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Under the Acacia:

The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan

Foreword East Africa is one of the most impoverished regions in the world. Education is widely regarded as one of the key drivers of poverty reduction and human development. Significant progress has been made to increase access to East Africa’s primary and secondary school systems in recent decades. However, the higher education system has seen little improvement during the same period. While primary and secondary school education are essential, the knowledge and expertise necessary for marketable job skills are built at the higher education level. Recognizing this disparity, the Mbesese Initiative for Sustainable Development - a US registered charitable organization - has developed plans to establish a new college on a 100+ acre site in the northern highlands of the United Republic of Tanzania. Through a student-centered, learn by doing approach, the Same Polytechnic College will provide practical, hands on learning experiences unlike any other educational institution in the East Africa. The curriculum of the Same Polytechnic College will place special emphasis on addressing the region’s need for effective, skilled and knowledgeable farmers, builders, teachers and entrepreneurs. This master plan for the campus - prepared in collaboration with project partners the District of Same, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, and Arup presents the purpose and goals of the Same Polytechnic College and a framework for the orderly and efficient growth of the campus. Although the development sector has embraced green thinking in recent years, opportunities to create educational institutions where sustainability is practiced at every level - outside the classroom as well as within - are as rare in East Africa as they are in the rest of the world. MISD aims to make this campus a model of environmentally friendly development that will education through its very design and operations, helping to prepare graduates, faculty, and regional partners for the energy and resource challenges confronting the regional and global community.

Copyright © 2016 by The Mbesese Initiative for Sustainable Development All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, including photocopying, recording, or other electronic or mechanical methods, without the prior written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical reviews and certain other noncommercial uses permitted by copyright law. For permission requests, write to the publisher, addressed “Attention: Permissions Coordinator,” at the address below. The Mbesese Initiative for Sustainable Development PO Box 881359 Los Angeles, CA 90009

Chapter 1 Introduction


Chapter 2 History of Planning for the Same Polytechnic College


Chapter 3 Vision for the Same Polytechnic College


Chapter 4 Planning Principles and Context


Chapter 5 The Master Plan


Chapter 6 Building Design Guidelines


Appendix A Scenario Planning & Circulation Diagrams


Appendix B Seismic Hazard Desk Study


Appendix C Planning Participants


Section 1 Introduction

Purpose of this document The Same (Sah-may) Polytechnic College (SPC) is a proposed vocational training institution of higher learning to be established in the Kilimanjaro Region of the United Republic of Tanzania in East Africa. The college is the pilot project of the Mbesese Initiative for Sustainable Development (MISD), a US registered charitable organization whose primary purpose is to improve quality of life for rural communities in East Africa. In 2010, MISD identified that these communities needed new, diversified higher education opportunities to increase human capital and reduce the severe levels of poverty endemic in the region. In 2011, MISD began working with local authorities and community leaders in the District of Same (Sah-may) to find a suitable site on which to build a permanent campus for the college. Several options are under consideration, all of which are located just outside of the town of Same at the foot of the Pare Mountain Range.

This document has been prepared to communicate the purpose and goals of the new Same Polytechnic College and to plan for the orderly and efficient growth of the campus. This process provides an opportunity for MISD to further develop its goals and desired outcomes for the college and articulate a clear vision for the future. The process and resulting master plan will also support future decision-making once a final site has been selected, by identifying the physical resources that will be needed to further MISD’s mission and goals for the college and provide the framework to guide facilities and resources decisions. This is particularly important in the case of a new campus in a remote area of a developing country, where the significant amount of time, expertise, and capital needed to establish and grow this institution make judicious management all the more critical.

Organization of this document The SPC Masterplan is organized to clearly present information regarding the existing site and context for the campus and planned programs and facilities to guide campus development. It is organized into the following chapters: •

History of planning for the Same Polytechnic College

Vision for the Same Polytechnic College

Planning principles and context

• Masterplan •

Design guidelines

This document address the rationale for the development of this project, lays out goals for the campus site and anticipated program, and provides projected facility needs, planning principles, and design goals for the buildings and supporting infrastructure needed to support a projected enrollment of 1,200 students.

Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan

Opposite: Rendering of a conceptual design for a classroom building at the Same Polytechnic College

Section 1: Introduction Page 3

Planning process and participants This document has been prepared by MISD in close cooperation with its project partners and the District of Same, which has been a highly supportive partner in the endeavor. MISD directors, staff, volunteers, and project partners have invested considerable time and energy to review data, concepts, and plans. The Office of the District Commissioner, the Development Office, and the Land Office of the District of Same have also provided background information, ideas, and feedback. As described in Chapter 2, the planning process resulting in this document began with an agreement between MISD and the government of the District of Same. The government agreed to donate a parcel of land to MISD for the purpose of establishing the

permanent campus for the Same Polytechnic College. From that time forward, MISD and the District government have worked closely with local community leaders to identify and evaluate all the available options to find the most suitable site. Once a final decision has been made, the government will begin to execute the necessary actions to finalize the transfer of land to MISD and will coordinate the many related issues associated with land use and development decisions. MISD, for its part, worked simultaneously on two efforts. First it began planning the various educational and development programs which will be active on the campus. At the same time, MISD began the campus planning process by evaluating the suitability of the available sites for various uses and the acreage

requirements of projected enrollment and facilities, while also exploring the cost and financing issues associated with the long-term development of the campus site. The development of master planning and building design guidelines for the campus began in earnest in the fall of 2011. At this time, MISD engaged the services of the international multidisciplinary planning and design firm Arup, which has been charged with developing goals and guidelines for the design and construction of the campus based on themes and principles set by MISD. Then, in the fall of 2012 the faculty and students of the Graduate Architecture Studio at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo joined the design team, which then moved

Opposite: Arup engineers and designers host students and faculty from California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo for a design meeting - Los Angeles, California

on to the task of developing a framework to guide the design and growth of the campus once a final site has been chosen. The team was further supported by Killefer Flammang Architects in Santa Monica, Ca and local Tanzanian architects.

MISD and the District government have worked closely with local community leaders to identify and evaluate all the available options to find the most suitable site.

The framework for the college campus was conceived in a holistic manner, simultaneously addressing not only the physical parameters but also the broad range of issues key to successful placemaking, including transport, utilities, economics, implementation, risk, sustainability, social objectives, and political influences. This integrated approach allowed the themes and principles defined by MISD and the site conditions to be prioritized in order to create a tailor-made masterplan that goes far beyond building shapes. The goal has been to generate a solid piece of design that integrates the technologies and spatial solutions most appropriate for the site. The three key components to achieving this were an integrated brief, an integrated team, and integrated solutions.

Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan

Integrated brief • Early identification of key parameters identified, inclusive of the physical, social, economic, and temporal conditions that need to be considered. This allows the creation of an overarching view of the client’s and key stakeholder’s needs and aspirations.

Integrated team • Empowerment of all disciplines—and the client—to participate in the design process from the beginning. •

Integration of proposed strategies and technological solutions are integrated at an early stage. Early integration of technology into buildings and public spaces.

Integrated solutions • Simultaneous evaluation of solutions arising from this process using all parameters simultaneously to achieve sustainable, balanced development. •

Prioritization of themes and principles defined by the client and the site conditions.

Section 1: Introduction Page 5

Section 2 History of Planning for the Same Polytechnic College

Population living on <US$1.25 per day (%) <2% >2%-25% >25%-50% >50%-75% >75%

No data

Population living on <US$2.00 per day (%) <2% >2%-25% >25%-50% >50%-75% >75%

No data

Figure 2.1 | Source: World Development Indicators 2008, World Bank

Understanding poverty The question of how best to escape poverty has long been debated among individuals, households, and policymakers. MISD believes that understanding the full spectrum of issues involved in poverty is a prerequisite for effective project design. In 2011, the organization’s founders first came together to discuss specific activities for reducing poverty in rural East Africa. They began by evaluating their own firsthand experience of working with the impoverished people of rural East Africa and studying the vast amount of literature and empirical work on the measurement and determinants of poverty that had been generated by governments, academics, and others in recent decades in order to develop a long-term poverty reduction strategy and associated project proposals.

One third of all deaths across the globe from 1990 to 1999 — some 18 million people a year, or 50,000 per day — can be attributed to poverty-related causes. In total, 270 million people, most of them women and children, died as a result of poverty-related causes during this period1. According to the World Health Organization, two of these causes, hunger and malnutrition, are the single gravest threats to the world’s public health. Malnutrition is by far the biggest contributor to child mortality, present in half of all cases2. For many people and organizations, a commonsense definition of poverty is economic disparity, and particularly income deprivation, leading to difficulties in meeting material needs. In this framework, the relevant metric is an individual’s economic status relative to the daily monetary allowance threshold, otherwise known as the poverty line. People whose monetary resources are below a poverty line cannot attain a minimum standard of living due to their inability to afford basic goods and services. The World Bank defines extreme poverty as living on less than $1.25 per day. Based on the latest data available (2005), this means that 1.4 billion people live in extreme poverty3. Furthermore, almost half of humanity — over 3 billion people — live on less than $2.50 a day4, and at least 80% lives on less than $10 a day5. However, while the poverty line is an important tool for understanding and measuring poverty, the issue is both broader and deeper, encompassing social, political, and institutional factors as well as economic ones. MISD therefore defines poverty as a state of human existence that is broadly characterized by a lack of the basic goods and services necessary for survival with dignity, including clean water, nutrition,

Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan

healthcare, education, clothing, and shelter, and an increased risk for many physical and social ailments, including hunger, starvation, malnutrition, disease, homelessness, and crime. Poverty also includes social aspects which link the scarcity of basic goods and services to the distribution of resources and power in a society. In this regard, poverty may be understood as an aspect of unequal social status and inequitable social relationships, experienced as social exclusion, reduced access to social and civil services, dependency, and diminished capacity to participate in society. In most nations, inequality is quite high and often increasing, due to causes that may include a lack of individual responsibility, ineffective or counterproductive government policies, exploitation by people and businesses with power and influence, or some combination of these and other factors. And although high inequality levels have the greatest impact on the poor, their consequences are often felt throughout a society. Many scholars and policymakers feel that in the coming years rising inequality will degrade social cohesion and lead to problems such as increasing crime and violence in countries around the world6. The World Health Organization, The World Health Report 1999: Making a Difference, 1999 2 World Health Organization, Global Health Risks: Mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major health risks, 2009 3 World Development Indicators 2010, The World Bank 4 Chen, Shaohua and Martin Ravallion, The developing world is poorer than we thought, but no less successful in the fight against poverty, Development Research Group, World Bank, August 26, 2008 5 Ravallion, Martin et al, Dollar a Day Revisited, Policy Research Working Paper 4620, The World Bank Development Research Group, May 2008 6 Shah, Anup, Causes of Poverty, Global Issues, www.globalissues.com 1

Section 2: History of Planning for The Vumari Polytechnic College Page 9

Figure 2.2: People in the World at Different Poverty Levels, 2005 (%)

World population (%)



90 80





Poverty reduction, inequality, and human development

1.31 5.15

70 60 50 40

3.14 2.60

30 20 10 0

0.88 $1.00 Series 1 Series 2



$1.25 $1.45 $2.00 $2.50 Poverty Line (US dollars/day at 2005 purchasing power parity)


0.88 World population, series 1 (billions) 5.58 World population, series 2 (billions)

Source: World Development Indicators 2008, The World Bank

People living on less than US$1.25/day, by region (%) (source: World Development Indicators 2010, The World Bank)

Regional population below extreme poverty line (%)


East Asia & Pacific


South Asia


Sub-Saharan Africa




Latin America & Caribbean

30 20

Middle East & N. Africa


Europe & Central Asia

0 1981









The prevalence of poverty and the severity of its effects on humanity at large make it one of the greatest challenges facing modern society. Reducing poverty has the potential to alleviate suffering and improve the quality of life for the majority of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s population, and should therefore be a top priority for governments, organizations, and individuals alike. In recent decades, international aid and development groups, national governments, and celebrities have tried to promote poverty reduction. Many of the resulting initiatives have focused on implementing macroeconomic initiatives to boost economic growth in developing nations. Historically, the most successful poverty reduction tool has been national economic growth. In the 1800s, economic growth fueled by the Industrial Revolution eliminated mass poverty in what is now considered the developed world. However, because of how the global economy has evolved over the past century, recent economic growth has benefited the wealthy more than the poor (see Figure 2.2). And because the poor represent the majority of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s population (as well as that of most nations), largescale macroeconomic initiatives such as international government-sponsored aid grants and international debt forgiveness have not been able to make a significant dent in poverty.

To successfully alleviate poverty, we must implement development strategies that address its multidimensional nature. The field of human development provides a model for how to accomplish this by bringing the focus back onto human capabilities. Recognizing that poverty reduction is about much more than raising a country’s gross domestic product, human development reminds us that people are the real wealth of nations. Poverty reduction therefore must focus on expanding people’s ability to choose lives that they value. Economic growth is only one means — albeit a very important one — of expanding individuals’ opportunities. MISD therefore centers its approach on investing in people and human decisions. It seeks to help people lead long and healthy lives, be knowledgeable, have access to the resources and social services needed for a decent standard of living, and be able to participate in the life of the community. If these requirements are not fulfilled in an individual’s life, many choices are simply not available and many opportunities remain inaccessible7.

Right: A basket weaver at work - Eastern Provence, Kenya

Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan

Section 2: History of Planning for The Vumari Polytechnic College Page 11

Series 2

5.58 World population, series 2 (billions)

People living on less than US$1.25/day, by region (%) Figure 2.3: (source: People Living on Less than $1.25/day, by Region (%) World Development Indicators 2010,US The World Bank)

Regional population below extreme poverty line (%)


Sub-Saharan Africa East Asia & Pacific


South Asia


Sub-Saharan Africa




Latin America & Caribbean

30 20

Middle East & N. Africa


Europe & Central Asia

0 1981




Source: World Development Indicators 2010, The World Bank






In addition to being the world’s poorest region, Sub-Saharan Africa is also plagued by low poverty reduction rates in comparison with other developing areas12. Fifty-one percent of its population lives in extreme poverty, a figure that has seen only minimal improvement in the last 20 years, a period in which other regions have seen steady and even significant gains (see Figure 2.3). To make things worse, while the percentage of Sub-Saharan Africans living in extreme poverty has barely changed in the past few decades, the actual number of extremely poor people has nearly doubled, growing from 211 million in 1981 to 388 million in 200513 (see Table 2.1). Geographical inequality plays a major role in the area’s stalled development. While government policies and investments in poverty reduction increasingly favor urban over rural areas14, poverty in this part of the world is predominately rural. As in many developing countries and transitional economies, the rural situation in Sub-Saharan Africa is marked by economic stagnation, poor production, low incomes, rising vulnerability, and lack of access to markets. The rural population is poorly organized and often isolated, beyond the reach of social safety nets and poverty programs. And although more than 70% of the region’s poor people depend on agriculture for food and livelihood, development assistance to agriculture is decreasing.

Table 2.1: Regional Povery Estimates In Sub-Saharan Africa, qualified human capital remains scarce compared to the continent’s development needs. The population of Sub-Saharan Africa has markedly low education attainment levels and the lowest enrollment rates in the world, especially at the tertiary level (see Figure X). Additionally, the quality of tertiary education systems in Sub-Saharan Africa has gone down in recent decades. Causes include a decline in per unit costs (from US$6,800 in 1980 to US$1,200 in 2002), poor governance, and insufficient numbers of qualified academic staff in education institutions as the result of retirement, HIV/AIDS, and brain drain15. (Saharan Africa has the world’s highest rate of emigration among skilled workers. The percentage of tertiary-educated emigrants from the region increased from 23 in 1990 to 31.4 in 200016, hindering growth and undermining the foundation for sustainable human development.) Because skills for the knowledge-based economy are built at the tertiary education level, improving these systems should be high on Sub-Saharan Africa’s development agenda. African education institutions and policymakers must ensure that the workforce acquires the skills to compete, innovate, and respond to complex social, environmental, and economic situations17. Global Monitoring Report. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, The World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, 2006 13 World Development Indicators 2010, The World Bank 14 Rural poverty in Africa, Rural Poverty Portal (http://www. ruralpovertyportal.org/web/guest/region/home/tags/africa) 15 Materu, Peter, Higher Education Quality Assurance in Sub-Saharan Africa – Status, Challenges, Opportunities, and Promising Practices, World Bank Working Paper 124 16 Docquier, Frederic, and Abdeslam Marfouk. 2005. “International Migrations by Educational Attainment 1990-2000”. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 3382, The World Bank, Washington D.C. 17 The World Bank, Education – Tertiary Education in Africa (www. worldbank.org) 12











Share of people living on less than 2005 PPP $1.25 a day (percent) East Asia & Pacific





































South Asia










Sub-Saharan Africa




















Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Caribbean Middle East & North Africa

People living on less than 2005 PPP $1.25 a day (millions) East Asia & Pacific










Europe & Central Asia










Latin America & Caribbean










Middle East & North Africa










South Asia










Sub-Saharan Africa




















Source: World Development Indicators 2010, The World Bank

Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan

Section 2: History of Planning for The Vumari Polytechnic College Page 13

Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan

Section 2: History of Planning for The Vumari Polytechnic College Page 15

Human capital and education One of the most effective methods to achieve these goals is to increase human capital, which can be defined as the stock of competencies, knowledge, and personality attributes that enable individuals and populations to produce economic value. Workers attain it through experience and education. Many studies link improvements in human capital to increased wellbeing, reduced poverty, improved institutions, and better governance8. Increasing educational attainment is, in turn, the most direct way to increase human capital. Low educational achievement levels are endemic to impoverished populations. In most developing nations’ education systems, this is due to inadequate capacity and low quality at all levels, primary, secondary, and tertiary. Improving and expanding these systems is critical to increasing enrollment, retention, and attainment. However, while primary and secondary education are vital to human development, the knowledge and skills necessary to increase human capital in the modern knowledge-based economy are built at the tertiary education level9. Tertiary education broadly refers to all post-secondary education, including a diverse set of public and private tertiary institutions — colleges, technical training institutes, community colleges, nursing schools, distance learning centers, and many more — that are required to form a network of institutions that support the production of the higher-order human capital necessary for human development and poverty reduction10.

Above: Farm laborers prepare a field for planting Eastern Province, Kenya Opposite: Children making their way to school - Eastern Province, Kenya

Chile provides an example of a nation in which recent economic gains have been underpinned in part by a far-reaching reform of the higher education sector, including a major diversification of educational institutions. In 1990, the government authorized private tertiary institutions, sub-divided tertiary education into three levels — universities, professional institutes, and technical training centers, and implemented several policy initiatives. One initiative, jointly launched by the Ministries of Finance, Education, and Labor, created a lifelong learning system for workers and citizens. A second started a competitive grants program that encouraged the overhaul of course content, curricula structure, and pedagogy through the provision of financial awards for related equipment and facilities. A third introduced the concept of educational benchmarking with the aim of comparing strategically important courses with world standards of quality. A fourth extended the national student loans and grants program to include shorter-term technology training. A final initiative provided tax exemptions to workers seeking to update their skills through continuing education11. United Nations Development Program, The Human Development Concept (http://hdr.undp.org/en/humandev/) 8 Litchfield, Julie and Thomas McGregor, Poverty in Kagera, Tanzania: Characteristics, Causes and Constraints, PRUS Working Paper no. 42, Poverty Research Unit, Department of Economics, University of Sussex 9 The World Bank, Education – Tertiary Education in Africa (www. worldbank.org) 10 The World Bank, Education – Tertiary Education (www.worldbank.org) 11 Ng’ethe, Njugana, et. al, Differentiation and Articulation in Tertiary Education Systems: A Study of Twelve African Countries, World Bank Working Paper No. 145 7

Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan

Section 2: History of Planning for The Vumari Polytechnic College Page 17

East Africa and the United Republic of Tanzania Among Sub-Saharan Africa’s poor are the people of East Africa, which has one of the world’s highest concentrations of poverty. Variably defined by geography or geopolitics, East Africa often refers specifically to the area comprising Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, and Burundi. Out of these countries, all except for Kenya have an extreme poverty rate higher than the Sub-Saharan average of 51%. The region is also underperforming with regards to tertiary education attainment, with all countries having enrollment ratios below the Sub-Saharan average of 5.5% (see Figure 2.4). The vast majority of these nations’ populations live in rural areas. Within the region, the United Republic of Tanzania is the largest area by land mass and population, with an estimated 42 million people. Its extreme poverty rate of 88.5% is the highest in East Africa. In the early 1990s, the nation’s economic growth rate was lower than the population growth rate. Since the mid-1990s, however, growth rates have increased from an average of 4.0% between 1995-1999 to 5.8% between 2000 and 2004. In 2004, the 6.7% growth rate exceeded the targeted level of 6%18. However, although Tanzania’s economy has grown steadily since 1993, a sharp increase between 1993 and 1996 was followed by a steady but slower rate of growth for the period 1997 through 2002, then a further slowdown between 2004 and 2006.19 Sustaining and increasing growth remains a significant challenge. The extent to which this growth has reduced poverty has been tempered by increases in inequality within Tanzania over this period. It may also be affected by international and rural-urban terms of trade. Growth has had a greater impact on poverty reduction in areas where the proportion of households with incomes below the poverty line is lowest, notably in Dar es Salaam. Projections suggest that rural poverty may have been reduced somewhat, but there are uncertainties around data and modeling assumptions20.

Education in Tanzania Tanzania’s higher education system is the worst in East Africa. It falls far short of its potential to contribute to the nation’s economic development, reduce poverty among its citizens, and improve of other levels of the education system. At 1.5%, the country’s tertiary enrollment rate is the lowest in Sub-Saharan Africa, well below the average of 5.5% (although some improvements have been seen)21.

The higher education system in Tanzania also lacks diversity. 80% of tertiary enrollments are in university programs alone. Of the non-university institutions of higher education in Tanzania, there are only three technical colleges — the Dar es Salaam Institute of Technology, the Arusha Technical College, and the Mbeva Technical College — with a combined enrollment of 3,000 and an output of only 787 graduates per year25.

Tanzania’s higher education system is the worst in East Africa.

However, there are some bright spots on the horizon. Tanzania is unique in East Africa for having put in place a National Higher Education Policy. This 1999 policy framework includes initiatives that encourage the private sector to support tertiary education and promotes cooperation between institutions of higher education on national, regional, and international levels26.

Figure 2.5 shows gross enrollments in higher education institutions since 2002/03. In 2006/07, the total number of enrollments reached 75,346 students. Expansion in enrollment during this period has been rapid, and over a quarter of secondary school graduates now progress to the tertiary level. However, studies indicate that still only a small fraction of those who obtain the minimum requirements to enter the public universities are actually admitted due to inadequate funding from the government, linking of admissions to available bed space, and insufficient academic staff22. As the capacity of the higher education system continues to grow, maintaining the quality of tuition will be a major challenge23. Although the system has grown considerably since the 1990s, study conditions are not keeping track with the increasing number of students. Lecture halls are overcrowded, laboratories and library facilities insufficient, and living conditions precarious. Many students arrive unprepared due to shortcomings at the basic, general, and technical secondary levels. Faced with inadequate training and research conditions and low scholarly incentives, there is a strong temptation for many among the brightest students and teaching staff to seek better living conditions in other countries or regions.24

Empowered by these initiatives and recognizing the potential poverty reduction impact of expanding, diversifying, and improving higher education in East Africa, MISD began developing plans for the Same Polytechnic College. United Republic of Tanzania Poverty and Human Development Report 2005 19 United Republic of Tanzania Poverty and Human Development Report 2007 20 United Republic of Tanzania Poverty and Human Development Report 2005 21 United Nations Human Development Report 2010 22 Ng’ethe, Njugana, et. al, Differentiation and Articulation in Tertiary Education Systems: A Study of Twelve African Countries, World Bank Working Paper No. 145 23 United Republic of Tanzania Poverty and Human Development Report 2007 24 Revitalizing Higher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa, United Nations University, 2009 25 Ng’ethe, Njugana, et. al, Differentiation and Articulation in Tertiary Education Systems: A Study of Twelve African Countries, World Bank Working Paper No. 145 26 Ng’ethe, Njugana, et. al, Differentiation and Articulation in Tertiary Education Systems: A Study of Twelve African Countries, World Bank Working Paper No. 145 18

Figure 2.5: Enrollment & Poverty Rates by Region Burundi Kenya Rwanda Tanzania Uganda Sub-Saharan Africa

Partnership with the District of Same

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10










People (%) Gross national tertiary enrollment rates National extreme poverty rates Sources: World Development Indicators 2010, The World Bank; United Nations Human Development Report 2010

Figure 2.4: Higher Education Enrollment Growth 80,000 Number of students enrolled in Higher Education, in Tanzania

One of MISD’s greatest assets is its strong partnership with the District of Same. This partnership began as a result of the District’s active participation with MISD to secure a physical site for the college. In 2011, the two entities entered into an agreement whereby the district government would locate and donate a parcel of land to MISD for the purpose of developing the college’s physical campus. MISD and the District Government are working to evaluate all the available options to find the most suitable site. Once a final selection has been made, they will take the necessary actions to finalize the transfer of land to MISD. This agreement also ensures a continued partnership between MISD and the district. Both parties have agreed to collaborate on the development of the college master plan which will set design and development standards in sufficient detail to ensure quality growth and construction of the campus and that there is an interface with the surrounding district community.

70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0

Above: MISD staff and government officials conduct a preliminary survey of the campus site - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania












Source: United Republic of Tanzania Poverty and Human Development ReportPoverty 2007 and Human Development Report 2007) (source: United Republic of Tanzania

Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan

Section 2: History of Planning for The Vumari Polytechnic College Page 19

Section 3 Vision for the Same Polytechnic College

College Mission The Same Polytechnic College will be a comprehensive vocational training institution of higher learning specializing in fields relevant and impactful to rural East Africa. The pilot educational institution in an anticipated network of higher education facilities to be established throughout East Africa by MISD, the college will provide quality educational, social, cultural, economic, and civic advancement to local citizens. Through a student-centered, learn-by-doing approach, The Same Polytechnic College will emphasize and value exceptional teaching, hands-on learning, mentoring, and advisement; scholarship; career and personal advancement; continuing education; research, development, and innovation; and service to the community. The college will help address East Africa’s need for increased human capital by improving access to quality higher education for students graduating from secondary school, as well as members of the greater population seeking to further their education and build their skills and expertise. The curriculum of The Same Polytechnic College will be based upon the needs of the community, business, and industry, as well as the desires and demands of the students. The college will offer a wide range of degree programs and selected continuing education programs designed to meet the needs of rural communities in East Africa and address the specific challenges they face. It will place special emphasis on addressing the region’s need for effective, skilled, and knowledgeable farmers, builders, teachers, and entrepreneurs. To create a network of innovation and support the dissemination of effective, practical methods, practices, and technologies, the college will develop and promote partnerships with public school systems, colleges, universities, and professional sectors in East Africa, as well as higher education centers in other countries. Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan

National and Regional Role The Same Polytechnic College will: •

Provide students with a remarkable education, preparing them to enter their chosen profession and make immediate contributions to society.

Serve as a resource for rural East African communities, providing students and faculty who can apply their expertise, energy, and enthusiasm to practical problems in order to produce civic, social, and cultural benefits.

Supply the local public and private sector with a diverse pool of skilled and knowledgeable professionals.

Provide East African nations with the professional infrastructure for stable economic development and support for essential social services such as education.

Give faculty a unique opportunity to create an academic environment nationally and regionally recognized for its instructional quality and innovation.

Provide staff opportunities for professional growth and development, recognizing their crucial role in creating an outstanding student and business service environment.

Continue to reinvent itself in response to the changing needs of the citizens of rural East Africa.

Come to be recognized as one of East Africa’s – and potentially Sub-Saharan Africa’s – best vocational institutions of higher education.

Opposite: The town of Same – Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

Section 3:Vision for the Same Polytechnic College Page 23

Educational Programs MISD and its project partners are developing the college’s core curriculum, major core curricula, and upper division courses (exceeding the standards of the Tanzanian system of higher education) according to an educational paradigm based on learning by doing. The curriculum will have appropriate breadth and depth, and the courses will guide students progressively towards competency in their respective fields through practical, hands-on learning experiences. The various educational programs have been organized into one of seven schools based on area of study: • • • • • • •

School of Agriculture, Food, and Environmental Sciences School of Building Science and Construction Technology School of Education School of Business Management School of Tourism and Hospitality School of Automotive and Mechanical Technology School of Social Studies

MISD has defined four general learning outcomes – communication, critical thinking, effective citizenship, and entrepreneurship

Right: Women help each other to prepare fields for planting - Eastern Province, Kenya

MISD has defined four general learning outcomes – communication, critical thinking, effective citizenship, and entrepreneurship – which will be embedded within all of The Same Polytechnic College’s academic degree programs. All programs will emphasize quality learning experiences that enable students to become independent thinkers and lifelong learners who can clearly and creatively express themselves and solve problems. Degree programs will encourage students to apply their knowledge in a variety of scholarly and community service contexts. Each will also provide the basic business acumen and management skills for students to transform their skills and expertise into income-generating activity, increasing self-reliance in rural East Africa’s weak, volatile job market. In addition, students will be involved with faculty and staff in research and development of new methods, practices, and technologies related to their chosen

profession in East Africa, using advanced equipment and facilities. Through these research opportunities, students will be prepared to engage in lifelong learning and experimentation, fostering local innovation in the region. The college’s degree requirements will be consistent with program content and in line with MISD’s quality assurance program. Each degree program will have an established mission statement, as well as program and student learning outcomes. Degree objectives, which will be provided to students via a catalog, will reflect course content. Each will also clearly explain what the student will need to learn in order to meet goals within the four general learning outcome areas (communication, critical thinking, effective citizenship, and entrepreneurship).

School of Agriculture, Food, and Environmental Sciences The School of Agriculture, Food, and Environmental Sciences (SAFES) will prepare highly knowledgeable and effective leaders in agriculture, food systems, and natural resources who are equipped to address the diverse needs of East African society. SAFES programs will teach the principles, skills, and technologies required to advance modern East African agriculture, food industries, and related professions. The curriculum will have sufficient variety to reflect the diversity of choices available in these professions and will allow students the flexibility to either select a concentration or work with faculty advisors to plan an individual curriculum. The SAFES will offer a variety of degrees, certifications, endorsements, and programs to help students achieve their academic goals. The curriculum will include the following fields: • • • • • •

Horticulture and crop science Animal science Food science Bio-resource and agricultural engineering Agricultural business Forestry and natural resources

Right: Farmers tend to their crops before the harvest Eastern Province, Kenya

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School of Building Science and Construction Technology The School of Building Science and Construction Technology (SBSCT) will prepare highly knowledgeable and skilled construction tradesmen and managers who are equipped to build comfortable, sustainable, and resilient communities throughout East Africa. The SBSCT will offer programs that teach the different methods, practices, and technologies of the various construction trades, as well as the skills to effectively manage the process of building complete and integrated environments from start to finish. The programs will also provide an understanding of the materials used in construction and the principles of the various elements and systems of the built environment. Special attention will be given to teaching awareness of the risks and hazards of East Africa’s built environment in order to promote and improve community resiliency in the event of natural disaster. The SBSCT will offer a variety of degrees, certifications, endorsements, and programs to help students achieve their academic goals. The curriculum will include the following fields: • Masonry construction • Framing and finish carpentry • Concrete construction • Steel fabrication and erection • Roofing • Plumbing systems • Electrical systems • Structural systems • Construction management

Upper Right: Scaffolding is prepared on a construction site - Eastern Province, Kenya Lower Right: Builders prepare to pour the concrete slab of a building - Eastern Province, Kenya

School of Education The School of Education (SE) will prepare highly qualified primary and secondary school educators to respond to the needs of all East African learners and educate students to reach their highest potential. The SE will provide a unique educational opportunity by offering small class sizes, mentorship, hands-on field experience, discussions, and meaningful, relevant course content. The SE will offer a variety of degrees, certifications, endorsements, and programs to help students achieve their academic goals. The curriculum will include the following fields: • • • • • •

Primary education Secondary language (Swahili and English) education Secondary mathematics education Secondary social science education Secondary science (biology, chemistry, geoscience, and physics) education Secondary agricultural education

Left: Primary school students attend class - Eastern Province, Kenya

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School of Tourism and Hospitality The School of Tourism and Hospitality (STH) will provide students with the skills and knowledge for employment in East African organizations that provide leisure products or services to national and international tourists. Graduates will understand the fundamentals of how successful tourism enterprises operate, with sufficient understanding of business management, customer service and entertainment, and East Africa’s unique attractions. Graduates will also be advocates for environmental conservation, with the ability to influence the practice and policy of organizations working in and around East Africa’s national parks and preserves. The STH will offer a variety of degrees, certifications, endorsements, and programs to help students achieve their academic goals. The curriculum will include the following fields: • • • • • • • •

Hotel operations Hotel management Tourism activity planning Tourism marketing Event planning Restaurant operations & management Culinary arts East African national parks, ecology, biodiversity, and cultures

Upper Right: A curio shop stands next to an air strip in the Masai Mara National Reserve - Rift Valley Province, Kenya Lower Right: Cooks preparing meals for hotel guests Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

School of Automotive and Mechanical Technology The School of Automotive and Mechanical Technology (SAMT) will provide students with the knowledge and skills necessary to support the vital growth and advancement of automotive and other mechanical technologies in East Africa. SAMT programs will teach the principles of automotive technology and other common industrial and agricultural equipment, including generators and pumps. The curriculum will also teach critical thinking and problem solving, enabling graduates to identify and diagnose malfunctions and carry out repairs. The SAMT will offer a variety of degrees, certifications, endorsements, and programs to help students achieve their academic goals. The curriculum will include the following fields: • • • • • • •

Automotive technology Diesel and industrial technology Agricultural processing technology Collision repair and refinish technology Motorcycle technology Small vehicle operation Large vehicle operation

Left: Students attend an automotive repair course Arusha Region, Tanzania

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School of Social Studies The School of Social Studies (SSS) is committed to preparing highly qualified social and development workers for government and non-governmental organizations with a broadly based, multicultural and multidisciplinary perspective on humanity, society, the environment, and development. Graduates will understand the complexity and diversity of East Africa’s people and their problems, enabling them make intelligent decisions regarding the prioritization of development goals and the design of specific programs. Courses will address issues such as class, race, tribe, ethnicity, gender, religion, political economy, physical environment, environmental sustainability, and past and present diversity of national and regional societies. The SSS will offer a variety of degrees, certifications, endorsements, and programs to help students achieve their academic goals. The curriculum will include the following fields: • • • • • • • • •

Disaster relief Community and rural health Child abuse and neglect Adoption and foster care Homeless family assistance Domestic violence Parent education Eating disorders Addiction prevention and treatment

School of Business Management The School of Business Management (SBM) will provide students with the knowledge and analytical skills essential for employment in all sectors of business, industry, government, and nonprofit organizations in East Africa. Graduates will understand the fundamentals of how to operate a successful enterprise, and will have sufficient

depth in a diverse range of areas of study to begin a successful career by providing immediate value to an organization. These areas of study will include accounting, financial management, marketing management, entrepreneurship, international business, and packaging and logistics. The SBM will offer a variety of degrees, certifications, endorsements, and programs. The curriculum will include the following fields: • Accounting • Financial management • Marketing management • International business • Packaging and logistics

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Continuing Education Programs The Same Polytechnic College will offer continuing education courses to working individuals who would like to expand their knowledge and skills and stay up to date on new developments, practices, and technologies in the college’s areas of study. Each of the seven schools will offer continuing education courses in a variety of formats, ranging from rigorous one or multi-day workshops to more extensive evening courses.

Left: Masai attend an HIV/AIDS awareness seminar Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania Left: A crop of sunflowers begins to bloom - Eastern Province, Kenya

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Development and Outreach Programs The Same Polytechnic College campus will house MISD’s initial base of operations in East Africa and serve as a launching platform for its charitable development activities, which extend beyond higher education but share resources with the college’s educational programs. Where possible, students will be asked to contribute to these activities, consistent with the college’s goal of effective citizenship. Planned development activities include: • • • • • •

Sustainable agriculture program Community cooperative support program Rural shelter development program Sustainable forestry management program Eastern arc conservation program Renewable energy development program

Sustainable Agriculture Program MISD seeks to increase agricultural yields for smallscale farmers in rural East Africa by researching, developing, evaluating, and disseminating successful approaches to and applications of sustainable agriculture in the region. The sustainable agriculture program will: • • • • •

Systematically research, develop, and evaluate successful approaches in sustainable agriculture. Disseminate these approaches through education and training programs. Highlight the significant role of sustainable agriculture in regional and global food security. Specify fields of action for regional agricultural policy. Establish and maintain networks between local and international partners to promote the dissemination of successful concepts.

East Africa faces serious problems of food insecurity and nutrition-related health risks. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, both the prevalence of undernourishment and the number of undernourished people have fallen in recent decades, both globally and in developing countries. Amongst developing regions, however, hunger remains particularly problematic in SubSaharan Africa, where improvements have not kept pace with population growth. From 1992 to 2012, although the prevalence of undernourishment in the region fell from 33% to 27%, the number of undernourished people rose from 170 million to 234 million. Within Sub-Saharan Africa, the depth of hunger in East Africa is especially great. In this area, the undernourishment rate saw no improvement during this period, and the number of undernourished people nearly doubled, growing from 29 million to 52 million1. About 16% of Kenyan children under the age of five have been affected by malnutrition. In Burundi, the figure is 35%. Tanzania, Rwanda, and Burundi fall somewhere in between. According to the International Food Policy Research Institute’s Global Hunger Index, Burundi is the only country in East Africa that has not moved out of the “extremely alarming” category since 1990. Since 1990 it has ranked 80th out of 81 countries. Tanzania’s ranking has improved since 1996 but the country has remained in the “alarming” category. Uganda has stayed in the “serious” category, while Kenya has moved from “alarming” to “serious.” High food prices were linked to a 62% increase in cases of acute malnutrition among young children in Nairobi’s health centers and hospitals between January and May 20112.

When natural disaster strikes, some three quarters of Tanzania’s subsistence farmers are vulnerable to malnutrition. They have too little fertile land or capital to invest in improved techniques, and no alternative sources of income. The situation in Kenya is similar; as a result of drought in 2000, more than half of the population did not have enough to eat. Production of staple crops was well below average in the northern and central parts of the country; maize production was 69% below expected3. Agriculture is also the backbone of East Africa’s economy. It accounts for 19% of Kenya’s GDP, employs more than 70% of its workforce, and generates about 59% of national export revenue. It is even more important in Tanzania, where farming accounts for about 28% of GDP, employs 78-90% of the workforce, and produces 39% of export earnings. Tanzania’s economy experienced increased growth between 2000 and 2010. However, the national poverty rate did not see significant improvement in the same period, mainly due to the lower growth rate in agriculture since 1990 than that of the non-agriculture sectors. Significant poverty reduction depends on higher growth in the rural economy, and particularly in the agriculture sector4. FAO Food Security Indicators, http://www.fao.org/economic/ess/ess-fs/ ess-fadata/en/ 2 The State of East Africa 2012, Society for International Development 3 Sustainable agriculture: A pathway out of poverty for East Africa’s rural poor, Sustainable Agriculture Information Network 4 World Development Indicators 2012, The World Bank 1

Opposite: A farmer inspects his experimental garden demonstrating sustainable agriculture practices - Eastern Province, Kenya

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The potential of agriculture Because so many people in East Africa are rural, the pace of economic development and potential for eradicating poverty depend largely on growth in the agricultural sector. Farming contributes far less to the national economy than its percentage of the workforce. Agriculture therefore has immense potential in the region. It can: •

• •

• • •

Provide adequate and affordable food for a rising population. The process of industrialization and urbanization currently underway in Kenya and Tanzania requires a supply of relatively cheap food for the growing urban labor force. Create prosperous farmers, a big potential market for domestic industries and services. Provide employment and income to a large percentage of the population. Small improvements in farm productivity and rural earnings, multiplied by millions of smallholder farmers, can generate huge benefits for the country as a whole. Supply raw materials to a growing domestic industrial sector. Earn valuable foreign exchange that can be used to finance imports of capital and intermediate goods for local development. Serve as a significant source of domestic savings for investment and capital formation5.

