrive tomorrow. … wasn't I offered a job? … too surprised to reply. … she was old, Mrs Evans was a very sharp witten. … trying to stop progress as … … badly did he write the letter that I …

TEXT A (in, 16+! Workbook, p. 68)

A. Solve the following crossword puzzle by translating the words into English.

B. Insert one of the words above into each gap below. You may use singular or plural. 1. With so many _________________ it’s surprising that you haven’t found a job yet. 2. I looked up all the _________________sections in today’s papers, but I couldn’t find anything suitable. 3. I’d rather have a flexible _________________than a nine to five job. It’s boring. 4. The first question _________________ have to answer is why they want the job. 5. _________________ people sometimes discover new activities and hobbies, which lead them to earn some money. 6. Mr. Turner’s _________________are all physically attractive, but they don’t look very clever to me.

7. I wish you were my _________________, instead of Mr. Fisher He’s so demanding! 8. Lots of teachers are _________________ due to the decrease in the birth-rate and the lack of vacancies at school. 9. Most students finish their courses and have to look for suitable _________________.This is the hardest part of their lives. 10. I hope that when I am promoted my _________________will rise too. C. Find the odd one out and decide what the group of words is related to. 1.








































D. Circle the right option. Multitasking Madness, the (1) concept/ disease of our times, diminishes your productivity and makes you work harder just to (2) feel/consider as if you were barely keeping up with all your work. Yet if you look around you, you’ll see people multitasking (3) somewhere/everywhere, largely because of technology. People even check pagers and answer (4) cellular / technical phones on the golf course. Research shows that our (5) extravagant/effective ability to estimate time accurately also contributes to Multitasking Madness. Ask someone now long it will take to download, read, and (6)delete/answer e-mails. Then check the actual time. You’ll generally find that the person underestimated the (7) life / time required. This discrepancy leads us to pile more expectations on ourselves. We (8) relax /multitask more and more, and soon we have way too much to juggle. You need “down time” — watching a baseball game, (9) playing/learning with your children, going to a movie with your spouse. This is crucial to refresh your (10) food/system and let you return to your work with a clear perspective and the ability to work more effectively.

TEXT B (in, That’s it! – Practice Book, p. 42)

A. Read the text below and think of a heading for each paragraph. 1st Paragraph ______________________ 2nd Paragraph ______________________ 3rd Paragraph ______________________ 4th Paragraph ______________________ 5th Paragraph ______________________

Running your home-based business Kim and Peter Heller have been married for 16 years and have got six-year-old twins, Amy and Tracy. Kim, who has built up immense experience in painting, runs her own business from home. After school Kim enjoyed training at a local porcelain factory, on a youth training scheme. It gave her grounding not only in the processes of porcelain flower-making, but also in mixing colours, aerographing (using a spray gun to spray paint onto figures/flowers), finishing (fitting finished articles to their ornamental bases) and inspection. Kim was able to boost her ‘modest’ income by continuing to paint porcelain at home. Working at home was a means of getting extra money while extending her expertise and gaining recognition for this. Kim still retains the flexibility that home-based work can bring. As a late-night person, she cart be so involved with painting that she carries on into the early hours. The silence and isolation please her, particularly now that she has to find it from within a busy life with her husband and children. She freely admits to finding it difficult to settle down to her work when other chores so visibly need doing around her. This is where her partner is a real help. The disadvantage for Kim is that she has to justify’ her leisure time to herself. At its worst, her mind can present her with an option list of ‘shall I’s’, always ending with ‘or shall I paint?’ Thoughts of clocking off from the workplace and leaving it behind at the end of the day are occasionally tempting to her, yet she finds it difficult to envisage herself returning to what she calls a ‘proper job’.

