Page 1

Some memories are realities, and are better than anything that can ever happen to one again. -Willa Cather

WHAT REMAINS


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Becky Herian, who graciously offered her time for us. Without her, this book could not happen. Becky was responsible for communicating and supervising our site visit to Antioch, presenting us with information about Nebraska Potash, and some of the photos used in this book.

Instructor Mark Bacon, who brilliantly defined our program in accordance with an incredible site, and guiding us through the making of this book.

Everyone else at Knight Museum & Sandhills Center, who provided us with donuts and coffee on the day of our site visit, free of charge.

ARCH 311: Ecological Context

University of Nebraska-Lincoln: College of Architecture

To the Spring 2015 Class: Dana Bartels Brian Duncan Adam Heier Madeline Kenny Scott Kenny Katelynn Larsen Kurt Lawler Tyler Louis Ben Ludeman Megan Michalski Josh Puppe Julie Reynolds Carlos Servan-Alvarez Zenan Shen Evan Wermers Ryan Wichtendahl


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

SANDHILLS

“Architecture is exposed to life. If its body is sensitive enough, it can assume a quality that bears witness to the reality of past life.” Peter Zumthor - Thinking Architecture

ANTIOCH

POTASH

WESTERN POTASH


SANDHILLS


REGIONS

ANNUAL RAINFALL

The Sandhills region almost wholly rests in Nebraska within the Great Plains. The Rocky Mountains stand to the west. The Sandhills’ landscape is completely discernible from it’s surroundings. The rolling hills are instantly recognizable in a similar way the Black Hills of South Dakota to the north are unmistakable.

This diagram begins to illustrate the aridness of the western part of the state. SANDHILLS

GREAT PLAINS

RAINFALL IN INCHES 32-28 27-23

ROCKY MTN.

BLACK HILLS

22-18 17-13

3

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

4


RIVERS

SOIL

Because of the high water table and permeable soil in the sandhills there are a large amount of rivers. Nebraska has more miles of rivers than any other state.

Sand Hills: Hilly land composed of low to high dunes of sand stabilized by grass cover. This soil is made up of stream deposited silt, sand, gravel, and sandstone.

SAND HILLS

PLAINS

VALLEYS

ROLLING HILLS

DISSECTED PLAINS

5

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING /

WESTERN POTASH

6


SANDHILLS ECOREGION

SANDHILL FORMATION

AREA OF BUILD-UP

19,300 sq mi

COULD REACH UPWARDS OF 400FT

WIND

ADDITION OF TOP SOIL

ANGLE OF REPOSE

The Sandhills make up 1/4 of the states entire square miles. This ecoregion is relatively young, only about 1000 years old. It is the largest stabalized dune system in the Western Hemisphere.

7

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

8


SANDHILL ORIENTATION

SANDHILLS ECOREGIONS

CHERRY COUNTY WETLANDS PANHANDLE PRARIES

SANDHILLS ALKALINE LAKES

ELKHORN RIVER HEADWATERS DISMAL RIVER HEADWATERS

PLATE CONFLUENCE

CENTRAL LOESS HILLS

LOESS CANYONS

As the winds out of the north-west passed over the sandy soil of western Nebraska, hills began to develop into what are now known as the Sandhills. These sandhills formed both transversally and longitudinally in respect to the winds.

TRANSVERSE DUNES

LONGITUDINAL DUNES

ALKALINE LAKES: This region consists of prairie-covered high dunes. Many of the region’s wetlands and lakes are alkaline. WETLANDS: The area consists of mostly long linear dunes, with internal valleys. Many valleys contain lakes, marshes, and wet meadows.

SANDHILLS

ECOREGIONS

HEADWATERS: These areas consists of level sand plain with a regionally high water table and extensive wet meadows and shallow marshes. 9

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

10


SANDHILLS SEASONS

SPRING

WINTER

11

NATIVE ANIMALS

SHARP-TAIL GROUSE

GREATER PRAIRIE-CHICKEN

GRASSHOPPER SPARROW

WESTERN MEADOWLARK

LARK BUNTING

SANDPIPER

SUMMER

FALL

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

12


NATIVE MAMMALS

13

NATIVE REPTILES/AMPHIBIANS

BISON

MULE DEER

COYOTE

BOX TURTLE

PLAINS TOAD

NORTHERN PRAIRIE LIZARD

WHITETAIL RABBIT

JUMPING MOUSE

MASKED SHREW

SIX-LINED RACERUNNER

PRAIRIE RATTLESNAKE

BULLSNAKE

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

14


NATIVE PLANTS

NATIVE PLANTS

DUNE PRAIRIE

15

ALKALINE WET MEADOWV

BLUESTEM GRASS

HAIRY GRAMA

PRAIRIE SANDREED

INLAND SALTGRASS

FOXTAIL BARLEY

ALKALI SACATON

PLAINS GAYFEATHER

STIFF SUNFLOWER

YUCCA

BLUE GRASS

SCRATCH GRASS

LEAD PLANT

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

16


EXPLORERS

17

LIFE IN THE SANDHILLS

LT. WARREN 1857

LONG 1820

LEWIS & CLARK 1804

FREMONT 1842

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

PAST

PRESENT

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

18


WESTERN SETTLEMENT

HIGHWAY 2

CRAWFORD

HEMMINGFORD ANTIOCH ALLIANCE

ANTIOCH

ALLIANCE

HYANNIS

MULLEN

THEDFORD

BROKEN BOW

BROKEN BOW

GRAND ISLAND GRAND ISLAND

FAIRMONT

LINCOLN

HASTINGS

HEBRON

Highway 2, the Oregon Trail, and other unpaved trails facilitated the population boom of the western settlements of Alliance and Antioch during the early 1900’s. Fur traders, missionaries, settlers, farmers, and pioneers of business and industry were among the individuals of this time.