There is considerable historical evidence that solid agricultural growth has to precede, or at least accompany, general economic growth. This transformation process still applies today; Africa will not be an exception. The yields on many farms in Kenya and Tanzania have declined. The reasons for this are manifold: soil fertility is falling because of monocropping with maize and other staples; farmers are no longer able to afford inputs such as fertilizer and seeds after subsidies were withdrawn during the policy reforms of the last decades; and a series of droughts has cut production.

The benefits of sustainable agriculture Sustainable agriculture addresses the following critical issues: •

Soil fertility. Conventional farming methods rely on artificial fertilizers to maintain fertility. Sustainable agriculture uses a range of techniques to maintain and improve soil fertility, including organic fertilizers, mulching, cover crops, agroforestry, crop rotation, and multiple cropping. Pests. Conventional farming uses expensive chemical pesticides that often result in the emergence of new pests or the resurgence of the very kinds they are trying to control. Sustainable agriculture instead uses integrated pest management approaches: a combination of natural enemies, crop rotations and mixtures, and biological control methods. These methods cost less and have a higher success rate. Erosion. Sustainable agriculture includes a palette of techniques to conserve precious topsoil and prevent it from being washed or blown away. These include using contour bunds, contour planting, check-dams, gully plugs, and maintaining cover crops or mulch to protect the soil from heavy rainfall. Water scarcity. Water is scarce in much of Kenya and Tanzania, and drought is never far away. Sustainable agriculture conserves water in the soil through a variety of methods. Fortunately, many are the same as those used to control soil erosion. Because it preserves water and uses a variety of crops instead of just one, sustainable agriculture is less risky than conventional monocropping: it is more likely to produce food for the farm family even during a drought.

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Supply chain. Farmers often do not realize the value of the inputs they have immediately to hand. These can include manure from their animals (often wasted in conventional systems), vegetation from roadsides and field boundaries (used as mulch or to make compost), and local crop varieties (many of which are ideally adapted to local conditions but have been half forgotten in the rush to adopt modern varieties). Indigenous knowledge. Locals are experts on the plants, animals, soils, and ecosystems they are surrounded by and on which they depend. Sustainable agriculture draws on this wealth of knowledge and encourages local people to use it, test it, and promote what works. Local action. The energy and capacity of local people to solve their own problems is equally important. Unlike conventional extension agencies, organizations that promote sustainable agriculture spend at least as much time helping farmers organize as they do teaching farming technologies.

Ironically, many sustainable agriculture approaches are very similar to the techniques used by farmers before the advent of modern farming. That does not mean, however, that sustainable agriculture turns its back on more recently developed inputs or ideas. Many types of sustainable agriculture use modern high-yielding crop varieties and artificial fertilizers when appropriate6. Timmer, C. Peter. 1998. “The macroeconomics of food and agriculture.” In: Eicher, Carl K., and John M. Staatz. International Agriculture Development, 3rd ed., Hopkins University Press, Baltimore 6 Sustainable Agriculture – A pathway out of poverty for East Africa’s rural poor, Sustainable Agriculture Information Network 5

Upper Left: A crop of squash ready for harvest - Eastern Province, Kenya Upper Right: Fruit trees utilized in agroforestry - Eastern Province, Kenya Opposite: A cow grazes in a field - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

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Community Cooperative Support Program MISD seeks to improve the economic success of smallscale farmers by supporting community agriculture and food cooperatives. The specific activities of MISD’s community cooperative support program include: • • • • •

Improving access to current market information and to local and regional output markets. Increasing access to high-quality inputs such as seed, fertilizer, natural resources, and loans. Improving access to appropriate technologies to increase yields, add value to crops, and conserve resources. Increasing skills and knowledge through training in farming practices and business management. Leveraging the capacity of the Same Polytechnic College faculty, students, and facilities to expand impact.

Examples from around the world have shown that rural institutions like producer organizations and cooperatives help small farmers, fisherfolk, livestock keepers, forest holders, and other producers access vital information, tools, and services. This allows them to increase food production, market goods, and create jobs, improving their livelihoods and increasing food security in the world. The numerous challenges facing small producers in developing countries make this type of assistance particularly critical. Without it, their unique circumstances often make it almost impossible to prosper and grow. For example, in 2007–2008, the price of maize soared by 74% and rice prices climbed 166%, presenting an excellent opportunity for farmers to increase profits by growing and selling more of these crops. However, because small farmers in developing countries are far removed from national and international markets in terms of geography, technology, and communications, they did

not have the capacity to do so. Accessing high-quality inputs is one challenge; even when a crop’s selling price is higher, farmers must factor in the variable cost of buying seeds and fertilizer before deciding to expand their production. Access to loans to pay for these supplies can also be a problem. Other obstacles can include lack of transport to bring produce to local markets or the absence of proper infrastructure in rural areas. As a result, small farmers acting alone do not benefit from higher food prices, a fact confirmed by accumulated research and experience. However, those acting collectively in strong producer organizations and cooperatives have been shown to be better able to take advantage of market opportunities and mitigate the negative effects of food and other crises. A range of services Strong cooperatives and other producer organizations overcome difficulties such as those described above by offering their members access to natural resources, information, communication, input and output markets, technologies, and training. They also facilitate their participation in decision making processes. Through practices like group purchasing and marketing, farmers gain market power and get better prices on agricultural inputs and other necessities. Institutional arrangements can also have a significant impact. Mediation committees have improved smallholders’ access to and management of natural resources by helping them secure land rights. Input shops (for collective purchasing) and warehouse receipt systems (for collective access to credit) have increased producers’ access to markets and productive assets while reducing high transaction costs. Cooperatives and producer organizations are central to building small producers’ skills, providing them with appropriate knowledge and helping them innovate and adapt as needed. Some enable farmers to build

their capacity to analyze production systems, identify problems, test possible solutions, and eventually adopt the practices and technologies best suited to their farming systems. Another powerful contribution of cooperatives and producer organizations is their ability to help small producers voice their concerns and interests, and ultimately increase their negotiating power and influence policy-making processes. Multi-stakeholder platforms and consultative fora allow small producers to discuss the design and implementation of public policies. These services can help small producers both secure their livelihoods and play a greater role in meeting the growing demand for food on local, national, and international markets. They are valuable tools in the fight against poverty, hunger, and food insecurity. Forging alliances Forging relationships with other economic actors is important — not only to access markets, but also to gain bargaining power and negotiate fairer commercial conditions. Allies with management or marketing experience can prove useful to small producers. In some cases, private companies act as business partners, providing marketing, management, and financial expertise that smallholder farmers typically lack. Similar groups of producers may also come together to form larger farmers’ groups, federations, and unions. In Ethiopia, coffee farmers joined to form the Oromia Coffee Farmers Cooperative Union, which has helped members achieve better quality production and operations through technical education and improved management. In the search for strength, individual cooperatives form unions and federations of cooperatives that supply services to members and lobby governments to make sure that policies reflect their views. Cooperatives need governments, and governments need cooperatives.

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Strengthening capacities Cooperative members can benefit from training and skills development in technical areas such as sustainable agriculture production techniques and technologies, but also in soft skills. Cooperative members and managers — both women and men — need to build capacity in areas like leadership, entrepreneurship, negotiation, self-confidence, business development, and policy development and advocacy. The success of a cooperative depends in large part on the way it is governed and managed. Given the specific nature of these social enterprises, managers need specially adapted business training that takes into account cooperatives’ core values and principles. Universities and business schools can play an important role in this process7. 7

Agricultural Cooperatives: Key to Feeding the World, FAO

Above: Farmers display a new set of tools - Eastern Province, Kenya Opposite: Women attend an agriculture training session - Eastern Province, Kenya

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Left: A mason stands next to clay bricks about to be fired - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

Rural Shelter Development Program MISD seeks to improve health and safety standards in the built environment while also improving cost-versuslife-cycle-performance metrics.

Opposite: A typical rural home begins to collapse from exposure to the elements - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

The rural shelter development program will: • • • • •

Improve the skills and knowledge of local tradesmen through training programs. Introduce appropriate construction technologies. Improve the quality of locally sourced building materials. Advise local builders in the design of new buildings and the retrofit of existing ones. Utilize the Same Polytechnic College School of Building Science and Construction Technology’s learn-by-doing approach to benefit the local populace through community service construction projects.

In rural East Africa, the majority of families live in inadequate, overcrowded, windowless houses with only one room. These structures consist of basic wooden frames covered with mud, with thatch roofs above and bare earth floors below. They expose families to a multitude of health and safety risks: ticks and insects concealed in unfinished mud walls and earthen floors, vermin and snakes in the thatch, parasites seeking human hosts and malarial mosquitos entering through unscreened windows and doorways. Most families either share or have no access to a latrine, significantly increasing the risk of diseases such as dysentery, diarrhea, and typhoid fever. These types of rural houses require a tremendous amount of maintenance, and entire walls often collapse during the rainy season. Their average lifespan is estimated at seven to eight years8. These houses are also vulnerable to the earthquakes that occur in the region thanks to the seismically active East Africa Rift System, one of the continent’s key tectonic features. The constant dangers to human life and widespread destruction of property that these disasters

alone produce are compelling reasons for according top priority to shelter improvement in this region. Quality of life Poverty is the state of material deprivation with respect to a number of basic needs, including shelter. Thus, provision or improvement of rural shelter contributes to qualitative and quantitative improvements in one major dimension of rural poverty. It is well known that shelter improvement also results in the improvement of health and safety in the event of natural disasters, an important dimension of rural poverty. Primary health care improvements must necessarily include improvements in some aspects of shelter, particularly water and sanitation facilities. Economic impact It should be emphasized that shelter provides the physical context or location for a wide variety of income-generation activities, including agriculture and cottage industry. Consequently, shelter improvement constitutes one of the essential preconditions for rural income-generation activities. For the majority of rural inhabitants, in the absence of official assistance programs, improved shelter is an end result of improved income from other production activities, particularly agriculture. This natural sequence of rural improvement can be deliberately harnessed within shelter improvement projects and programs. For example, in addition to the shelter component,

projects can include the simultaneous introduction of income-generating assets such as poultry yards and vegetable gardens, as well as improvements in local communication and marketing facilities. These nonshelter activities can improve the capacity of shelter project beneficiaries to service housing loans, afford the costs of maintenance and repairs and, in time, undertake further shelter improvements. Implementing shelter projects within the context of programs aimed at increasing income-generation capacity is the only way to guarantee sustainable rural shelter improvement. This broader approach to housing improvement can significantly contribute to general rural poverty reduction. It also provides a strong rationale for collaboration between agencies concerned with shelter and those concerned with rural production activities9. In the context of survival strategies employed by the rural poor, construction and the production of building materials already play a role in poverty reduction. Data from several studies indicate the quantitative significance of construction activities in rural nonagricultural employment in a number of countries. Construction accounted for 14% of rural nonfarm employment in India, 12% in Zambia, and 2% in Sierra Leone. The individuals or families involved supplement their agricultural earnings through the production of building materials for sale; the construction of houses, latrines, schools, and health facilities; and the sinking of water wells and boreholes. Thus, shelter provision programs and projects can build upon existing phenomena to generate additional nonagricultural employment — again contributing to the ultimate goal of reducing rural poverty. A Right to A Decent Home, Habitat for Humanity Improving Rural Shelter in Developing Countries, UN-HABITAT, Nairobi 1995 8 9

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Sustainable Forestry Management Program MISD seeks to preserve and restore forest environments in East Africa by engaging in and promoting sustainable forestry management practices to reduce deforestation in the region. The sustainable forestry management program will: • • •

Educate local communities on the importance of forest resources to improve awareness. Explore alternate income-generating activities for forest utilization. Propagate and plant tree seedlings through community outgrower programs.

In 1990, East Africa had 50.6m ha of forest. This shrank by more than 10% (to 45.5m ha) in 2000, and a further 11% to 40.5m ha in 2010. In total, 10.1m ha of forests were cut down. In 2010, Tanzania had the largest share of forest area in East Africa, with 33.4m ha (83%). However, Table 3.1 and Table 3.2 show a clear trend of significant deforestation in the country during the two decades since 1990. Indeed, during this period Tanzania reduced its forested area by 8.1m ha, accounting for 80% of the region’s total deforestation. From 2000 to 2010, Tanzania had the 4th worst deforestation rate in the world. Kenya’s share of the forest area in 2010 was 3.5m ha (9%) — almost 7% less than in 1990. Uganda had 3m ha (7%) in 2010, down 37% from 1990. Burundi also lost some 117,000 ha of forest. Rwanda has expanded its forest areas by 117,000 ha over the last two decades; this is, however, a very small percentage compared to the total deforested area. Upper Right: Community members prepare tree seedlings for planting - Eastern Province, Kenya Lower Right: A vervet monkey peers from the forest canopy - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

Table 3.1: Trends in Forest Extent (ha/year) East Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s forests provide wildlife habitats, unique and diverse natural ecosystems, and water catchments that are vital to the survival of rural communities. Harvests from forests and related ecosystems are a primary source of rural income and a fallback when other sources of employment falter. They also face deforestation at a rate of approximately 500,000 ha per annum, the result of from heavy pressure from agricultural expansion, livestock grazing, wildfires, unsustainable utilization of wood resources, and other human activities (mainly in the general lands)10.

East Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s forests provide wildlife habitats, unique and diverse natural ecosystems, and water catchments that are vital to the survival of rural communities. It is critical to recognize that the environmental quality of growth matters to the poor. It cannot be assumed that environmental improvement can be deferred until growth has alleviated income poverty and rising incomes make more resources available for environmental protection. This strategy ignores the importance of environmental goods and services to peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s livelihoods and wellbeing. Many examples demonstrate that bad environmental management is bad for growth, and that the poor suffer the most from environmental degradation. 10




























Burundi Kenya

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Forestry Department

Table 3.2: Change in Forest Extent (ha/year) 1990-2000



1,000 ha/yr


1,000 ha/yr


1,000 ha/yr



































Burundi Kenya

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Forestry Department

FAO Forestry Department, http://www.fao.org/forestry/fra/fra2010/en/

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Eastern Arc Conservation Program MISD actively works with local communities, regional and national agencies, and other organizations to conserve the biodiversity and environments of the Eastern Arc Mountains by reducing deforestation and habitat destruction. The goals of the Eastern Arc conservation program include: • • • •

Identification, documentation, and assessment of endemic plant and animal species. Identification of threats to specific species and the environment as a whole, and specification of fields of action for regional environmental policy. Replanting of native species in degraded areas. Public awareness programs designed to educate local residents about the Eastern Arc environment and its importance to the region.

Biodiversity The Eastern Arc Mountains, located in southern Kenya and eastern Tanzania, are renowned in Africa for their high concentrations of endemic species of animals and plants. The chain comprises thirteen separate mountain blocks and supports approximately 3,300 km2 of submontane, montane, and upper montane forest. At least 96 vertebrate species (10 mammal, 19 bird, 29 reptile, and 38 amphibian) are endemic, among which are four endemic (or nearly endemic) species of primate: the Sanje Mangabey, the Iringa Red Colobus, the Mountain Galago, and the newly discovered Kipumji monkey. A further 71 vertebrate species are near-endemic. At least 800 vascular plant species are endemic, almost 10% of these being trees. These endemics include the majority of the species of African violet, or Saintpaulia, a wellknown flowering plant in Western households. Many hundreds of invertebrates are also likely to be endemic, with data for butterflies, millipedes, and dragonflies indicating potential trends of importance.

Seventy-one of the endemic or near-endemic vertebrates are threatened by extinction (8 critical, 27 endangered, 36 vulnerable), with an additional seven wide-ranging threatened species. Hundreds of plant species are also threatened. Deforestation The current extent of forested area in the Eastern Arc is less than 30% of the estimated original. Most of the remaining forest is found within nearly 150 government forest reserves, with 106 of these managed nationally for water catchment, biodiversity, and soil conservation, and where forest exploitation is not allowed. Outside of these areas most forest has been cleared, except in small village burial/sacred sites, a few village forest reserves, and inaccessible areas. In most Eastern Arc Mountains the local populations have not developed farms beyond the reserve boundaries, but they have used forest resources within the boundaries for fuel and building materials, and some forests are heavily degraded. Fire is also a problem, as it enters and destroys forests during the dry seasons. The future biodiversity of the Eastern Arc Mountains depends upon the management policies and capacity of the Tanzania Forest and Beekeeping Division, the Tanzania National Parks Authority, and the Kenya Forest Department. Supporting these agencies is an essential long-term conservation investment.

Left: A chameleon from the forests surrounding Mt. Kilimanjaro - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania Opposite Above: Women carry illegally harvested timber to their homes to fuel their cooking fires - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania Opposite Below: An unprotected forest preserve in the South Pare Mountains - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

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Renewable Energy Development Program MISD endeavors to improve access to energy in rural East Africa by researching, developing, evaluating, and disseminating appropriate renewable energy resources and technologies. Activities of the renewable energy development program include: • • • •

Identify and research alternative energy sources in the region. Implement and evaluate pilot projects. Disseminate successful energy sources and associated technologies. Specify fields of action and specific opportunities in rural energy policy.

East Africa is endowed with diverse energy resources (including biomass, natural gas, hydro, coal, geothermal, solar, wind, and uranium), many of which are untapped. Despite this, Tanzania’s level of per capita electrical consumption, approximately 85kWh, is one of the lowest levels in the world, significantly lower than the sub-Saharan average of 124 kWh. This is due to extremely low access to grid electricity in Tanzania, which minimizes the availability of modern energy services for households and businesses. Only about 12% of the total population — and just 1% of the rural population — can make use of the grid. (Total installed generation capacity is 1219 MW, of which hydropower provides 561 MW and thermal 658 MW.)

Due to this limited access to grid electricity, most of the population relies on biomass-based fuel for energy, a pattern observed in most developing countries. In Tanzania, biomass-based fuels, primarily wood fuel and charcoal, account for about 90% of the total national energy consumption. Commercial electricity accounts for 2% and petroleum 8%. In East Africa, trees are the main source of biomassbased fuels. The extensive use of wood fuel for energy and the clearance of land for agriculture have resulted in the high rates of deforestation discussed previously, leading to significant reductions in forest cover. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has estimated deforestation rates of 412,000ha per year since 1990 in Tanzania. In 2005, this deforestation rate translated to an annual loss of forest stock of 1.2%. This results in Tanzania being ranked globally at 6th and 3rd in Africa in terms of annual net loss of forest. Because the forest areas are being harvested faster than regeneration rates, wood fuel in the East Africa context cannot be classified as renewable energy. Reducing the reliance on wood fuel energy will protect forests, promote sustainable resource use, and protect biodiversity and economic sectors relying on forest resources.

Left: Castor seeds produce an oil that can be used to make biofuel - Rift Valley Province, Kenya Opposite: A balloon filled with methane gas produced from animal waste passing through a bio-digester powers gas cooking ranges and water heaters – Tanga Region, Tanzania

Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan

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Faculty Higher education institutions clearly need welldesigned academic programs and a clear mission. Most important to their success and quality, however, are well-qualified and highly motivated faculty with sufficient resources. The Same Polytechnic College will employ professionally qualified, locally based faculty in representative programs. Faculty will be recruited and hired depending on the needs of the particular program and based on the funding available for salaries. Same Polytechnic College full-time faculty will participate in academic planning, curriculum development and review, academic advising, and institutional governance, working in partnership with MISD staff, volunteers, and development partners. However, in recognition of the reality that the skill sets and knowledge bases available in the region may initially not be up to the required standards, MISD will require prospective faculty to undergo rigorous short-course educational programs in their respective fields. These supplemental education courses, designed by MISD and its development partners, will culminate in a comprehensive exam that the prospective faculty must pass in order to be hired on a provisional basis. Those faculty who are hired on this basis will undergo regular evaluations until MISD and its project partners are satisfied that the required standards have been met.

Right: An instructor inspects machinery in a laboratory at the Arusha Technical College - Arusha Region, Tanzania Opposite: Students study in the library at the Arusha Technical College - Arusha Region, Tanzania

Library and Information Resources The library and the Office of Information Technology (OIT) will provide the infrastructure for teaching and learning at the Same Polytechnic College. Faculty, staff, and students will rely upon these departments to introduce and support technology and instructional resources. Both will emphasize customer service to students, faculty, and staff and support the college mission of quality education and service. Library The Same Polytechnic College library will serve students, faculty, staff and the general public. Its goal is to develop and build collections in areas that directly relate to the programs of study being offered, as well as new areas into which the college may expand its programs. Major emphasis will be placed on building collections in agriculture, construction, teacher education, technology, and business management; however, the needs of all degree programs will be considered. Librarians, teaching faculty, and MISD (with its project partners) will collaborate to building and sustaining the collections, including securing new resources that support the curriculum. In the anticipation of the cost of textbooks in relation to student financial resources, the library will also maintain a collection of all the textbooks required by the offered courses in sufficient quantity to serve the student body demands. Office of Information Technology The Office of Information Technology (OIT) is committed to providing faculty, staff, and students with technological resources necessary to foster learning and collaboration. Its objective is to provide a technological infrastructure to support the collegeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mission of quality teaching and service by creating a computing support organization recognized for technical skills and high-quality service.

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Section 4 Planning principles and context

Campus vision The Mbesese Initiative for Sustainable Development is fortunate to have a unique opportunity to create a truly sustainable campus community from the ground up on a 100+ acre site outside the township of Same in Tanzania. By the time the college reaches its projected enrollment of 1,200 students, MISD anticipates developing approximately 53,070 square meters (571, 240 square feet) of academic and campus support facilities, as well as areas for development programs, outdoor labs and open space.

Although the development sector has embraced green thinking in recent years, opportunities to create educational institutions where sustainability is practiced at every level – outside the classroom as well as within – are as rare in East Africa as they are in the rest of the world. MISD aims to make the campus a model of environmentally friendly development that will educate through its very design and operations, helping to prepare graduates, faculty, and regional partners for the energy and resource challenges confronting the regional and global community. The campus master plan, prepared in cooperation with the District of Same, addresses sustainability in areas including carbon emissions, energy, water, waste, materials, building and infrastructure lifecycle performance, transportation, and landscape. Demonstrating that carbon-positive operations can be achieved at the building, campus, and community scale has been a key goal throughout the process. MISD intends for the college to serve as a model for integrating planning, architecture, and infrastructure to create a net zero carbon footprint for a large development in an underdeveloped region.

Planning principles The principles embedded in the master plan emerged during an extensive process of discussion and research. These concepts, which will evolve over time, will be constantly revisited in order to ensure that the mission of increasing human capital, reducing poverty, and improving quality of life for rural East Africans stays in the project’s foreground. The key elements of this vision include: •

Planning for sustainable, carbon-positive operations

Designing a vital living and learning environment

Integrating campus and community

Respecting the tropical savanna environment

Making the campus an educational laboratory.

Opposite: Monsoon clouds travel over the Masai Mara National Reserve - Rift Valley Province, Kenya

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Section 4: Planning principles and context Page 53

Planning for sustainable, carbon-positive operations

Figure 4.1: Breakdown of Emissions by Scope

For the purposes of this plan, we define sustainability as the ability to minimize environmental impact, capital requirements, and operational costs while maximizing social and cultural utility. The master plan aims to align with sustainability best practices, including aggressive carbon targets: carbon neutrality at a minimum, and carbon positive operation as a goal. Controlling carbon output is particularly important in the Tanzanian context. Carbon emissions in Tanzania are currently relatively low but the country’s economy and population are growing, and with that will come increasing demand on natural resources and energy consumption, both of which represent primary sources of carbon emissions in the country and the wider region. But the low level of current emissions means there is an opportunity for Tanzania and the entire East African region to implement sustainable practices and technologies in development from the start as opposed to already developed countries which are currently trying to replace unsustainable infrastructure and practices. Achieving carbon positive operations therefore offers a means by which the campus can contribute to this opportunity by serving as a model for the level of sustainable development achievable in the region. The campus will follow the Greenhouse Gas Protocol, a widely used tool developed by the World Resources Institute and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development. This protocol offers developing countries an internationally accepted method for leading governments toward informed decisions about climate change and helping businesses compete in the global marketplace.







Scope 1 Direct

Scope 2

Scope 3


Indirect Employee Business Travel

Purchased Electricity for Own Use

Production of Purchased Materials Company Owned Vehicles

Waste Disposal Product Use

Outsourced Activities

Contractor Owned Vehicles

Fuel Combustion

The scope of emissions accounting and offsetting will be as defined by the Kyoto Protocol and limited to Scope 1 and Scope 2 emissions, which include the following (see Figure 4.1): •

Direct emissions from all MISD-owned vehicles

Direct emissions from fuel combusted onsite for energy

Indirect emissions through the use of purchased electricity.

Opposite Above: Students, faculty and volunteers tour the construction site of new secondary school buldings Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania Opposite Below: Masai children sit in their one room school building waiting for class to begin - Arusha Region, Tanzania

Designing a vital living and learning environment The overriding consideration of the master plan and all the improvements that follow is to support the collegeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s academic mission. In addition to creating optimal learning spaces (classrooms, offices, libraries, laboratories, and study areas), the plan must encourage meaningful interaction between staff, faculty, and students outside of class hours, whether in athletic facilities, food service areas, lounges, or other activity spaces. Student housing should be geared toward a wide range of potential scholars, and temporary faculty housing designed to help attract high-quality staff. Integrating campus and community New colleges and similar developments in rural East Africa are sometimes located away from the nearest town, which can discourage residents on both sides from accessing shared amenities and services, especially in a region where residents have limited access to transportation. For this reason â&#x20AC;&#x201D; and with the recognition that ventures such as this need the support of their local communities â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the District of Same has been highly receptive to the idea of having the town and college located immediately adjacent to one another, with the campus becoming a vital part of the local community and vice versa. To this end, the master plan takes into account the need to provide a new home for local events and offer public amenities such as a library, community hall, and athletic fields. In addition, its educational programs will give learning opportunities to residents of all ages.

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Respecting the semi-arid tropical savanna environment The Same Polytechnic College will occupy one of several potential spectacular sites at the edge of town. The ecological, cultural, and social values currently associated with these sites will be protected through the layout, configuration, and treatment of the campus site and facilities. Consistent with the goal of sustainability and carbon positivity, the campus will retain its current ecological character to the greatest degree possible, and will feature extensive use of native vegetation (which will require little water and provide a welcoming habitat for local species).

The overriding consideration of the master plan and all the improvements that follow is to support the collegeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s academic mission In addition, the design will provide strong connections to the natural lands adjoining the campus. The adjacent forest preserve is now used by the larger Same community as a source for illegally harvested timber. To further MISDâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s goals of improving environmental awareness and stewardship in the region, the master plan will provide physical connections from this area to the campus.

Right: The acacia savanna just outside of the Masai Mara National Reserve - Rift Valley Province, Kenya

Making the campus an educational laboratory The Same Polytechnic College site offers tremendous opportunities to shape a living laboratory for learning, both for the students and for people and institutions concerned with environmentally responsible development in East Africa and beyond. To create a model for sustainable, carbon neutral campuses, the master plan aims to provide energy-efficient, durable, and climate-appropriate buildings, landscapes, and infrastructure. In so doing, it will also demonstrate a means to address rural East Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s challenges related to poor construction standards, energy, and water and natural resource conservation.

Left: Newly constructed homes at Nyumbani Village Eastern Province, Kenya

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Location and site context Site location All of the potential sites for the Same Polytechnic College campus are located just outside the township of Same, which sits in the Kilimanjaro Region of the United Republic of Tanzania near the border with Kenya. Situated at the northern edge of the South Pare Mountains, Same is located just south of Mkomazi National Park in the Pangani (Ruvu) River valley. The B1 highway, a major transportation corridor between the coast and the interior, runs through Same. For illustrative purposes, this master plan focuses on one of the potential campus sites under consideration. The drawings and images presented in this document are tailored to this site to better communicate the design principles and standards intended for the final campus design. This particular site encompasses 150 acres to the north-west of town along the B1 highway.

Figure 4.2: Surrounding Location

Figure 4.3: Surrounding Land Uses

B1 H


Surrounding land uses

ay ighw Vumari Forest Preserve

Sparsely Populated Farmland

To the propertyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s south is the Ruvu-Same Game Controlled Area, where the Masai people practice a traditional pastoralist lifestyle. To the east is the Kindoroko Secondary School, followed by a lowdensity residential area that eventually leads to the town of Same, some 5 km away. To the west is sparsely populated farmland; to the north are the Same Forest Preserve and the South Pare Mountains.

Campus Site

LowDensity Residential Below Left: The Vumari Forest Preserve Revu-Same Game Conrolled area

Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan

Below Middle: The Kindoroko Secondary School Below Right: Masai women in ceremonial attire

Section 4: Planning principles and context Page 59

Topography and slope The 150-acre site sits at an elevation of about 940 meters (3,085 feet) above sea level, at the base of the South Pare Mountains, which border the site along its northern edge. It rises from south to north at a largely consistent slope. At and beyond its northern boundary, the land quickly rises in elevation with significantly greater slopes. (The South Pare Mountains rise to heights of over 2,440 meters (8,000 feet).)

Figure 4.4 | Source: Esri, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, TomTom, Intermap, Incement P Corp, GEBCO, USGS, FAO, NPS, CRCAN, GeoBase, IGN, Kadaster NL, Ordnance Survey, METI, swisstopo, and the GIS User Community

Figure 4.5: Site Vegetation Density

Dense Vegetation

Vegetation Sparse Vegetation

Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan

The site falls within a scrub ecosystem. On lower elevations, near its southern edge, the natural environment has been disturbed by residential construction, farming, and maintenance of the stormwater diversion channel running along the B1 highway. There is greater variety in native site vegetation higher up the site and in the swales that channel stormwater from the mountains.

Section 4: Planning principles and context Page 61

View 1

Figure 4.6: Site View Rose

Views Since the site sits about 310 meters (1,000 feet) above the Pangani (Ruvu) Valley floor, it has views south across the valley to the Masai Steppe beyond. To the north, west, and east, the nearby mountains form a dramatic backdrop.

View 2 View 3 Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan

Section 4: Planning principles and context Page 63

Figure 4.7: Monthly Averages & Daily Monthly Temperature AveragesTemperature & Daily Extremes from January 1999 toExtremes December 2008 from January 1999 to December 2008

Climate 100

Maximum Recorded Temperature


Temperature (F)

Sitting at a latitude of 4° 4’0” S in northern Tanzania, the District of Same is in a tropical savanna climate, with pronounced wet and dry seasons. Daily temperatures during the cooler months range from 14 °C (57 °F) at night to 25 °C (77 °F) during the day and 21 °C (70 °F) to 35 °C (95 °F) during the warmer months. There are two distinct wet seasons: a short period from November to December and a long one from March to May. The wet seasons occur when the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) — an area encircling the earth near the equator where solar heating drives the vertical motion of atmospheric cells, forming the convective activity of monsoons which effectively draw air in, forming trade winds — passes through the region. The actual duration and amount of rainfall in each season, however, can vary from year to year.

Maximum Monthly Average


Minimum Monthly Average 70

Minimum Recorded Temperature



From April to September, winds in the region are primarily from the south, with monthly average surface speeds of 10 to 16 kph (6 to 10 mph). The winds then shift coming from the southeast and east, with monthly average surface speeds of 11 to 23 kph (7 to 14 mph). Wind gusts can reach surface speeds in excess of 48 kph (30 mph) throughout the year.













AverageFigure Rainfall 4.8: and Monthly Extremes from 1999Extremes to December 2008 Average Rainfall andJanuary Monthly from January 1999 to December 2008 18

Rainfall (in.)

16 14

Maximum Recorded Monthly Rainfall


Average Rainfall


Minimum Recorded Monthly Rainfall

8 6 4 2 0













Source: Tanzania Meteorological Agency Same Weather Station

Site drainage The Same Polytechnic College site sits at the foot of the South Pare Mountain Range. Through a variety of small canyons and swales, rainwater falling at higher elevations drains toward the site. Smaller drainage swales and gullies enter the site and gently dissipate into the sloping site topography. Drainage then sheetflows south across the site toward the drainage culvert adjacent to the highway.

Left: A drainage culvert passing underneath the main highway bordering the site

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Section 4: Planning principles and context Page 65

Utilities Infrastructure in Tanzania is very limited, especially with regards to civil utilities. The campus site is located close to a national power grid line, and a connection point is available through the Tanzanian national electrical company, TANESCO. A national water line delivers fresh water to the town of Same, distributing it at a single access point. Connecting this water to the site is possible but not feasible due to the costs and procedures required.

Right: Power lines from the national grid pass immediately adjacent to the site

Seismic hazard

Figure 4.9: Historic Earthquake Map

Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan

Tanzania lies on the East African Rift Valley, one of Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s key tectonic features. South of Ethiopia, the East Africa rift system breaks up into two branches, the Western and Eastern rifts. The campus site is located in the vicinity of the Pare-Usumbara faults, which define a branch of the Eastern rift. The implications of this seismic hazard upon the campus design need to be further evaluated.

Section 4: Planning principles and context Page 67

Section 2 History of planning for the Vumari Polytechnic College

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Section 4: Planning principles and context Page 69

Table 4.1: Enrollment Projections by Phase Phase I

Phase II

Phase III

Phase IV

Phase V

FTE Enrollment






Residential Student Capacity






Enrollment projections and development phases The current target for full enrollment at the Same Polytechnic College is 1,200 full-time equivalent (FTE) students, with the capacity for 1,000 to live on the campus. The remainder will comprise local community members attending continuing education courses part-time. The college is not expected to be at full capacity when it first opens. The master plan therefore separates the development of campus facilities into five phases, with the resident student capacity at the completion of each phase indicated in the table above. The period of time between development phases will be primarily dependent on the availability of funding.

Phase I

Phase III

In first development phase, the site will be secured and prepared for the commencement of full construction activities. Initial operations of selected MISD programs, including the Sustainable Agriculture, Sustainable Forestry Management, and Eastern Arch Conservation programs, will begin.

The third phase will expand the campus to include the School of Education, the School of Business Management, and the School of Automotive and Mechanical Technology. It will bring the residential capacity to 600 FTE students.

Phase II In the second phase, the first permanent campus facilities and infrastructure will open, accommodating up to 300 FTE students in the School of Agriculture, Food, and Earth Sciences (SAFES) and the School of Building Science and Construction Technology (SBSCT). This construction sequencing was designed to meet strategic needs. By starting with SAFES, the school will be able to utilize unused land for agricultural activities until the campus is fully developed, creating a revenue stream. Similarly, building materials produced in the course of student learning activities at SBSCT can be stockpiled and utilized in the next phases of campus development.

Phase IV The fourth phase will expand the campus further to include the School of Tourism and Hospitality and the School of Social Studies. It will bring the residential capacity to 900 FTE students. Phase V The fifth and final phase will expand residential facilities to bring the campus to the full planned capacity of 1,200 FTE students.

Opposite: Primary school students in class - Eastern Province, Kenya

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Section 4: Planning principles and context Page 71

Figure 4.10: Program Analysis


Projected facility needs

Some of the challenges for MISD on the growth and stability of the SPC are as follows:

The Same Polytechnic College will comprise four types of facilities:

The continuing global financial crisis and its effect on available funding

acilities housing the academic curriculum (e.g., F classrooms, labs, and lecture halls)

e appeal of major urban centers (as opposed to Th rural areas) for prospective students

The difficulty of finding qualified faculty

acilities that support and enhance student life F and aid in attracting and retaining both students and faculty

ast Africa’s low educational standards at the E secondary level.

Facilities that support campus operations

acilities that support the activities of MISD and F house its staff and volunteers.

Opportunities To support the growth and stability of the SPC, MISD must: •

I ncrease its fundraising activities in order to secure external funding that will allow timely, consistent phasing of the institution’s master plan

evelop and implement a successful plan to D optimize student retention, persistence, and graduation rates

evelop and implement an aggressive marketing D campaign that clearly articulates the various benefits and opportunities available to SPC students

romote the academic advising process for all P students, full and part-time

I mplement processes and procedures for collecting and assessing information needed for data-driven decisions.

Right: Masai children peer through the window of their home - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

The following table, which is based on space criteria and programs from several existing institutions, provides a general target for the campus’ facility requirements. While specific space needs for SPC’s facilities will emerge as academic and student life programs evolve, this table provides a general understanding of the range of uses that will ultimately be required.

Figure 4.10 indicates the land area requirements for the primary campus land uses. Some may shrink or grow over time, depending on demand for certain programs. As discussed in greater detail in the building guidelines section of this document, land areas have been calculated in part with an understanding of the density of facilities to be built. MISD anticipates that the vast majority of academic buildings on the campus will be only one story in height. A select few may be higher, but the available building materials and construction technologies, combined with the seismic hazard of the site (discussed later in this section), make multi-story structures significantly more difficult and expensive. Despite this, the master plan aims to attain an average density of development that uses land efficiently and creates a compact, walkable core.

MISD currently anticipates that a total of 53,070 m2 (571,240 ft2) will need to be developed in order to support planned activities and student life. Table 4.1, which shows the future SPC facilities program, demonstrates how space provision will need to track population growth.  Campus land area requirements The enrollment and facilities projections used in this master plan are based on MISD’s current understanding of the demand for particular degrees and types of expertise. Because these estimates are dependent on the effects of technology on education, they are likely to change over the years. It is therefore important to build a high degree of flexibility into the site in order to accommodate unforeseen global, regional, and local changes and to adapt to evolving pedagogical and student life requirements.

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Section 5 The Master Plan

The Master Plan The Master Plan for Same Polytechnic College comprises the physical layout of the campus along with the supporting infrastructure that will ultimately be needed to serve it. It has been developed based on an understanding of the projected enrollment and program of the campus as well as the site constraints and desired relationship to existing and planned town development.

This master plan section includes the following topics: •

The carbon positive campus

Land use and site planning





Opposite: Rendering of a conceptual design for the Same Polytechnic College campus

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The Carbon-Positive Campus This section of this masterplan sets forth the rationale and strategy for achieving carbon neutrality on the campus. It includes the following topics: •

Overall goals


Focus areas

Sustainability metrics and targets.

Overall goals •

In order to promote sustainable planning and design, MISD has established the following overarching goals for the campus:

Achieve carbon-positive operation through conservation and efficient usage of resources such as energy and water

Become a model of sustainable development for the district, country, and East Africa region

Serve as learning and training tool for topics related to:

Opposite: Open grassland outside the Masai Mara National Reserve - Rift Valley Province, Kenya

Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan


Sustainable development


Energy and water conservation and efficiency


Renewable energy generation


Water recycling


Waste recycling and reuse.

Some of the key components of sustainable development are green infrastructure and green building design. Green infrastructure includes elements such as efficient energy systems, renewable energy, recycled water, and stormwater treatment and management systems. Such infrastructure maximizes resource efficiency and minimizes carbon emissions. For example, as described later in these guidelines, installing recycled water systems will enable the project to utilize nonpotable water for uses such as irrigation and, potentially, toilet flushing. This will enable SPC to draw less water from the local aquifer, reducing the energy required to pump water from the ground. Buildings also play a key role in achieving sustainability goals. Building designs that promote energy and water efficiency, generate and use renewable energy, and utilize recycled water are essential in order for SPC to meet its sustainability goals, carbon-related and otherwise (see Chapter 6 for building design guidelines).