B. Complete the sentences using your own words. 1. When the twins were born, _________________________________________________________ 2. Kim’s home-based business has to do ________________________________________________ 3. The training at the porcelain factory proved ___________________________________________ 4. By setting up her home-based business Kim managed ___________________________________ 5. Sometimes Kim is so absorbed in painting that _________________________________________ 6. When there is housework that needs to be done, Kim ___________________________________

C. Clauses of contrast. Underline the correct word. 1. Many






Although/However, not all are successful.

Tip: Clauses of contrast can be introduced by although and but.

2. While/Yet most women prefer to run their own

Although is more formal. Yet can be

business from home, others try to find a place to

used instead of but in writing.

establish their headquarters.


3. Although/Despite the majority claim they have found the perfect solution, after a couple of months they try




while/whereas are also used to express contrast.

to go back to their former job. 4. But/In spite of being able to control their time, working parents find it difficult to cope with household chores, childcare and their profession all at the same time. 5. People think that home-based workers have all the time for themselves but/in spite of the reality is quite different.

D. Rewrite the sentences below as suggested. Keep the meaning similar to the original sentence. 1. Kim wants to do an Internet course because she is planning to expand her business. As Kim ... 2. The Internet course will last one month and will be held in a town nearby. The Internet course, ... 3. Kim will have to hire a baby-sitter In order to be able to attend the course. If Kim ... 4. Kim feels a bit tired at times, but she doesn’t regret her choice. In spite of ...

E. (Vocabulary)Fill in the blanks with the words given below. commuted












The concept of the job is only a few centuries old. Before that, (1) _______________ journeymen went from town to town in order to perform (2) _______________ that needed to be done. When their work was done they went somewhere else. They had no job security.(3) _______________, employee assistance (4) _______________ — the perks of a modern (5) _______________. The low level of technology meant that most people could learn several (6) _______________; they were jacks of all trades, or, in French, bricoleurs. Very (7) _______________ trades were rare. Then came the Industrial revolution and urbanization. The means (8) _______________ were expensive factories which were geographically fixed, hence workers (9) _______________ to the workplace. But even at the beginning of the last century most people had a wide set of skills rather than the specialisation and they worked (10) _______________. The zenith of the industrial phase came during the mid-twentieth century when a worker had a specific, (11) _______________ job to perform, the employer provided the (12) _______________ the journeyman never had and a life-long job.

TEXT C (in, That’s it! – Practice Book, p. 54)


A. In the United States of America many students don’t take time off to do something else, they study and work at the same time. This extract from an article by Marcus Warren published in the Daily Telegraph is exactly about this topic. Read it and choose the best heading for it. 1. Working and studying as part of the American way of life 2. Kids need cash 3. Extra money means more of a life 4. High fees demand work through university

In the USA more and more young people are earning money to help pay the high fees at American colleges, roughly £14,300 a year for tuition, room and board at a private university. “It’s part of the American way of life,” said Agnes Morgan, 21, as she coped with the lunchtime rush at a Brooklyn coffee shop yesterday. “I work to help put myself through college just as my parents did before me.” Few of her fellow students had not worked at some stage and there was no stigma attached to holding down a job, quite the opposite, she said. “It’s like you’re standing on your own two feet already and not waiting till you graduate before you step out into the big wide world and become an adult. But this way you also feel more independent.” Alicia Perlstein, 20, a student turned waitress at a Latin-American restaurant, said: “The hours are long but, with the extra money, you still have more of a life working than if you were just studying.” The money she earned went not just on supporting herself through college but on allowing herself to go out with friends or take holidays she would otherwise be unable to have. The cost of attending a university has more than doubled in real terms since 1982-3 and the percentage of students who go into debt to finance their education has also risen: up from 42 per cent in 1992 to 64 in 2000. The tradition of working through college in many cases starts at school. It is also a hallowed part of growing up in a country where hard work and application really do open doors. The benefits to the economy of having a pool of would-be employees, many of them distinctly overqualified for the jobs they do, cannot be underestimated either. America has 14.5 million students and most will work, throughout their undergraduate careers, ensuring a circle of labour supply, money earned — and relieving the financial pressure on their so parents. (shortened and abridged)