Section 5: The Master Plan Page 79

Background Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world, ranked 153 out of 168 in terms of gross national income per capita. Despite relatively strong economic growth between 2000 and 2008, poverty levels remain high and relatively unchanged. Robust and rapid development is vital in order to increase economic productivity. The national government of Tanzania has set out a strategic vision plan, Vision 2025, that seeks to accelerate economic growth, reduce poverty levels, and increase living standards. These objectives are set out in the National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty. Sustaining year-on-year GDP growth rates of 8â&#x20AC;&#x201C;10%, as called for in these documents, will be a significant challenge. Further complicating the situation is the nationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s unsustainable resource use and increasing reliance on, and inefficient use of, fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are currently the primary source of carbon emissions in Tanzania. In relative terms, the nationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s carbon emissions are currently low. However, they are likely to become a more acute issue due to near-term economic growth and a rapidly growing population . Tanzania therefore has an opportunity to implement sustainable practices from the early stages of development, as opposed to having to repair environmental degradation later.

Climate change also poses financial, food security, and health risks for the nation. Experts predict that by 2020 changing rainfall patterns will expose between 75 and 250 million Africans to increased water stress. Food production, already stressed, will be significantly impacted. In many ways, Tanzania is progressive and active with regard to environmentally sustainable development issues. The legislative and policy framework for environmental and natural resources management is fairly well developed, and there are legal provisions for decentralized and local management of natural resources. However, implementation of this policy and legal framework lags far behind and is undermined by mismanagement of natural resource sectors. The lack of financial resources and capacity is also a major obstacle to the implementation of the policy and legal framework for sustainable management of natural resources. The district and local levels also lack adequate capacity to assume the responsibility of sustainable natural resources management. The Same Polytechnic College is therefore in the position to serve as a model for the application of environmentally sustainable development and natural resource management policies, strategies, and practices throughout the country and the greater East African region. Opportunities for Low Carbon Investment in Tanzania, DEW Point


Opposite: Donkeys haul loads of firewood - Eastern Province, Kenya

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Section 5: The Master Plan Page 81

Economic considerations

Focus areas

Sustainability initiatives have the potential to impact construction costs and operational costs as well as stimulate the local economy.

The master plan includes several key sustainability focus areas and establishes corresponding goals for each. These focus areas and their associated goals are listed below.

Energy: Utilize passive design strategies; design for energy efficiency; reduce energy consumption and demand; and generate energy from renewable resources.

Carbon: Achieve carbon-positive operations through a combination of energy-efficiency measures, alternative energy production, and purchasing strategies. (While the primary targets for carbon positivity would be onsite fuel combustion and purchased utilities, a secondary program may extend to the use of alternative fuels in campus-owned vehicles.)

Transportation: Plan for access to a wide range of efficient, environmentally sensitive, and convenient means of transportation.

Defining sustainability goals and developing strategies for achieving them early in the design process will minimize their impact on construction budgets. Once the campus is operational, many sustainability initiatives (e.g., energy and water conservation)actually reduce costs by lowering utility usage. Some, like using renewable energy, may even create a revenue stream for the college should the utility company have an appetite for renewably generated power. The policies put in place to frame sustainability (and develop potential crossovers with curriculum) while the school is operational could also help stimulate cottage industries and the local economy as a whole. As has happened in other parts of the word, for example, the collection and recycling of solid waste could become a significant local business. Another possibility would be the development of a biofuel-processing facility where the local community could grow drought-tolerant biomass in marginal areas of land.

Land use and site planning: Harmonize with existing site elements and topography through appropriate use of land to create a compact, sustainable, and vibrant campus. Retain native vegetation where possible. Promote informal gathering spaces and safe pedestrian routes throughout the campus. Water: Reduce overall potable water consumption; control stormwater quantity and quality; and utilize recycled water and collected rainwater for non-potable demand. Look for synergies between wastewater from buildings and irrigation needed for agriculture.

Solid waste: Segregate and collect construction waste and divert it away from landfill. Develop policies for the collection of recyclable solid waste through campus operations. Develop purchasing policies that minimize packaging materials. Investigate the use of bio-digestion to process organic and green waste into an energy source and agricultural material.

Below: A white rhino walks the banks of Lake Nakuru Rift Valley Province, Kenya

Sustainability metrics and targets Figure 5.1: SPEAR Assesment Diagram

It is critical to define sustainability metrics and targets, as well as key performance indicators, in order to communicate the environmental impact of design decisions. These can also be used to benchmark the college against other similar institutions to understand what environmental commitments are practical and help track post-occupancy performance and improvements. These metrics should be developed as the architectural programming and design for the SPC campus proceeds. Suggested key performance indicators for the SPC campus are as follows; •

Energy consumption (measured in W/m²)

Renewable energy generation (i.e., percentage of total consumption)

Utility cost (measured in $/m²)

Water consumption (measured in m³)

Greywater collected (i.e., percentage of total consumption)

Floor area ratio (FAR) (i.e., the gross floor area of buildings divided by the total campus land)

Solid waste diverted from landfill (measured in kg).

Metrics and targets chosen should be specific, measurable, attainable, timely, and regionally and culturally applicable. Before setting these targets, an evaluation of local, regional, and national policies that may influence the metrics should be completed. A graphical approach can also be considered to help visualize the measurement of sustainability from design decisions. One possible tool is Arup’s Sustainable Project Appraisal Routine (SPeAR), shown in the image below. SPeAR shows the effect of design decisions across a range of sustainability sectors, enabling quick environmental comparisons.

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National and regional policy The SPC Master Plan is in line with relevant regional and national policies and programs. Key existing and potential policies are discussed below. Please note that the policy landscape related to climate change in Tanzania is evolving; SPC will keep close track of all policy-related developments and adjust targets accordingly. National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty Tanzania’s National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (NSGRP) (or, in Kishawhili, MKUKUTA) is a national organizing framework for putting the focus on poverty reduction high on the country’s development agenda. The NSGRP is informed by the aspirations of Tanzania’s Development Vision 2025 for high, shared growth; high-quality livelihoods; peace, stability and unity; good governance; highquality education; and international competitiveness. It is committed to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), internationally agreed-upon targets for reducing poverty, hunger, diseases, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women by 2015. It strives to widen the space for country ownership; effective participation of civil society; private-sector development; fruitful local and external partnerships in development; and commitment to regional and other international initiatives for social and economic development.

Environmental and natural resource management concerns have been mainstreamed in the NSGRP, with strong emphasis on the role of natural resources for income generation; the importance of good governance; and the need to emphasize local involvement and participation. The NSGRP is organized around three main clusters: Growth & Reduction of Income Poverty; Quality of Life and Social Well-being; and Governance & Accountability. Under each cluster a set of five to six goals are defined. Under each goal there are operational targets, strategies to achieve targets, intervention packages, areas of collaboration, and actors responsible for implementation. There are environmental targets under all three clusters; 14% of the targets directly or indirectly relate to environment and natural resources management. There are a further considerable number of environmental interventions under nonenvironmental targets. National Environmental Policy Tanzania’s National Environmental Policy provides the framework for making fundamental changes needed to bring environmental considerations into the mainstream of decision making in the nation. It provides policy guidelines and plans; gives guidance to the determination of priority actions; and provides for the monitoring and regular review of policies, plans, and programs. It further provides for sectoral and cross-sectoral policy analysis in order to achieve compatibility among sectors and interest groups and exploit synergies among them.

National Energy Policy First formulated in 1992 and revised in 2003, the National Energy Policy of Tanzania aims to ensure availability of reliable, affordable energy supplies and promote their rational, sustainable usage in support of national development goals. The policy takes into consideration the need to enhance the development and utilization of indigenous and renewable energy sources and technologies. National Water Policy The National Water Policy of Tanzania was put forth by the Ministry of Water and Livestock Development with the objective of developing a comprehensive framework for sustainable development and management of the nation’s water resources, including effective legal and institutional frameworks for its implementation. The policy aims at ensuring that beneficiaries participate fully in planning, construction, operation, maintenance, and management of community-based domestic water supply schemes. It seeks to address cross-sectoral interests in water and watershed management and provide integrated and participatory approaches for water resources planning, development, and management. The policy also lays a foundation for sustainable development and management of water resources, taking into account the changing role of the government from service provider to that of coordinator; policy and guideline formulator; and regulator.

Opposite: Monsoon rains move off in the distance - Rift Valley Province, Kenya

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Carbon analysis Same’s carbon emissions will come from many sources, which can be classified as either direct and indirect. Because of the wide range of possible sources, some of which are either difficult to account for or less tangible, these direct and indirect sources are divided by carbon boundaries. The emissions sources of Same under each of the boundary divisions will be as follows: Scope 1 — Direct emissions: Onsite fuel combustion (for example, from propane or campus-owned vehicles). (Combustion of biomass such as wood is excluded). Scope 2 — Indirect emissions: Emissions associated with the utility company’s production of electricity for delivery and consumption by Same. Scope 3 — Indirect emissions: All other emissions (for example, from employee commuting and business travel, and solid waste transportation and disposal). Traditionally, carbon accounting methodologies draw a boundary around scopes 1 and 2. For the purpose of estimating what it would take to make SAME a carbonpositive campus, we have only considered imported electricity (scope 2), since this will be by far the largest emission source in all of scopes 1 and 2.

Third-party certification Therefore, we used a carbon-intensity factor for electricity of 246.70 gCO2e/kWh (per UNESCO data) and factored in the total estimated electricity consumption of the campus at full build-out to predict estimated carbon emissions of 477,700,000 gCO2e, or almost 480 metric tons of CO2e. This is equivalent to the annual greenhouse gas emissions from about 100 passenger vehicles.

Certification through a globally recognized sustainability rating system should also be considered. These systems are typically verified by an independent third party and offer validation of the chosen sustainability initiatives chosen. Making a commitment to achieving certification under this type of rating system may also help leverage funding for SPC as well as raise its profile.

As described within the energy section of this report, it is possible to offset these carbon emissions through the use of renewable energy. A scheme that installs 18,000m2 of solar PV will generate more than two million kWh of clean renewable electricity per year, which is enough to fully offset the carbon emissions listed above and over-generate enough to offset an additional 8% of carbon emissions — making the development carbon positive at full build-out.

The two most widely known systems are the United States Green Building Council’s LEED rating system and the Building Research Establishment’s BREEAM system. Both are credit-based systems, and both require independent assessment of the submitted approaches before certification is given. Regional rating systems can also be considered. South Africa’s Green Building Council has developed the Green Star SA system, for example, which also offers assessment criteria specific to higher education facilities.

Figure 5.2: Breakdown of Emissions by Scope







Scope 1 Scope 2



Scope 3 Indirect Employee Business Travel

Purchased Electricity for Own Use

Production of Purchased Materials Company Owned Vehicles

Waste Disposal Product Use

Outsourced Activities

Contractor Owned Vehicles

Fuel Combustion

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Land Use and Site Planning The land use and site planning section encompasses the strategies that will guide placement of the buildings, open spaces, and connective elements that will support program and enrollment growth. It includes: •

Land use goals and strategies

Architectural concept

Development pattern

Grading strategy

Development framework

Development density

Site security


Illustrative plan

Opposite: The South Pare Mountains - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan

Land use goals and strategies Goals Work with the natural character of the tropical savanna site to create a unique, memorable, comfortable, and highly functional campus layout that is climate appropriate and promotes efficiencies and sustainability. Strategies Work with natural site characteristics to retain a tropical savanna character •

Create a walkable campus environment by developing compact building clusters

Arrange an academic core with centrally timetabled facilities within a 10¬–15 minute walking radius

House up to 1,000 students on campus

Arrange building programs onsite based on water and power usage to maximize efficiency of utility systems

Provide convenient access to campus, with entries directly adjoining the B1 highway

Provide parking at the primary entrance to create an auto-free pedestrian- and bicycle-oriented campus

Provide convenient access to recreation for onsite residents

Locate paths, open spaces, and key uses to create a vibrant learning environment.

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Architectural concept We took inspiration from this photo of a class meeting under an acacia tree during the early design phases of this project. Based on the beautiful, comfortably shaded center of learning depicted, we decided to shade campus buildings and outdoor social gathering and teaching spaces alike with acacia trees. The masterplan also draws inspiration from the fractal-like organization of many African villages. Self-organizing systems that show up in many natural organisms, fractals manifest the same formal structures at different scales — for example, the acacia tree’s branches fan out into ever-smaller branches, but retain the same shape throughout. Fractals are deeply ingrained in African culture, showing up in textile patterns, artwork, and the organization of some native villages. For example, a village’s “C”-like shape may appear on a smaller scale in individual zones, a family’s housing compound, and, finally, an individual home.

Opposite: Masai men take shelter from the heat of the sun in the shade of an acacia tree - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

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Development pattern Our intent is to create a highly walkable, comfortable campus appropriate for the tropical savanna environmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s high temperatures and seasonal rainfall. The plan will also take advantage of the siteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s stunning natural environment, showcasing the mountains that descend to the gently sloping campus. Drainage As noted in the Planning Context section, the South Pare Mountain Range lies directly north of the campus, and stormwater drains south toward and through the campus site. Drainage swales run through the center and along the southeastern property line. These swales are steeply incised at higher elevations; they flatten out as they descend until only remnants remain midway through the campus site itself. These drainages are clear expressions of the dynamics of water and mountains. Rather that resorting to underground piping to direct stormwater, the plan structures the campus around a system of two enhanced swales. Both will channel stormwater runoff through the campus toward detention basins located at the lowest elevations onsite, along the property line running parallel to the B1 highway. A system of shallow wells adjacent to these detention basins will be used to filter the runoff, which will then be pumped to storage facilities for nonpotable applications onsite. In addition, each swale will provide a location for natural vegetation, as well as for walkways, roads, and multiuse trails that traverse the campus and lead into the higher elevations of the savanna site. Treating the swales as both infrastructure and amenity will give the campus a distinctive image and help it fit into the surrounding natural environment.

Left: The town of Kwa Vonza - Eastern Province, Kenya

Figure 5.3: Natural Drainage Patterns

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Academic core The heart of the campus is the academic core, where the highest levels of activity occur throughout the day. This area will accommodate a wide range of uses: classrooms and lecture halls, faculty and staff offices, a library, a student union, and performance venues. In order to ensure efficient operations, the academic core will be arranged in a compact and highly walkable pattern. Uses will be in close proximity to one another, linked by walkways, multi-use trails, and bicycle routes. Virtually all academic uses will fall within a 10-minute walking distance, providing convenient access for students and faculty during class changes. The careful placement of buildings and walkways will provide an abundance of shaded walkways even during the hottest times of the day. The compact academic core will be located in close proximity to student housing areas and other campus uses, such as dining and recreation.

Right: Nyumbani Village - Eastern Province, Kenya

Open spaces

Below: Open space compliment tented accommodations at the Base Camp Masai Mara Lodge - Rift Valley Province, Kenya

Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan

The campusâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; open spaces (which range from major malls, quads, and plazas to small building courtyards, building entries, and walkways) will provide venues for special events and sites for informal interactions among students, faculty, and staff. They will be configured to provide a memorable environment that feels campus-like while celebrating and respecting the savanna environment.

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Campus entrances Creating a memorable arrival experience is an important component of campus design. Access to SPC will be from the B1 highway; we therefore propose a formal entry centering on this edge of the campus. Smaller, secondary entries will be located at various locations around the periphery, providing access to campus and academic support facilities. The primary entry will be enhanced with signage, campus information, and short-term parking. It should also feature a distinctive landscape environment to further enhance first impressions of the campus. Facilities that will attract the public, such as the library, should be located near this entrance.

Upper Right: The entrance to the Wamunyu Wood Carving Cooperative - Eastern Province, Kenya Lower Right: The entrance to the Nyumbani Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Home - Nairobi, Kenya

Grading strategy In order to minimize site development costs and utilize recycled greywater and collected rainwater, we propose to divide the campus site into a series of three terrace zones, rising gently from the lowest level along the B1 highway to the highest portion of the site, bordering the Vumari Forest Preserve (see Figure 5.4). These terrace zones define large areas of similar elevation on which to place building pads to accommodate multiple buildings and their associated open spaces. They also provide level eastâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;west crossings of the campus, creating flat routes of travel from building to building. The grade transitions between terrace zones can be made using ramps and stairs; it is not recommended that the buildings themselves be used for this purpose. Access for the handicapped will be provided through the use of ramps. Figure 5.4: Proposed Site Grading Zones

Flat portions of the terraces will provide spaces for special events, gatherings, and building entries. The sloped transition areas between terraces will provide locations for seat walls from which to view various activities. The terraced nature of the campus will allow virtually all buildings to enjoy south views to the valley beyond.

Upper Left: Terraced grading on the grounds of the Catholic Diocese of Same - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

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Development density The enrollment and facilities projections used in this master plan are based on MISDâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s current understanding of the demand for particular degrees and types of expertise. Because these estimates are dependent on the effects of technology on education, they are likely to change over the years. It is therefore important to build a high degree of flexibility into the site in order to accommodate unforeseen global, regional, and local changes and to adapt to evolving pedagogical and student life requirements. While it is hard to predict the ultimate programs and budgets that will define the size of future buildings, a number of assumptions can be made. Figure 5.5 indicates the land area requirements for the primary campus land uses. Some may shrink or grow over time, depending on demand for certain programs. SPC is not likely to build any large buildings of the type found on many large university campuses. It is anticipated that the vast majority of academic buildings on the campus will be only one story in height. A select few may be higher (e.g., the library, student union, and large laboratories) will most likely be larger and perhaps taller than others, they will still be only one story high. The available building materials and construction technologies, combined with the seismic hazard of the site (described in Appendix B), make multi-story structures significantly more difficult and expensive. Instead, campus buildings will be smaller in order to accommodate the passive and climate-responsive design strategies and recommended construction technologies contained in Chapter 6 of this document.

Right: One of the many informal communities surrounding Nairobi, Kenya

Despite this, the master plan aims to attain an average density of development that uses land efficiently and creates a compact, walkable core. Whenever programs allow, the master plan clusters buildings together. This will ensure an adequate density of development so that

the site can accommodate the projected enrollment and program while retaining some flexibility for unexpected program variations or additions. Variations in building height will therefore be welcomed in order to add interest and variation to the campus roof line.

Figure 5.5: Projected Facility Needs

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Figure 5.6: Land-Use Site Plan

Land-use plan The required programmatic spaces will be organized with a dual zoning concept: zoning will run both parallel and perpendicular to the contours.

Below: Nyumbani Village from across a river valley Eastern Province, Kenya

The four parallel zones will include a public zone next to the main highway, followed by a semi-public, a private, and finally a wooded (â&#x20AC;&#x153;sacredâ&#x20AC;?) zone.

Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan

The zones perpendicular to the contours will provide an array of organizational lines that form a progression of decreasing frequency from south to north, concluding in large open spaces with gentle slopes. These lines serve as a guide to keep the narrow building footprints perpendicular to the siteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s slope in order to minimize onsite excavation.

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Academic and academic support Academic uses will be concentrated in a compact zone in the middle of the site. Arranged around courtyards and other outdoor spaces, the academic uses will be readily accessible from student housing as well as from surrounding parking areas and transit routes. Uses will include classrooms, faculty offices, administrative offices, student services centers, student organization offices, a library, learning centers, a primary food service center, and student lounges oriented toward commuting students and residents. The schools will be distributed along the groupings of classroom buildings, generally organized along lines of academic and production-related facilities. Pairing similar class types will allow students to learn from one another and separate quiet disciplines from noisier ones. The more academic-related classes will be grouped at the southeastern section, whereas agricultural, construction, and automobile laboratories will be located in the northwest. Major facilities such as the library, administration building, student union, and community hall will be located in a high-activity area adjoining the major campus entries.

Right: The main courtyard and administration building at a secondary school just outside the town of Same Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

Figure 5.7: Program Diagram

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Figure 5.8: School Location Diagram


Opposite Left: Village teams square off in a soccer match - Eastern Province, Kenya Opposite Right: Children show off their home made soccer ball built from plastic bags and twine - Eastern Province, Kenya

Student housing and dining services

Student services

Athletics and recreation

The campus plan provides the capacity to house up to 5,000 students in four residential neighborhoods. These neighborhoods have been defined as clusters of housing units with supportive services such as dining, lounges, laundry, study areas, and indoor recreation rooms. In addition, they will house outdoor recreation facilities such as basketball or volleyball courts and small nonregulation fields suitable for soccer or other field sports.

Student-oriented facilities are critically important to the daily life of the campus. In the schoolâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s early years in particular, student amenities will be important for attracting and retaining students and promoting their academic success.

The masterplan provides ample room for a robust recreation and athletics program for SPC. The plan illustrates a layout that could accommodate a large track and field and soccer area with spectator stands, as well as additional soccer, softball, and baseball fields.

Student services or amenities must include facilities for both resident and commuting students. These will include counseling and career offices, lounges, lockers, study areas, food vendors, childcare, faith halls, and other uses that will keep commuters on campus and encourage students to interact with faculty members and one another.

It will be important to ensure that the fields and athletic facilities enjoy good access from student housing and the academic core, and that parking for events and daily use is located conveniently nearby.

Clustering student housing into distinct neighborhoods creates smaller groupings of students, aiding in socialization and integration into the campus environment, especially for younger students. Dining halls associated with the student housing areas are highly desirable and should be implemented with the first phase of housing development, with possible expansion as the campus population grows. As previously mentioned, primary food service will be provided in the campus academic core, near the student union and other centers of activity. As the campus population grows, smaller distributed food service locations will be provided throughout campus, utilizing a flexible vendor kiosk or moveable cart model to offer tea and snacks. The spaces that contain other common-use facilities, such as lounges and restrooms, are indicated in red.

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Figure 5.9: Location of Key Structures

Figure 5.10: Location of Key Structures

Program Placement Faith Halls and Residential Buildings tucked away in the back of the site to ensure privacy for students and faculty. The schools of Automotive and Mechanical Technology and Building Science and Construction Technology have direct access to the main road to allow the movement of automobiles and heavy machinery.

The Student Center and Administration Offices are placed at the center of the main building in order to make it as easy and convenient as possible for visitors and residents to gain information.

The main sports fields are located toward the bottom of the site where the terrain is less steep.

Water Treatment and Recycle Areas located in the west corner of the site to allow the prevailing winds to carry any unwanted odors away from the site.

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Open space Major open spaces contribute enormously to the character and image of a campus and play an important role in college selection decisions for students and parents alike. These spaces therefore need to be considered as major capital projects, implemented early in the growth of the campus and to as high a level of quality as possible. Campus open space and guidelines for its planning and design are described in detail in Section 6. The programming layout reflects the fractal-like progression of scale found in native African villages. A pattern of programmatic clusters and open social

spaces will be arrayed across the site from the small to the large scale. Large open spaces will be paired with clusters of academic spaces and central buildings, while smaller open social spaces will be located near each classroom and/or residence hall. These open social spaces will be flooded with acacia trees that are irrigated by natural and redirected swales onsite, creating comfortable shaded areas throughout. Additionally, special social spaces that can be used as outdoor shaded teaching areas will also dot the main circulation path along the central axis. These reflect the focal points found in native African villages.

Below: Shaded outdoor space at a hotel in the town of Same - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

Figure 5.11: Site Concept Diagram

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Figure 5.12: Site Concept Diagram

Figure 5.13: Site Concept Diagram

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Parking A vital college campus is built around an active, autofree zone where large numbers of students, faculty, and staff can freely circulate. The land-use plan therefore provides parking lots around the academic core, lying generally outboard of all major land uses. They are conveniently located at the primary campus entries, however, to allow visitors to easily find and access destinations on campus. Campus support A variety of support buildings and areas are required for campus operation. These include facilities for offices, shops, materials storage (interior and exterior); fleet (shuttle, campus vehicles) storage and maintenance; and facilities associated with central energy, water, and waste generation, conveyance, and disposal. MISD operations The campus plan includes facilities to house the various MISD development programs described in chapter 3 and provide accommodations for volunteers taking part in these programs. These include offices, small laboratories, materials storage, and volunteer dormitory housing.

Opposite: Out buildings housing the back up generator at the Arusha Technical College - Arusha Region, Tanzania Left: Vehicle parking at a hotel in Karatu - Arusha Region, Tanzania

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Site security The masterplan seeks to implement a level of security that limits the range that visitors are able to travel throughout the site. (The shaded area on the map outlines the general visitors area.) This preserves a certain level of privacy for the residents, helps keep them safe, and reduces the chances for theft. The labs in the front of the site will be secured with tall gates in each corridor, while security guards will be posted between each group of buildings. The security office will be located on a second story above the student center, providing employees with views of the entire campus. (These views are shown on the map by the yellow gradient.) This will be particularly important during large sporting events or graduation ceremonies, during which movement throughout the site may need to be controlled. The number of security guards posted at each opening can vary based on the amount of people on the site. A security fence will protect the electrical substation, located in the southern corner of the site, in order to ensure electrical stability for the site. Security fencing will also protect both boreholes as well as the water tanks located in the back of the site. Since water is of such high value in the area, it is important that efforts are made to keep the supply clean and safe from tampering.

Right: The security post at the front gate to a hotel Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

Figure 5.14: Security Site Plan

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Phasing As mentioned in the Planning Principles and Context section, the college will not open at the planned full capacity of 1,200 FTE students. The following describes the planned construction phases to accommodate the expected development phases. Phase I Planting trees in the main courtyard will be part of the initial phase, providing time for trees to grow in preparation for the future community. This shaded space will define the center of the university in phase II. Phase II The primary road and two service roads that lead onto the campus, along with the road that loops around it, will be built during phase II. The service roads will provide access to the treatment facilities and electrical substation. They will also provide for construction access to the site for future development. Paving the primary road that runs up to the main building will provide a finished feeling to the project even before the successive phases are complete. Wells that provide potable water will be needed to provide adequate services for the campus. In addition, the water treatment facilities, electrical substation, and compost area will need to be partially established. The main campus building’s flexible design will allow for a variety of uses. The key agriculture and construction labs will be located in the northwest end of the main building. The library and dining spaces at the other end will accommodate crucially needed secure storage, an infirmary, and MISD office space. Grouped, modular-styled residential buildings will provide adequate accommodation for 250 students and approximately half of the volunteer population. Left: The forests surrounding Lake Nakuru - Rift Valley Province, Kenya

Classroom buildings will connect the main campus building to the residential buildings at this stage of development. The main courtyard, which will be planted in phase I, will flourish with activity on one side of the classroom, while a laydown space for soil will provide material for the school’s brickmaking operation on the other side of the classrooms. Phase III Providing dedicated agricultural and MISD builds at this stage will allow these elements to move out of the main building. The main building’s library facilities will expand to accommodate the larger student body, while the lab space in the main building will provide a home for the newly established School of Automotive and Mechanical Technology. The construction of classroom buildings along the second side of the main courtyard will complete the loop of buildings around the campus’s central space. The residential buildings will continue to grow out from the central spine to accommodate the full volunteer population and an additional 250 student residents. To create a more communal feeling, faith halls will be built at the top of the campus’ main spine. Phase IV The MISD building space and remaining classroom and lab facilities will be completed to accommodate the increased student population. Dedicated buildings that offer space for secured storage and an infirmary will also be built during this phase. Residential housing will continue to grow via the addition of another 250 students. Phase V The previously flexible classroom spaces will be assigned specific uses according to the needs of their related schools.

Figure 5.15: Phasing Site Plans

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 3

Phase 4

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Illustrative plan The illustrative plan shows how the building program of academic, student housing, recreation fields, parking, and other uses can be arranged on the campus, following the concepts set forth in this masterplan. As shown in Figure 5.16, buildings are aligned to face major open spaces, linear malls, and smaller shared spaces. Building spacing is consistent with the goal of achieving a walkable, compact academic core and campus while framing imagemaking, usable outdoor spaces for special events. The plan also shows road and parking layouts, indicating how the campus can be accessed from the regional network and adjoining town center. It also illustrates the drainage swales and other open spaces. The buildings illustrated in this plan are described further in the Building Guidelines section of Chapter 6. Parameters for the design of open spaces and their landscaping are found in the Landscape Guidelines section.

Left: Masai women sit in the shade of an acacia tree Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

Figure 5.16: Illustative Plan

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Water Water savings are of critical importance to the campus, both because water is scarce in the region and because of the cost, energy use, and carbon emissions associated with extracting, distributing, treating, and storing it.

Water goals and summary

As there is no civil infrastructure to provide water to the site, all of the college’s needs must be met by water sourced onsite. Therefore, reducing water use is essential to meeting the campus’ long-term needs and minimizing its overall carbon footprint.


Goals Minimize overall water consumption and produce a robust, reliable campus water supply. •

Minimize potable water use

Utilize recycled water and collected rainwater for non-potable use

Recharge groundwater supply.

Aspirational targets Meet 100% of non-potable water demand with recycled water and collected rainwater.

Opposite: A water delivery truck sits idle - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

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Local water trends and statistics

Figure 5.18: The Pangani River Basin

Almost two-thirds of Africa’s land mass lies between the Tropics of Cancer (30°N) and Capricorn (30°S). This means that a tropical climate prevails over most of the continent. However, the climate is seasonally variable, with pronounced wet and dry seasons, due to the north-south migration of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and resulting monsoons. The regional nature and variability of annual precipitation in most of Africa is linked to the movements of the ITCZ. Despite the dominant tropical conditions, more than 75% of Africa’s continental area is classified by the Climate Moisture Index (CMI) as arid and semi-arid, indicating that potential evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation over the long term. The corresponding global total is 54%, a fact that highlights the much drier conditions across Africa. Of the 55 countries globally in which basic human water requirements are not met, 34 are located in Africa. Assessments of water availability and vulnerability traditionally have been cast at the country or regional scale, although work has recently begun to focus on the basin or subbasin scale. The Pangani River Basin The Same Polytechnic Campus is located within the Pangani River Basin, which covers 16,850 square miles (43,650 square kilometers). Five percent of this area is in Kenya; the remainder is distributed across the Arusha, Kilimanjaro, Manyara, and Tanga administrative regions of Tanzania. The Pangani River rises as a series of small streams on the southern sides of Africa’s highest peak, Mt. Kilimanjaro, and on nearby Mt. Meru. Together, these streams create the Kikuletwa and Ruvu Rivers, which later join to form the 310-mile-long (500 kilometer) Pangani River. The Pangani passes through the arid Masai Steppe, draining the Pare and Usambara Mountain Ranges before reaching the estuary and the Indian Ocean at the coastal town of Pangani.

Figure 5.17

Water use in the basin Over three million people, or more than 80% of the population, derive their livelihoods from the Pangani River Basin, primarily from agriculture and fisheries. Its fertile soils and ample rainfall have earned it the reputation of being the breadbasket of Tanzania. Agriculture is a significant consumer of water in the basin, where an estimated 212 square miles (55,000 hectares) are intensely irrigated. Many crops typically sold as exports (including coffee, sugar, flowers, fruits, and vegetables) are irrigated in large plantations or estates in the northern part of the basin. Rice, maize, beans, bananas, vegetables, and other crops are also grown for local markets. The river also serves three hydroelectric power stations â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Nyumba ya Mungu, Hale, and Pangani Falls â&#x20AC;&#x201D; that supply 91.5 megawatts of electricity, or 17% of Tanzaniaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s national electricity generation capacity. Though hydropower production does not consume water, the location of the Pangani Falls station means that water used in hydropower generation cannot be used for other demands upstream. Water shortages in the dry season can cause hydroelectric power production to drop to 30% of capacity. Accessibility to water for domestic use varies across the basin. National statistics for Tanzania indicate that while most households in urban areas enjoy reliable access to safe drinking water, only about half of the rural populations do. Many of the latter still rely on the river for drinking water and bathing.

Left: A man wades through the shallows of the Pangani River - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

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Most rural households in the Pangani River Basin keep livestock. The most common types are chickens, cattle, goats, and sheep. The average number of cattle and goats is highest in the central areas of the basin, which are home to a significant number of Maasai households who tend to keep larger herds of these animals.

Mkomazi Rivers draining the Pare and Usambara Mountain Ranges were historically perennial but are now seasonal. The basin’s water balance shows that the Mkomazi subbasin is the most developed, with 58% of its natural annual flow consumed, followed by the Kikuletwa subbasin, with 25% consumed.

There are extensive mining interests in the Pangani River Basin that consume water. These include tin mining in Korogwe; tanzanite and phosphate mines in the Arusha area; limestone mines near Tanga; and gold panning in the Usambara Mountains. Gemstones are a significant industry: 80% of the world’s known tanzanite reserves are found at Merelani, outside of Arusha. Sand mining for building purposes is also common along riverbanks.

Water shortages are felt in all economic sectors, resulting in depressed economic outputs during droughts. Agricultural production is declining or limited in growth because of the water shortages. Despite this, more hydroelectric power developments are planned in the Northern and Eastern Highlands and on the lower Pangani River. Shortages of domestic

Other industries are concentrated near main towns. Some important ones include sisal, tanneries, paper products, chemicals, textiles, timber, metalworks, and bottled water. Fertilizer, cement, fruit canning, and sawmilling are significant activities at the coast. Other industries in the basin include textiles, sisal rope, steel rolling, timber, plastic bags, and soft drinks.

Table 5.1: Acceptable Water Quality & Source by Use

Basin health The Pangani Basin is classified as water-stressed (defined as having less than 16,145 square feet [1,500 square meters] of renewable water resources per capita). Water supply is decreasing because of climate change and basin degredation, while demand is increasing because of growing population numbers, economic growth, and new land uses. Water flows in the basin have reduced from several hundred cubic meters per second to less than 40. The water present in the river system is over-allocated, creating conflict among users. Wetlands and perennial rivers are drying up because of water abstraction. For instance, in the Kikuletwa subbasin, most stream flows come from springs in the middle of the basin. Upstream, the flows are no longer perennial. The Luengera and

Water Use

Potable Water




water occur throughout the basin, and people may need to rely more on groundwater or rainwater tanks in the near future. The water quality of the Pangani River Basin is also deteriorating, mostly seen through increased levels of dissolved salts, nutrients, fecal matter, decaying organic materials, and turbidity in various parts of the system. The main causes are agricultural runoff, including effluents from sisal farms; local urban use of the river for washing and waste disposal; and turbid waters downstream of the hydropower facilities. Pangani River System: State of the Basin Report, International Union for the Conservation of Nature Water and Nature Initiative 2

Treated Water

Rain Water


Sanitary Showers

Toilets Laundry


Landscaping Crops

 

  

Sports Fields

 

Construction Brick Manufacturing Mortar & Concrete Mixing

 

Demand and usage assumptions The campus’ baseline water demand and usage reductions as the result of sustainability strategies have been evaluated based on the proposed programming at each phase. Because various assumptions were required to account for undeveloped programming, the demand rates provided are preliminary and subject to change. The estimated baseline total water demand (potable and non-potable) on the SPC campus is 6,566 square feet (610 square meters) per day at full campus build-out. However, this will be reduced over time as the campus implements various water usage-reduction strategies. Building and occupying the campus in multiple phases further complements the reduction strategies. The

primary benefit of phased construction with regard to the water supply is the balance of irrigation and human water demand requirements. As the campus is built out and occupied, the increased water demand of the growing population is offset by the reduced irrigation demand. This is due to the fact that the campus is encouraged to utilize native, drought-resistant landscaping which after a year of adaptation is expected to require minimal irrigation. At completion, the SPC campus can achieve its goal of minimizing the use of potable water for non-potable uses. In order to limit the campus’ impact on groundwater, which will likely be its sole supply of potable water, removing non-potable uses from the potable water supply must be a primary water reduction strategy.

Table 5.1 highlights the various water uses on the campus and indicates from which supply each use receives its water. It also illustrates which uses can then be captured for reuse upon treatment. The final potable water requirement is expected to be 9,534 cubic feet (270 cubic meters) per day — nearly 56% below the baseline value. Figure 5.19 breaks down potable water uses in the baseline scenario, the phase II scenario, and the final buildout scenario based upon cited references and past Arup experience in East Africa. (It should be noted that the final buildout scenario assumes that all native landscaping has adapted and no longer requires dedicated irrigation.) The water usage may exceed calculated values, but only temporarily.

Figure 5.19: Water Usage by Category Baseline Potable Water (610 cu.m./day) Potable Water (355 m3/day)

First Year Scenario

Final Reduction Scenario

Potable Water (103 cu.m./day) 3

Potable Water (270 cu.m./day)3 Potable Water (270 m /day)

Potable Water (470 m /day) 16%





30% 70%


Phase V

Recycled & Rainwater (60 cu.m./day) Indoor3Potable Agriculture


Recycled/Rainwater (60 m /day)

Recycled & Rainwater (180 cu.m./day)

3 Indoor Recycled/Rainwater (180 mPotable /day)




15% 34%


Indoor Non-potable


Indoor Potable




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Agriculture Indoor Non-potable

Indoor Non-potable Section 5: The Master Plan Page 127


Sustainability strategies As with any project, the first step to sustainably managing the water supply is reducing the overall water demand. Due to the campus’ location within an overburdened water basin, however, further reductions to the potable water demand should made through the use of recycled w ater for non-potable demands. Refer to Figure 5.20 for a step diagram representing the impact of the strategies introduced.

Minimize potable water demand Site water efficiency The most effective way to reduce total water demand at SPC is to plan the site so as to respect the local landscape and ecology. This can be achieved through the following recommendations.

Figure 5.20: Water Demand and Reduction Step Diagram


Avoid planting lawns in non-recreational areas

Use native and climate-adapted plants as the primary planting material on campus

Limit or eliminate the watering of native and adapted plants to only the amount of rainwater captured from nearby roofs

Use high-efficiency irrigation methods such as drip irrigation

Irrigate only during cooler times of the day to minimize evaporation potential

Avoid use of decorative water features.

Fixture efficiency and security

Native Landscaping

Rainwater Capture for Agriculture

Recycled Water Use




The campus’ approach to minimizing its demand on the underground aquifer can easily be negated by a valve left open due to negligence or tampering. Valve lockouts or other means of securing valves are therefore suggested for exterior fixtures in remote locations.


Similarly, storage tanks should be protected from water theft, evaporation, and vector habitation. Security can be achieved either by building a fence or housing the tanks within buildings. Other issues can be mitigated by utilizing sealed and covered tanks in combination with mosquito netting at any required open inflow points.


High-efficiency fixtures can result in savings over baseline calculations of 20%, and in many regions the additional cost is negligible. While this strategy has not been included in calculations due to the uncertainty of local availability, it should be considered, cost permitting.

44% 60%



Opposite: Children collect water to wash their clothes Eastern Province, Kenya

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Utilize recycled water and collected rain/stormwater for non-potable uses After reducing total water demand, the required borehole pumping can be further reduced by removing the non-potable uses from the potable water supply. While further study is needed to confirm which treatment methods are best suited to the project, it is anticipated that the site will be capable of capturing and generating enough recycled water and rainwater for all indoor non-potable demands as well as nearly half of the exterior non-potable demands. Opportunities for this approach include: •

Harvest rainwater from building roofs to irrigate landscaping immediately surrounding the buildings

Direct surface runoff to the central drainage swale. Upon natural filtration at the bottom of the site, the water can be used for agricultural irrigation

Utilize recycled water from the treatment ponds to flush toilets and supplement landscape irrigation during the first year after planting.

We recommend utilizing recycled water and rainwater for all non-potable uses, as opposed to using potable water supplied via borehole, for the following reasons: •

Cost savings

Carbon/energy savings

Ecological and water quality benefits

Supply diversification benefits.

Although it is difficult to calculate the exact embodied energy difference between recycled/rainwater and potable water in Same, a minimum cost savings can be established: namely, the energy saved from the pumping required to produce the same amount of water from a borehole.

Opposite Above: Collected rainwater sits in a plastic tank - Eastern Province, Kenya Opposite Below: Gutters attached to the roof of a building at the Catholic Diocese of Same - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

Figure 5.21: Site Water Usage Cycle Diagram

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Recharge groundwater supply A truly sustainable water system creates a cycle between supply and demand, where the water is returned to the source upon usage. The more locally this cycle operates, the more efficiently the system mimics the natural behavior of the pre-development site. Due to the region’s clayey soil composition, the site’s infiltration rate is not expected to be high. However, the SPC campus’ water strategies cater to this site condition by using and reusing both groundwater and rainwater until it eventually infiltrates the ground via irrigation. Figure 5.21 is a schematic representation of the water cycle for the SPC campus.

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Water utility connections, interconnection, and layouts While the diversification of water supplies is beneficial from a sustainable water management perspective, it comes with additional requirements for proper design and maintenance. The following issues must be considered: •

All buildings will require dual-supply plumbing (one non-potable water pipe for toilets and one potable water pipe for all other uses)

All non-potable water distribution must be installed in pipes with sufficient identification to indicate a non-potable water supply. This should be done even if the recycled water and rainwater systems cannot be connected during the early phases of development. These pipes can be charged with potable water temporarily, but not in reverse

Depths of pipes, from shallowest to deepest, shall be as follows: potable water, recycled water, sanitary sewer. This is to prevent intrusion of contaminated water into purer water supplies in case of pipe leakage.

Figure 5.22 shows a schematic representation of the four water supply and collection systems to be utilized on the SPC campus. The following subsections address calculations and considerations specific to each system.

Right: A new water line under construction - Eastern Province, Kenya

Figure 5.22: Water Source & Usage Flowchart Well (Potable)

Capture Roof Water

Tank Overflow



Storage Tanks

Storage Ponds


Supply Tanks

Irrigation to Edible Ag.

Catchment Basin

Toilet Use

Pump Out + Filter Well Water


Toilet Backup Line Activated by Float


Sinks / Showers

Septic Tanks

Pump Station

Treatment Ponds

Potable Water


Rain Water

Constructed Wetlands

Waste Water Recycled Water


Irrigation to Non-Edible Ag.

Recharge Aquifer

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Potable water supply As there is no municipal water supply to the site, potable water will be supplied via borehole. The system will likely require the construction of two wells together with an appropriate level of potable water storage. The estimated water demands are set out in Figure 5.19, which also indicates the following requirements at full occupancy: â&#x20AC;˘


Estimated total indoor water demand = 4,061 cubic feet (115 cubic meters) per day --

Indoor potable water demand = 2,295 cubic feet (65 cubic meters) per day, supplied wholly from well(s)


Treated water demand = 1,765 cubic feet (50 cubic meters) per day, supplied from treated water sources.

Estimated total outdoor water demand = 11,830 cubic feet (335 cubic meters) per day --

Potable agricultural demand = 7,239 cubic feet (205 cubic meters) per day, supplied from well(s) and rainwater


Treated agricultural demand = 4,590 cubic feet (130 cubic meters) per day, supplied from treated water sources.

Pumping rates and storage In case of a power outage or pump failure, storage of extracted ground water should be provided on high ground within the site boundary, adjacent to the extraction and treatment facilities. Typically, 2 to 3 days storage is provided to ensure that water quality is preserved by volumetric turnover of stored water within the storage tank. Under normal operation, the site will draw approximately 112 m3/day from groundwater sources but this would increase to approximately 163 m3/day if the separate treated water supply system were to fail. Therefore it is proposed that a tank facility be sized to store for 3 days storage

at the normal rate (335 m3), which would also provide 2 days storage for the site should the treated water supply system be inactive. The storage tank(s) should be located above grade to provide more efficient access maintenance and should be securely fenced to prevent water theft. The storage tank(s) should be within the higher part of the site to maximize the elevation head. The location of the storage would ideally be co-located with the extraction well and treatment plant site to provide a single consolidated facility. The actual location will be determined by the elevation of the water table and the subsurface geology to ensure water can be extracted from economically viable well(s). Additionally, the level of treatment required will be subject to an investigation of groundwater quality. Studies should be undertaken to verify the sustainable yield of the aquifer so that the maximum extraction rates are limited to the replenishment rate of the aquifer. If the aquifer cannot sustain the required extraction rates, supplemental sources should be identified or demand reduction strategies further implemented. Given that the Tanzania National Water Policy reports yields between 50 m3/hour and 800 m3/ hour, the site water demand is not expected to pose a burden on the aquifer, however this requires further study to determine definitively. Site distribution From the storage tank(s), piped supply will be connected to all buildings as well as to the agricultural header tank. Due to the presence of storm water within the irrigation storage tank, it is imperative that a backflow prevention mechanism be used at the connection point to prevent the intrusion of storm water into the potable water system.

Pipe material should be either PVC or HDPE, depending on local availability, and should be buried with a minimum cover depth of 600-mm. Pipe sizes are to be determined at a later phase of design but should use a peaking factor of 2.5. In case of a failure of the recycled water pumps in distributing treated water to the storage tanks, a potable water connection should be provided to the recycled water storage tanks. Again, a backflow preventer must be used to prevent recycled water from entering the potable water system. To initiate the flow of potable water into the recycled water tanks, float valves can be used to automate the system, however the frequency of failure should be low and therefore the valves can be operated manually. National Water Policy. The United Republic of Tanzania, Ministry of Water and Livestock Development. 2002.

Figure 5.23: Potable Water System

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Rain/stormwater capture and supply Although stormwater is not a consistent and dependable supply of water, it is a source nonetheless, and should not be wasted. An analysis of data from both the National Climatic Data Center and the Tanzania Meteorological Agency shows that Same receives approximately 20.6 inches (525 millimeters) of rainfall each year. July, the driest month, has an average precipitation depth of .1 inches (3 millimeters); April, the wettest, has 4.21 inches (107 millimeters). Table 5.2: Average Rainfall (mm) Jan
























Source: Same District Meteorological Station

While the initial construction may not provide enough storage to last through the dry season, the modularity of the proposed systems allows storage to be added as funds are made available. The ultimate goal is for the campus to maintain a consistent supply of rainwater even through the dry season, with no need for supplementation from the recycled water supply. Refer to Figure 5.22 for demand and usage of captured rainwater. Note that calculations have accounted for an average of 20 years of precipitation data but do not account for future climate change. Further study for climate change should be performed to ensure that campus systems are properly designed to remain robust in the future. Rainwater capture from rooftops Rainwater collected from building roofs is intended only for localized irrigation and cleaning of exterior spaces. Therefore, the recommended storage is one 396-gallon (1,500-liter) tank per approximately 1,076

square feet (100 square meters) of building floor area. Depending on building size, total storage may be accomplished either by one tank or a combination of locally available tanks. See the images below for examples of both locally available rain barrels and castin-place concrete tanks. Note that the concrete tank can also be constructed of locally fabricated masonry bricks with a waterproof interior and exterior plaster. Figure 5.24 is a schematic diagram of a typical rainwater harvesting system. A sloped rain gutter attached to the low side of the building rooftop collects the rainwater and directs it into a down spout. This water is unsafe for human consumption. In addition, some roofing materials leach acids into the water, making it toxic for most plant life. From the spout, the water passes through a first flush treatment device that allows debris to settle out. This device can be as simple as a vertical pipe with a ball float that prevents water from entering once full. Figure 5.24: First Flush Capture System

Upon passing the first flush capture device, the water enters the first storage tank. By connecting any successive tanks from a point at least 5.9 inches (150 millimeters) above the bottom of the tank, the initial tank provides additional treatment for sediment that remains in the water past the first flush device. Additionally, as the connecting pipework from the first tank to the remaining tanks is from underneath, the multiple tanks act as one larger storage tank by filling and emptying simultaneously. While rainwater can be used to flush toilets, a structure that elevates the tanks enough to provide adequate water pressure would be required. This is not recommended for the campus. However, we do recommend elevating the tanks 4.2 feet (1.3 meters) on a basic timber or brick base in order to generate sufficient water pressure for irrigation or cleaning the exterior spaces.

Figure 5.25: Storm Water System

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Surface water capture In addition to rainwater from roofs, rainwater falling on the ground should also be captured. While a more detailed topographical survey is required to determine natural drainage paths, at least one is known to exist on the SPC site, a natural swale that forms the central spine of the campus. If more are found, they should be respected accordingly. We have planned three drainage paths on the campus, including storage ponds and a large storage swale at the bottom of the site to accommodate the areaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s highly fluctuating rainfall patterns. By shaping the developed building paths to gently slope toward these swales, we can safely direct the surface water runoff away from buildings, helping to prevent flooding. Additionally, the drainage swales can provide initial treatment of stormwater runoff if properly designed. Toward the lower part of the site, the water can be settled and captured for use. Depending on the flow rate, this may be accomplished either with a small pond with an adjacent shallow well or a filter drain with an

adjacent storage/pump chamber. Both provide adequate filtration if properly designed and constructed. The design choice will be dependent upon further rainfall data and the local availability of materials. The captured and stored water can be pumped into a storage tank for use in agricultural irrigation. As the required elevation difference is not expected to be significant, this may be accomplished with a solarpowered pump. Another option involves detaining and capturing runoff upstream to agricultural land in order to avoid pumping. However, more topographic information is required to determine if it will be feasible to provide enough water pressure with this method. Both options are shown in Figure 5.26. The tank(s) can either be larger lined masonry tanks or a combination of rain barrels. While the rain barrels are more reliable in terms of construction quality, a cost-benefit analysis should be performed based on construction cost and expected quality due to the larger volume of storage expected to be required.

Figure 5.26: Water Capture & Storage Options

Above: Shallow wells used at Nyumbani Village filter retained surface water - Eastern Province, Kenya Opposite: Simple dams used to retain surface water run off during the rain season- Eastern Province, Kenya

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Recycled water supply Wastewater produced from both potable and nonpotable uses, will be collected and treated. This treated water will then be recycled and reused for non-potable purposes to the greatest extent possible. This will include for toilet flushing and landscape irrigation. Various methods for collecting and treating wastewater are described in the following sections. Pumping rates and storage In order to provide adequate pressure for flushing toilets within the buildings, a storage tank should be provided on high ground, though at a lower point than the potable water storage tanks in case of leakage. As the treatment ponds will be near the lowest point on the site, solar pumps are recommended to convey the water from the ponds to the tanks. The storage facilities for recycled water should be built as a modular system out of a series of plastic water tanks. This provides the ability to both add and reduce storage capacity as the university grows through the various construction phases, ultimately requiring less water as the landscaping adapts. Since clean recycled water should only be stored for a maximum of two to three days, it is proposed that 5,297 cubic feet (150 cubic meters) of storage be provided in phase II and expanded to 14,125 cubic feet (400 cubic meters) at full occupancy. It is very important that this system initially be carefully monitored to ensure that water does not remain in the storage barrels for too long. The means of flow measurement will be determined by local material availability.

Site distribution The recycled water network will be connected to decentralized rainwater storage tanks as well as buildings to supply water for flushing toilets. Pipe sizes are to be determined at a later phase of design, but should use a peaking factor of 2.5. If available, purple HDPE pipe is recommended to clearly identify that it carries recycled water; however, PVC is also acceptable. Regardless of pipe material, adequate signage should be installed to clearly identify recycled water pipes and hose bibs, as recycled water is not safe to drink. The pipes shall maintain a minimum cover depth of 23.6 inches (600 millimeters). Where a recycled water pipe crosses a potable water pipe, however, the recycled water pipe should be lower, maintaining at least 11.8 inches (300 millimeters) of separation. Wastewater collection and treatment The following objectives are proposed for the wastewater strategy: â&#x20AC;˘

Ensure that effluent is treated in a safe, environmentally responsible manner


Consider wastewater as a resource and an asset for the site


Use treated effluent to help balance water demands through non-potable applications.

The estimated total wastewater production is 1,184 cubic feet (110 cubic meters) per day, based on 95% of the total water demand, made up of a combination of grey and black water. Rather than implementing treated water systems for the grey water only, we anticipate that it would be more efficient to combine

and treat grey and black water at a centralized facility on the site and reuse the total treated volume for non-potable applications. There would likely be some decentralized wastewater treatment in the form of septic tanks for isolated low flows, but the site topography would allow collection of most of the effluent in gravity systems and conveyance to a centralized treatment facility within the lower area of the site. As illustrated in Figure 5.27, it is proposed that the centralized treatment would include a combination of waste stabilization ponds and constructed wetlands, both of which provide a high level of treatment and demonstration/amenity for the campus. Pumping will be required to redistribute treated water back for non-potable uses within buildings and for landscape irrigation. Current calculations have assumed a 10% water loss in the treatment process, but this should be reevaluated based on selected treatment for factors such as infiltration and evaporation. The definitive choice of treatment strategy requires more detailed existing and proposed site characteristics, but the preferred option will likely include a combination of decentralized and centralized systems. Ideally, all water used within the building can ultimately be directed toward treatment ponds and/or wetlands prior to being distributed for reuse in nonpotable fixtures.

Figure 5.27: Waste Water System

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Decentralized treatment options Decentralized treatment collects and treats wastewater local to buildings and does not require extensive foul drainage infrastructure. Relevant decentralized options are set out below. Septic tanks Decentralized treatment generally uses septic tanks, which are common in East Africa. They will be required where flushing toilets are used and a gravity system to a centralized facility cannot be provided. Septic tanks work by first treating sewage effluent, then sending it to a drainage field to filter into the ground. The ground provides the remaining treatment required. Drainage fields, which are sized through consideration of soil permeability parameters, should be located away from buildings and other spaces used regularly by humans. Composting toilets For remote areas of the site where gravity discharge to a centralized treatment facility cannot be achieved, the use of composting toilets may be considered. Composting toilets, which do not use water, treat effluent through anaerobic digestion. The most commonly used design is the ventilated improved pit latrine (VIP), which uses the natural flow of air through a vent pipe to reduce odors. Although it is unlikely that composting toilets would be employed across the site, they may be appropriate for demonstration purposes.

Figure 5.28: Ventilated Pit Latrine Schematic Diagram

Centralized treatment options A number of centralized wastewater facilities options are available, each with different spatial and technology requirements. Waste stabilization ponds (WSP) These systems comprise lined anaerobic, facultative, and maturation ponds, used either individually or in a series. They take advantage of naturally occurring phenomena like solar light, wind, microorganisms, and algae to treat black water, grey water, and fecal sludge. WSPs are commonly used to treat municipal wastewater in both the developed world and Africa. They are generally considered to be low-cost, have low maintenance requirements, and use little energy. Their biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and pathogen removal are high. There are some drawbacks, however. WSPs require large surface areas and expert design. The former is not a problem for this project, given the size of the proposed site (150 acres [60 hectacres]) compared to the proposed built area (13 acres [5 hectacres]). The latter is more of a concern. Research undertaken in the 1990s in Tanzania found that 70% of WSPs in the region were not performing.

Stage 1: Initial flow into anaerobic treatment pond (two to five meters deep)

Stage 2: Processing in facultative treatment pond (one to two meters deep)

Undigested material and non-degradable solids settled

Settled wastewater from the upstream anaerobic pond received

Organic material dissolved and biodegradable organic material broken down

Sunlight used to grow algae, which further breaks down the organic matter in the upper half of pond

50–85% of BOD removed

80–95% of BOD removed

Ammonia released into the air

HRT allowed for five to thirty days.

Biogas recovered (potentially)

Hydraulic retention time (HRT) allowed for one to five days.

Stage 3: Processing in aerobic / maturation ponds (one to one and a half meters deep) •

60–80% of BOD removed

90% of pathogens removed

HRT allowed for 15 to 20 days

Nitrogen and phosphorus largely removed, if used with algae or fish harvesting.

Figure 5.29: Waste Stabilization Pond Schematic Diagram

In this system, the treated effluent still contains nutrients and is therefore appropriate for reuse in agriculture (irrigation) or aquaculture (e.g., for fish), but not for direct recharge in surface waters. The typical treatment process is shown in Figure 5.29. However, it is recommended that wastewater be directed through septic tank(s) to settle and digest sludge prior to exposure to the atmosphere. WSPs are formed in the ground and should be lined with an impervious material to prevent leaching. The treatment process and general biological performance of these systems are set out below.

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Constructed wetlands Constructed wetlands are planned systems designed and constructed to employ wetland vegetation for wastewater treatment. They are simple to construct, operate, and maintain, but require careful design and management. They also provide potential ecological habitats. Constructed wetlands generally require more space than WSPs to achieve the same level of treatment. They also tend to be more expensive, mainly due to the requirement for importing huge amounts of gravel to form the beds in which the vegetation grows. The quality of their treated effluent tends to be more variable than that achieved by WSPs. However, constructed wetlands increase biodiversity and provide amenity. In a campus environment, they provide opportunities for people to gather and relax. Walking trails are often incorporated through them. Figure 5.30, and Figure 5.31 show typical constructed wetland arrangements. Planting marginal shelves and creating the right profile through the feature optimizes performance and encourages ecosystem development. The provision of a forebay and submerged berm at the inflow point from the campus will provide debris settlement capability, controlling water quality in the main basin. Figure 5.30: Constructed Wetland Schematic DIagram

Opposite: An example of a constructed wetland used for water treatment

Package plants The estimated daily wastewater production volume (3354 cubic feet [95 cubic meters] per day) is well within the performance capabilities of modular packaged treatment plants. These are usually proprietary products purchased with an operations and maintenance (O&M) contract. Their treated effluent quality is consistently very good, and they require significantly smaller footprints compared to other treatment processes.

However, package plants have higher energy requirements than the aforementioned alternatives and require more maintenance due to the number of mechanical and electrical components. They would be a realistic option only if established vendors in the region could provide a packaged plant and the associated O&M duties under a separate contract.


Figure 5.31: Proposed Wastewater Treatment Scheme for the SPC Campus


Shallow Well


ert Under ghway

ert Under ghway

Overflow Culvert Culvert Under Highway


Shallow Well


Treatment Ponds


Overflow Culvert Culvert Under Highway

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Water utility construction options and recommendations Groundwater extraction wells There are many proven methods of constructing wells for water extraction. Each has advantages and disadvantages: the preferred construction method will depend on the depth of the aquifer and the subsurface geology. Based on other wells in the region, the anticipated well depth on the Same campus will be approximately 492 feet (150 meters). However, as the exact ground conditions at the site are not yet known, it is too soon to determine the optimal method. The most common well construction methods are outlined below; a summary matrix provides a framework for decision-making once all the criteria are known. Hand-dug wells Common in rural communities, these wells are typically 16 to 66 feet (five to twenty meters) deep and around 3.9 to 4.9 feet (1.2 to 1.5 meters) in diameter. This form of construction usually requires favorable soil conditions and a relatively high groundwater table. Hand-dug wells are typically lined with precast concrete rings for support. The system of installation of the concrete rings is usually top-down, with the first ring having a beveled cutting edge that aids the sinking of the lining as the excavation proceeds. Additional rings are placed as the lining is sunk. This proven method is similar to larger-diameter top-down caisson construction. Below the water table, rings should have a slightly smaller diameter and be porous; the joints do not need to be sealed. After construction, the bottom is plugged with gravel and a concrete cover constructed to prevent contamination.

Right: A worker uses a hammer and chisel to dig a well Eastern Province, Kenya

Unsupported well excavation This method works in stable ground, but is unlikely to be feasible for deeper wells. Unsupported wells are typically lined with precast concrete rings after the entire well has been constructed. If concrete rings are not readily available, they can also be lined with brick. Deeper well construction techniques When deeper wells are required to reach groundwater, the following methods are commonly used. Tubewells and boreholes Tubewells and boreholes are made by driving a tube into the ground. They have a much smaller diameter than hand-dug wells (typically 3.93 inches to 5.9 inches [100 to 150 millimeters]) and usually yield less water as a result. They are cheaper and quicker to build than hand-dug wells and have the advantage of not needing to be dewatered during construction. They generally require less lining material and are safer to build and maintain. Used in soft ground, they are most often cased in PVC. Drilling is required to create a tubewell or borehole; at least two experienced drillers are needed for excavation. Sediment clogging can cause pump failure. To prevent this, screening and sand/gravel packing are usually employed.

Left: Workers use ropes and buckets to haul up debris during well construction - Eastern Province, Kenya

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Augered wells

Rotary-percussion drilling

Auguring cuts away the earth through the rotation of a cylinder with one or more cutting edges. Excavated earth flows upward in the tool spacing. The process is simple and inexpensive, and rigs are simple to operate and maintain. The Vonder Rig can sink a well up to 6.69 inches (170 millimeters) in diameter to a depth of approximately 380.5 feet (116 meters) in two days. Made from steel, it can be carried easily from site to site.

Rotary-percussion drilling pulverizes rock with a rapid-action pneumatic hammer. Compressed air is used to drive the tool. This method requires more sophisticated equipment and skilled labor than the alternatives, but is very fast. It can be employed above or below the water table, but only with hard rock.

However, the method is slower than others, and problems can occur in unstable rock formations. Supplemental water is also required where auguring is used to create a well in dry ground (i.e., above the water table).

Jetting In jetting excavation, water is pumped down the center of the drill rod. The water then returns up the borehole or drill-pipe carrying cuttings and debris. The pipe is rotated to aid the drilling. This simple method can be

undertaken above and below the water table. It does require water pumping, however, and is only suitable for unconsolidated rocks and soil. If boulders are present in the soil layer, they can prevent drilling. Percussion drilling Percussion drilling involves the lifting and dropping of a heavy cutting tool that chips and excavates material from a hole. With a mechanical winch, the tool can reach depths of hundreds of meters. Percussion drills are easy to operate and maintain and are suitable for a wide variety of soil types. They can be operated above and below the water table.

Table 5.3: Well Types Method


Soil Type


Labor Requirements

Suitable Above/Below Groundwater Table?

Hand dug

1.5m/20m max

Range but not hard, unfractured rock.

Hand tools and precast/ brick lining materials.

Unskilled but labor intensive. Extraction by bucket or hand pump.

Yes, but dewatering required.

Tubewell/ Borehole

150mm/ 50m typical but can be deeper

Soft soils.

Basic drilling rig.

Skilled and experienced for rig operation. Extraction by pump.



170mm/ 116m

Soft/stiff but not rock. Cannot penetrate hard formations.

Steel Vonder Rig (simple).

Skilled for rig operation. Extraction by pump.

Not usually.


220mm+/ 150m+


Rig and pneumatic hammer.

Skilled for rig operation. Extraction by pump.



75-100mm/ 20m

Soft/stiff but no boulders or rock.

Drill rig, pump and source of water.

Skilled for rig operation. Extraction by pump.


Percussion drilling



Rig and heavy cutting tool

Skilled for rig operation. Extraction by pump.


Types of pumps for groundwater extraction Many types of pumps are available to extract groundwater from a constructed well. The main ones operate on variations of piston, diaphragm, or rotary vane principles. They can be powered with either manual labor or electrical power supply, depending on specific site conditions and availability of funds and materials. Manually operated systems may be preferable from a reliability and energy consumption perspective, but their water yields and operating depths are limited by physical strength. They can be as low-tech as rope and bucket systems; however, due to safety concerns, it is recommended that hand pumps be the first consideration for manual systems. Electric pumps clearly have a greater operating cost and can require maintenance from more experienced operators, but they have a greater yield and may be required, depending on well depth. While the site will likely require electric pumps operating in deep boreholes, various pumping options are described below for consideration when more information is available.

Hand pumps:

Electric-powered pumps:

Suction pumps

Mains power

Suction pumps are the most common type of hand pump because they are cheap and suitable for domestic use. However, they are typically limited to operating depths of 23 feet (7 meters) due to atmospheric pressure. Additionally, they require seal priming when the seals dry out or need replacing, a process that can introduce contaminants.

The most common method of powering the water pump is the municipal electrical supply. While not the most sustainable means of extracting groundwater, depending on the depth of the well a mains electrical supply may be necessary, as deep well pumps require more power than is available from other systems.

Low-lift pumps Low-lift pumps operate similarly to suction pumps, but with the cylinder and piston located below ground (preferably below the water level) to provide a positive suction head. This type of pump is also limited by atmospheric pressure; it typically can lift water a maximum of 49 feet (15 meters). Direct-action pumps Direct-action pumps depend on the strength of the operator to lift the column of water. They are cheap to buy and operate, but are typically limited to 49 feet (15 meters) of depth. Intermediate and high-lift pumps Cranks and levers work to reduce the physical effort required to pump water in these pump types. They are robust, with bearings and components capable of handling the larger stresses impacted by deeper pumping (typically up to 148 feet [45 meters]). Although expensive, they can be used to reach deep groundwater.

Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan

Solar power Solar pumps are a viable option for groundwater pumping and are becoming common in the region. They work in the same way as an electric-powered water pump, but use PV panels to gather heat from the sun and convert it to energy that is stored in a high-capacity battery that powers the pump. The batteries are similar to those used in cars, which are readily available in the developing world. The capacity of the pump, however, is limited to the amount of sun available; solar pumps can therefore only be used for operating depths of up to 98 feet (30 meters). While this may preclude their usage if a deep borehole is required, it is recommended to use solar pumps for any other pumping, including treated water and stormwater. PV pumps have many advantages, including a long lifespan (20 years), low maintenance, and easy operation. They also require no attendance for operation. They are expensive to purchase initially, but this cost is offset against their likely operating lifespan.

Section 5: The Master Plan Page 149

Types of storage tanks Storage tanks are a very important part of any water system. They ensure that adequate quantities of water are available to meet demand and preserve water quality. Water is susceptible to a number of ambient negative influences, including bacteria, viruses, algae, changes in pH, and accumulation of minerals and gases. A correctly designed water tank works to address and mitigate these negative effects. Based on the available materials and technologies available in the region, it is recommended that the campus water system utilize a network of plastic water tanks to achieve the necessary storage capacity. Water tanks are constructed from a variety of materials ranging from steel to concrete and even wood. In rural East Africa, reinforced masonry and plastic are the most common materials used in water tank construction. Reinforced masonry tanks are popular because they can be built to a wide range of sizes and use the same materials and construction techniques used in most buildings. However, masonry is a porous material which is also prone to cracking over time. This poses certain challenges for water tank design and construction. Water is capable of infiltrating very small pathways through surfaces so proper waterproofing sealant layers are required in masonry tanks. The standard practice in the region is to apply a cement plaster to the inner surface of masonry tanks. This plaster is often treated with chemical additives or coated with a non-flexible sealant. These treatments are not very effective because most tanks are not properly reinforced and poorly built resulting in extensive cracking in both the masonry tank walls and the plaster. Leaks in these masonry tanks develop quickly and progress over time eventually degrading the structural integrity of the tank. This is especially problematic when there are only one or two storage tanks in a system. It is typically not cost effective to build a large number of small masonry tanks. Instead, most water systems in rural East Africa tend to have a small number of larger tanks. The downside to this is that if one tank needs to be emptied for repairs

or replacement, the operation of the water system is heavily impacted. The performance of reinforced masonry tanks improves when they are buried into the ground. The surrounding soil supports the tank walls reducing stresses and insulates the tank walls against changes in temperature which can also cause cracks to develop. However; this adds some complexity to the construction process and may limit the size of tank that can be built. Also, it is more difficult to identify problems such as leaks in buried tanks. Alternatively, there is a sizeable plastic water tank industry present in East Africa. Several domestic companies offer manufactured plastic water tanks in a range of sizes. These offer several advantages over masonry tanks including speed of installation, capacity flexibility, redundancy, and improved water quality preservation. Once delivered on site, plastic tanks simply need to be placed in position and then connected to the water system saving significant time. These tanks are mostly light in weight and can be moved by hand without the aid of mechanized equipment. The speed of installation also means that the storage capacity of a

water system can be easily increased as demand grows over time. Individual water tanks can be assembled into a network to achieve the required capacity. A network of smaller water tanks also introduces a level of redundancy into the system. If one tank develops a leak or another problem, it can be removed for repair or replacement from the system without having a significant impact. Lastly, plastic is a completely inert material meaning it will not alter the water in contact with it. The cement plaster of masonry tanks may impart chemicals or minerals into the water over time. For these reasons, it is recommended that the campus water system utilize a network of plastic water tanks to achieve the necessary storage capacity rather than masonry tanks.

Above: A leaking masonry water tank - Eastern Province, Kenya Opposite: Prefabricated plastic water tanks for sale Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

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Section 5: The Master Plan Page 151

Energy The design and implementation of a carbon-neutral energy strategy is key for the SPC campus to reach its overall goal of self-sufficiency. Providing renewable energy systems that also enable the campus to achieve zero net energy (ZNE) over the period of a year will have the added benefit of increasing resilience and reducing operational interruptions due to power outages. This section provides an overview of the strategies that will enable SPC to achieve ZNE and carbon neutrality.

Energy goals and strategies Goals Reduce energy consumption; increase energy efficiency; recover and reuse waste energy streams; increase energy resilience; and utilize renewable resources. Strategies •

Minimize energy usage in buildings and at the site

Deploy efficient building and campus energy systems

Maximize on-campus renewable energy generation.

Aspirational targets •

Implement carbon-positive energy systems and provide renewable standby energy to enable continuation of campus operations in case of power outage.

Opposite: A fuel delivery truck drives north towards Arusha - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

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Section 5: The Master Plan Page 153

Petroleum products, all of which are imported, make up the balance of the nation’s energy consumption (8%). Electricity generation and distribution In 2010, the total installed capacity of the electricity generation system was 1,219 MW, of which hydropower comprised 561 MW and gas and oil 658 MW. The minimal infrastructure connecting generation sources in Tanzania has led to multiple fragmented grids throughout the country. Historically, electricity generation levels have been relatively low, although they have increased rapidly since 2000. Distribution losses have also traditionally been high — over 20%, meaning that for every five units of electricity generated only four are supplied. These levels are reflected in Tanzania’s low per capita consumption levels. In 2007, the nation’s 81 kWh

Tanzania’s reliance on fossil fuels is increasing as the energy system diversifies away from dependency on hydro generation for electricity. Some, but not all, of this diversification could be met by indigenous resources. (In terms of oil in particular, however, the nation will always be import-dependent.) This shift could have several major adverse consequences. First, increased imports could reduce energy security. Second, Tanzania will become increasingly exposed to the fluctuations of international energy commodity markets and forecast increases in prices in the medium term. In 2007, for example, high oil price increases led to an over 26% increase in the value of imports. Third, adverse environmental impacts — air pollution in particular — will arise from increased fossil fuel usage .








The World Bank estimates that businesses in Tanzania experience outages equivalent to 63 days each year. They incur costs due to resulting equipment damage, but also because of the need to switch to their own generation at a higher cost ($0.29 per kWh compared to $0.09 per kWh). Approximately 60% of firms own their own fossil fuel-powered generation equipment.



Tanzania’s electricity consumption is extremely low, accounting for less than 2% of final energy requirements. This reflects the low access rates to the national power grid: only 14% for the population as a whole, and 1% in rural areas.



As annual consumption exceeds forest stock growth, the nation’s high biomass usage is not sustainable. In addition, the overall forest stock is declining due to deforestation. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations’ Forest Resource Assessment, the per annum forest loss may be as high as 1,018 acres (412,000 hectares).

Electricity supply in Tanzania has been unreliable in recent years. Prior to 2005, the system was almost totally reliant on hydro generation, leaving it vulnerable to outages during years with low rainfall. This became particularly problematic in the mid1990s and 2006, when serious load shedding problems arose. Since 2005, significant additional gas and oil generation capacity has come online, reducing this vulnerability in dry periods (although not removing it completely). Outages have also been caused by poor system maintenance due to a lack of investment in infrastructure.



In Tanzania, biomass (typically in the form of charcoal and fuel wood) accounts for 89% of the total national energy consumption. Biomass usage is particularly high in the residential sector, where it provides energy for cooking.

per capita consumption was below the per capita sub-Saharan African average of 124 kWh, Kenya’s 151 kWh, and South Africa’s 4,985 kWh .


Energy generation and consumption patterns in Tanzania exhibit characteristics observed in the majority of developing countries, where most energy requirements are met through the use of biomass.

Figure 5.33: Total Primary Energy Supply (In Metric Tons of Oil Equivalent)


Tanzania energy statistics and trends

All Other Sources

Figure 5.32: Electric Power Consumption (kWh) 5000








Sub-Saharan Africa South Africa

Figure 5.34: National Electricity Production by Source

Energy usage assumptions In order to understand the optimal approach for the campus’ energy systems, we generated an estimate of expected electricity consumption.


80% Oil 60%

Natural Gas Hydroelectric



For this analysis, we made assumptions in terms of campus populations, occupancy schedules, and equipment. The sample occupancy and equipmentusage schedule in Figure 1 below details the assumed usage percentages for a typical classroom space for people, lighting, and fans.













Classroom Operational Schedule Figure 5.35: Classroom Operational Schedule 100%

80% Plug Loads 60%

Fans Lighting


Occupancy 20%
























0% 12:00

The likely energy sources on campus include electricity and biofuel (for cooking). Our energy evaluation included only electricity; in carbon terms, biofuels are classified as carbon neutral due to the short time period between a tree absorbing carbon dioxide to grow and that carbon dioxide being released when wood is burned. However, the broader environmental issues related to the use of biofuels in Tanzania — e.g., deforestation and pollution — make finding alternative approaches to burning biofuels an urgent priority.

We repeated this process across all of the space types within the SAME masterplan, also making assumptions regarding miscellaneous site loads that might be present due to site lighting or pumping. The analysis resulted in a projection of energy consumption by space type over the period of a year for the entire campus. Figure 5.36 shows the contribution made by each space classification. The two smaller graphs show additional detail by isolating non-residential (lower left) and residential (lower right) space types. The major energy contributors include the lab spaces — mainly due to machinery and process-type exhaust systems — and dormitory buildings. Although the dormitories actually use a very small amount of energy (breakdowns of energy usage components can be seen in Figure 5.35), the high number of dorms makes this space type a major contributor to the campus’ overall energy profile.

Time of Day

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Section 5: The Master Plan Page 155

Figure 5.36: Total Site Energy Breakdown by Space Type




4% Office/Admin Space

1% Kitchen Restroom

13% 24%

Bedroom/Living Space Misc Site Loads Restroom

8% Religious Hall 3%




3% 1%

Storage 9%

Main Campus Buildings



Dormitory Buildings




Student Center




3% 4%


1% 40%



Lab 32%

52% Classroom

4% Office/Admin space 13% 3%



Figure 5.38: Typical Daily Energy Profile

Energy load determination The typical daily electricity profile can be seen in Figure 5.38, which shows cumulative usage by hours for all space types.


Peak time for electricty usage is around 7PM, when lab and classroom spaces continue to be utilized (although less so than in the day) in addition to residential areas starting to be populated.

kWh Consumption per Hour


The total electricty usage for the campus is estimated to be 1,900,000 kWh per year. This equates to an electricity intensity of approximately 6.7 kWh/ft2/year. By comparison, a typical college building in California would have an electricity intensity on the order of 14 kWh/ft2/year.




























Time of Day

Figure 5.37: Dormitory Energy Usage Source Cell Phone Charging

80 60

Fans Timer Switch




























Energy Use (kWh)


Time of Day

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Section 5: The Master Plan Page 157

Sustainability strategies The energy strategy for the Same Polytechnic College campus will support the broader goal of achieving net zero carbon emissions on an annualized basis. The strategy will also examine the viability of achieving a carbon-positive target: i.e., using the campus as a sink for carbon emissions over the period of a year, offsetting the negative climate impacts of other developments in Tanzania. The energy strategy will also focus on maximizing energy self-reliance and resilience for the campus. Any chosen approaches will be selected on a life cycle cost basis. Other drivers that will factor into the campus energy strategy are: •

Lowering energy costs at the campus

Exploring systems with low maintenance requirements, or where maintenance education might be a strategic driver

Creating synergies with the local community in the form of social outreach or contributing to the local economy

Creating opportunities for energy education and supporting vocational curriculum programs

Reducing pollution locally and/or regionally.

Figure 5.39: Energy Demand Reduction Strategy

Minimize energy use It is generally more cost effective to focus on reducing energy demands before considering on-site renewable energy generation. A best-practices approach to energy design is shown in Figure 5.39 — reducing electrical loads and employing passive measures and energy-efficient systems (including energy-recovery opportunities) should be the focus of attention during the first stages. The strategy to minimize energy use includes the following components: •

Reduce energy loads to only what is necessary

Employ passive strategies for lighting, heating, and cooling on all buildings to further reduce the need for active systems

When active systems are needed, implement the most energy-efficient systems available

Use energy-recovery systems when available.

To adopt these general best practice guidelines for reducing the SPC campus’ energy needs, a number of specific measures and design strategies should be investigated throughout all design phases. Specific strategies that will be applicable to SAME University include: •

Specifying high-efficiency motors in fans and pumping systems, including in lab equipment where possible

Employing high-efficiency lighting systems, such as compact fluorescents or LEDs

Utilizing simple automated control systems to turn of lights or equipment when not in use

Capturing heat from waste air streams for reuse

Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan

in ventilation air or to preheat hot water systems. Deploy an efficient campus energy system Larger energy systems tend to result in superior durability and performance compared to smaller, independent ones. Therefore, a campus-wide energy system should be considered. However, after the campus energy profile is determined, a cost-benefit comparison should be conducted between a campuswide system versus a cluster of smaller independent energy grids. Another driving factor in deciding whether to invest in campus-wide energy infrastructure should be the usage and placement of renewable energy. Installing renewable energy on the larger building roofs and having these buildings connected to the rest of the campus will enable renewable energy to be distributed where it is needed most. One final consideration will be the phasing of the project, which is currently assumed to be implemented to full build-out in five stages. During each phase, the campus will need to be fully operational while still being able to take advantage of efficiency benefits due to scaling as later phases come online. Ensuring that the system installed during phase two can accommodate feeds from phases three, four, and five will take careful planning. The electrical infrastructure for future phases, along with the circulation road, may also need to be installed during phase two.

Section 5: The Master Plan Page 159

Maximize on-campus renewable energy generation A variety of options for generating renewable energy on campus exist: solar, wind, biofuel, anaerobic digestion, waste conversion, and geothermal. The following sections discuss the feasibility of each. Solar energy The performance of a solar energy system is directly related to the level of solar radiation incident on the earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s surface at a project site. There are significant levels of solar radiation in Tanzania in general and at the project site in particular. Solar energy is simple to install, has no moving parts, and is already used regionally. Photovoltaics in particular are the most viable and strongly recommended renewable technology for the campus. If used directly for electricity generation, solar energy can reduce the need for grid electricity and eliminate the associated emissions from electricity generation at a power plant. Solar thermal (or heat) energy can also be used to offset on-site gas and/or electric energy use for heating. Solar electric Solar electric, or photovoltaic (PV), panels produce energy by converting incident photon energy into electric current in the form of DC power. This is then typically converted to AC power with an inverter for consumption in buildings. For remote, off-grid, standalone applications, it is common to couple the system with battery banks that store energy generated during the day for use during evening or night hours.

Right: Field array of solar PV panels

While the potential for solar PV in Tanzania is significant, the installed capacity of small-scale systems in 2008 was approximately 1.8 MWp. However, usage is growing. According to solar energy association TASEA, just over 100 kWp of solar systems were sold in 2005, whereas in 2006 the market more than doubled to 204 kWp, with more than 4,000 systems installed. Recent figures put the market at 1.5 MWp in 2009. The growth rate in suppliers has also increased significantly. There are about 12 importer/wholesalers and 150 retailers around the country. This private sector growth has benefited from donor fund market development projects (Sida, UNDP, World Bank) in association with the Ministry of Energy and Minerals (MEM). Half of the market is for small home systems (less than 50 Wp) while the other half is for institutional systems (telecoms, TRA, etc.). There are good incentives in place at the Rural Energy Agency (REA) to encourage use of solar technology for social infrastructure or APEX organizations. Residential PV systems of up to 100Wp are subsidized at $2 USD per Wp by the REA through the Rural Energy Fund. More than 300 technicians have already been trained in installation and after-sale service. We believe that PV modules mounted on campus building roofs could meet the majority of the schoolâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s energy needs. The energy would be stored in one or several battery banks and used when needed. However, loads analysis will need to be conducted in later phases of design to confirm this hypothesis.