B. Are these sentences True or False? Quote from the text to support your answers 1. The fees paid by American students include food and a place to sleep. 2. Studying and working at the same time is an exception in the USA. 3. Agnes’s parents also worked when they were students. C. Complete these sentences according to the text. 1. Although the hours are Long, Alicia thinks Life can be much better if .... 2. The American economy also .... D. What are the two major advantages of working and studying simultaneously? Grammar! E. Giving emphasis. Consider the use of do in this sentence from the text. it is used to emphasise a point. ‘hard work and application really do open doors’ Bearing this example in mind, emphasise the following: 1. Students need to take some time off before university. ___________________________________________________________________________ 2. Academic qualifications help you to find work. ___________________________________________________________________________ 3. Parents have to spend a Lot of money to put their children through university. ___________________________________________________________________________

F. Rewrite the sentences below beginning as suggested. Keep the meaning similar to the original sentence. 1. ‘I work to help put myself through college, just as my parents did before me.’ Agnes explained that ... 2. Few of her fellow students had not worked at some stage and there was no stigma attached to holding down a job, quite the opposite, she said. She said: ... 3. Hard work and application really do open doors. Doors ... 4. The benefits to the economy cannot be underestimated either. You ...

TEXT D (in, 16+! –Workbook, p. 65)

Anne Donaldson is a Senior Lecturer and Royal Society University Research Fellow in the Institute of Medical Science at the University of Aberdeen.

1. What attracted you to research in molecular biology? It just interested me! I research the process of DNA replication — one of the basic building blocks of life. Understanding this process and the way a cell replicates is fundamental to the way all organisms exist. As with a lot of work in molecular biology, we use a model organism — a form of yeast — which has very sophisticated genetics and replicates very fast. But it helps us understand the parallel processes in humans. On a more practical level, there is funding available for this research and our work could contribute to understanding what goes wrong with cell replication in diseases such as cancer. 2. What’s a typical day like? It’s tremendously variable, and depends on what is top of my ‘to do’ list that particular day. Often there will be a lot of talking to people — maybe talking about their latest results with the people in the lab, discussing the implications of a newly published scientific paper for our own work, or talking to one of the other group leaders about equipment we need to buy or departmental policies. I might go to a more formal talk as well, perhaps a lab meeting or a seminar given by someone visiting the department. 3. What’s the difference between being an adviser or a postdoc? As a PhD student or postdoc, the day would probably involve a bit less talking and certainly less writing, but a lot more time spent planning and doing experiments. There will still be presentations to give from time to time (at a conference or in a lab meeting) and some writing (perhaps an annual report on research progress). I like the independence that comes with the job. Even when you are quite junior, real scientists don’t have a ‘boss’. They may have an adviser with whom they discuss ideas and experiments and who makes suggestions and gives advice, but ultimately the decision about the path you will take lies with you. In this way a scientific career is rather like being self-employed, and this is one of the aspects of science that is distinct from many jobs.

4. Don’t you feel you miss the best side of life, social gatherings, family, etc? The social aspects of science are often overlooked. You get to spend your life with intelligent, motivated and interesting people — often from different countries — who share an urge to understand the world. Different labs definitely have different atmospheres, and some labs form strong social groups and will often continue to discuss their experiments — and life — over lunch and in the pub. Lifelong friendships often spring from experiences shared in a particular lab. 5. How important is your job for your own self-fulfilment? As an adviser I like getting to know the people in my lab and watching them grow professionally and personally. As a group leader, this becomes ever more important as you tend to spend less time actually doing experiments and your scientific life can become somewhat vicarious.

A. Match the paragraphs with the titles below. 1. Job reward 2. An adviser’s duties 3. Everyday routine 4. Social relationships 5. The aim of Anne’s research

B. In which paragraphs can you find information about ... (Support your answer by quoting key words from the text.) 1. ... the diverse people Anne meets and discusses with. 2. ... the focus of Anne’s investigation. 3. ... Anne’s interest in molecular biology 4. ... her professional motivation. 5. ... what she enjoys most in her professional career 6. ... a scientists independence at work.