Left: Roof top mounted solar PV panels

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Section 5: The Master Plan Page 161

There is also an option to use ground-mount PV for additional capacity if adequate roof space is unavailable. Examples of roof- and ground-mounted PV installations can be seen in on page 161. We completed an analysis to understand the potential size of roof-mounted PV system needed to help the campus achieve a zero net energy classification (excluding on-site combustion of biofuel). The area required can be seen in Figure 5.40 (represented by Figure 5.40: Proposed PV Roof Coverage

the blue coloring). This scenario assumes that the PV panels are located on roofs or a shade structure over the academic buildings. Our analysis indicated that this scale will ensure better economics for the system when compared to a decentralized approach. The total PV area required to achieve a ZNE approach is 193,750ft2 (18,000m2). Figure 5.41 describes a typical day energy profile for a system this size. Here, the PV actually over-generates during daylight hours to offset the campusâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; energy usage during the hours of darkness.

This over-generation could be exported to the utility grid if the utility company allows it and the infrastructure servicing the campus is of adequate size. Instead, however, we recommend that it be used to charge batteries that can power the campus during the night. An added benefit of this approach is resiliency: During the areaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s frequent grid power outages, the campus can keep operating through the use of the PV generation combined with battery storage.

Figure 5.41: Average Building Electric Consumption & PV Generation: Daily Campus Average Building Electric Consumption Energy Profile and PV Generation

PV Generation 600 Site Total 400


























kWh Consumption per Hour


Time of Day

There is also an opportunity to install standalone solar lighting throughout the site in order to remove the external lighting (walkways, streets, security lighting, etc.) energy loads from the overall site. These systems generally utilize high-efficacy LED lamps and have built-in battery storage, which allows them to operate without any connection to an external electricity supply (e.g., grid). They are thus completely self-sufficient. The costs of these systems have dropped significantly in recent years, making them the most economical solution for many developments and regions throughout Africa, where energy costs are typically higher than in other parts of the world.

Figure 5.42: Campus Microgrid 2 Strings of PV

Distribution Panel

Figure 5.42 shows one possible approach to enable the campus to use both renewable energy and battery storage and make the energy generated and stored available at night and during power outages. The infrastructure needed would include inverters and power regulation and switching devices to essentially turn the campus into a microgrid.

AC Loads

Charge Controller

Inverter Charger Gen Set

Battery Bank

Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan

Distribution Panel

AC Grid

Section 5: The Master Plan Page 163

Solar thermal Solar thermal can be used to replace natural gas, electricity, and biomass for space- and water-heating needs. In this system, solar energy is captured via solar collectors, then stored and distributed through a hot water system. Solar thermal collectors could be building-integrated at SPC via roofs, canopies, or facades. They could also be ground-mounted and connected directly to buildings or to a hot water loop. However, solar thermal should only be considered if there is a high hot water demand. One option for scenarios with low hot water demands is to install a passive thermo-syphon solar thermal collector with an integrated hot water storage tank, as shown in to the right. A simple spigot from the hot water storage tank could then provide users access to hot water. Since this system is passive, it requires nearly zero maintenance.

Concentrated solar power (CSP) technology, in which water is heated to a high temperature and then used to make electricity, is typically reserved for very large utility-scale projects. However, CSP solar reflectors may be applicable for the SPC campus. This technology concentrates sunlight to direct large amounts of radiation to a single focal point. Most applications use secondary reflectors to then direct this energy to a water heater or cooking pot. An example of a CSP solar reflector is the Scheffler Reflector, seen in to the left. This scalable system can be used to feed a handful of people or fuel kitchens that provide thousands of meals per day. Smaller-scale collectors such as the simple box-style model shown below can be used to cook a stew or boil water. The use of CSP technology for culinary purposes is strongly recommended since it will offset the burning of wood for cooking, which will in turn reduce on-site air pollution and deforestation.

Opposite: Solar water heater - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania Above: Portable solar oven

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Section 5: The Master Plan Page 165

Biofuel If produced responsibly, biofuel in the form of biodiesel produced from oilseed feedstocks can increase access to modern energy, enhance energy security, provide livelihoods, and promote sustainable development in any country. Tanzania is in the process of formulating a sound policy and legal mechanisms to foster investments in biodiesel. This positive development has been attributed to interest in biofuel investments shown by different firms, in addition to the country’s need to reduce fuel imports. In the meantime, given the current absence of a policy to govern biofuel activities, we have created our own set of guidelines for biofuel development for the purposes of this project: •

Only non-food crops will be utilized

Crops will be grown on land that is not suitable for agriculture

Crops must be indigenous to Tanzania

Use of non-toxic pesticides.

Given the set of guidelines above, food crops such as palm oil and sugarcane will not be investigated for use as a biofuel. The following will be investigated for use in biofuel and alternate applications: •

Jatropha, which is native to Tanzania and is currently receiving the greatest attention within the country for biofuel development

Croton tree, a species native to Tanzania

Yellow oleander, which is native to the Same region

Castor, which is also native to the Same region.

These crops’ ease of growth, cultivation, and biofuel conversion are key attributes that favor their promotion and use in this capacity at the project site. However, croton, yellow oleander, and castor require a chemical post-processing technique that has not been fully developed or commercially applied. We therefore recommend that only Jatropha be further investigated for use as a biofuel or for biofuel demonstration at the project site. However, if it is determined that croton, yellow oleander, and castor are readily available within the site, alternative uses could be further investigated. We also suggested that biofuels be considered in terms of broader community benefit: e.g., the local population growing Jatropha and bringing it to the SPC campus for processing.

Upper Far Opposite: A jatropha tree - Rift Valley Province, Kenya Lower Far Opposite: The seed pods of the castor tree Eastern Province, Kenya Opposite: Yellow oleander - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania Right: A worker refuels a generator on a construction site - Eastern Province, Kenya

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Section 5: The Master Plan Page 167

Wind Wind energy is a renewable technology that can generate electricity in small-scale urban or large-scale rural applications, and could thus be considered on a preliminary level for implementation on this project. In order for wind energy to be viable, however, there must be adequate wind resources at the site. At present, there is no proper assessment of wind energy potential in Tanzania. Some assessments have been made in specific regions; for example, the Singida region and Makambako in the Iringa region have measured wind speeds of more than 26ft/s (8m/s), a speed at which wind turbines will start generating electricity. However, winds at this speed or higher will need to be maintained often for turbines to be economically viable. In areas such as Mkumbara, Karatu and Mgagao, wind speeds are more than 14.8ft/s (4.5m/s), a level at which wind turbines will not likely be practical. It should also be noted that small wind turbines (those with less than 100kW) will require maintenance due to various moving parts. Although they are not incredibly complex, the availability of local maintenance skills will need to be considered. Ultimately, when compared to solar PV, which is zero maintenance and has a plentiful solar resource available, wind will most likely not be viable.

Right: Roof mounted wind turbines

Figure 5.43: Anaerobic Digestion Schematic Diagram

Anaerobic digestion Anaerobic digestion consists of a series of processes in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. It has been used for industrial and domestic purposes for treating and managing biodegradable waste and sewage sludge. It is also a source of renewable energy. The process produces a biogas consisting of methane, carbon dioxide, and traces of other contaminant gases. The biogas can be used directly as cooking fuel, in combined heat and power gas engines, or to heat water. The nutrient-rich byproduct can be used as fertilizer. The technical expertise required to maintain industrial-scale anaerobic digesters, coupled with the processâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; high capital costs and low process efficiencies, has so far been a limiting factor in its deployment as a waste-treatment technology. The market is, however, starting to see smaller package-type plug-and-play systems geared to the large building or campus level. One example (known as the Muck Buster) is seen in the following image. Given the siteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s remote location and the lack of existing wastewater infrastructure, a packaged system like this could offer a viable solution to treating wastewater and creating renewable energy. The ability to use the waste sludge in the farming program at the schools could also help close the loop between resource streams.

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Section 5: The Master Plan Page 169

Geothermal Geothermal resources do exist in Tanzania, although in the absence of any detailed surveying the available potential is unknown. According to the German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ), a geological survey of Tanzania has been conducted since June 2006 in collaboration between the Ministry of Energy and Mines and the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) of Germany. Geothermal potential at Songwe is being assessed, with 60 MW currently estimated.

One of the most significant costs associated with geothermal resources is pre-exploitation drilling to assess the steam resources. Once the resource has been deemed commercially viable, geothermal plants could be competitive with other thermal generation plants. Kenya is actively developing geothermal power generation (150 MW installed and another 150 MW under construction), with 18 MW over the border in Lake Natron.

Figure 5.44: Geothermal Energy Schematic Diagram <

< a clOSed lOOP gShP SySteM (leFt) and a true geOtherMal SySteM

geothermal energy & ground source heat

closed loop systems may be installed in the shallow ground (<2m depth) with a largely horizontal layout, or installed vertically within an array of specially drilled boreholes. closed loop systems can also be incorporated into the foundations of a building, for example in energy piles

Summary: Achieving a carbon-positive energy strategy A carbon-positive energy strategy will allow the campus to produce more renewable energy than it consumes over the period of a year. This will be achievable on the SPC campus through the following: •

Energy-reduction and -efficiency measures such as using of high-efficiency lighting and the design of buildings that maximize the use of natural daylight

The implementation of in excess of 193.75ft2 (18,000 m²) of solar PV or the equivalent in other renewable energy systems

The development of alternatives to burning wood for cooking, such as using concentrating solar technologies

Advance planning to allow energy systems to be integrated as each new phase comes online.

This approach has additional benefits given the site’s remote location. There will be less reliance on the local electricity grid, making power more readily available and resulting in fewer interruptions to teaching caused by brownouts. Local and regional air pollution will also be reduced. In addition to lowering campus operating costs due to the need to purchase less energy, discussions with the utility company related to interconnecting the renewable system with the grid may also turn the systems into a revenue stream for the university. Educating students about the SPC’s carbon-positive systems will also help stimulate a broader awareness of climate change and environmental risks.

Right: Large scale wind turbines

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Section 5: The Master Plan Page 171

Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan

Section 4: Planning principles and context Page 173

Transportation This section describes the overarching goals for transportation and campus circulation. It also sets out construction methods for the proposed internal road network, establishing benchmark standards for utilizing locally available materials and employing appropriate techniques.

Transportation goals and strategies

Private car and service vehicle traffic is expected to be very low. However, although capacity will not be a significant road design issue, roads and the connection to the adjacent B1 highway should be designed in accordance with published local and international design standards.


Goals Plan access to a wide range of efficient, environmentally sensitive, and convenient means of transportation. •

Enable the effective movement of students and staff through a safe, walkable campus.

Link the site to the existing external bus network by placing a bus stop at the campus entrance.

Restrict vehicular access to the core campus area and promote a walking and cycling culture by providing routes for these activities across the campus.

Provide sufficient access for service vehicles and segregate them from people and private vehicles.

Minimize formal traffic control measures by providing shared right-of-way for pedestrians, cyclists, and private cars wherever possible.

Provide parking for up to 50 cars initially, with space reserved for future expansion.

Opposite: An overcrowded public transit minibus Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

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Existing transportation network No roads currently exist on the site. The existing transportation network is limited to the existing B1 highway, which runs northâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;south and connects Same to the eastâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;west A23 Arushaâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;Hima road to the north. The school will be connected to the B1; an internal network of roads will be constructed within the site to allow movement of people and vehicles on campus. The regional public transportation network provides regular bus service along the B1. We propose placing a bus stop near the site entrance, as the majority of students are likely to use public transport on a daily basis. For security reasons, this stop should be located in a dedicated drop-off zone away from the actual entrance. The true entrance will have control facilities to regulate vehicle access into the site. This drop-off zone will link the site entrance to the existing B1 highway.

Right: A bus travels down the B1 highway - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

Figure 5.45: Transportation Infrastructure Map

Demand and usage assumptions The majority of students and teachers will arrive at the site by public transport, foot, bicycle, or small motorcycle. Students will probably not have access to private cars, but the design team should assume that private vehicle usage may increase in the future and provide space for car parking within the site boundary. Approximately 50 cars will access the site every day (carrying half of the estimated 100 teaching staff), and the same number of parking spaces should be made across the campus. These spaces could be distributed through the campus at individual buildings or on the street; they do not require dedicated lots. It is also recommended that space be allocated for further 50 to 100 parking spots in the future, preferably in a dedicated surface parking facility within a five- to tenminute walk of all campus buildings. To encourage cycling, secure bicycle parking should be provided across the campus in the vicinity of building entrances. This will likely take the form of racks that allow bicycles to be parked and securely locked to a fixed structure. At least 200 dedicated bicycle parking racks should be provided throughout the campus. All private vehicles entering the campus will need to pass through the security gate at the site entrance. Five visitor parking spaces are proposed at the site entrance for temporary parking while any administrative duties are carried out.

Left: Locals hitch a ride in the back of a pick-up truck Tanga Region, Tanzania

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Design standards A number of local design standards for highways exist in the region, including the Tanzanian Ministry of Works’ Geometric Design of Roads (1989) and the Republic of Kenya Road Department Design Manual (1979). The Tanzanian design manual has less content and is less thorough than the Kenyan design manual; if a local code is to be used, the latter should therefore be selected. The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (2004) (AASHTO) contains much broader guidance and provides standards for low-volume estate roads similar to the internal road network planned on the campus. AASHTO, however, provides little guidance on unpaved roads; thus, a more suitable design code for the unpaved service roads would be the Australian Roads Research Board’s (ARRB) Unpaved Road Manual (2009). AASHTO and ARRB are recommended as the prime geometric design guidance for the design of internal roads and the connection to the B1 highway, but should be reviewed against the local Tanzanian and Kenyan codes. Lastly, the UK Department of Transport’s The Geometric Design of Pedestrian, Cycle and Equestrian Routes (2005) is recommended for the design of cycle paths across the site, as it contains useful parameters not found in the other codes.

Right: An unpaved road rendered impassable during the monsoon rains - Rift Valley Province, Kenya

Sustainability strategies The overarching transportation planning goal is to provide a campus where people can move around and interact with their environment freely and safely. The preliminary circulation plan acknowledges that an internal system of roads will be required to service the buildings. If these are carefully designed, they can have a minimal impact on the environment and become part of the overall public realm. The key sustainability strategies are set out below. Compact and walkable campus Our goal is to create a compact campus that provides opportunity for walking between all buildings and key landscaping components in a safe environment. The internal road network will be a shared surface where students can walk and cycle and campus vehicles can drive in a controlled environment. A network of dedicated pedestrian and cycle paths should be provided throughout the campus, linking buildings with the agricultural and wetland areas and discouraging private car use. The drainage swales also provide an opportunity to route footpaths through the campus, providing alternative pedestrian routes through the core areas and opportunities for people to gather close to water.

Upper Left: More pedestrians and cyclists use unpaved roads than automobiles in rural areas- Eastern Province, Kenya Lower Far Left: A shaded pedestrian walkway Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania Lower Left: Landscaping used to define a pedestrian walkway - Eastern Province, Kenya

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Connect to existing public transportation networks As previously mentioned, a bus stop that connects with the existing external bus network will be located at the site entrance. Considered critical to the overall success of the project, this connection is likely to be well used. The stop will allow people to enter and exit buses safely from the B1 highway. A dedicated right turn lane could be introduced on the B1 at the site access location so that vehicles can safely access the campus and highway traffic flow uninterrupted. Alternatively, a turnout to the south could be provided so that vehicles have a place of refuge prior to making the right turn into the campus from the B1. This would be an appropriate solution given the low traffic flows, and the turnout area could be unpaved to minimize construction costs and complexity of associated design work. A deceleration lane will likely be required to maintain traffic flows and speeds on the B1, but this could also be unpaved to keep costs down.

Upper Right: Locals offer food and other goods for sale to travellers - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania Lower Right: The bus stop in the town of Same Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

Utilize local materials for road construction Local materials will be used for road construction. The main circulation roads should be paved, but alternatives to asphalt should be considered if local clay or concrete pavers are readily available. Service road construction should be limited to basic construction materials such as sub-base with a finer binding layer of dust to seal the surface and the voids in the sub-base layer (see road construction section below). These roads should be constructed in a practical and economical manner and link to the paved surfaces at interfaces.

Left: Concrete pavers before installation - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

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Circulation plan The preliminary campus circulation plan provides a framework for the internal road network. It was created following a study of daily campus facility usage patterns by different occupant groups that illustrated how frequently each indoor facility and outdoor gathering space will likely be used. Considerations in this study included climate, academic calendar, daily routine, common behavior, and local customs and social norms. Following from the scenario planning, the pedestrian traffic density for the campus was illustrated by drawing lines between residential pods and each individual school in order to show the expected movement of the students and faculty throughout the site. These lines were then combined with the projected daily schedules and anticipated enrollment of each school in order to assign each line a thickness. The thickness of each line is based on the amount of people expected to travel between facilities, with thicker lines representing a larger amount of people than thin ones. Based on the line diagram, specific roads and pathways were highlighted as those expected to have the most pedestrian traffic. The local relationships between the residential groupings and the classrooms mean that the majority of the site movement will be focused through the main courtyards and social spaces in the campus core. This not only provides the most space possible for students to move efficiently from one location to the other but also encourages social interaction and provides a central hub for the college. To achieve a safe and secure environment throughout the core campus area, vehicular traffic will be restricted to campus service vehicles and separated from the primary pedestrian circulation routes to the greatest extent possible. All routes that will accept vehicular traffic will be designed as shared surfaces, with no physical delineation between road, footpath, and cycle areas. Each should be a minimum of eight meters wide.

Figure 5.46: On-Site Transportation Types

Pedestrian Bus Auto

scribes with the thicker lines representing a larger amount of people than the thin lines. Figure 5.47: Common Walking Distances

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Section 5: The Master Plan Page 183

Road construction options and recommendations Central road The central roads should be paved. Asphalt typically would be used, although clay or concrete block pavers are often integrated into public realm design where pedestrian movement is promoted. For rigid construction, these would be laid on a cementitious bed with grouted joints. For flexible construction, a sand bed and sand-filled joints would be appropriate (2–5mm joint width). Flexible construction should be used throughout the campus, except where there is potential for the entrance roads and primary delivery routes associated with service vehicle movements and associated heavier loads. A rigid construction with a cementitious bed and grouted joints that achieve an in-situ compressive strength of 35N/mm2 is proposed in these areas. The paving units (which are typically 50–100mm thick) should be underlain by a structural sub-base layer. The sub-base material acts as the load-carrying layer (or the road foundation) and is typically constructed over firm subgrade (existing ground) to depths between 100–250mm, depending on the application. Unbound granular materials are usually placed as sub-base. These offer excellent drainage properties, allowing water to be removed quickly from the surface. The fine material seals the voids in the larger stone and is also used to bind the finished surface and prevent the overlying sand bed from settling into the sub-base layer.

Right: A pedestrian walkway constructed from concrete pavers - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

These materials usually consist of angular stone containing well-graded material ranging from 37.5mm to fines (sometimes referred to as “40mm to dust”). The typical composition is crushed stone, slag, concrete, or non-plastic well-burnt shale. (A good material specification for the sub-base layer is Type 1 granular sub-base to the Department of Transport Specification of Highway Works, also known as MOT1.)

If the subgrade is poor or suspect, the installation of a geotextile material between the subgrade and sub-base can be used to prevent the latter from sinking into the former.To facilitate good drainage of the surface, the pavement surfaces should be sloped at a nominal 2% to shed water towards upstand curbs, drainage swales, or adjacent landscaping. The edge of the pavement should be retained by a flush concrete curb or edging.

Service roads Additional service roads not shown on the circulation plan will be required for campus operations and maintenance. The service roads do not need the same level of treatment as the main pathways, as the majority will be remote from the campus core. Where service roads connect to the paved construction arrangement, proper transitions shall be provided. The service roads could be designed without a formal paved surface, utilizing a layer of structural sub-base (as above), sealed with finer material to bind the surface and provide protection against erosion in heavy rain. It is likely that some maintenance will be required after intense rainfall to avoid surface rutting; this should be built into the campus maintenance protocols. To prevent spreading of the surface from traffic loads, the service roads will need to be retrained at the edges. This can be achieved by placing large rock units embedded below the finished grade or timber edgings nailed to driven stakes at regular intervals to hold the edges in place. Concrete restraints could also be cast to retain the pavement if desired.

Left: An unpaved walkway - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

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Waste Figure 5.48: Development Life-Cycle

co ns

on cti tru development life-cycle ope rat io


onstruction dec

sign de

maintena nce

Figure 5.49: Waste Management Heirarchy

recycling or composting including anerobic digestion energy recovery (electricity & heat) energy recovery (electricity only) or landfill

higher carbon emissions


greater carbon savings

prevention or reduction

The total solid waste projected for this project at full build out, based on its size, population and project type in rural East Africa is approximately 2,000 tonnes per year (where 1 tonne = 1,000kg). Negative impacts to society and the environment can be greatly reduced by implementing effective reduction, reuse and recycling programs to reduce the generation of waste and divert it from landfill disposal. There are also opportunities to explore potential revenue streams by realizing the value of recyclable waste streams in the local market. Published data for the Serengeti Ecosystem has been used to estimate the potential annual revenues for the college based on the assessed waste composition and the value of recyclable waste if traded in the local market. The principles of the Waste Management Hierarchy and the Development Life-Cycle (Figure 5.48) should be used as a framework for the development of an integrated solid waste management strategy for the site. The overarching goal should be to divert as much solid waste as possible from landfill and incineration. The development also provides an opportunity to take advantage of existing government initiatives to establish solid waste recycling systems in Tanzania and start to drive the development of such systems in Same.

Solid Waste Goals and Strategies Goals To become an exemplar site in the wider region for solid waste management and drive changes to the regional solid waste management infrastructure by appropriately reducing, reusing and recycling materials, minimizing generation of solid waste and diverting waste away from uncontrolled burning and dumping, which have negative impacts on the local environment. Strategies •

Maximize diversion of solid waste from landfill and incineration;

Utilize on-campus aerobic composting;

Utilize on-campus waste-to-energy technologies where feasible;

Employ preferred purchasing programs;

Maximize diversion of construction and demolition waste from landfill and incineration;

Establish a construction Site Waste Management Strategy (SWMS) and seek to achieve a recovery rate of 85%;

Identify opportunities in the local market to generate revenue from selling recyclable waste streams (source separation is critical if this is to be successful).

Aspirational Targets Opposite: A child searches through a dump for food and any items of value - Nairobi, Kenya

Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan

Divert 95% of all solid waste generated on site away from landfill disposal.

Section 5: The Master Plan Page 187

Solid Waste Trends Solid waste management constitutes one of the most crucial health and environmental problems facing governments of African nations today. Thousands of tons of solid waste are generated daily in Africa, most of which ends up in open dumps and wetlands, contaminating surface and ground water and posing major health hazards. Solid waste generation rates average between 0.4 and 0.6 kilograms per person per day. While this may seem modest compared to the 1.0 to 2.0 kilogram per person per day average generation rate in developed countries, most waste in Africa is not collected by municipal collection systems because of poor management, fiscal irresponsibility or malfeasance, equipment failure, or inadequate waste management budgets. The problems related to solid waste management facing African and other developing nations are different than those found in fully industrialized countries. Indeed, the very composition of their waste is different than that of developed nations. Although African countries’ solid waste generation rates are on average lower than fully industrialized countries, several common differences in the composition of solid waste in Africa and other developing countries have been noted: •

Waste density is 2-3 times greater than industrialized nations;

Moisture content is 2-3 times greater;

Large amount of organic waste (vegetable matter, etc.);

Large quantities of dust, dirt (street sweepings, etc);

Smaller particle size on average than in industrialized nations.

These differences from industrialized nations must be recognized both in terms of the additional problems they present as well as the potential opportunities which arise from this waste composition.

Throughout most of sub-Saharan Africa solid waste generation in cities and towns exceeds capacity of municipal collection services. This is in part due to rapid urban population growth: while only 35 percent of the sub-Saharan population lives in urban areas, the urban population grew by 150 percent between 1970 and 1990. The problem of growing demand is compounded by broken-down collection trucks and poor program management and design. In West African cities, as many as 70 percent of collection trucks are out of action at any one time. It is generally the larger city centers and wealthier neighborhoods that receive collection service when it is available. In the poorer urban areas and rural regions, uncollected waste accumulates in the streets and left to rot, is burned by residents, or is disposed of in illegal dumps.

Waste density is 2 to 3 times greater than industrialized nations The higher solid waste density also has implications for the efficiency of the collection systems used. Collection is carried out by a variety of means including: human and animal drawn carts, open-bed trucks, compactor trucks, and trailers. The higher density reduces the volume of solid waste which can be collected at a single time because of the carrying capacity limitations of the various vehicles used. Compactor trucks which are able to achieve compression rates of up to 4:1 in industrialized nations may only achieve 1.5:1 in developing countries. Additionally, the high moisture content and organic composition of wastes in Africa leads to problems of increased decomposition presenting additional challenges with insect populations and conditions conducive to disease. This is especially a concern in the tropical regions where high average daily temperatures and high seasonal

rainfall compound these problems. To mitigate these problems, much more frequent collection is needed in hot, humid areas to remove organic waste before decomposition begins than is needed in cooler, drier climates. This makes the challenges and cost of solid waste management more difficult in much of Africa. Only a small amount of the region’s waste is disposed of in sanitary landfills while the rest ends up in the environment in unacceptable ways. Of the significant proportion of solid waste that is not properly disposed of, most is deposited in open dumps or semi-controlled unlined landfills with no groundwater protection, leachate recovery, or treatment systems. The larger dumps are located on the edges of cities, towns, and villages, sometimes in ecologically sensitive areas, or areas where groundwater supplies are threatened. They serve as breeding grounds for rats, flies, birds and other organisms that serve as disease vectors. Often the refuse in these dumps is burned to reduce its volume creating smoke which may be damaging to the health of nearby residents and the smell degrades their quality of life. A major environmental concern is gas released by decomposing garbage. Carbon dioxide and methane are by-products of the anaerobic respiration of bacteria, and these bacteria thrive in landfills with high amounts of moisture. Both gases are greenhouse gases which are blamed for global warming. While carbon dioxide is readily absorbed for use in photosynthesis, methane is less easily broken down and is considered 20 times more potent as a greenhouse gas. Methane concentrations can reach up to 50 percent of the composition of landfill gas emissions at maximum anaerobic decomposition.

Opposite: A truck offloads waste at a dump - Nairobi, Kenya

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The typical solid waste stream in Africa will contain general wastes (organics and recyclables), special wastes (household hazardous, medical, and industrial waste), and construction and demolition debris. Most adverse environmental impacts from solid waste management are rooted in inadequate or incomplete collection and recovery of recyclable or reusable wastes, as well as co-disposal of hazardous wastes. There are few formal systems of materials recovery through the public or private sectors in Africa. Instead, materials recovery, including source separation and recycling, is largely the domain of the informal sector. The activity is focused on components of economic and/or social value and occurs at several levels. At the household level in lowincome, peri-urban areas, materials recovery includes the reuse of plastic bags, bottles, paper, cardboard, and cans for domestic purposes. The rate of reuse of these types of materials is high, and these materials enter the formal waste collection system only when they are no longer fit for domestic use. In high-income areas, rather than reusing the materials directly, bottles, plastics, cardboard, and paper are sold to intermediaries or commercial centers that pay for these materials. The extent to which these transactions occur depends on the availability of local marketable end uses for the materials. Though high and low value recyclables are typically recovered and reused, these make up only a small proportion of the total waste stream. As previously noted, the great majority of waste in Africa is organic, 61.4 percent on average. In theory, this waste could be converted into compost or used to generate biogas, but in situations where rudimentary solid waste management systems barely function, it is difficult to promote innovation, even when it is potentially cost-effective to do so. Also inhibiting the utilization of organic waste is the absence of services for the separate handling of special wastes such as household hazardous waste, construction and demolition debris, medical and infectious waste, tires, sewage sludge, and chemical and

pharmaceutical wastes. The predominate practice in Africa is to collect these items along with the rest of the waste stream and co-dispose of them at the same open dumps used for general solid waste. For other special wastes, some items are recycled although the rates and significance are not fully established. Automobile lead-acid batteries are recycled at a rate approaching 100 percent where there are battery refurbishers and lead-smelting plants. Tires are recycled as retreads, for use on carts, or to make shoes

and other domestic articles and used oil is recycled as an industrial lubricant or fuel in many countries. Construction and demolition waste is often recycled as backfill at new construction sites, for the reclamation of wetlands, and for the filling of low-laying areas subject to regular flooding. Wood, nails, bricks, and other materials of direct use are also reclaimed for use in other construction projects . Environmental Guidelines for Small-Scale Activities in Africa, USAID, March 2009

Solid Waste Management in Tanzania The United Republic of Tanzania, like the majority of African nations, is not advanced in terms of solid waste management. Tanzanian urban and rural areas face a big challenge with regards to coping with increasing amounts of waste piled and dumped in uncontrolled areas. The estimated quantity of solid waste generated nationwide amounts to more than 10,000 tons per day. As much as 80-90 percent of solid waste generated in urban areas is not collected and most of the domestic waste, which accounts for about 60 percent of the total solid waste generated daily, is disposed of by burning or burying. Waste recycling is only a partial solution to this problem since the recycling industry in Tanzania is still in early development and the processing capacity is too low. Laws and regulations and other policy instruments regarding solid waste management are gradually developing in the country and will eventually lead to a stronger enforcement. Currently however, local authorities lack sufficient means to enforce these solid waste management regulations. Environmental management is a fairly new topic among policy makers in Tanzania. Although the National Environmental Policy dates from 1997, the law that provides the basis for implementation of this policy, the Environmental Management Act, only was enacted in 2004 and came into force in 2007. The different parts in the law provide the legal and institutional framework for sustainable management of the environment, prevention and control of pollution, waste management, environmental quality standards, public participation, and environmental compliance and enforcement. According to the law, solid waste management is the responsibility of local authorities and municipalities. Every region in Tanzania is required to have a Regional Environmental Management Expert who is responsible for advising local authorities on matters relating to the Environmental Management Act. Furthermore, each city, municipality, district, town council and even township, ward, village and neighborhood needs

to appoint an Environment Management Officer responsible for implementation and monitoring of the act through by-laws and regulations including fines. However, local authorities dealing with environmental management often have very few resources including environmental experts and funds to implement activities. Many local authorities therefore struggle to integrate these new environmental officers in their organization.

Above: Children sort through waste at a dump - Nairobi, Kenya, ŠBrendan Bannon Opposite: Waste is left to burn - Kilimanjaro, Region, Tanzania

Recently, the development of a National Waste Management Strategy and Action Plan was initiated. Included in this are the Regulations on Solid and Hazardous Waste which were first developed in 2009. However, the contents and modes of implementation of this plan and these regulations remain unclear. National Report for the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio+20, Division of Environment, Vice Presidentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Office, United Republic of Tanzania, April 2012

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Preliminary Waste Management Calculations Table 5D shows the key assumptions and preliminary solid waste generation quantities based on unit rates from a number of proven sources (see table footnotes) and the current development program. Approximately 2,000 tonnes of solid waste per year has been calculated based on the number of students likely to be on campus and the development program. It should be noted that some of the sources may not be too applicable to East Africa, but in the absence of local data, are generally considered representative at this stage of the project. The estimated composition and annual generation rates for each type of waste stream is shown in Figure 5.50. Waste composition percentages were derived from published data for Nairobi, Kenya and are considered to be representative for the Same region. Organic waste dominates (1,233 tonnes per year) and this is generally consistent with published data for East Africa. There are opportunities to collect and compost this waste on site and use for crops and animal feed. The campus should therefore target 100% re-use of organic waste and ensure that source separation measures are put in place to collect this waste stream. The other recyclable waste streams have value in the local market and present an opportunity for the college to generate revenue from its waste. Plastics have a high retail value locally and this is the estimated second largest waste stream for the project. Table 5.4 summarizes potential annual revenues by recyclable waste stream, based on the quantity and composition of solid waste shown in Figure 5.50.

Right: A man sorts through waste looking for items of values - Nairobi, Kenya, ŠBrendan Bannon

Figure 5.50: Estimated Solid Waste Composition Estimated Solid Waste Composition and Annual Generation (tonnes)

and Annual Generation (tonnes) 0.6% 4.8%



61.4% 11.8%

Paper and Cardboard






Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan

Table 5.4: Campus Waste Generation Program Information

Assumed Demand Category


Land Use Area (m2)

Waste Generation Rate

Waste Generated (tonnes/yr)

Full Time Students






Part Time Students












Computer Lab






Light Lab






Heavy Lab






Administration (Faculty, MISD and Other Facilities)






Student Union (Library, Auditorium, Student Center)






Kitchen and Cafeteria (dining and tea) 3












Table footnotes: 1. GFA data was used to determine the residential population. An assumption that the student housing will have average occupancy of2.3 persons/unit (Arup Infrastructure Design Guidelines). 2. GFA data was used to determine the number of units available for the given area. For a dormitory housing 50 m2/unit was assumed (Arup Infrastructure Design Guidelines). 3. Restaurant use was determined using 10m2/person per Arup Infrastructure Design Guidelines. 4. Sources of waste generation unit rates: Residential unit rate (0.365 tonnes/person/year) from “UNCHS 1993”. Part time, non-residential students unit rate (0.1tonnes/person/year) from “Waste Watch (2005) Resource Management in the Education Sector: Key Findings from a Study”. Office/admin/computer lab unit rate (0.020 tonnes/m2/year) from “Planning for Resource Sustainable Communities – Vol. 1 Waste infrastructure and Management” – a Code of Practice. Cafeteria and Kitchen unit rate (0.62 tonnes/cover) from “BS 5906:2005”. Student Union (recreation) unit rate (0.04 tonnes/m2/year) from “BS 5906:2005”. Heavy and Light Labs (utilities) unit rate (0.05 tonnes/m2/year) from professional judgment. 5. Areas for residential, kitchen and cafeteria were not used to calculate solid waste generation (values in red were not used for the waste generation calculations).

Section 5: The Master Plan Page 193

Sustainability Strategies Managing solid waste in a sustainable way encompasses the protection of human health and the environment, and should also include social and economic aspects. The adverse impacts of waste management are best addressed by establishing integrated programs where all types of waste and all facets of the waste management process are considered together. An integrated approach to waste management will have to take into account community and regional specific issues and needs and formulate an integrated and appropriate set of solutions unique to the context of the campus site. Specific environmental conditions will dictate the appropriateness of various technologies, and the level of industrialization and technical knowledge present in the region will constrain solutions. The solid waste strategy for SPC is guided by the campus’s overarching goal of carbon positive operations. In addition to causing direct greenhouse gas emissions in the form of landfill methane and pollutants from incineration, waste disposal implies that valuable resources cannot be reused and new resources must be harvested. The resulting flow of materials between extraction and disposal causes indirect emissions due to a number of activities including but not limited to: •

Transportation activities between each of the material extraction, manufacturing, retail, end-use and disposal stages;

Energy consumption during the material extraction and manufacturing processes;

Fugitive emissions during each of the phases between extraction and disposal.

Therefore, in addition to reducing, reusing and recycling materials in order to avoid landfill and incineration emissions, the waste strategy pursues opportunities to convert organics into renewable resources, offsetting energy requirements and associated emissions. Minimization of transportation emissions is also targeted through on-campus organics treatment and locally sourced materials wherever appropriate. The following solid waste management (SWM) options represent increasing levels of waste management: •

Option WM1: Sanitary landfill only;

Option WM2: materials recycling and sanitary landfill;

Option WM3: Materials recycling, aerobic composting and sanitary landfill;

Option WM4: Materials recycling, anaerobic composting of the solid waste fraction and sanitary landfill.

Option WM1 is not considered to be a responsible waste management strategy and it is proposed the project should strive for a minimum level of WM3, utilizing the organic waste generated on the site for re-use on the agricultural land after composting. Materials recycling should be promoted throughout the site and used as an educational tool wherever possible as well as taking commercial advantage of the local recyclable sales market. The following sections describe the waste strategy in detail.

Figure 5.51: Solid Waste Collection and Disposal Process for Communal Sites

Campus Level Waste Strategy

Source Separation of Waste

Non-Separation of Waste

Collection and Transportation to Temporary Disposal Site

Collection and Transportation to Temporary Disposal Site

Transportation and Disposal to Communal Composting and Separation Center

Transportation and Disposal to Final Disposal Site

Collection and Separation Appropriate receptacles should be provided within buildings on site to promote source separation. These could be provided in central locations within the residential blocks and the other building types. Adequate space should be planned in all buildings to safely store waste receptacles and to maintain public health. These storage facilities should be planned into buildings so that they are easily accessed by service vehicles (refer to the transportation chapter for the service road layout). Figure 5.48 shows the options for solid waste collection and disposal for communal sites, which is relevant to a campus like SPC. The left hand process stream should be used as the model for SPC, promoting source separation, recycling and composting of the organic waste fraction. It is recommended that the temporary disposal sites are eliminated, with local waste separation and storage facilities integrated into the building design and the final disposal sites being within the site for the organic waste streams (composting â&#x20AC;&#x201C; see next section) and offsite for the recyclables streams.

Left: A waste collection bin at the Arusha Technical College - Arusha Region, Tanzania

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Utilize On-Campus Aerobic Composting The organic fraction of the solid waste generated on site (estimated to be approximately 1,233 tonnes per year) should be delivered to a separate facility on the site for composting. Composting can be undertaken under aerobic conditions (in the presence of air) or anaerobic conditions (in the absence of air, hereafter referred to as anaerobic digestion â&#x20AC;&#x201C; AD). The limited yield of organic waste on the site will preclude the use of centralized AD on any kind of scale. However, a small demonstration plant is an option that should be pursued. If this were to raise enough interest, the facilities could be expanded (land is available on the site) to collect and process waste from areas to generate biogas on an economical scale. Aerobic composting is likely to be the most applicable composting option for the campus. Aerobic composting is able to achieve a reduction in mass of the input tonnage of 25%. Open windrow composting is most suitable for green waste from landscaping. Food and kitchen waste should be composted using in-vessel systems (i.e. in an enclosed environment) to ensure sufficient levels of pathogen kill and a consistent product. In-vessel composting should yield compost suitable for maintenance of landscaped open spaces and agricultural areas of the campus. Re-Use of Materials Efficient re-use of materials is critical to the success of the SWMP and the sections below summarize good practices for maximizing the re-use of different materials that are likely to be used during the construction phase.

Right: A man hauls organic waste - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania Opposite: Plastic jugs for distributing and carrying drinking water for sale - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

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Section 5: The Master Plan Page 197

Table 5.5: Companies with an Interest in Purchasing Waste from Serengeti Ecosystem Company Name



Business Model

Maendeleo Used Plastics and Paper Ltd


Buys plastics, paper, metal and nylon. Waste is cleaned, crushed and baled and then transported to Nairobi and sold.

Prime Recyclables Tanzania Ltd


Buys plastics, paper, glass and metal at a small sorting facility from community initiatives. After buying, the plant processes varied recycled products.

East Africa Briquette Company Ltd


Produces alternative charcoal and firewood made from dry agricultural waste, paper and cardboard and residues like sawdust and charcoal dust. Finished products sold to consumers and middlemen.

Just Water Ltd


Pumps water and bottles it into branded mineral water. The company takes back used PET bottles, with the aim of establishing a recycling factory.

Table 5.6: Potential Revenue Generation from Solid Waste Streams Tanzania Solid Waste Composition (estimated)

% Composition1

Waste generated (tonnes/annum)

Waste unit price ($/tonne/ annum)2

Market value of recyclable waste ($/ annum)






Paper and Cardboard




























1. Waste percentage composition was derived from published data for Nairobi, Kenya but is considered representative of East Africa. 2. The market value of recyclable waste streams was derived from “Policy Paper – Waste Recycling Opportunities in the Serengeti Ecosystem (Arusha, November 2012, Draft 0.9)”.


Whilst the reduction of waste should remain the highest priority, recycling is a viable strategy for the management of some inert wastes which the generation of cannot be avoided. This will ultimately reduce the amount of waste to be disposed of off-site. There are companies, mainly based in Dar es Salaam that trade recyclables on international markets. A portion of Tanzanian waste ends up in China where it is recycled into new products such as fleece sweaters. In Dar es Salaam and Mwanza, there is a small number of recycling factories that make new products out of used materials. In Arusha, a small number of small entrepreneurs buy waste from collectors and resell it to the companies that manufacture new products. Table 3 gives an overview of different recycling companies located nearest the campus and their activities that could be engaged as part of the campus’ SWM strategy. The value of plastics in the local market is a real opportunity to generate additional revenue for the college. With the other recyclable waste streams (glass, metals and paper), there is a potential $75,000 per year revenue stream to be taken advantage of. Source separation of solid waste into these recyclable streams to realize is this opportunity should be a key consideration in the development of the waste strategy for the college. As noted above, although organic waste streams have no commercial value in the local market, these can be processed (composted) on site and used to grow crops and potentially as animal feed. This could provide substantial savings against purchasing these products from outside. Refer to Table 5.5 for a list of companies with an interest in purchasing waste from the Serengeti Ecosystem.

Utilize On-Campus Waste to Energy Technologies

Employ Preferred Purchasing Policies

It is unlikely that waste-to-energy at a useful scale will be a viable economic option for the campus but a demonstration-scale project could be implemented that would have the potential (and available space) to grow if external organic waste streams were to become available. The source separation of all organic waste on the site will likely yield 1,233 tonnes per year of organic waste that will be suitable for composting, in addition to any landscape waste that should also be composted on site.

Setting internal policies and guidelines for materials procurement can reduce waste. Where possible, materials should be procured on the basis of their durability, reusability and recyclability and the use of hard-to-recycle materials such as composites should be limited or even eliminated where possible.

to initiate take-back schemes for packaging waste. Where packaging is essential, encouraging the use of re-usable protection is a good compromise.

Waste packaging can also be minimized through procurement by working with suppliers to firstly minimize the amount required for protection and then

Below: An anaerobic digestion chamber collects methane gas from animal waste for use in gas cooking stoves and water heaters - Tanga Region, Tanzania

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Section 5: The Master Plan Page 199

Solid Waste Collection Plan

Maximize Diversion of Construction and Demolition Waste Construction processes have the potential to generate significant volumes of waste if protocols are not put in place to manage the construction process and the materials used. Site earthwork operations are often overlooked from a waste viewpoint but hauling fill material on or off site is not only expensive but has large associated carbon emissions and can generate significant volumes of material to be disposed of. The preliminary site grading strategy generates a surplus of material to form the required grading platforms for the buildings and this material should be re-used on site in the landscaping components, rather than hauling it off-site. To establish control for the construction phase of the project, a Site Waste Management Plan (SWMP) should be developed. A SWMP is a tool designed to facilitate improved resource and waste management on construction sites and requires a baseline prediction of the waste likely to arise on the site and how this will be managed. The core requirements for the SWMP are: •

Description of the construction work being proposed and the proposed construction materials for the various elements of the site;

An estimate of the quantity of each different waste type (or stream) likely to be produced;

A description of the waste management action(s) proposed, including re-use, recycling, recovery and disposal;

Identify on-site and off-site waste treatment, recovery and disposal routes as well as waste carriers; and

A declaration that both the Client and the principal Contractor will take all reasonable steps

to ensure that materials will be handled efficiently and waste managed appropriately. For this site, the following represent significant opportunities to minimize waste during construction: •

Re-use any excavated hard material as capping or sub-base for the site road network, reducing the amount of material that needs to be sourced off-site;

Forming of the bricks/blocks for building construction on the site so that only those units required are actually produced. This also eliminates any packaging that may otherwise have to be dealt with if bricks were sourced off site;

Re-use all soil material from the mass grading works on the site in landscaping berms or other features;

Minimize or eliminate wall linings in plaster or gypsum as these traditionally generate a lot of waste from off cut that cannot be usefully reused;

Compost all food waste consumed during construction and spread on the land that will become the agricultural fields;

Select and order materials that are durable to ensure a long life and reduced need for replacement;

Construction material specifications shall prioritize the procurement and use of local recycled/secondary aggregates and other recycled wherever possible as part of an overall responsible procurement strategy;

Return all surplus materials to the site stores on a daily basis to encourage a waste-adverse culture on the site.

A preliminary Solid Waste Collection Plan has been developed to provide a framework for the internal collection, separation and disposal of solid waste on campus. The plan indicates collection points based on facility usage and transportation routes through the campus to composting and recyclable storage facilities.

Figure 5.52: Solid Waste Site Locations by Type

Solid Waste Types

Other Construction Debris



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Section 5: The Master Plan Page 201

Section 6 Building Design Guidelines

Design guidelines These design guidelines are presented to accompany the Master Plan previously presented in this document. These design guidelines express the intentions for the design of buildings, open spaces and landscapes that will occur on the SPC campus.

The guidelines reflect dual objectives: •

To have the campus reflect and fit into the unique savanna environment of the site, and

To allow SPC to achieve the ambitious goal of being a truly sustainable institution.

The guidelines will inform future design consultants as well as MISD’s administration, building committees, and facilities staff – who will be charged with implementing this master plan.

Opposite: Rendering of a conceptual design of the student dormitories

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Section 6: Building design guidelines Page 205

Following principles are monitored through material selection criteria: Manufacturing process Durability and honesty Local availability and transport Low Carbon Materials/ Environmental impacts of material use Fit the color palette

All proposed materials are locally available or can be procured on site. Structural members should be used to structural engineers specifications. For shading devices, local materials to be used as innovative material use.

Building design guidelines The goal of these guidelines is to ensure a consistent architectural character and compliance with principles of sustainable planning and building design. In general, they do not prescribe a certain architectural style or specific design strategies. Instead, they describe a set of shared principles and characteristics and present conceptual designs based upon them to provide a framework appropriate for the site, the climate, and the mission of the college.

The building design guidelines section is organized as follows: •

The building design guidelines section is organized as follows:

Context --

Discusses the challenges associated with construction and building lifecycle in the tropics.

Guiding principles --

Communicates the values that should guide building development.


Construction technologies

Passive and climate-responsive design --

Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan

Describes cost-effective approaches to designing carbon-neutral buildings.

Solar electric design

Section 6: Building design guidelines Page 207

Context Building in the tropics means for both the builder and designer a constructive confrontation with extreme climatic conditions. In the hot and humid zones, high humidity levels in conjunction with the constant heat represent a major problem for materials and construction. In the case of organic materials these conditions lead to swelling, and in the case of metals, to increased corrosion that can take the form of rust or oxidation. In coastal regions the salty air of the coastal winds intensifies these processes. Even metals with protected surfaces, such as galvanized iron, anodized aluminum, stainless steel, coated metal sections, as well as concrete surfaces, are subject to extreme attack. The high humidity level also creates problems for wood and other organic building materials, for example, fungus, microbes and insects, termites, and other pests. Strong gusts of wind during typhoons and storms in the rainy season impose considerable tension and compression forces on structures, while erosion caused by heavy rainfall is another major problem. The use of frictiontype joints and junctions in construction and detailing is therefore of particular importance. In the hot and dry zone the most significant problems are those caused by solar radiation and UV rays etc. These can destroy surface finishes, above all coated surfaces of metal sections, metal sheeting, plastic panels and wood surfaces. The great temperature differences, with daytime temperatures of 35째C in the summer and cool winter nights, impose considerable strain on construction materials in the form of swelling and contraction. Sand-bearing winds can have damaging effect on surface finishes, such as sandblasted surfaces, galvanized and anodized metals, coatings and plastics and also hard building materials, such as fair-faced concrete, cement-bound sandstone, clay bricks and external render.

In the tropics, biological pests represent a dangerous plague that is often extremely difficult to combat. These include insects such as termites, midges and flies, as well as rats, mice and fungi. Termites represent the greatest danger for all organic building materials. Of the roughly 1,800 known kinds of termites, around 100 are regarded as a threat to buildings. Earth termites can climb through cracks and joints to reach the timber elements in a building. Flying termites nest in wood and destroy it by building channels and cavities. Organic building materials, such as thermal insulation materials, textiles, leather, rubber and foam materials are all susceptible to attack. All hard building materials, such as concrete, masonry, stone, mortar and metals, cannot be attacked, but they can be soiled by the pap the termites leave when hollowing out their channels. Buildings can be protected by the proper choice of materials, such as termite-resistant woods containing high amounts of tannin, resins or essential oils, plywood panels bound with synthetic resin or by chemical protection. Before they are used in a building, wooden parts can be sprayed or immersed in solutions

of metallic salts (copper sulphates, zinc oxides, borate salt or creosote), which should be applies, above all, to any cracks, joints and freshly cut areas. Construction measures, such as projecting termite flashings on load bearing columns, are, generally speaking, ineffective. The only way to combat the problem of insects and reduce the danger of infections, such as malaria, is to seal windows and door openings with mesh screens made of stainless steel or plastic and positioned in front of the frames. The most effective protection against fungus resulting primarily from high humidity is provided by damp-proofing and proper ventilation of the building.

Above: A termite mound partially engulfs a tree Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania Opposite: A government administration building Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

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Guiding principles These guidelines are meant to establish a framework from which appropriate solutions are created for the design of each campus building. They are meant to communicate design intent of each building with regard to defining principles and priorities of the College. Each building design on campus should:

Shading elements of various types and scales can help create positive microclimates.

The following principles shall guide future development of campus buildings:

5. Colors and materials should exhibit integrity and directness and demonstrate responsiveness to the character and forces of the site. This includes durability to weathering forces unique to this climate as well as a color palette that derives from the savanna landscape.

1. Building designs shall be appropriate to the savanna site and the local climate. Architectural character is not something applied to buildings but derives from climate responsive design strategies and sensitivity to the color, materials and forms that resonate with the site.

6. All materials and building elements need to be justified on a life-cycle cost basis in addition to demonstrating first cost-effectiveness. The long term costs of maintenance and operations must guide materials selection and overall building design decisions.

2. The campus architecture shall be legible from two primary scales: the distant view of the campus as a whole and the pedestrian eye-level view. The larger scale suggests a formal presence that resonates with the elemental and rugged savanna topography while the smaller scale requires human-scaled detail and emphasis on elements such as building entries and key intersections.

7. A selective use of transparency at key locations such as entries creates a welcoming and legible built environment. People and activity are what animate spaces and they need to be made visible.

3. Buildings should employ passive design measures to reduce heating and cooling loads. Designs will make use of the available resources on site to their advantage while tempering forces that can send a building system out of balance. This is particularly critical for this project with its climate extremes and ambitious carbon reduction goals. 4. The outdoor spaces formed by buildings are as important as the enclosed spaces serving direct program needs. Create outdoor â&#x20AC;&#x153;roomsâ&#x20AC;? that are protected or exposed to sun and breezes as appropriate for the season and use. A strategic use of building elements is critical in a climate with such hot dry seasons and humid rainy seasons, so that outdoor spaces remain active.

8. Water shall be treated as a precious resource and all efforts to reduce water use, and especially potable water use, are strongly encouraged. 9. Indoor environmental quality has direct impacts on occupant satisfaction and productivity. Integrated building designs shall strive to provide quality daylight to all occupied spaces and views to the exterior from as large a percentage of floor area as possible. 10. In general, building designs should be appropriate to the climate, the site, the era, and the programs for which they are intended. They should continue the tradition of other fine examples of contemporary tropical savanna-appropriate buildings completed recently in similar regions. Below: A hardware supply store - Eastern Province, Kenya

Materials This section presents the considerations that need to be taken into account in the selection of building materials. The choice of building materials is essentially determined by their local availability, their economy, durability and suitability for the particular climate. The means of transporting materials from a distant place of production must be taken into consideration. In addition, for many people, the acceptance of materials is related to status. The hut made of clay, wood or bamboo is rejected by many as they desire to reside in buildings made of materials associated with wealth: concrete, brick and natural stone, steel, glass and shiny metal. The extent to which materials can be worked by hand by local craftsmen and unskilled workers is a further influential factor in the choice of materials. The following principles shall guide future material selections on the campus: •

Durability – Materials and finishes shall be selected to limit maintenance requirements

Locally Available - Material selection should favor locally and regionally available products to reduce transportation related carbon impacts as well as supporting local economies.

Low Carbon Materials - Materials fabricated through energy-intensive processes are discouraged. Concrete with reduced cement content and high recycled content metals are preferred, for example. In addition, materials that improve building envelope performance through insulation values and thermal mass are encouraged.

Honesty and Directness - Materials whose true properties are expressed are preferred for their honesty and directness of character. Faux reproductions of stone, for example, are discouraged.

Left: Creative use of natural materials at a safari guide training school - Rift Valley Province, Kenya

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Locally available primary building materials The following is a description of the primary building materials locally available to the site. Masonry Masonry is an assembly of individual units bonded together into monolithic elements such as walls and columns by mortar. It is the most common material used in construction in rural East Africa. Masonry is generally a highly durable form of construction. However, the materials used, the quality of the mortar and workmanship, and the patterns in which the units are assembled vary greatly in the region and can significantly affect the durability of the overall masonry construction. The following is a description of the various types of masonry units locally available to the site: Burned clay bricks Burned clay bricks are the most common masonry unit found in rural East Africa because they are inexpensive and can be manufactured on site using basic technologies and local materials. These are manufactured by stacking a large amount of handformed clay bricks, up to 20,000, into a large pile with one or more tunnels at the bottom into which large quantities of firewood are introduced and burnt during a 24 hour period. The pile is plastered with mud in order to reduce heat leakage. The process results in unevenly fired bricks and 20% waste as the bricks closest to the heat source are over burned while those farther away are underfired reducing durability. The large quantities of firewood needed for burning the bricks contributes to deforestation, air pollution, soil erosion and degradation, desertification, and reduces available fuel sources for other human activities. Burned clay bricks are mostly uneven in size requiring additional mortar to be used in the bond joints between each brick to even out the variations in dimensions.

Due to the danger of weathering during the rainy season, the external faces are often rendered or plastered over to protect the finished walls from the elements. Resistance to weathering can be greatly improved by the use of organic additives or cement. Nevertheless, traditional clay bricks still require regular maintenance after one to three rainy seasons. Its susceptibility to mechanical damage when wet requires a hard protective base or plinth made from stonework. Kiln-fired clay bricks Clay bricks manufactured by industrially common processes including extrusion, molding and kiln firing are available in Moshi and Arusha. These bricks offer improved dimensional uniformity, durability, and strength than other locally available clay masonry units but are more expensive.

Opposite: Masons pile bricks up to be fired - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania Left: A mound of clay bricks after the firing process Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

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Compressed stabilized earth blocks Compressed stabilized earth blocks (CSEB) are construction blocks made from a mixture of soil and a stabilizing agent compressed by different types of manual or motor-driven press machines. The appropriate mix of soil requires non-expansive clay and fine aggregate such as sand with a small amount of stabilizer usually cement or lime. The mechanized compression and stabilization produces masonry units which are significantly stronger and more durable than burned clay bricks. CSEBs can be produced on site using locally available materials. The use of a uniform press machine means CSEBs can be manufactured to a predictable size with true flat sides and 90-degree angle edges. Interlocking stabilized soil blocks are a variation of this.

Above: A community cooperative prepares soil for manufacturing stabilized bricks - Eastern Province, Kenya Lower Left: A manual press used to compact stabilized soil into block forms - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania Lower Right: Stabilized blocks cure and harden at a school construction site - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

Concrete masonry units Concrete masonry units are typically manufactured in highly mechanized plants from cast concrete. CMU can be solid but are usually hollow to reduce weight or improve insulation. The presence of the hollow cores also allows steel reinforcing and grout to be added to the wall assembly, greatly increasing strength. Stone masonry units Stone masonry units are available in rural East Africa to varying degrees related primarily to the location of quarries. Uniform machine cut units from dense stone are commonly available from suppliers in large cities such as Moshi and Arusha. These are considerably more expensive than most other types of masonry units but are very durable with favorable structural properties. A quarry producing rough cut blocks from pyroclastic deposits of previous eruptions of Mount Kilimanjaro is located between the campus site and Moshi along the Arusha-Himo Road. The blocks are shaped by hand and are therefore subject to significant variations in dimensions but are considerably cheaper than other stone masonry units in the region. However, the performance and durability of these blocks is not well understood and should be investigated further.

Left: Miners haul up rock to be cut into stone masonry units - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

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Gypsum stabilized soil blocks Natural gypsum deposits are located south of Same near the town of Makanya. These gypsum deposits are primarily utilized by the Tanga Cement Company in domestic cement production, however, local masons have begun experimenting with using the gypsum as a stabilizing agent in stabilized soil block production. Gypsum has a long track record of use in earth mortars and renders and has recently been the subject of testing for use as a stabilizing agent in earthen construction, especially in Turkey.

Right: Natural gypsum deposits are located near by the campus site - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania Opposite: A church under construction - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

Mortar Mortar bonds individual bricks together to function as a single element. In its hardened state, mortar must be durable and must help resist moisture penetration. Mortar must also have certain properties in its unhardened state so that it is both economical and easy to place. Selection of an appropriate mortar helps to ensure durable brickwork that meets performance expectations. Mortar selection should consider multiple aspects of a project, including design, brick or masonry materials, exposure and required level of workmanship. Improper mortar selection may lead to lower performance of the finished project. One property of mortar that is often overemphasized is compressive strength. Stronger is not necessarily better when specifying mortar. In fact, the opposite is often true. For example, masonry will develop cracks over time due to a variety of factors. It is preferable for the cracks to develop within the masonry mortar joints which can be repaired in a process called repointing. If the compressive strength of the mortar is too high relative to that of the bricks, the cracks will develop in the bricks instead of within the mortar. Mortar can be made from a variety of materials including cement, lime, clay and sand. The specific materials selected and the ratios of the mixture determine overall performance. Cement based mortar, made from a mixture of cement and sand, is the most commonly used mortar in masonry construction in rural East Africa for the perceived benefits of its greater compressive strength compared to other mortars. However, many of the commonly available masonry units are relatively weak in compressive strength compared to cement mortar. Therefore, cement mortar should only be used after careful consideration.

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Concrete Reinforced concrete is one of the most widely used modern building materials, even in developing countries. The worldwide use of reinforced concrete construction stems from the wide availability of reinforcing steel and the ingredients to make concrete (cement, sand and aggregate) as well as that unlike steel, concrete production does not require expensive manufacturing mills. Two types of cement are produced in Tanzania: pozzolana and Portland limestone cement. The countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s total production capacity is 3 million metric tons per annum, but output is far below this level. In 2009 domestic output was 1.9 million metric tons while consumption was 2.3 million metric tons, the gap being made up by net imports of more than 0.4 million metric tons.

Table 6.1: National Cement Inudstry Trends Year























































There are three cement manufacturers in Tanzania, all of which were formerly owned by the government and then privatized in the 1990s. All are now part of multinational cement groups. Most raw materials for cement and building materials are obtained locally. Imported raw materials pass through Dar es Salaam and Tanga ports and are transported mainly by road, as the railway system is not currently functioning. Distribution is mainly through sales agents who sell to wholesalers and retailers. The cement industry has adopted best practice technologies, enabling it to compete effectively with imports. Tanga Cement Company Limited and Tanzania Portland Cement Company have developed products that enable them to reduce production costs by using readily available low-cost materials without compromising quality. The Tanga Cement Company has a formal quality assurance accreditation program, with all operations fallowing the ISO 9001:2008 system. It is also ISO 14001 certified, meeting international environmental standards. Tanzania is the lowest-cost cement producer in East Africa at US$160 per metric ton, and is ranked third in the whole of Africa after Egypt (US$92) and South Africa (US$134). Many small informal enterprises are involved in the supply of aggregates and sand to produce concrete1. Sutton, John and Donath Olomi, An Enterprise Map of Tanzania, International Growth Center, 2012 1

Upper Left: A bag of cement produced by one of the manufacturers operating in the country - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania Opposite: Steel reinforcement on display in front of a hardware supply store - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

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Steel A wide range of steel products are produced in Tanzania primarily from recycled scrap metal. Steel production does not meet market demand, and the quality of steel produced in Tanzania does not meet ISO standards. However, steel producers maintain that their products meet the requisite industry standards. Imports have been increasing and carry an import duty of 25%, a measure designed to protect the local industry. The main sources of imported steel are Turkey, South Africa, Japan, Russia and Belgium2. Sutton, John and Donath Olomi, An Enterprise Map of Tanzania, International Growth Center, 2012 2

Right: A welder works to erect a new factory building Eastern Province, Kenya Opposite: Two builders discuss how they will lift steel trusses into place - Eastern Province, Kenya

Table 6.2: Local Metal Suppliers Company

Roofing sheets

Aluminum Africa Ltd

MM Integrated Steel Mills


Square & rectangular hollow sections



• •

Sitta Steel Rolling Ltd

Kamal Steel

• •

Trishalla Steel Rolling Mills

• •

Nyakato Steel Mills Ltd

Black pipe

Tanzania Steel Pipes Ltd Sayona Steel Rolling Mills

Galvanized pipe

• •

• •

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Timber Sawn timber is a widely available building material in rural East Africa. Both hard and softwood timber is commercially available in Tanzania. Softwood timber is commonly used for roof framing and concrete formwork because it is less expensive and more readily available than hardwood timber. Hardwood timber in East Africa is primarily used for furniture and in the production of curios for the tourism industry. Hardwood timber use in construction is typically limited to those applications requiring significant durability against the elements and insect infestation such as doors and door and window frames. Hardwood timber is solely sourced from natural forests. The process is unregulated and the majority of suppliers do not use practices motivated by environmental protection or sustainable extraction. The majority of softwood timber is sourced from industrial forest plantations which were mostly established in the 1970s. The plantations are located in the northern and southern highlands with smaller pockets in the north-west. Almost without exception, these plantations have been poorly managed with limited pruning and thinning, frequent forest fires, high dependence on a single species, uneven ageclass distribution and limited replanting. As a result, cutting has been unsustainable and several of the smaller plantation are exhausted. These unsustainable sourcing practices contribute to Tanzaniaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s high rates of deforestation which is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions in the country3. J. Wells and D. Wall, Sustainability of sawn timber supply in Tanzania, International Forestry Review Vol. 7(4), 2005 3

Right: Rough sawn timber boards for sale - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

Roofing The most commonly used roofing materials in rural East Africa is corrugated metal sheets and thatching. The corrugated metal sheets come in a variety of gages and profiles. Some are pre-treated with a protective coating but the majority are unprotected. Thatching is a layering of dry vegetation such as straw, water reed, or grass so as to shed water away from the inner roof. The performance of thatch depends on several factors including the shape and pitch of the roof and the quality of the material used. A roof pitch of at least 50 degrees allows precipitation to travel quickly down slope so that it runs off the roof before it can penetrate the structure. When properly maintained, thatch will not absorb water. Thatch is a natural insulator with air pockets within the dry vegetation layers insulating a building during both warm and cold weather. Thatch roofs are, however, more susceptible to pests and fires, have a shorter life-span than properly treated corrugated metal roofs, and will require more maintenance.

Upper Left: A grass thatch roof over a rural home built from wattle and daub - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania Lower Left: Corrugated metal roof sheets for sale Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

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Construction technologies Construction technologies are closely related to local conditions and their successful application depends on several factors, including the availability and cost of building materials, the skill level of construction labor and the availability of construction tools and equipment. Introducing new construction practices, or even improvements in existing ones, can be daunting tasks. In Tanzania and many other countries, unreinforced masonry and reinforced concrete frame are prevalent construction technologies with design applications ranging from one-story family houses to multi-story apartment buildings. However, past earthquakes in Tanzania and other countries have revealed weaknesses associated with both unreinforced masonry and reinforced concrete frame construction.

Opposite: A reinforced concrete building under construction - Arusha Region, Tanzania Left: Masons at work - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

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Recommended construction technologies Confined masonry Confined masonry is a building technology that offers an alternative to both unreinforced masonry and reinforced concrete frame construction while using the same materials and features. It has evolved through an informal process based on its satisfactory performance in past earthquakes in developing countries and regions of extremely high seismic risk. Confined masonry construction consists of horizontal and vertical reinforced concrete confining members built on all four sides of a masonry wall panel. The structural components of a confined masonry building are: •

Masonry walls – transmit the gravity load from the roof or floors above down to the foundation. The walls act as bracing panels, which resist horizontal earthquake forces. The masonry walls are usually unreinforced and must be confined by concrete tie-beams and tie-columns to ensure satisfactory earthquake performance.

Confining elements (tie-columns and tie-beams) – provide restraint to masonry walls and protect them from complete disintegration even in major earthquakes. These elements resist gravity loads and have important role in ensuring vertical stability of a building in an earthquake.

Plinth band – transmits the load from the walls down to the foundation. It also protects the ground floor walls from excessive settlement in soft soil conditions.

Foundation – transmits the loads from the structure to the ground.

The confining members are effective in: •

Enhancing the stability and integrity of masonry walls for in-plane and out-of-plane earthquake loads

Enhancing the strength of masonry walls under lateral earthquake loads

Reducing the brittleness of masonry walls under earthquake loads and hence improving their earthquake performance

The fact that confined masonry construction looks similar to reinforced concrete frame construction with masonry infill and that it uses the same components (masonry walls and reinforced concrete confining members) is expected to assist in an easy transition from the construction perspective. Confined masonry construction practice does not require new or advanced construction skills or equipment, but it is important to emphasize that quality construction and sound detailing are critical for its satisfactory earthquake performance.4 Brzev, Svetlana, Earthquake-Resistant Confined Masonry Construction, National Information Center of Earthquake Engineering, September 2008 4

Opposite: Exploded View of Confined Masonry

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Reinforced masonry Reinforced masonry is a construction technology where steel reinforcement is embedded in the mortar joints of masonry or placed in holes or cavities and filled with concrete or grout. The hardened mortar, concrete or grout binds the masonry and the steel reinforcement together so that they act as a single element in resisting loads. Reinforced masonry has proven performance in seismic events, however, this type of construction requires proper planning and good quality control during construction due to the amount of hidden work and use of concrete infill, grout and reinforcement. There are various practices and techniques to achieve reinforce masonry. Based on the type of masonry unit used and the manner in which the reinforcement is arranged, reinforced masonry can be classified into three categories: â&#x20AC;˘

Reinforced hollow unit masonry


Reinforced grouted cavity masonry


Reinforced pocket masonry

Reinforced hollow unit masonry uses masonry units manufactured with cavities for the placement of steel reinforcement within the boundaries of the unit.

Reinforced grouted cavity masonry consists of a two layers or wythes of masonry constructed of solid masonry bricks with a space or cavity in between. Vertical and horizontal steel reinforcement is placed into the cavity which is then filled with grout. In order the achieve proper integrity, the two wythes are tied together by reinforcement running across the cavity. Reinforced pocket masonry uses solid masonry bricks to form vertical voids or pockets within the wall. Vertical steel reinforcement is placed in the pockets and horizontal reinforcement is laid in the mortar joints of the masonry. The vertical pockets are then filled with concrete or grout5. 5


Right and Opposite: Different Systems of Reinforced Masonry

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Prohibited construction techniques Wattle and daub Wattle and daub is a composite building materials used for constructing walls that has been used for at least 6,000 years and is still a common construction technology in many developing countries. In wattle and daub construction, a woven lattice of wooden strips called wattle is daubed with a sticky material make of some combination of wet soil, clay, sand, animal dung and straw. The wattle is made by weaving thin branches or slats between upright stakes. The wattle may be made as loose panels, slotted between timber framing to make infill panels, but in rural East Africa it is usually made in place to form the whole of a wall. The daub may be mixed by hand, or by treading by humans or livestock. It is then applied to the wattle and allowed to dry, and often then whitewashed or plastered over to increase its resistance to rain. Wattle and daub buildings are characterized by high flexibility and elasticity and can last quite a while when carefully constructed and well-maintained. However, in rural East Africa wattle and daub buildings in most cases show poor durability and high vulnerability during earthquakes. This is caused by poor workmanship, lack of maintenance and structural deficiencies. They are also prone to insect and animal infestation.

Opposite: Wooden poles and sticks are lashed together with rope woven from grass to form the walls of a new house before mud is applied - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania Right: A home built from wattle and daub begins to collapse from exposure to the elements - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

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Unreinforced masonry In Tanzania and many other countries, unreinforced masonry is a prevalent construction technology with design applications ranging from one-story family houses to multi-story apartment buildings. It is relatively simple and cheap method of construction in part because it lacks supplementary reinforcement, such as deformed steel rebar. However, it has been observed from consequential damages to many unreinforced masonry buildings worldwide and by experimental testing that unreinforced masonry offers little resistance to lateral loads arising out of seismic activity, causing not only collapse of walls, but also of the entire building. The high seismic vulnerability of unreinforced masonry buildings is due to a combination of the mechanical properties of the walls: masonry walls are dense and heavy, have extremely low tensile strength and fail in a brittle fashion without warning. As a consequence, every significant earthquake that has occurred in developing countries where unreinforced masonry construction is common has produced tragic loss of life and considerable materials damage. Due to the level of seismic hazard at the site, unreinforced masonry will not be utilized.

Left: A severe crack develops in an unreinforced masonry wall - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania Opposite: Unreinforced masonry used to construction a new orphanage - Nairobi, Kenya

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Reinforced concrete frame As previously mentioned in the Materials section, reinforced concrete is one of the most widely used modern building materials. Concrete construction does however require a certain level of technology, expertise and workmanship, particularly in the field during construction. In some cases, single-family houses or simple low-rise residential buildings are constructed without any engineering assistance. The extensive use of reinforced concrete construction, especially in developing countries, is due to its relatively low cost compared to other materials such as steel. Unfortunately, in many cases in East Africa there is not the necessary level of expertise in design and construction. Reinforced concrete (RC) frames consist of horizontal elements (beams) and vertical elements (columns) connected by rigid points. These structures are cast monolithically – that is, beams and columns are cast in a single operation in order to act in unison. RC frames provide resistance to both gravity and lateral loads through bending in beams and columns. RC frames can either be left open or built with masonry infill to form walls.

Upper Left: Wooden form-work for new reinforced concrete beams - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania Lower Left: Wooden trusses begin to form the roof over a reinforced concrete frame - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania Opposite: A reinforced concrete frame building under construction - Arusha Region, Tanzania

In several instances, seismic performance of RC frame buildings has been quite poor, even when subjected to earthquakes below the design level prescribed by code. One of the underlying reasons is the absence of an effective mechanism for code enforcement in some countries. This deficiency in governmental oversight is linked to several related factors, such as the lack of technical control and supervision, problems with the legal framework, low engineering fees, and improper regional construction practices. When one or more such factors are present during construction, the built structure does not comply with many aspects of the design. As a result, its seismic resistance becomes inadequate, with the consequence that unpredictable damage or failure results when subjected to loads below the code-prescribed levels. The key deficiencies identified in the RC frame construction practice include the following: •

Alteration of the member sizes during the construction phase from specifications in the design drawings

Noncompliance of the detailing work with the design drawings

Inferior quality of building materials and improper concrete-mix design

Modifications in the structural system performed by adding/removing components without engineering input

Reduction in the amount of steel reinforcement as compared to the design specifications

Poor construction practice

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Interlocking stabilized soil block Interlocking stabilized soil block (ISSB) bearing walls is a form of masonry construction which does not utilize mortar to adhere individual masonry units together but instead relies upon dry-stacked interlocking blocks to form structural wall elements. This construction technology has become more prevalent in developing countries recently because it provides a significant cost and labor advantage over traditional mortared masonry due to the reduced cement quantity and skill level required. However, ISSB masonry bearing walls have not been the subject of any significant structural testing to evaluate its overall performance as a structural system. Although significant research has been done to optimize the materials properties, manufacturing and availability of ISSB technology, little has been done to investigate the performance, especially the seismic performance, of structural systems currently being built using this technology.

Opposite: Builders relay blocks to a construction site Eastern Province, Kenya Upper Right: Masons check their lines to keep the walls plumb and true - Eastern Province, Kenya Lower Right: A building constructed from ISSB begins to take form - Eastern Province, Kenya

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Timber framed construction Timber framed construction is a common construction technology throughout the world. In areas where timber and wood materials are easily accessible, timber construction is often considered to be the most cost effective and best approach for low-rise structures. However, the susceptibility of wood to degradation, especially in the tropics, is a serious concern for the longevity of timber framed structures. Some preservative treatments are locally available but the toxicity and effectiveness of these treatments is not known. The widespread use of hardwood timber in framed construction is not common in rural East Africa except in roof trusses.

Left: Rudimentary timber connections - Eastern Province, Kenya Opposite: A timber framed roof over a restaurant Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

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Passive and climate responsive design The high level goal of all campus building designs is to create comfortable and energy efficient environments for learning using appropriate and locally available means. To achieve this goal, passive strategies and readily available materials and technologies will be utilized to manage thermal comfort while limiting energy consumption. The recommendations outlined in this section derive from testing of best-practice assumptions using the specific conditions found in this climate.

Figure 6.1: Passive Design Strategies 12:00 PASSIVE DESIGN GOALS: 1. Prevent Heat Gain 2. Provide Cooling

Sun Angles for Average Hottest Day


Open floor plans were designed to promote cross ventilation. All buildings were designed to have openings in exterior walls due to unpredictable winds and desired ventilation area of at least 5% of gross floor area. Ceilng Fans are used throughout campus to help facilitate or supplement natural ventilation.

High outlets for hot air to relase. Outlets are larger than inlets and spaced far apart.

Insulated or Double Skin Roof.

Vertical and Horizontal Shading designed based on Sun path and angles of average hottest day, Feb. 2nd.

Thermal comfort Thermal comfort is defined as a condition of the mind which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment. A person’s level of comfort is dependent on both personal and environmental factors. Personal factors include clothing insulation and level of activity. Environmental factors include mean radiant temperature, air temperature, air speed, and relative humidity. Passive and climate responsive building design focuses on managing the environmental factors by providing ventilation and limiting heat gain in the building environments.

Mass acts as thermal sink storing heat during day and releasing at night

Vertical windows allow daylighting without direct heat gain

Low vents capture cool air. Vents allow air flow and protect from debris.

Mean radiant temperature A person in a room exchanges energy in the form of heat with the surrounding surfaces. The mean radiant temperature is the average of the surrounding surfaces and is a function of the material emissivity, geometry, and surface temperatures.

Air speed

Air temperature


For the purposes of quantifying the thermal environment, air temperature is measured as an average at the occupant’s feet, waist, and head. Operative temperature refers to a weighted average of the mean radiant and air temperature.

Humidity is related to the moisture content in the air. Relative humidity is a commonly used term that is expressed as a percentage of the maximum amount of water vapor that the air can hold at a given temperature.

Air speed is the average speed of the air that the occupant exposed to. Increased air movement can give the occupant the increased perception of thermal comfort.

Shading elements designed to not obstruct views

Rock Stores/Labrynth produces cool air to diffuse into building


Appropriate technology Keeping true to the guiding principles outlined for this development, the utilization of passive systems for thermal comfort is essential. The goals of the mechanical design are to utilize natural ventilation and maximize its effectiveness through proper design of building orientation and façade characteristics as outlined in The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) Applications Manual AM10: Natural Ventilation in Non-Domestic Buildings.

In naturally conditioned spaces where occupants have control of operable windows, the expectations of the occupant in regards to thermal comfort differ from that of a mechanically conditioned space. ASHRAE Standard 55 offers an optional method for determining acceptable thermal conditions for naturally ventilated space. The below figure illustrates adjusted allowable indoor operative temperatures for naturally ventilated spaces. It should be noted that the acceptable range of indoor temperatures takes into account people’s

clothing adaptation to the outdoor temperature. ASHRAE Std 55 also does not define humidity or air speed limits in naturally conditioned spaces. Analysis of the typical meteorological year climate data for Same shows that the mean monthly temperatures range from a minimum of 20 °C in July to a maximum 25 °C in February. Based on this analysis, we can apply the optional method outlined in section 5.3 of ASHRAE Standard 55.

Figure 6.2: Assessment of Various Passive Design Strategies Based on Climatic Data for Same, Tanzania

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Design strategies The following section describes the recommended passive and climate responsive design strategies for the campus.

Figure 6.3: Wind Driven Ventilation Schematic Diagram Single-Sided Ventilation

Natural ventilation Natural ventilation is the process of supplying and removing air through an indoor space without using mechanical systems. It refers to the flow of external air into an indoor space as a result of pressure or temperature differences. There are two types of natural ventilation achievable in buildings: wind driven ventilation and buoyancy driven ventilation. Wind driven ventilation occurs as a result of pressure differences created as air flows over and around buildings while buoyancy driven ventilation occurs as a result of the directional buoyancy force created by a difference in indoor-to-outdoor air density due to temperature and moisture differences. The magnitude and pattern of air movement by natural ventilation is dependent on the strength and direction of these driving forces and the resistance of the flow path. Wind driven ventilation

Wind Direction Cross ventilation is suitable for buildings with larger internal spaces

Cross Ventilation

There are two primary wind driven ventilation systems: cross ventilation and single-sided ventilation. Cross ventilation relies on openings located on both the leeward and windward sides of a space. The impact of wind on the building creates zones of positive pressure on the windward side and negative pressure on the leeward side. Air is then naturally drawn through the space to equalize the pressure difference. Wind driven ventilation can also be achieved with openings located on only one side of a space although but is not as effective as cross ventilation. Therefore, singlesided ventilation should only be utilized where cross ventilation is not possible due to design constraints. Large openings on windward side to catch air

Buoyancy driven ventilation

Figure 6.4: Buoyancy Driven Ventilation Schematic Diagram Hot air rises, pulling the warm, stale air up and out through the ventilation stack

The forces necessary to drive natural ventilation can be driven by buoyancy created by temperature differences in the air. Induced by utilizing the stack effect or the natural stratification of air at different temperatures, warm indoor air rises up through a space and escapes at the top through high ventilation openings. The rising warm air reduces the pressure in the base of the building drawing cooler air in through low ventilation openings. Natural ventilation design considerations Wind and buoyancy driven natural ventilation strategies will be implemented simultaneously in all campus buildings. The following section describes the design considerations that need to be incorporated for achieving natural ventilation in campus buildings based on the specific climate considerations found on site. Building form and dimensions

Cool air enters through low ventilation openings, pulled by the hot rising air above

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The overall form and dimensions of a building are directly related to both wind driven and buoyancy driven natural ventilation strategies. The following illustrations identify the basic forms of ventilation strategies and how they relate to the form and layout of the building for which they are best suited. These guidelines are based on widely acceptable British and American standards, and have been modified to suit the requirements of this project. In order to ensure effective natural ventilation, these guidelines will be followed as strictly as possible.

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Building orientation Wind driven ventilation can be maximized by orienting the long axis of a building as perpendicular as possible in relation to the direction of the prevailing winds whenever possible. Based on an analysis of the wind patterns at the campus site throughout the year and factoring in the effects of the local topography, ideally campus buildings should be oriented with their longest axis between 0 and 15 degrees counterclockwise off east to west. However, due to the slope of the site, grading restrictions and other site plan restrictions, this orientation cannot be achieved for the majority of campus buildings. Thus, natural ventilation will need to rely on techniques other than building orientation to increase efficiency.