C. Choose the best option according to the text. 1. Anne considers that the scientific research she’s doing a. may not be very important in terms of future investigation. b. is vital for knowing human origins better c. may help find the cure for diseases. 2. Anne has a “to-do” list a. to remind her of what she must carry out every day. b. to inform her peers about what they must do every day. c. in which she writes everything she does every day. 3. Besides monitoring the lab work she a. also goes to conferences and meetings abroad. b. discusses the results of experiments with other scientists. c. takes care of the family at home. 4. Anne thinks “the social aspects of science are often overlooked”. This means that a. they are given too much credit ad they aren’t that important. b. they are considered less relevant than they actually are. c. being a scientist involves being lonely all the time.

D. Would you like to work as a scientific researcher like Anne? Give reasons why or why not.

A. Forms We form the possessive of a noun like this: Singular noun


boy  boy's


 Vicky’s

Plural noun ending in s

boys boys'

tourists  tourists'

Plural noun not ending in s


men men’s

People’s name ending in s


Charles Charles's

children  children's

B. Use 1. We normally use 's when the first noun is a person or an animal. 

The manager's office ( not "the office of the manager")

Mr Evan’s daughter

The horse’s tail

A policeman’s hat

Note that you can use 's after more than one noun. 

Jack and Jill’s wedding

Mr and Mrs Carter’s house


The Carters' house

2. You can use 's without a following noun. 

Tom's flat is much larger than Ann's (= Ann's flat).

3. With things we normally use ... of ... 

The door of the room (not "the room's door")

The beginning of the story (not "the story’s beginning")

4. We can use both patterns ( ‘s or of) for places, organizations and writings 

London’s museums

The museums of London

The earth’s atmosphere

The atmosphere of the earth

The company’s future

The future of the company

The newspaper’s opinions

The opinions of the newspaper.

5. We can use ‘s in some expressions of time: 

last week’s concert

about a month’s work

in two months’ time Today’s TV programmes

A year’s salary

Ten minutes’ walk from the beach

Note: Plural time expressions follow the rule: Singular:’s Plural: ‘

Practice A. In this exercise you have to join two nouns. Sometimes you have to use an apostrophe (') with or without s. Sometimes you have to use ...of... The mother / Ann – Ann’s mother Eg. the door / the room – the door of the room 1. The camera / Tom

9. The garden / our neighbours

2. The eyes / the cat

10. The house / my aunt and uncle

3. The top / the page

11. The result / the football match

4. The daughter / Charles

12. The car / Mike's parents

5. The newspaper / today

13. The ground floor / the building

6. The toys / the children

14. The birthday / my father

7. The name /your wife

15. The children / Don and Mary

8. The new manager / the company

16. The economic policy / the government

B. Put in a possessive form. The prices this year are even lower


this year’s prices

From here it's a drive of two hours.


two hours’ drive

1. I read about it in the paper yesterday.


in _________paper

2. That's the brochure from last year.


last _________brochure

3. I just thought I'd have a rest for ten minutes.


ten _________ rest

4. It's the special offer for this month.


this _________ special offer

5. I'll see you in a week.


in a _________ time

C. Now you have to use the information given to complete the sentences. Eg. If I leave my house at 9 o'clock and drive to London, I arrive at about 12 0'clock. So it’s about three hours' drive to London from my house. 1. I’m going on holiday on the 12th. I have to be back at work on the 26th. So I've got _______________ holiday. 2. I went to sleep at 3 o'clock this morning and woke up an hour later at 4 o'clock. So I only had _____________ sleep. 3. If I leave my house at 8.50 and walk to work, I get to work at 9 o'clock. So it's only _____________ walk from my house to work.