Figure 6.5: Same Wind Rose

Figure 6.6: Building Orientation Perpendicular to the Prevailing Wind Direction

Open floor plans

Figure 6.7: Open vs. Congested Floor Plans

Another issue that needs careful consideration is the resistance to airflow in the space. Poor air movement may result if openings on one side of the building are blocked or closed, or if internal partitions restrict airflow through the space. Open floor plans will be utilized to promote ventilation through spaces. Such measures include utilizing columns instead of walls for interior supports and positioning tall furniture (e.g. bookshelves) and internal partitions parallel to the direction of flow to allow air to proper traverse through a space. Ventilation openings The size of ventilation openings needs to be optimized in relation to the size of an internal space to ensure adequate air flow. All buildings will be designed with operable windows and vents in all exterior walls to reach a total ventilation area of at least 5% of the gross internal floor area. Exhaust openings to expel hot air will be located as high as possible above lower inlet openings to maximize buoyancy driven ventilation. These openings will also be offset on opposite sides of internal spaces to reduce potential dead spots to form.

Figure 6.8: Ventilation Area vs. Floor Area

Total ventilation opening area of at least 5% gross floor area

Gross floor area

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Double skin or insulated roof A double skin or insulated roof will be used to protect the interior spaces from heat gain through the roof which will experience direct solar radiation for the majority of the day. It is anticipated that most campus building roofs will be constructed of corrugated metal panels for the purposes of durability and rainwater collection. However, metal readily conducts heat and buildings in rural East Africa with only metal panels for roofing experience significant heat gain making interior spaces very hot and uncomfortable for occupants. A double skin roof, comprised of an outer and inner layer, creates a buffer air zone between the exterior and interior of a building in order to slow heat transfer. The outer layer is constructed of corrugated metal panels to form a durable waterproof layer which will heat up during the course of the day. Some of this heat will be transferred into the buffer air zone with the inner layer heating up at a slower rate and transferring even less heat into the interior spaces. The performance of this system can be enhanced by expelling the heated air in the buffer zone through ventilation and constructing the inner layer out of non-heat conducting materials. Simple or improvised insulating material may be placed on top of the inner layer to further improve performance. Similarly, a single layer roof of corrugated metal panels with standard insulation applied to the underside will also protect interior spaces from heat gain through the roof.

Figure 6.9: Double Skin Roof vs. Single Skin Roof

Double Skin Roof

Reflected Heat Energy from Sun

Single Skin Roof

Emitted Convected

Reflected Heat Energy from Sun

Emitted Convected


Air Gap Emitted




Convected Emitted

Convected Emitted

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Sun-shading Shading from direct sunlight protects surfaces and spaces from heat gain, effectively reducing immediate temperature levels both indoor and outdoor alike. Typically, sun shading is implemented on south facing facades in the Northern hemisphere where solar gain from the southern sun is the most significant, and on north facing facades in the Southern hemisphere. It is also used for east and west facing facades to minimize solar heat gain from the low angle sun in the morning and evening. It is especially important to shade openings in the façade such as windows and doors as they allow solar radiation to directly enter a space having a more profound effect on thermal comfort. Ideally, sun shading will minimize solar heat gain while permitting vision and air circulation to go unobstructed. With the campus site located just 4° south of the equator, the path of the sun remains mostly directly overhead with little variation throughout the year. Roof eaves of campus buildings will extend to shade external walkways and external walls from direct sunlight during the course of the day. Horizontal and vertical fins will be incorporated into the east and west facades to protect against the low angle sun in the morning and evening. Trees with denser foliage will be planted where appropriate to extend shaded external spaces and protect external walls and windows from low angle sun.

Left: A covered walkway shades a building at a performing arts school - Tanga Region, Tanzania

Figure 6.10: Types of Sun-Shading

Figure 6.11: Sun Path & Shade Angles


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Thermal mass Where it is not possible to provide adequate shading, thermal mass will be utilized to passively moderate the internal temperature of buildings with exposed external walls. The thermal mass of dense materials, such as masonry walls, acts as a thermal sink, absorbing heat energy and storing it as opposed to immediately transferring it to adjacent spaces such as the case with metal roofs. The heat energy is eventually released once the heat source is absent and adjacent temperatures of dropped. One way this cycle manifests is when a wall is exposed to the sun during the day, subsequently increasing in temperature as it absorbs heat. After the sun has gone down, the heat is released into the night time air and can be used to provide minimal heating of interior spaces occupied at night if required by the daily temperature drops. Conversely, a thermal mass wall that is shaded and kept cool can serve as a heat purge and help cool interior spaces that have higher internal heat loads such as computer labs. In order to take advantage of the heat release at night, the thermal mass walls will be positioned to receive direct sunlight during the day and will be built thick enough so as to not heat the internal spaces prematurely.

Figure 6.12

Left: A large masonry wall exposed to the sun acting as a thermal bank- Kilimanjaro Region, Region

Figure 6.13: Thermal Mass Schematic Diagram



Building interiors are cooler during the day due to slower heat transmission

Thermal mass walls slowly absorb heat from the sun throughout the day

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Heat gained during the day is slowly released at night

Thermal mass walls are cooled by the colder nighttime air

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Daylighting Daylighting will be utilized to illuminate interior spaces and eliminate the need to electric lighting during the day time as much as possible. Daylighting uses sunlight reflected from the sky or nearby surfaces and not direct sunlight which is unwanted not only since it will increase the heat gain of interior spaces but can also cause glare where darker interior surfaces are in high contrast to a surface illuminated with direct sunlight. The design of campus buildings will balance the use of daylight to eliminate the need for electric lighting during the day while also ensuring that spaces are not over-exposed to solar gain from direct sun access. Therefore, daylight will be provided only through vertical windows in exterior walls or clerestories shaded from direct sunlight and not through horizontal skylights in the roof. Other considerations include proper spacing of adjacent buildings to reduce overshadowing during daylight hours and the use of highly reflective interior surfaces to increase illumination levels. In addition to providing interior lighting, proper daylighting design will benefit the campus buildings in the following ways: Improves the appearance of internal spaces by making them lighter, improving color rendition of materials, and defining space. Improves occupant comfort and satisfaction with physiological and psychological impacts, such as greater levels of relaxation and visual comfort, reduced fatigue, and the setting of circadian rhythms. Reduces energy use and will reduce the need for larger electrical systems and renewable energy generation to provide lighting for interiors.

Ceiling fans Ceiling fans will be utilized throughout most campus buildings in order to supplement natural ventilation strategies. During the hottest months of the year, natural ventilation may unable to circulate sufficient air through a space to regulate thermal comfort. Ceiling fans will provide continuously moving air which will create a wind chill effect that will make occupants feel more comfortable. The amount and size of ceiling fans used will vary between building uses. Ceiling fans will be utilized in greater quantity in interior spaces with higher occupant densities and plug loads (e.g. computer labs). The blades of the ceiling fans will be positioned such that they fall below the stratification line between the higher hot and lower cool air created by the stack effect while remaining above any electric lighting. Figure 6.14: Ceiling Fans

Opposite: Large windows illuminate a classroom Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania Above: Ceiling fans can be powered by solar PV panels

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Additional strategies

Evaporative cooling

The following passive design strategies are options for consideration requiring further investigation to determine their level of appropriateness based on the aforementioned building design guiding principles.

The use of outdoor fountains in public areas can be used to cool the surrounding air through evaporation. When hot air passes over the surface of water, there is a transfer of energy in the form of heat that will evaporate some of this water. This reduces the temperature of the air and increases its water vapor content. The key elements to be taken into consideration are the amount and velocity of air across the water feature and the amount of water surface

area available for interaction with the air. Evaporative cooling works best in hot and dry climates. In Same, the relative humidity is below 50% about one third of the year, primarily during the hot, dry months of December through February. Using fountains as a method of cooling also has the added benefit of providing a psychological “cooling effect” by the sound of running water.

Figure 6.15: Evaporative Cooling Micro-Climate Schematic Diagram Consider wind scoops for adjacent spaces

Warm air loses heat energy to the evaporation process

Warm air escapes through high level openings ~ Above head height

Cool air enters through low level openings

~20’-0” Max

Cool air descends to create stratification

Limited to no ventilated openings cross ventilation will destroy microclimate

Living walls Living walls constitute a wall element complete with living vegetation that can occur both indoors as well as outdoors. They are documented as having beneficial influences on their immediate environments that include acoustic buffering, appealing aesthetics, cooling effects, and air cleansing. Further, living walls can also function as a platform to grow edible foods. Any wall that has ample structural integrity can become a living wall by virtue of a self-contained overlay. The overlay will consist of structure to physically carry the plants complete with their necessary soil and water (irrigation). In addition, living walls can subsist without infrastructure for irrigation if they are adapted to the contextual climate/rainfall. There are proprietary products that include specific trays or pockets that are hung on a grid or rows of substructure. The trays and pockets will contain soil for the plants and also incorporate piping that will serve as a drip feed for sustenance. Walls that subsequently have a living layer superimposed will require adequate waterproofing to avoid any comprise of the wall as an envelope or structure. Living walls can also simply be a free standing structure, taking the form of a fence/ trellis or a sign/sculpture. Further, they can occur as a planted wall of vegetation with interspersed posts as guides and reinforcement. Living walls have the ability to be particularly expressive as it relates to color, graphics, or themes. They have been used successfully on the exterior of multistory buildings to communicate ideas, functioning similarly to a billboard or other exterior advertisement. Color can be used to accentuate specific aspects of a context or call attention to ideas of choice while achieving a visual splendor.

Left: A living wall in an office building - Shanghai, China

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Wind Scoop/Roof-Mounted Ventilators Wind scoops can be utilized in areas of high heat gain such as computer rooms, workshops, classrooms etc. They are found to be most effective in hot and dry climates. The general concept involves a “scoop” in the direction of the prevailing winds meant to catch air and direct it through an internal space. A roofmounted ventilator is a modern version of the wind scoop. Typically, it has a combined supply and extract system. The windward side of the ventilator provides a supply of air to the space below due to the pressure of wind blowing at the ventilator. The other segments of the ventilator act as extracts due to the suction force created by the low-pressure region downstream of the ventilator. Some of the factors affecting the performance of roofmounted ventilators include: •

Ventilator should be located in a free air-stream without any obstructions in the path of the airflow.

The shape of the intake and extract louvers and their resistance to flow.

The size of the base area.

The resistance of the components, such as dampers and ducts.

The size of the louvered area.

The height of the louvers above roof level.

The temperature difference between inside and outside of the building

Opposite: Wind scoops combined small scale wind turbines on a green roof - England

Figure 6.16: Wind Scoop Schematic Diagram Cross Section

Wind Direction

Warm & stale air exiting wind scoop

Cool & fresh air entering wind scoop

The following issues should be considered during the design stage:

Figure 6.17: Wind Scoop Schematic Diagram Plan View

Low pressure suction region

Roof architecture, such as parapets and the shape of the roof.

Internal layout of the space to be ventilated.

Internal heat gains.

Surrounding buildings and the environment.

The floor to ceiling height.

The proximity of multiple ventilators to each other.

Other ventilation systems, such as windows.

Occupant density.

Wind Direction

Low pressure suction region

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Rock stores Rock stores will be utilized in specific buildings requiring a cooling strategy in addition to natural ventilation. Rock stores are a low energy cooling strategy that uses the thermal mass of stone or another dense material to absorb heat from air passing over it. In the daytime cooling cycle, warm outside air is passed over the dense material which absorbs heat cooling the air down. The cooled air is then delivered into the interior space through floor or wall diffusers. In the nighttime cycle, cool outside air is passed over the dense material heated from the daytime cycle. The stored heat is then transferred to the cool air giving which is then expelled to the outside. This gives the dense material the available thermal capacity to absorb head again during the next daytime cycle. Rocks are typically stored in compartments below the structure and fans are used to move outside air through the rock storage compartments Below & Opposite: Rock stores under construction Zimbabwe

Figure 6.18: Rock Store Schematic Diagram Air rises out of high level ventilation openings

Outside air enters rock store

Fans can be used to help push air through system

Cool air enters the interior spaces through floor vents

The dense rock absorbs heat from the air as it moves through the store

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Green roofs There are two main types of green roofs which offer different types of coverage and use. Extensive green roofs are covered with low growing, self-sustaining plants such as succulents, herbs and grasses. These plants grow in soils with a thickness between 20mm and 120mm. The only need to access this type of roof would be for maintenance, as the main purpose of extensive roof is to enhance the quality of the building and environment. Intensive green roofs however are often intensively landscaped and are largely used as an amenity; these require far greater maintenance.

Figure 6.19: Green Roof Schematic Diagram

Green roofs provide the following benefits: •

Storm runoff- Green roofs act to manage and reduce storm runoff from roof surfaces. The soils of a green roof can hold 40% of their volume in water (based on the soil being in a dry state).

Thermal Performance of Buildings- the covering of the roof will provide insulation and will cool the building in the summer, improving the thermal performance of the building. Plants can increase the albedo of the roof, so preventing the roof from heating up as well as transfer heat away from the roof through evapotranspiration. (Albedo is the fraction of solar energy (shortwave radiation) reflected from the Earth or a surface back into space. It is a measure of the reflectivity of a surface.)

Improve Air Quality – plants will remove airborne particles and contaminants such as nitrous oxides from the air.

Reduces Noise – noise entering and leaving the building can be reduced by 18 dB, reflective noise can be reduced by 3dB.

Heat transmits directly into building

Heat from sun is absorbed by roof vegetation

Habitat – Provides a habitat for invertebrates and birds. Often local plants colonize the roof increasing the diversity of the roof. Green roofs can mitigate for any habitat lost from the development of the building. Although not ideal because of habitat fragmentation, Green roofs will still have a positive effect on ecology.

Increases Roof Lifespan – covering the roof protects the covering membrane of the roof. The life span of the membrane can double when covered by a green roof

Designers must give adequate consideration to green roofs’ weight (particularly in the case of intensive green roof structures), cost, appearance, and maintenance requirements.

Left: Low growing vegetation seen on a green roof England

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Solar electric design Each building should be designed to be “solar friendly”, meaning that the installation and integration of a solar PV and / or solar hot water system is easily carried out, either at the time of building construction or at some point in the future. Fortunately, making solar friendly building designs is a relatively easy thing to do, provided that a few important considerations are kept in mind during the design phases. These are detailed below. Low tilt roof angles There are two main variables that determine the orientation of a solar collector and solar module, each of which has an impact on the energy yield of the system. Given the very low latitude of the project location, solar collectors / modules should be installed with a low tilt. Conventional wisdom for a site south of the equator is to install the modules such that the modules face north towards the equator. However, it is believed that this is less important for this site, and that it is more important that the module tilt be considered and kept to a minimum, ideally less than 20 degrees from horizontal. Avoid module tilts of zero (horizontal), as evaporation of pooled water (from rain or condensation) will leave behind areas of concentrated residues (a.k.a. soiling) that will hamper module outputs. A tilt of just a few degrees (e.g. 5 degrees from horizontal) is sufficient to allow the modules to self-clean and avoid buildup of undesired soiling. Modules can be mounted flush to the roof slope, or can be mounted on racking structures that allow angles different from the roof that the racking is mounted on. The most aesthetically pleasing designs are typically systems that are flush-mounted with the roof. In this case, the roof slope should be designed to the desired solar module slope.

Roof access During long periods without rain to naturally rinse the solar modules, it may be desired to manually rinse the modules in order to maximize the output of the system. In this case, appropriate measures should be applied to the roof and PV system layout to ensure safe and convenient access can be achieved. PV modules are strong enough to walk on, however they are slippery and it may be best to provide sufficient space between every 2 or 3 rows such that someone can walk through.

Deep cycle lead-acid is currently the most favorable technology. Batteries should be kept together in enclosed spaces to avoid overheating; this is referred to as a battery bank. Battery banks for PV systems can be centralized or decentralized: •

In the centralized approach, there is one large battery bank for several solar arrays. Each solar array has its own inverter, and then AC power is distributed over a micro-grid to the location of the battery bank, where it is rectified back to DC for charging the batteries. When loads need more power than the PV system is able to produce, power is drawn from the centralized battery bank by taking DC power from the batteries, converting it back to AC through the battery bank inverter, and then distributing AC power to the loads throughout the site. This approach is generally preferable is there is already a micro-grid connecting several buildings together, which is the case when there is one central diesel generator.

In the decentralized approach, each building has an independent PV array and battery backup system. The PV array generates DC, which goes to an inverter/charge controller device. This device then detects whether there is an AC load in the building, in which case it inverts the power to DC and supplies the load, or if there is no load, in which case the DC power is directed to the dedicated battery bank and is stored for later use. This approach is generally preferable when there is no micro-grid connecting buildings together and each building must generate its own electricity.

Inverters and wiring The device that converts the DC power output from a PV system into a useable AC power source is called an inverter. Inverters are relatively small devices (2 ft. x 4 ft. for a medium sized residential inverter) and should be mounted near the building’s electrical connection. The PV system wiring is pulled through conduit mounted on the exterior of the building, and in that case can be decoupled from the building design, as it is a separate system. The DC wiring from the modules will go to the inverter, where it is inverted to AC. AC wiring then takes this power to the building panelboard and through the building electrical circuitry to the loads. Inverters can be mounted both inside and outside, but care should be taken to ensure inverters are shaded from the sun to avoid overheating. Battery banks For stand-alone systems that produce their own electricity, it is necessary to also install energy storage. The most economical way for PV applications such as this is to use electro-chemical storage technologies, i.e. batteries. Batteries store energy when there is more generation than demand, and discharges energy when the demand exceeds the generation.

Opposite: PV panels mounted on the roof of a building

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Acoustics Noise from rain on roofs is reported as a significant issue for schoolrooms in developing countries. Rain drops have a certain mass, and fall at terminal velocity. For a lightweight single skin, undamped roof, such as corrugated metal, ETFE or glass, the mass of the raindrop and its velocity are significant enough to impart enough energy to vibrate the lower roof surface where it will be heard underneath. Sound is directly proportional to the vibration velocity of a radiating surface. There has been work on a standard test for rain noise, and various data are available6,7. Some of the simple methods in which rain induced noise may be reduced include: Mass Increasing the mass of a roof means that the ratio between raindrop mass and roof mass decreases and therefore the vibration velocity of the underside of roof reduces, leading to a reduction in noise. A substantial increase in mass is required to achieve a significant reduction in noise. Damping An undamped surface will radiate noise to above and below, because the surface will â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;ringâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. Highly damped materials applied to a metal sheet will reduce these significantly. Bituminous or other damping layers have been successfully applied to the base of sinks and inside car doors to reduce this structural radiation. A more effective but more expensive variation on this is to apply a damping layer between metal sheets to provide constrained layer damping. Double skin roofs By constructing a double skin roof, rain induced vibration in the top surface will be reduced before exciting the lower layer, having to be transmitted

through purlins or other common supports first. This reduction in transmitted vibration will lead to a significant reduction in vibration velocity in the lower layer, and a significant reduction in noise levels, this may be further reduced by incorporating an acoustically absorbent material in the cavity. Rain noise from glazed and lightweight roofing Dr C Hopkins BRE IP2/06 7 Measurement of rain noise on roof glazing, polycarbonate roofing and ETFE roofing, BRE Test report number 220312 http://www.bre.co.uk/pdf/ BRE_Report_220312.pdf 6

Below: The monsoon season brings heavy rains which create incredibly loud noise on simple corrugated metal roofs - Eastern Province, Kenya Opposite: A beach front hotel makes use of local materials and landscaping - Tanga Region, Tanzania

Colors Effective use of color can support the overall goal of a campus that feels at home in the context of the East African savanna while asserting its own presence. The site context includes colors found in soil, vegetation, and the mountains but also the unique quality of light and heat in the savanna environment. White and light colors will reflect heat away from outdoor spaces and interiors, thereby supporting carbon neutral goals, but could potentially create excessive glare. Color selection shall therefore balance the desire for both visual and thermal comfort. A campus color palette should be formulated by taking direct cures from the existing natural context. Primary colors should be based in earth tones that blend in with the savanna context. They apply to primary walls, roofs, paving, and other large surfaces, especially ones that are visible from public spaces and from a distance. They are colors that can be achieved in masonry and other integrally-finished materials with the need for paint. Secondary or accent colors should take their cues from the fleeting colors of savanna flowers that animate the otherwise muted landscape. They signal the excitement and creativity of this new, manmade environment. They may be applied to window and door frames, doors, trim, paving at entries, sunshades, railings and other metal work. In some cases, exterior walls that face interior courtyards or key entries could utilize accent colors to distinguish them from the overall public face of the campus.

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Building massing and conceptual designs Based on both the academic and development programs at SPC, four types of facilities must be planned for the campus: •

Residential buildings to house full-time students and visiting volunteers, and provide temporary faculty housing

Classroom buildings to house academic curriculum including lecture rooms, small laboratories, and faculty offices

Laboratory type facilities to house experiential learning programs and development activities

Central buildings that support and enhance both student life and the academic programs including dining halls, library and student union.

Based on anticipated enrollment and available construction technology, it is expected that all buildings will be only one story in height with minimal exceptions. Within the one-story limit, variation in building height is encouraged with taller buildings preferred around central spaces to increase shading of outdoor space used during the day. Building mass will be used strategically in this manner to create beneficial microclimates in adjacent outdoor spaces. This includes shading adjacent walkways and courtyards, and protecting gathering spaces from strong winds. Semi-enclosed terraces will be used to break up the mass of buildings and provide shaded and protected exterior spaces. In general, these spaces will face outdoor public spaces and thereby help animate common gathering areas.

Strategic placement of building entries reinforces the active nature of major open spaces and corridors, directing pedestrian traffic and providing places for waiting and socializing between classes. Entries will be clearly visible from these spaces and accented through architectural features such as enlarged glazing areas, overhead canopies and good lighting to accentuate the building as a component of the campus wide circulation system. A selective and strategic use of transparency at key locations such as main entries is critically important to create a welcoming and legible built environment. People and activity are what animate spaces and therefore need to be visible. Below: The vocational training center at Nyumbani Village - Eastern Province, Kenya

Figure 6.20: Massing Diagram

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Residential Figure 6.21: Conceptual Residential Building Rendering and Cross Section

1. Shade trees 2. Vertical shading devices 3. High level vents permit warmer air to escape 4. Insulated roof 5. Ceiling fan 6. Operable windows 7. Low level vents allow cooler air to enter the space as warmer air is expelled above With exterior openings located only on one side of the building, residential units will rely on single-sided wind driven ventilation through operable windows. To supplement the less efficient single-sided ventilation, vents will be located below and above the operable windows to facilitate buoyancy driven ventilation. High ceilings incorporated with a truss roof structure to support insulated roof surface will allow hot air to release as high as possible with the stack effect. Additionally, ceiling fans in each unit will increase air flow within the space. Roofs will extend horizontally to protect exterior walkways. Vertical shading fixtures prevent direct sunlight from entering the exterior walkways but daylight is still allowed to enter the interior spaces through the operable windows and the high level ventilation openings.

Figure 6.22: Residence Building Passive Design Strategy

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Classroom Figure 6.23: Conceptual Classroom Building Rendering and Cross Section

1. Shade trees 2. Vertical shading devices 3. High level vent 4. Insulated roof 5. Ceiling fan 6. Operable windows 7. Low level vent Since occupants will most likely be inside the classrooms during the hottest parts of the day, protection from the sun directly overhead was crucial. Roof overhangs on either side of the classrooms and vertical shading fixtures prevent direct sunlight entering into the classroom. The use of vertical windows the necessary day lighting needed for instruction into the space without promoting heat gain. Operable windows are placed in all exterior walls in order to promote as much cross ventilation despite the unpredictable prevailing wind direction. Vents are placed below these operable windows and in the space created by the trusses supporting the insulated roof. Keeping vents as far apart as possible will allow for better stack effect. Higher vents stretch along the entire length of the wall so that hot air outlets are much larger than the inlet vents further promoting buoyancy driven ventilation. If the combinations of these natural ventilation techniques are not enough, ceiling fans were also included to provide cooling. Choosing ceiling fans with lights may supplement the necessary lighting needed in instances where daylighting is not enough of classes are held in the evening.

Figure 6.24: Classroom Building Passive Design Strategy

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Laboratory Figure 6.25: Conceptual Laboratory Building Rendering and Cross Section

1. Shade trees 2. Un-insulated roof to drive stack effect 3. High level vent 4. Insulated roof 5. Ceiling fan 6. Roof overhang 7. Operable windows 8. Low level vent 9. Perforated masonry Lab facilities will be used for various activities. Since those activities may include unpleasant fumes or extra heat loads from machinery, proper ventilation is required. Unfortunately, the lab buildings like the other facilities often have the shorter dimension facing the prevailing winds. Other strategies had to be utilized in order to produce the desired cross ventilation. Similar to the classroom and residential design, lower louvered vents below operable windows are also utilized within the lab design. A few techniques only seen in the lab design include the design of a pop-up clerestory. The clerestory performs two functions. If left un-insulated at a far enough height, the roof ’s heat gain drives stack effect without transferring head to the occupants of the building. The second function is the clerestory’s ability to add another source of daylighting into the building without attracting direct sunlight and heat gain. The other feature only seen in the lab ventilation design is the utilization of ventilation bricks. The key of creating effective ventilation bricks lie on obtaining a lattice design with a series of small holes when doing the brick work. The series of wall openings allow additional air flow into the building as well as provides an interesting aesthetic façade for the building. Further promotion of cross ventilation occurs with the use of large garage doors and open floor spaces. The combination of leaving the garage doors open and limiting the air flow obstruction by utilizing columns instead of wall partitions helps ventilate the building.

Figure 6.26: Laboratory Building Passive Design Strategy

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Central Figure 6.27: Conceptual Central Building Rendering and Cross Section

1. Shade trees 2. Un-insulated roof 3. High level vent 4. Insulated roof 5. Ceiling fans 6. Horizontal shade overhang 7. Operable windows 8. Low level vent 9. Rock store A special truss configuration creates multiple clerestories that allow daylighting to reach deep within the building and prevent direct heat gain. The high openings in the roof also create outlets for the hot air which is driven out by buoyant forces. These buoyant forces are accelerated by keeping the high main roof un-insulated. Allowing the roof to gain heat from the sun which usually travels directly overhead, will further promote stack effect. To help facilitate cross ventilation and provide cool air movement on occupantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s skin, fans will be placed in strategic locations throughout the building. Fan locations will also be based on where lighting is required since the fans will also include lighting. A long cantilever overhang at the front of the building will provide shade for the stadium seats, creating a cool atmosphere for the social space. Lastly, this main facility will utilize a rock store/labyrinth located directly below the building. Outside air will travel into the lower compartment and become cool as it travels through the labyrinth. The now cool air will then be diffused through the different compartments of the main building.

Figure 6.28: Main Building Passive Design Strategy

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Building siting A distinguishing feature of the campus site is the relatively consistent slope from south-west to north-east. This is both an opportunity for a unique, dynamic character and a challenge to accessibility. To accommodate the change in elevation across the site, buildings will be situated on level graded building pads with berms with accessible ramps and stairs to allow pedestrian circulation.

Figure 6.29: Campus Site Cross Section

Building systems & equipment The use of mechanical designs that take advantage of passive and climate responsive strategies can provide an improved level of thermal comfort over current building standards for the occupants of the campus buildings. These design strategies achieve this without increasing energy demand and operating costs which is a crucial part of sustainable building design and the carbon-positive campus plan. Another significant area in the reduction of energy demand is plug loads, which includes all equipment that is plugged into wall outlets. This includes computers, copiers, phone chargers, electric lighting, and so on. By developing a rigorous campus purchasing policy that requires all equipment to be Energy Star rated when possible, plug loads can be further reduced. In a carbon-positive campus where the goal is for all energy use to be offset through renewable energy generation, this is the most effective way to reduce costs

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Landscape design guidelines This section addresses the design of campus landscape to ensure a consistent savanna character and compliance with principles of sustainable planning and environmental conservation.

The landscape design guidelines section is organized as follows: •


Guiding principles

Landscape concepts

Colors and materials





Opposite: An acacia tree sprouts leaves after the monsoon season - Kilimanjaro Region

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Context Location and general description The town of Same is situated in the Southern AcaciaCommiphora bushlands and thickets eco-region. This eco-region covers much of northern and central Tanzania, extending into southwestern Kenya and around the eastern margins of Lake Victoria. The eco-region forms the southern border of the larger geographical classification for the Somali-Masai Acacia-Commiphora deciduous bushland and thicket. The predominant plants include species of Acacia, Commiphora, and Crotalaria and the grasses Themeda triandra, Setaria incrassate, Panicum coloratum, Aristida adscencionis, Andropogon spp. And Eragrostis spp. Opposite: The landscape of southern Kenya - Rift Valley Province, Kenya Below: Bushland of the Pangani River basin Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

The habitat transitions to miombo woodland towards the south, more Acacia-Commiphra bushland and thicket towards the north, and coastal forests towards the east. The western portion of the ecoregion is included in the greater Serengeti ecosystem.

Topographically, the eco-region is situated on the Central African Plateau and slopes upward from east to west. Elevation ranges from 900 meters in the Speke Gulf up to 1,850 meters in the Gol Mountains. The majority of the eco-region falls between an elevation of 900 and 1,200 meters. The climate of the region is tropical with seasonal rain that falls in a bimodal pattern. The long rains occur from March to May and the short rains from November to December. Mean rainfall is 600 to 800 millimeters annually through most of the regions. Extremes include 500 mm in the dry southeastern plains and 1,200 mm in the northwestern region located in Kenya. Rainfall is variable such that the short rains may fail in a given year or rain may occur between the two rainy seasons, thereby joining the two. Temperatures are moderate with mean maximum temperatures as high as 30°C at lower elevations and as low as 24°C at the highest parts of the eco-region. Mean minimum temperatures are between 9° and 18°C, and normally between 13° to 16°C. During the long dry season (August to October), the grasslands can become extremely parched, and many of the trees and bushes lose their leaves. Fires occur naturally in the ecosystem. Both fire and elephant browsing play an important role in converting dense thicket and bushland into grassland. However, a large number of fires are started by pastoralists to promote new vegetative growth for their livestock. The human population of the eco-region is moderate, typically between 10 and 50 persons per square kilometers (km2). The highest populations occur close to Lake Victoria and in the foothills of mountains, such as the Pare and Usambaras, in Tanzania. Large and small commercial farms have transformed the wetter areas, and small-holder farming is increasing in all suitable areas. Grazing by domestic livestock occurs in the dry areas unsuitable for cultivation.

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Biodiversity features In the heart of these wide-sweeping grasslands and associated Acacia-Commiphora woodlands, the world’s most spectacular migration of large mammals occurs each year. The Serengeti-Mara migration of approximately 1.3 million wildebeest, 200,000 plains zebra, and 400,000 Thomson’s gazelles is the most spectacular mass movement of terrestrial animals anywhere in the world. This richness of large mammal numbers is also reflected in the diversity of other mammals and vertebrates. Not surprisingly the area also supports one of the highest concentrations of large predators with approximately 7,500 spotted hyenas and 2,800 lions. Leopard, cheetah, and hunting dog can all be found here as well. Both Tarangire and Serengeti National Parks have approximately 350 to 400 recorded bird species. The “Serengeti Plains” is an endemic bird area, with the restricted-range species rufous-tailed weaver, greycrested helmetshrike, Fischer’s lovebird, and Karamoja apalis. The area is also rich in both reptile diversity and endemism. There are three true endemics: Amblyodipsas dimidiate, the wedge-snouted worm lizard, and the Mpwapwa wedge-snouted worm lizard. More than 10 species of reptile are also regarded as near-endemic to the eco-region. The ecoregion is also an important habitat for the pancake tortoise. Plant diversity is lower than elsewhere in the SomaliMasai regional center of endemism. Most species found here have a wide distribution throughout many of the savanna woodlands of East and southern Africa. There are some biologically unique sites within the eco-region. The Mkomazi National Park in northern Tanzania supports some of the driest habitats within the eco-region and is known to support invertebrates that are potential endemics . http://www.eoearth.org/article/Southern_Acacia-Commiphora_ bushlands_and_thickets

Right: A white rhino rests on the banks of Lake Nakuru Rift Valley Province, Kenya Below: Elephants graze in the Masai Mara National Reserve - Rift Valley Province, Kenya Opposite: Impala graze in Lake Nakuru National Park Rift Valley Province, Kenya

Guiding principles The following principles shall guide future development of campus landscape design: 1. The site and landscape shall be appropriate to the local savanna climate. Outdoor spaces will be designed to ameliorate the climate by providing shade and capturing breezes. 2. Site, landscape, and building design shall create a sense of place that is of the savanna. Materials, colors, and design implementation shall respond to the site and region. 3. Outdoor spaces shall respond to the architecture and provide an extension of indoor spaces. The savanna climate provides opportunities to socialize, gather, and learn outdoors, and the design of outdoor spaces shall provide comfort and protection. 4. The planning and design of the campus shall protect, preserve, and celebrate the savanna environment. Choosing native materials wherever feasible provides savanna color and texture that blends seamlessly with the adjacent natural environment. Preserving and enhancing existing drainage-ways provides open space corridors that support wildlife habitat. 5. Water shall be treated as a precious resource, and native and drought-tolerant planting that minimizes water usage shall be implemented throughout the campus. The design of irrigation systems will be effective, efficient, and connected to the campusâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; recycled water and collected rainwater infrastructure. 6. Local and regional materials shall be used to reinforce the sense of place; minimize the transportation costs and environmental impacts of acquiring materials from outside of East Africa; and support the local economy.

7. Landscape and site design shall employ design measures and materials that support integrated stormwater management. Porous paving materials in courtyards, pedestrian circulation paths, and parking lots will allow water to infiltrate and recharge the groundwater system. Vegetated swales and stormwater planters shall be integrated into designed spaces. 8. Utilizing local plant materials that grow naturally in the East African savanna will minimize water and chemical use and lower maintenance. The campus landscape should be resilient to heavy use, adapt well to climate extremes, and thrive under cost-effective maintenance. 9. Integrate farming into the landscape design by utilizing local plant materials that produce useful products will reduce operational costs and support the academic and development programs on campus. Such products include fruit for human consumption, fodder for livestock and oil seeds for biofuel production. 10. In general, landscape designs should employ the principles of permaculture which does not focus on each separate element, but rather on the relationships created among elements by the way they are placed together; the whole becoming greater than the sum of its parts. Permaculture design seeks to minimize waste, human labor, and energy input by building systems with maximal benefits between design elements to achieve a high level of synergy. Permaculture designs evolve over time by taking into account these relationships and elements and can become complex systems that produce a high density of food and materials with minimal input.

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Landscape concepts The vision for the Same Polytechnic College campus is to create a place that is â&#x20AC;&#x153;of the savannaâ&#x20AC;?. The landscape shall embrace the existing savanna setting and allow it to inform design decisions, materials, and plant palettes. Designers will take advantage of the fact that drainageways indicative of mountainous landscapes weave through campus, providing interesting patterns and defining edges and spaces. Climate plays a key role in the distinct ecosystem of the savanna and is integral to the planning and design of campus open spaces and their relationship to buildings and the natural environment. During the winter, warm days are followed by cool evenings and the landscape can help celebrate warm days and mitigate cool temperatures. Site and landscape design objectives preserve, protect and enhance the existing desert landscape where possible and outdoor spaces should be designed to ameliorate the climate by providing shade, shadow, texture, and by capturing breezes. The recommended plant palette draws from the native savanna landscape, responds to the unique climate and setting and is sensitive to water conservation. A consistent desert plant palette is planned throughout campus to unify the site, connect it to the desert landscape and provide a sense of place. Areas of intense planting are planned for entries, courtyards, quads and portions of the pedestrian promenades. Accent planting within these areas will provide seasonal color, focal points and protection from the desert climate. The drainage swales are prominent existing features that weave through campus softening the edges of development.

Right: Trees grow on the banks of the Pangani River Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania Opposite: The floor of the Ngorongoro Crater - Arusha Region, Tanzania

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Colors and materials In creating a campus of the savanna, the colors and materials used in the design of outdoor spaces should respond to and complement the existing physical setting and harmonize with the architecture to create a cohesive place. A warm, muted color palette should inform design decisions and material choices. Locally found savanna tones with seasonal accent color will be encouraged. Color should derive from a materialâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s inherent natural color. The colors of the savanna vary depending on time of day and season and can provide a change in quality throughout the year. Local and regional materials should be implemented whenever feasible to reinforce the savanna environment, reduce the cost and environmental impact of transporting goods, and support the local economy. Porous pavement shall be encouraged to allow for infiltration during the infrequent rains and for possible excess irrigation runoff. A hierarchy of paving material is anticipated throughout the campus to provide consistency along promenades and pedestrian walks while allowing flexibility to implement accent paving in special places. It is recommended that a few materials be chosen and implemented throughout the site to unify the campus.

All: Various wildflowers in bloom after the monsoon season - Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

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Open space The savanna landscape provides a unique environment for the Same Polytechnic College campus where natural features are celebrated and enhanced throughout the site. Existing swales are integrated features that weave through the campus connecting adjacent open spaces. The informal edges of the natural landscape juxtapose the formal alignment of buildings and the terracing of the landscape up the hill. The mountain range to the north cradles the site and connections the campus to other open space and natural habitats connecting users to the landscape. A network of spaces and promenades on campus will accommodate special functions, informal events, pedestrian movement, studying, recreation, casual sports and socializing. These open spaces not only support residential and academic life, but also connect to and celebrate the natural environment. Sustainability plays a key role in the design of the open spaces and will be discussed further in the following sections.

Opposite: Open space on the grounds of a Mara Lodge Rift Valley Provence, Kenya

Figure 6.31: Outdoor Spaces Site Plan

Characteristics of open space Campus open space is defined by: existing conditions and natural environment, building layout and use, pedestrian movement and distance, and potential program. A hierarchy of spaces caters to a wide variety of uses and creates diversity on campus, while promenades and circulation paths create linkages that enhance the pedestrian experience. Quads, central gathering spaces and courtyards provide places that support the social aspects of the campus and provide areas for campus events, casual sports, lounging and socializing. Landscaped spaces and places create respites from the classroom and dormitory and provide comfort in the savanna climate.

Figure 6.30: Outdoor Classroom

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Courtyards and quads Courtyards provide appropriately scaled spaces that connect indoor / outdoor uses by creating more intimate, shaded areas to gather, socialize and learn. Courtyards respond to building facades, entries and solar orientation. Courtyards will vary throughout campus and the diverse plant palette and hardscape materials will help inform design decisions while offering flexibility to create unique spaces. A collection of quads are planned for the campus to provide variety of scale for different uses. Centrally located quads within the academic core are larger, social spaces that can accommodate campus-wide events such as orientation, graduation and fairs. The smaller quads are in the residential villages and are formed by building edges. These social gathering spaces provide ample room for casual recreation and socializing. There will be one primary quad within the academic core of phase one and it will be the prominent open space for the campus in the early years of development. The space will be versatile with the ability to accommodate a variety of events and uses. Due to its central location and proximity to the main campus entry, the main quad will create a sense of arrival and place. Its role as an iconic place should inform its design and relationship to buildings and main pedestrian promenades.

Right: Students socialize in a courtyard at the Arusha Technical College - Arusha Region, Tanzania Opposite: A seasonal creek bed - Eastern Province, Kenya

Swales Figure 6.32: Seasonal Swale Environment Wet Season

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Dry Season

Existing swales provide natural fingers that penetrate the campus and embrace the more formal spaces. Existing swales are enhanced and enlarged to become linear parks that provide gathering spaces, nodes and areas of respite. Design of these spaces should be informed by climate, views and connectivity. Roadways, service roads and multi-use trails line the edges of the arroyo and provide circulation routes through and around campus. Additional native trees and shrubs found in natural washes are planted informally at the middle and top of slope. Dry, savanna groundplane, consisting of rocks of varying sizes and desert soil, low shrubs and groundcover stabilize banks and blend seamlessly with existing swale.