Find out more ...     (list) (AmE - page 1) (AmE - page 2) ( a collective nouns database)


Collective Nouns Name………………………………………………………… Collective nouns are names for groups of people, animals and objects. Complete these phrases. Choose a suitable word from the word bank below. 1. A team of … 2. A company of … 3. A … of witches. 4. A … of angels. 5. A … of soldiers. 6. A pack of … 7. A plague of … 8. A … of bees. 9. A school of … 10. A gaggle of … 11. A … of lions. 12. A flock of … 13. A … of cattle. 14. An … of ships. 15. A fleet of … 16. A bunch of … 17. A … of flowers bouquet, ships, armada, wolves, geese, herd, locusts, grapes, sheep, coven, choir, platoon, actors, players, swarm, fish, hounds, pride If you know any more collective nouns, write them on the back of your sheet.


Name ______________________________ Date ___________________

COLLECTIVE NOUNS Collective nouns are words used to describe a group of nouns. For example, 52 cards would be known as a deck of cards. Complete each sentence by choosing the correct collective noun from the box at the bottom of the page.

1. Swimming in the shallow water was a ______________ of herrings. 2. A ___________ of sheep was happily grazing in the field. 3. All night we could hear the _____________ of wolves howling. 4. Looking out to sea, we noticed a ___________ of dolphins swimming. 5. The _____________ of lions slept all day on the African plains. 6. A long ______________ of steps led to the top of the tower. 7. Our cat has just had a _______________ of seven kittens. 8. We each picked a _______________ of juicy grapes from the vine. 9. The hen waddled by with her _______________ of chicks. 10. A ______________ of thieves stole the precious diamonds. 11. In the jungle, we could see a __________ of monkeys swinging in the trees. 12. An enormous ______________ of locusts ate all the crops. 13. The ______________ of elephants stomped through the water hole. 14. The __________________ of geese made a terrible squawking sound. 15. We were in awe as we watched the ______________ of whales swimming. pod herd pack

swarm litter troop

pride gaggle flock

flight band bunch

school brood shoal Š


Name ______________________________ Date ___________________

COLLECTIVE NOUNS BE CREATIVE! Some collective nouns are very descriptive. We hear the collective noun and we can imagine what the group looks like. A pride of lions sounds more interesting than a group of lions. Collective nouns are also fun! Now that you have learned how to use collective nouns, try and invent some of your own. Invent a creative collective noun for each of the nouns below, and then write a sentence to show the collective noun in use.

1. students babble We were surrounded by a babble of students. 2. cell phones _____________________ ________________________________________________________ 3. teachers _____________________ ________________________________________________________ 4. computers _____________________ ________________________________________________________ 5. children _____________________ ________________________________________________________ 6. cars _____________________ ________________________________________________________ 7. footballs _____________________ ________________________________________________________ 8. ice-creams _____________________ ________________________________________________________ 9. pencils _____________________ ________________________________________________________ 10. roller coasters _____________________ ________________________________________________________



Name ______________________________ Date ___________________ Collective Nouns - Answers 1. Swimming in the shallow water was a shoal of herrings. 2. A flock of sheep was happily grazing in the field. 3. All night we could hear the pack of wolves howling. 4. Looking out to sea, we noticed a pod of dolphins swimming. 5. The pride of lions slept all day on the African plains. 6. A long flight of steps led to the top of the tower. 7. Our cat has just had a litter of seven kittens. 8. We each picked a bunch of juicy grapes from the vine. 9. The hen waddled by with her brood of chicks. 10. A band of thieves stole the precious diamonds. 11. In the jungle, we could see a troop of monkeys swinging in the trees. 12. An enormous swarm of locusts ate all the crops. 13. The herd of elephants stomped through the water hole. 14. The gaggle of geese made a terrible squawking sound. 15. We were in awe as we watched the school of whales swimming.


My English ePractice Book (11 Grade)  

A compilation od some materials given during the school year 2010-2011 to my 11th grade classes.

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