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Entry Plaza The prominent entry to the campus will be on the southwest side of campus off the B1 highway. Distinguished buildings anchor the space, define edges and welcome visitors to campus. A covered reception area creates a transition from the entry and leads to the primary quad in the central core. This entry will be more formal in design and due to its role in providing the initial impression of campus, the design should respond with place making elements that evoke the savanna community and landscape. This entry is also important because it is a link to the town center and thus the design should be open and inclusive and should not turn its back on the wider community. Recreation fields Open athletic fields and courts are located throughout the campus and provide areas for active, collegiate sports.

Right: Rendering of a conceptual design for the central courtyard of the SPC campus Opposite: Rendering of a conceptual design for the main entrance of the SPC campus

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Planting The planting design objectives are to: •

Utilize plant communities that reflect and blend with the existing savanna environment

Utilize plant materials to frame views, create outdoor spaces and ameliorate the climate

Utilize plant materials to create sense of place and unique spaces

Utilize plant materials that produce useful products to support the academic and development programs on campus

Revegetate disturbed natural landscape with native plants.

Guidelines: •

Plant materials should be used to provide shade, texture, color, interest in the landscape and useful harvests such as food, fodder and cash crops.

Shrubs should be used to define edges and spaces and can be used as low walls.

Trees should be used to frame views or soften building edges.

Native vegetation: areas of disturbance due to development or site grading that are to be returned to the natural savanna landscape shall implement the native revegetation plant palette (see list).

Planting is an important element in the design of a comfortable and pleasant indoor and outdoor environment for all people. Planting can offer protection from wind, noise and shade while improving the visual aesthetics of the building and the surrounding area. Planting will be a significant feature on the site of Same Polytechnic College in Same, Tanzania. The trees around the campus will help keep buildings and environments cool by complimenting passive environmental cooling systems while providing

a friendly natural gathering space. Care will be taken that trees and shrubs are carefully arranged around buildings to provide shade while not interfering with ventilation and interior lighting and planted at the proper distance from a building’s foundations to prevent damage caused by roots. The selection of plant species will ensure the existing savanna landscape character is maintained and enhanced appropriately. The first preference is to select plants native to the region which will thrive in the savanna environment with little to no water usage. Pre-established non-invasive plant species may also be planted for ornamental or other useful purposes provided they are well adapted to the environment.

The campus program includes dedicated orchards and agricultural fields for educational, research and demonstration purposes. Planting for these areas will primarily be dictated by the needs of these on-campus activities. An approved plant species list has been developed for the Same Polytechnic College.

Figure 6.34: Tree and Shrub List

Figure 6.33

Figure 6.35: Flowers Blooming Regardless of Season

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Figure 6.36: Flowers Blooming During Wet Season

Figure 6.37: Flowers Blooming During Dry Season

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Shade structures The shade structures design objectives are to: • Incorporate landscape structures which help ameliorate the climate •

Design landscape structures that are extensions of the architecture and complement architectural style

Design shade structures that can support photovoltaic panels where feasible

Design shade structures that reduce albedo effect at parking lots and curtail glare from car windows

Design shade structures that create spaces and enhance pedestrian experience

Guidelines: •

Color and materials shall be consistent with the building materials guidelines.

Scale and height of landscape structures shall complement the architecture and provide ample shade for pedestrians.

Shade structures locations on site shall be informed by solar orientation and building design.

Right: A covered walkway at a hotel - Tanga Region, Tanzania Opposite: Informational signs guide visitors to the Arusha Technical College - Arusha Region, Tanzania

Signage A comprehensive signage plan will provide identification, improve circulation, and enhance area-wide connectivity for the Same Polytechnic College campus. The signage program should have a unique and consistent image that reflects the campusâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; environmental themes and contributes to the siteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s attractiveness, in addition to providing useful information.

The following types of signage are recommended as part of the identification and wayfinding systems: Monument signs Monument signs that include the Same Polytechnic College name and SPC logotype should be located at major entrances. Building identification signs Signage should be mounted on all buildings adjacent to major entrances. The building name and a subscript indicating building use should be visible from major pedestrian and vehicular circulation routes. Typeface and letter size should be consistent across the campus. Wayfinding signs Wayfinding signs should be provided for pedestrians, bicyclists, and vehicles at appropriate scales and locations. The wayfinding system should include pedestal-mounted campus plans for pedestrian orientation. Banners Mounting stanchions for standard-size banners should be provided on lightpoles. Banners could enhance site identity in the arid and undeveloped setting and provide information on seasonal campus activities. Regulatory signs Most regulatory signs have a standard design (e.g., the red octagon stop sign). These should remain stock, offthe-shelf products, but the mounting poles should be of a color and material that relates to the other signage or streetscape components of the campus.

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Figure 6.38: Lighting Diagram


Light Types: Extra Large (460w) Flood Large (500w) Post Large (284w) Flood Medium (115w) Flood Small (100W) Bollard

LightingEach ‘Lightshed’ is defined as the area on the ground that would be covered by at least 1 The lighting objectives are to: footcandle. Anything outside of this ‘Lightshed’ • Preserve the dark sky by minimizing the amount would be covered by less than 1 footcandle and of exterior lighting without compromising safety. therefore by less than the American code standard forlight lighting. • Utilize fixtures that complement the architecture.


(14) Extra Large (460w) Flood Lights 19m/63ft Between Lamps for Max. Coverage

9.1m/30 ft

Light height

Provide pedestrian-scaled lighting in the interior campus and vehicular-scaled lighting along roadways and access drives.

Provide safety.

Minimize impact on wildlife habitats.


Dia. Lightshed

(12) Large (500w) Post Lights


amps verage

Each ‘Lightshed’ is defined as the area on the ground that would be covered by at least 1 footcandle. 18m/60ftAnything outside of this ‘Lightshed’ Lamps wouldBetween be covered by less than 1 footcandle and for Max. Coverage therefore by less than the American code standard for lighting.

Guidelines: •


Lamp post height

Exterior site lighting shall have partial cut-off and be directed onto pedestrian walkways and (360) Small (100w) Bollard Lights (64) Medium (115w) Flood Lights provide ample security lighting in parking lots and surrounding residential buildings.



Dia. Lightshed

Dia. Lightshed

(33) Large (284w) Flood Lights


amps verage

8.25m/27ft •

12.5m/41ft Between Lamps for Max. Coverage



Light height/ Bldg height

Light height



Dia. Lightshed

Dia. Lightshed

(64) Medium (115w) Flood Lights


(360) Small (100w) Bollard Lights

3m/10ft Light height/ Bldg height


Dia. Lightshed

Uplighting shall be discouraged in order to preserve the dark sky.

Light fixtures shall complement the architecture 6.1m/20ft 1.1m/3.5ft Lightin height and be contemporary design. Use of a consistent fixture for all pedestrian areas shall be encouraged. 6.1m/20ft 8.25m/27ft A fixture that complements the pedestrian fixtures Dia. Lightshed Dia. Lightshed should be used for roadway and service areas.

Specialized lighting is encouraged in courtyards and garden spaces in order to create unique places.


Lamps overage

Exterior building lighting shall be the minimum needed to provide general illumination and security at entries, courtyards, and other outdoor spaces.



Light height


Dia. Lightshed

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Dia. Lightshed

Section 6: Building design guidelines Page 303

Appendix A Scenario Planning and Circulation Diagrams

Scenario Planning In the development of the campus Circulation Plan, the campus facility usage patterns of different groupings of people were studied throughout the day. This scenario planning identified eight different categories of campus occupants and visitors. The academic calendar, daily routine, common behavior, typical campus life and the time and length of daily activities were investigated along with local customs, climate and social norms to develop realistic daily living patterns. These patterns were then utilized to create circulations diagrams and in the energy usage estimates for the different building typologies. The assumed usage pattern for a student in the School of Education (SE) of campus facilities is shown in Figure X. The following diagrams illustrate the daily campus facility usage pattern developed from the scenario planning. On the legend, three different relative shades of colors, blue, green and red represent students, faculty and administrative staff. Additionally, the students are subdivided into three groups based on similarities in school curriculum: 1. SAFES (School of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Sciences) 2. SBSCT and SAMT (School of Building Science and Construction Technology & School of Automotive and Mechanical Technology) 3. SE, SBM, STH and SSS (School of Education, School of Business Management, School of Tourism and Hospitality, & School of Social Studies)

Figure A.1: Facilities Usage Patterns on Typical Academic Day

Figure A.2: Facilities Usage Patterns: 8AM/Breakfast

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Section 4: Planning principles and context Page 305

Figure A.3: Facilities Usage Patterns: 10AM/Morning Classes & Workshops

Figure A.4: Facilities Usage Patterns: 12PM/Lunch 1

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Figure A.5: Facilities Usage Patterns: 12PM/Lunch 2

Figure A.6: Facilities Usage Patterns: 2PM/Afternoon Classes

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Appendix A: Scenario Planning & Circulation Diagrams Page 309

Figure A.7: Facilities Usage Patterns: 4PM/Afternoon Tea Break

Figure A.8: Facilities Usage Patterns: 7PM/Evening

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Scenario Planning Through scenario planning of different people groups on campus, a series of the categorized circulation diagrams were created. As all the buildings are placed on specific locations on purpose, different schools are laid out on the site to serve campus to function better and efficiently. The lab-oriented schools such as SAFES, SBSCT, and SAMT are located on the left side of the site while the lecture-oriented schools such as SE, SBM, STH, and SSS are located on the right side. The students of various schools are assigned to dormitories randomly across the plan to encourage interdisciplinary activities and to utilize the campus core holistically. The highlighted blocks represent the buildings that each people group occupies during the day, and the blurry circular spots represent the outdoor gathering areas for social or academic purposes. The administration staffs utilize local bus on main highway to commute to campus along with other maintenance, MISD, and some faculty staff. Most of faculty members reside on the upper right corner of the site and utilize lower side of the campus and the core during the day. For days when the main sports field is open to public events, the visitors would be only able to access up to the front part of main buildings near sports area. The visitors have access to parking lots, restrooms, and food stands.

Figure A.9: Circulation of SAFES Students on a Typical Academic Day

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Figure A.10: Circulation of SBSCT/SAMT Students on a Typical Academic Day

Figure A.11: Circulation of SE/SBM/STH/SSS Students on a Typical Academic Day

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Appendix A: Scenario Planning & Circulation Diagrams Page 315

Figure A.12: Circulation of Faculty Professors on a Typical Academic Day

Figure A.13: Circulation of Administration Staff on a Typical Academic Day

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Appendix A: Scenario Planning & Circulation Diagrams Page 317

Figure A.14: Circulation of Visitors on Public Sports Day

Outdoor Facility Use Patters From this outdoor facility use pattern diagram, there is relationship between the average rainfall on the site and outdoor facility usage period. The majority of March, April, October, November, and December would have students to utilize indoor facilities rather due to heavy rainfall. During two semesters in a year, the students will utilize outdoor facilities for about 5 months. During the academic break, the college can still open the facilities to the public events as weather seems fit. The outdoor facilities include sports fields, outdoor lab areas, and social gathering area.

Figure A.15: Outdoor Facility Use Patterns Per Month

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Appendix A: Scenario Planning & Circulation Diagrams Page 319

Appendix B Seismic Hazard Desk Study

Seismic Hazard Desk Study Executive Summary Ove Arup and Partners (Arup) has been appointed by the Mbesese Initiative for Sustainable Development (MISD), a US registered charitable organization, to undertake a seismic hazard desk study for a proposed vocational training college campus in Same, Tanzania. the Kilimanjaro Region of the United Republic of Tanzania. A Geological Survey of Tanzania places the site in an earthquake prone area. The East African Rift System (EARS) is the main feature characterising the tectonic setting of the region and is one of the most extensive rift systems on the Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s surface, extending from the Gulf of Aden southwards through eastern Africa and Mozambique. Although the Site is located very close to the Eastern Branch of this major tectonic regional feature, most of the regional seismicity is rather due to the geodynamics of the Western Branch of the EARS. There is therefore only a moderate earthquake activity near Same, and level of hazard at the site. A PGA between 0.04 and 0.08g for a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years (475 yr return period) is reported for the site by GSHAP. Larger PGA values are obtained (0.02-0.15g) if the Munich Re intensity hazard values are converted into PGA, using a number of correlations. These latter values should be treated with caution given the level of uncertainty associated with the intensity to PGA conversions. Based on the limited knowledge of the site conditions at Same site and rough approximations of the VS30 values available from the USGS web tool application, a site classification as site class C is recommended. This

is to be confirmed when more ground investigation data becomes available, which should include a characterisation and identification of the extent of black cotton soil deposits, if any, at the site. A design spectrum for Soil Type C has been derived in accordance to ASCE 7-05 based upon a review of existing seismic hazard studies. The recommended spectrum should be confirmed with the results of a site-specific Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA). Introduction Ove Arup and Partners (Arup) has been appointed by the Mbesese Initiative for Sustainable Development (MISD), a US registered charitable organization, to undertake a seismic hazard desk study for a proposed vocational training college campus in Same, Tanzania. the Kilimanjaro Region of the United Republic of Tanzania. The site in Same is located in the North Eastern region of Tanzania, near the border with Kenya (See Figure 1) and close to Mt Kilimanjaro which lies a few kilometres North-West from the site. According to Figure B.2, the site is located in a zone which has been defined as earthquake prone by the geological survey of Tanzania. The East African Rift System (EARS) is the main feature characterising the tectonic setting of the region and is one of the most extensive rift systems on the Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s surface, extending from the Gulf of Aden southwards through eastern Africa and Mozambique.

Although the Site is located very close to the Eastern Branch of this major tectonic regional feature, most of the regional seismicity is rather due to the geodynamics of the Western Branch of the EARS. There is therefore a moderate earthquake activity near Same, and level of hazard at the site. This study presents a high level review of the geology, tectonics and seismicity in the site region. Preliminary seismic design values are provided based upon a review of published regional seismic hazard studies as well as ready available on-line resources. A detailed site-specific probabilistic seismic hazard assessment study is however recommended in a later stage of the project.

Figure B.1

Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan

Figure B.2

Appendix B: Seismic Hazard Desk Study Page 323

Geology, Tectonics and Ground Conditions Regional Geology and Tectonics The East African Rift System (EARS) is the major tectonic feature in the region that could potentially affect the hazard at the site (See Figure B.3).

The Site lies within 50 km from Mt Kilimanjaro, the biggest stratovolcano of the region, formed in association with the Gregory Rift Valley geodynamics.

The EARS is arguably the largest, presently active, continental extension zone. The extension is part of a complex tectonic setting with the rift separating the African Plate into two separate plates, the Nubian Plate to the west of the EAR and Somalian Plate to the East. The processes which have created and continue to shape the rift system are the subject of some debate, it is generally accepted that in the early stages of continental rifting, extension occurs by faulting while in mature rifts, dyke intrusion dominates extension. It is believed that extension in the EARS is the result of fracturing of the African Plate caused by rising thermal plumes in the mantle beneath Africa. The EARS is a relatively immature rift where the thick crust and slow spreading rate favour small, deep magma chambers, forming short, buried dykes, whereas in mature rifts the thinner crust and faster spreading rate favour large, shallow magma chambers and long, erupting dykes. The tectonic fracturing in this region gives rise to volcanism and active seismicity.

Figure B.4 shows the main faulting features in Tanzania. Extensive faulting can be observed close to the site. The Site lies at the bottom of a hill which formation is linked to the geodynamics of a major thrust fault. Figure B.5 illustrates schematically the local tectonics and geodynamics, mainly influenced by the North Pare Range at the Site.

As shown in Figure B.3, the EARS splits into two branches: the western branch which contains the East African Great Lakes, and the Eastern Branch that roughly bisects Kenya in a north-to-south line slightly west of Nairobi, extending South in Northern Tanzania. The site is located at approximately 200 km from the Eastern Branch.

The simplified geology of Tanzania is also shown in Figure B.4. The underlying geology at the site is thus expected to be from a neoproterozoic formation, characterized by granulite, gneiss or migmatite. However, given the complex geological and tectonic setting described above the stratigraphy within the site is expected to vary considerably both laterally and vertically in the sequence. Therefore, it would be strongly advised to carry out more ground investigations in order to correctly assess the geology at the site.

Figure B.3

Figure B.4

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Figure B.5

Appendix B: Seismic Hazard Desk Study Page 325

Local ground conditions and site classification Limited information was found regarding the local geology and site conditions. The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) global shearwave velocity maps web application (accessible at: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/hazards/apps/vs30/) has been used in order to obtain a first-order estimate of the average shear-wave velocity values over the top 30 meters (VS30). It should be noted that the web application VS30 maps are not based on direct measurements. These estimates have been derived using correlations between shear-wave velocity values and topographic slope using datasets from various regions. According to the USGS web tool, the Same Polytechnic site is expected to be classified as Site Class C, based on the NEHRP site class definitions (i.e. VS30 values >360 m/s), as shown in Figure B.6 and Figure B.7. However, this should stand as a preliminary site classification and needs to be confirmed by appropriate site investigation.

Figure B.6

Figure B.7

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Seismicity Figure B.8 shows the distribution seismicity in East Africa for the period 674-1994 (GSHAP, 1999). It can be seen that the seismicity is mainly associated with extension of the EARS and mainly follows the location of the Eastern and Western Branches. Intermediateto-large earthquakes associated with extension are observed along the entire EARS. The Western Branch exhibits a higher seismicity than the Eastern Branch overall.

Figure B.9

Figure B.8

Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan

Figure B.10

Appendix B: Seismic Hazard Desk Study Page 329

Seismic Hazard and Zoning Maps This section summarises existing seismic hazard estimates for Same region, which come from published regional studies and on-line resources. GSHAP (1999) As part of the decade for natural disaster reduction, the United Nations carried out the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment program (GSHAP) in order to produce a seismic hazard map of the world. The project used local seismic hazard studies that were then integrated into regional maps and afterwards into a global map. Midzi et al. (1999) carried out a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for eastern and southern Africa within the framework of the GSHAP. To define the seismotectonic model, Midzi et al. (1999) used an earthquake catalogue for eastern and southern Africa, covering the period 627AD-1994AD. This catalogue was based on the earthquake database compiled by Turyomurugyendo (1996) and expanded by the inclusion of other sources of historical and instrumental data, such as the studies of Bath (1975), Ambraseys & Adams (1992) and the ISC and USGS/ NEIC catalogues. The seismic source zonation used by Midzi et al (1999) (see Figure B.11) included twenty-one source zones which reflected the main tectonic features and distribution of seismicity in eastern and southern Africa. Due to the large scale of the study, detailed structures and the individual faults were treated as broad fault zones that comprised area sources. Four sources are considered for the Tanzania region, which follow the eastern and western branches of the EARS in Tanzania. It is noted that Same is included in source zone 14 to which a maximum magnitude of 7.4 was assigned.

Two regional ground-motion models for hard rock conditions were used to model the distribution of ground motions: the Jonathan (1996) equation for eastern and southern Africa and the Twesigomwe (1997) equation, which was based on data from Uganda. The Midzi et al. (1999) study only considered regional structures in the seismic zonation and did not take into account individual faults. Detailed hazard studies should therefore provide better seismic hazard estimates for the region. Figure B.12 shows the seismic hazard map that was derived by GSHAP for East Africa (Midzi et al. 1999), expressed in terms of PGA at bedrock with a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years (i.e. a 475 year return period). It can be seen that the higher hazard areas clearly follow the rift valley. Same sits in the zone with a range of bedrock PGA of about 0.4 to 0.8 m/s2. Munich Re (2009) The Munich Re world map of seismic hazard (Munich Re, 2009) is shown in Figure B.13. The hazard is expressed in terms of Modified Mercalli Scale Intensity (MMI) having 10% probability of being exceeded in the next 50 years (i.e. 475 year return period). According to this map, the Same Polytechnic site is located in Zone 1, which is associated with a MM Intensity VI for a 475 year return period. This is equivalent to a PGA between 0.2 and 1.5 m/s2 (about 0.02 to 0.15g) based on the range of relationships between the Modified Mercalli scale and PGA summarised in Figure 14.

USGS World Seismic Design Maps application The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) global seismic design maps web application (accessible at: https:// geohazards.usgs.gov/secure/designmaps/ww/ application.php) has been used in order to obtain rough approximations for the spectral accelerations at 0.2 and 1.0 sec, having 2% probability of exceedance in 50 year (2475 year return period). These accelerations correspond to the short period (SS) and long period (S1) parameters in accordance to the International Building Code (IBC, 2009). It should be noted that these USGS global design map values are based on the probabilistic 10%-in-50-year (475 year) PGA from GSHAP. The GSHAP value has been multiplied by 2 to approximate 2%-in-50-year (2475 year) PGA values, and then multiplied by 2.5 and 1.0, respectively, to estimate SS and S1. The USGS web tool reports SS=4.51m/s2 (0.46g) and S1=1.76 m/s2 (0.18g) for Same, Tanzania. However, it should be noted that these are preliminary estimates in the absence of probabilistic hazard values directly estimated for a 2475 year return period.

Figure B.11

Source: Zonation in the GSHAP study

Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan

Figure B.12

Source: GSHAP (1999) Seismic hazard map for East Africa and PGA having 10% probabilities of being exceeded in 50 years (475-yr return period).

Appendix B: Seismic Hazard Desk Study Page 331

Figure B.13

Seismic Hazard Map Source: Munich Re, 2009

Figure B.14

Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan

Proposed relationships between PGA and MMI Source: Trifunac and Brady, 1975, Kramer, 1996

Appendix B: Seismic Hazard Desk Study Page 333

Seismic Design Requirements In absence of a Seismic Design Code specific to Tanzania, it has been chosen to use the ASCE 7-05 provisions for seismic design, given that it is one of the most widely used code around the world. ASCE 7-05 Provisions The ASCE 7-05 Design spectrum is derived based on the Seismic Design Values Ss and S1 as defined in Section 4.3, as well as the Site Class considered. The design spectra shown in Figure B.15 were thus derived for SS=4.51m/s2 (0.46g) and S1=1.76 m/ s2 (0.18g) for Site Class B, C and bedrock. It is recommended to use Site Class C to be on the conservative side, in absence of detailed probabilistic seismic hazard assessment study. The parameters used to construct the design spectrum for Site Class C site conditions in accordance to ASCE-7-05 are listed in Table B.1. Table B.1 Parameter

ASCE 7-05 Spectrum Seismic Site Class C

SS (g)


S1 (g)






SDS (g)


SD1 (g)


T0 (sec)


TS (sec)


Source: ASCE 7-05

It should be reminded that SS and S1 values upon which the ASCE 7-05 spectrum for Same has been derived come from extrapolation of GSHAP (1999) PGA values for 475 year return period. Therefore, the design spectrum recommended herein should be treated as preliminary, in view of the lack of detailed studies proving explicit probabilistic estimates of SS and S1. The recommended spectrum should be confirmed with the results of a site-specific Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA). Figure B.15: Design Response Spectrum Site Class B, C and Bedrock Response Spectrum

Other Geo-Hazards Liquefaction



Liquefaction of shallow soil layers may be triggered by an earthquake. Appropriate ground investigation should be carried out to identify the stratigraphy on site and assess the risk associated with the liquefaction hazard. Regionally, black cotton soil may be encountered and represent a risk of liquefaction under earthquake loading and amplify the seismic waves significantly at surface.

The East African Rift System includes a number of active as well as dormant volcanoes. These include Mount Kilimanjaro, Mount Kenya, Mount Longonot, Menengai Crater, Mount Karisimbi, Mount Nyiragongo, Mount Meru and Mount Elgon as well as the Crater Highlands in Tanzania. The Ol Doinyo Lengai volcanoe remains active and is currently the only natrocarbonatite volcano in the world.

The 150-acre site sits at an elevation of about 940 meters above sea level, at the base of the South Pare Mountains. These mountains border the site along its northern edge. The site rises from south to north at a largely consistent slope; at and beyond the north campus site boundary the site quickly rises in elevation with significantly greater slopes. The South Pare Mountains rise to heights of over 2,440 meters.

Fault rupture

The project site is located approximately 50 km from Mount Kilimanjaro. Mount Kilimanjaro is a giant stratovolcano, formed by many layers (strata) of hardened lava, tephra, pumice and volcanic ash which built up when lava spilled from the EARS zone starting approximately one million years ago. Stratovolcanoes are characterized by a steep profile and periodic, explosive eruptions. Two of its three peaks, Mawenzi and Shira, are extinct while Kibo (the highest peak) is believed to be dormant and could erupt again. The last major eruption has been dated to 360,000 years ago, while the most recent activity was recorded just 200 years ago. Although it is considered dormant, Kibo has fumaroles that emit gas at the crater. Scientists concluded in 2003 that molten magma is just 400 m below the summit crater. Although new activity is not expected, there are fears the volcano may collapse, causing a major eruption similar to Mount St. Helens in 1980. It is believed that Mt. Kenya experienced a similar eruption between 2.6 and 3.1 million years ago.

Landslides are therefore a natural hazard to the site, and may be triggered by seismic ground motion. Ground investigation should target the areas of known instability in order to assess the nature and extent of this slope instability at the site.

The geological map from Figure 4 shows numerous faults following the regional Pare-Usumbara tectonic features. No major faults were identified to pass directly through the site . However, the geomorphology of the site suggests faults are likely to be present but vegetation, mantling ash and other younger formations make it difficult to identify individual faults. Ground rupture and ground deformation could occur along the alignment of existing faults during future earthquakes. Fault rupture occurs when the dimensions of the fault surface over which displacement occurs is sufficient to extend to the surface. Detailed geological mapping of the area would provide a better understanding of the extent of faulting across the site.

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Conclusions and Recommendations


The present desk seismic hazard study shows that the seismic hazard at the site is relatively moderate, and may need to be considered in the design.

Ambraseys, N.N. & Adams, R.D. (1992). Reappraisal of major African earthquakes, Natural Hazards, Vol. 4, pp. 389-419.

A PGA between 0.04 and 0.08g for a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years (475 yr return period) is reported for the site by GSHAP. Larger PGA values are obtained (0.02-0.15g) if the Munich Re intensity hazard values are converted into PGA, using a number of correlations. These latter values should be treated with caution given the level of uncertainty associated with the intensity to PGA conversions.

Bath, M. (1975): “Seismicity of the Tanzania Region”. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam.

Based on the limited knowledge of the site conditions at Same site and rough approximations of the VS30 values available from the USGS web tool application, a site classification as site class C is recommended. This is to be confirmed when more ground investigation data becomes available, which should include a characterisation and identification of the extent of black cotton soil deposits, if any, at the site. A design spectrum for Soil Type C has been derived in accordance to ASCE 7-05 based upon a review of existing seismic hazard studies. The recommended spectrum should be confirmed with the results of a site-specific Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA).

GSHAP - http://www.seismo.ethz.ch/static/GSHAP/ Kramer, S.L. (1996) Geotechnical earthquake engineering. Prentice-Hall. Midzi et al (1999): “Seismic Hazard Assessment in Eastern and Southern Africa”. Annali di Geofisica, Vol 42, No. 6, pp. 1067. Munich Re (2009). Seismic Intensity Hazard Map. Trifunac, M.D. & Brady, A.G. (1975). On the correlation of seismic intensity scales with the peaks of recorded ground motion, Bull. Seismo. Soc. Am., Vol. 65, pp 139-162. Turyomurugyendo, G. (1996). Some aspects of seismic hazard in the East and South African region, MSc. Thesis, Institute of Solid Earth Physics, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway, p.80 (unpublished). Twesigomwe, E. (1997). Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Uganda, PhD Thesis. Dept of Physics, Makere University, Uganda. United States Geological Survey webtools: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/hazards/apps/vs30/) https://geohazards.usgs.gov/secure/designmaps/ww/ application.php USGS/NEIC Earthquake Catalogue 1973-2012. NGDC significant earthquakes catalogue 2150 BC1994.

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Appendix B: Seismic Hazard Desk Study Page 337

Appendix C Planning Participants

The Mbesese Initiative for Sustainable Development Firm profile The Mbesese Initiative for Sustainable Development is a collaboration of professionals, academics, students and humanitarians working with rural communities in developing countries to establish routes out of poverty. Our approach moves away from the more common aid-based and specialized strategies, and centers on building human capabilities. Our mission is not to simply provide the goods and services impoverished people lack, but to create an environment for people, individually and collectively, to develop to their full potential, lead healthy productive lives, and have access to the resources needed for a decent standard of living. In doing so, we expand the opportunities people have to provide for their own needs and overcome the deprivation they face.

We engage in a wide range of activities in multiple relevant fields to increase human capital, encourage economic growth, improve living conditions, and foster environmental stewardship. By expanding our field of activity we address more of the diverse challenges impoverished people face. Coordinating and integrating these activities through one team enables us to better identify common factors between these challenges and their underlying causes. This gives us new perspectives to redefine problems beyond on the boundaries of other more specialized strategies. Furthermore, we tailor our activities to the specific context of the regions in which work, considering the constraints and utilizing the opportunities unique to these geographic locations.

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As a result, we create more targeted, impactful and comprehensive solutions that bring about lasting change in peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lives rather than providing temporary relief.

Appendix C: Planning Participants Page 341

California Polytechnic State University The California Polytechnic State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) in San Luis Obispo is one of the largest colleges of its kind and academically contains five professions that create the built environment; Architecture, Architectural Engineering, Construction Management, Landscape Architecture, and City and Regional Planning. Cal Poly CAED is particularly well-suited to embrace integrative projects, because these disciplines are housed under one umbrella and the College supports interdisciplinary collaboration. The College also promotes curriculum that embraces the University’s motto of “learn by doing” and projects that allow for a hands-on experience which incorporate a real life experiences, the development of the master plan provided both.

Participating students

Participating faculty

Thomas Shorey Jr.

Professor Jim Doerfler, AIA

Derek Holloway

Professor Kevin Dong, SE

Danton Spina

Professor Craig Baltimore, Ph.D, SE

Dáire Heneghan

Professor James Mwangi, Ph.D, SE

Joanne Ha, LEED AP BD+C Joseph Henry Rice, E.I.T. Khloe Campos Sinhui Chang Smita Naik John M. Donley

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Appendix C: Planning Participants Page 343

Arup About Arup

World-class Projects


Arup is the creative force at the heart of many of the world’s most prominent projects in the built environment and across industry. We offer a broad range of professional services that combine to make a real difference to our clients and the communities in which we work.

Since the firm’s inception 60 years ago, Arup has been involved in world-class projects throughout the globe. Perhaps most notably, Arup were the original structural engineers for the design and construction of the Sydney Opera House, from its inception in the 1950’s to its opening in 1973, and have been engaged on numerous commissions since then for minor works and maintenance.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •  

We are truly global. From 90 offices in 38 countries our 11,000 planners, designers, engineers and consultants deliver innovative projects across the world with creativity and passion. Founded in 1946 with an enduring set of values, our unique trust ownership fosters a distinctive culture and an intellectual independence that encourages collaborative working. This is reflected in everything we do, allowing us to develop meaningful ideas, help shape agendas and deliver results that frequently surpass the expectations of our clients. The people at Arup are driven to find a better way and to deliver better solutions for our clients. We shape a better world.

Continuing this tradition, Arup now plans, designs and project manages in the broadest sense. Our scope of work ranges from airport fire evacuation strategies to site infrastructure works, from campus planning for long-term sustainable development to flexible IT systems in hospitals. Our skill base is unique and constantly evolving, enabling us to offer exceptional capabilities tailored to each project’s specific needs. Arup and Sustainability At Arup we think about sustainability as a part of everything we do. Identifying and addressing a wider sustainability agenda is increasingly important to clients seeking to manage stakeholder interests and report on performance. Over the past 30 years, our commitment to energy performance, resource conservation and pollution reduction in the built environment has evolved into a true sustainable design practice. We understand the need to balance the ideas of sustainability with performance criteria, constructability, schedule and budget.

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Structural engineering Mechanical engineering Electrical engineering Plumbing engineering Acoustic consulting Advanced Technology Audiovisual consulting Bridge engineering Civil engineering Communications/IT consulting Controls and Commissioning Energy consulting Existing Building assessments Façade engineering Fire/Life Safety and Code consulting Geotechnical engineering Highway engineering Master Planning Project Management Rail engineering Risk consulting Security consulting Seismic engineering Sustainability & LEED consulting Transportation Planning Tunnel engineering

Appendix C: Planning Participants Page 345

The Arup Cause Mission: As an organization we have the ability to work together in a structured way which reflects a humanitarian attitude that is central to our core values and our overall mission to ‘shape a better world’. We choose to do so through the Arup Cause, which encourages and leverages the individual abilities of our staff to reduce suffering and improve people’s lives. Objectives: •

To enhance the capacity of humanitarian and development organizations by providing technical assistance or fundraising for specific projects.

To improve awareness and understanding of poverty and poverty alleviation by capturing, sharing and disseminating learning.

Themes: Water is one of the most fundamental causes of poverty and affects almost every one of the UN’s eight Millennium Development Goals, as well as being one of the firm’s key ‘Drivers of Change’. Lack of access to clean water and sanitation compromises survival, dignity, health and well-being and prevents children going to school, whilst inadequate sanitation and drainage perpetuates the risk of flooding and spread of disease. We can use our knowledge, skills, time and energy to help ensure that more people have access to clean water and sanitation. Shelter provides protection from the environment but also enables individuals, families and communities to carry out their day-to-day activities and form social networks that enable them to survive. In postdisaster situations, shelter is essential to survival and

to promoting early recovery. In slums and informal settlements, basic shelter may exist, but its poor quality and density can pose numerous risks to health and safety, perpetuating poverty and vulnerability. For many children, a community building, school or orphanage may provide both shelter and a home. Streams of Activity: Learning is critical to the success of the Arup Cause. When people understand the underlying cause of poverty and the impact they can have through their own actions and by influencing others, positive change can happen. Lessons learned and knowledge gained are invaluable tools. Projects we undertake through the Arup Cause provide an ideal opportunity for us to use our expertise to raise awareness and deliver long-term value through creative thinking, knowledge transfer and through the building of local capacity. We are encouraging and leveraging the individual skills and capabilities of our technical and non-technical staff by supporting them in those activities which improve people’s lives and reduce suffering. Story: Arup marked its 60th anniversary in 2006 with the launch of an initiative called the Arup Cause. This involved a range of activities to celebrate our commitment to ‘shape a better world’. Making full use of our core values and skills, our aim was to effect positive change in the developing world, particularly where a lack of access to water and sanitation perpetuates poverty.

Arup is a global design and business consultancy and is the creative force behind many of the world’s most innovative projects. We bring together an unrivalled range of technical, design, creative and management skills, and our work touches on many aspects of modern life; clients and communities around the world acknowledge our ability to achieve remarkable solutions to complex challenges. The Arup Cause focused on water in our anniversary year and we formed a strategic partnership with the international charity WaterAid. We also celebrated the contribution several individuals within the firm made by working with other charities and NGOs. The Arup Cause raised awareness of poverty amongst our 9000 staff across the firm, our clients and the communities in which we work. The Arup Cause encouraged our staff to work together to reduce suffering and improve people’s lives, reflecting our unique culture, our founder’s vision and our humanitarian attitude. The Arup Cause achieved five clear objectives for the year: We educated ourselves and others about the importance of water; we donated money to WaterAid projects that provided water and sanitation for life for more than 8000 people; we collaborated with a further 15 humanitarian organisations; we participated in a variety of activities to raise funds and awareness of poverty, and provided technical assistance to more than 25 projects around the globe; and we found solutions to challenges and brought about positive change through innovation. Arup has always been a learning organisation. We exchange ideas and share information, creating knowledge and new ideas through our collaborative approach. The Arup Cause has built upon this. It has

revealed the capacity we have as an organisation to make a real difference to those in need. As we move beyond our 60th anniversary, the Arup Cause initiative continues to embody our commitment to enable positive change, through two continuing, significant streams of activity: learning and projects. One of our defining features as a firm is our pride in the positive impact we have on the global community. This is reflected in our commitment to â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;shape a better worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. We have applied this not only to our project work, but to our own growth as an organization, which has seen us become development specialists, employing an increasing range of skills as we seek to make significant, sustainable contributions to both the developed and developing worlds. Arup has a humanitarian attitude and a concern for society and the environment at its core. We believe that our activities through the Arup Cause will allow our staff to develop and allow us to continue to positively influence the future. â&#x20AC;&#x192;

Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan

Appendix C: Planning Participants Page 347

Participating Staff Project Manager

Building Design


David Lambert, PE

Salman Ilyas, PE, LEED AP BD+C

Sarah Wesseler

Randy Yoshimura, PE

Tim Pattinson

Project Director

Surur Sheikh

Vinh Tran

Erin McConahey, PE

Viswanath Urala

Precila Disman

Steven Egwele

Stephanie Cooper

Sustainability and energy

Irene Pau, PE, LEED AP BD+C

Martin Howell, LEED AP, CEM

Nick Antonio, LEED AP BD+C

Russell Fortmeyer

Elizabeth Valmont, Associate AIA, LEED AP BD+C

Chris Brosz, PE, CEM, REP, LEED AP BD+C

Enrique Farfan, PE, Ph.D

Nick Long, PE, LEED AP BD+C

Jaffel Versi

Edmund Wong, LEEP AP

Kubilay Hicyilmaz

Water, transportation and solid waste

Seismic Hazard

Anthony Kirby, PE

Nina Jirouskova

Community Engagement Committee Representative Jon Hurt, PE, PEng, CEng

Corey Wong, AICP Alex Mitchell

Geographic information services

Jamison Ng

Cary Greenwood

Kevin Rietze

Bond Harper

Stephen Burges

Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan

Appendix C: Planning Participants Page 349

KFA Architects Firm profile

Firm history

Participating staff

First, we are about progressive architecture that moves our clients and our communities forward. If it doesn’t stand for something, do something purposeful, or inspire us, then it’s not forward.

Wade Killefer founded the company that has become Killefer Flammang Architects in 1975 as a design build firm. Barbara Flammang joined him in 1980 bringing experience from working in several large architectural firms. We designed our first library in 1983, our first school in 1985, our first affordable housing project in 1988, and our first mixed-use residential project in 1990. In the late 1990s we became active in the adaptive reuse of historic buildings into housing in downtown Los Angeles.

Tarrah Beebe, AIA

Second, we believe that the first act of architecture is to listen. From listening comes the understanding that instructs and guides design. Our process is collaborative, informal, and evolutionary. We look for new ideas, from everyone and everywhere. We celebrate fresh thinking. We value opinion and instigation.

Tricia Hamachai, Assoc. AIA

Third, we are committed to the communities and neighborhoods that are home to our projects. Design begins by immersing ourselves in the site and its surrounding fabric, responding to it with empathy and careful consideration. We want our architecture to respect and better its surroundings. We want the people who use our buildings to be delighted. Last, we get it done. We’re experts in project management and the fine art of making our clients’ lives easier. Our right and left brains work together in a regimented, task-oriented process, because even a great design doesn’t help meet deadlines or stay on budget. •

Founded in 1975

30 employees

90% of architectural staff is licensed

Employees have been at KFA for an average of 8.3 years

Certified Woman-Owned Business

18 LEED Accredited Professionals

Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan

Appendix C: Planning Participants Page 351

Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan  

A comprehensive document prepared to communicate the purpose and goals of the new Same Polytechnic College and to plan for the orderly and e...

Under the Acacia: The Same Polytechnic College Master Plan  

A comprehensive document prepared to communicate the purpose and goals of the new Same Polytechnic College and to plan for the orderly and e...

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