19

COMMON TRAILS HW 2 TOWNS

Present day highway 2 extends through what was the once bustling potash region of western Nebraska. It now connects the north and south borders of Nebraska.

HW 2

OREGON TRAIL

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

20


1915 RAILOADS

Extensive rail lines covered the majority of Nebraska in 1915 as railroad transportation of materials was in high demand.

2015 RAILROADS

RAILWAYS SANDHILLS

21

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

As the potash industry faded, so did the demand for transportation of coal, potash, and materials, resulting in the dwindling of rail lines across Nebraska.

RAILWAYS SANDHILLS

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

22


ANTIOCH


RISE

DECLINE

War ends Two University of Nebraska graduates, John Show and Carl Modisett, investigate potash content of lakes in Sheridan County

Lack of demand casues temporary shutdown of the big five

Show and Modisett file mineral claim on Jesse Lake War breaks out in Europe. German potash mines cease production Show and Modisett form the Potash Reduction Company later known as Hoffland

Production resumes in full

1922

1916

1912

1910

Production resumes breifly. Coal strike causes second shutdown

1918

1914

1920

1926

1924

1928

American plant closes. Process of moving houses and businesses out of Antioch commences. Remaining plants and machinery sold for scrap and torn down

American Potash Company begins production in Antioch Nebraska Potash Company begins production in Antioch

Alliance Potash Company begins production in Antioch

Potash Reduction Company at Hoffland closes

National Potash Company begins production in Antioch

Tariff bill passes without imposing tax on foreign potash, sealing the fate of the Nebraska potash industry. By this point only the Potash Reduction Company at Hoffland remains in operation

Western Potash Company begins production in Antioch

Fertilizer companies cancel orders in lieu of cheaper German potash

25

SANDHILLS /

ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

SANDHILLS /

ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

26


TRANSPORT SYSTEM

ANTIOCH, HOFFLAND, AND ALLIANCE BUS ROUTE

Alliance Hoffland Antioch

The Alliance, Hoffland, and Antioch carriage was the source of imports, mail, and transport between these booming cities.

27

SANDHILL S /

ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

The town of Antioch had a transport route for mail, goods, and a system similar to that of a bus route. They had one carriage that would run west to alliance and east to Antioch.

SANDHILL S /

ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

28


END OF A BOOM

PAST VS. PRESENT CIRCULATION

D st.

Antioch Antio h Ave

National Ave

Wes estern ern Ave American Ave

E st. st C st. B st. A st.

Railway Rail

Northern No thern Ave

Beatrice Ave

Burlington Burling on Ave

Roge ogerss Ave

Wilson Ave

tash Ave Potash

5th st.

Nebraska Nebras a Ave

4th st.

Sheridan Ave

kinleyy Ave Mckinl

Lincoln Ave

6th st.

Thompson Ave

eno Ave Reno

k Ave Park

Lake La e Ave

Washing ashington on Ave

3rd st.

Pershing shing Ave

NE-HWY-2 NE-HW -2

2nd st.

7th st. 8th st.

October 12, 1922 that the last five carloads of refined potash had been shipped from the Potash Reduction Company and the plant was closed. It would never re-open.

Antioch was a boom town founded by W.G. Wilson which took off with the rise of the potash industry. Due to the rapid growth expansion took place off of highway 2 which was created to facilitate the potash capitol of Nebraska.

Past

Present

There are still traces of the old roads left imprinted in the ground in ruts where the transport of citizens, goods, and mail was conducted.

29

SANDHILLS /

ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

SANDHILLS /

ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

30


TREES

WATER SOURCE

POTASH LAKE

10’ BURLINGTON NORTHERN SANTA FE RAILROAD

NATURAL FILTRATION

NEBRASKA HIGHWAY 2

50’

ANTIOCH

OGALLALA AQUIFER

Most of the trees in the town of Antioch were planted as few tree species grow naturally in the sandhills. These trees were planted to shield buildings from the wind. Notable species include Red-cedar and Ponderosa Pine.

TREE POTASH LAKE

31

SANDHILLS /

ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

The immediate land area of Antioch consists of rolling hills punctuated by valleys, containing brackish lakes that vary in size. These lakes absorb potash from the soil rendering them unsafe for livestock and human use. Drinkable water needed to be drawn from the Ogallala Aquifer by windmill well pumps.

SANDHILLS /

GROUNDWATER POTASH LAKE

ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

32


THEN AND NOW

CHANGE OF POPULATION

ANTIOCH BURLINGTON NORTHERN SANTA FE RAILROAD

NEBRASKA HIGHWAY 2

N

ANTIOCH

ANTIOCH AVENUE 1900s

175 1900-1917

33

1917-1920

Nebraska Potash Company initially built 20 bunk houses for the 70 employees, because hundreds of men worked at each plant, and the nearest city, Alliance, was miles away. The potash companies built housing for workers at the same time they were building their plants. Antioch’s population ballooned from 175 to between 1,600 and 3,000 people in less than 3 years because of the potash industry.

ANTIOCH AVENUE 2015

SANDHILLS /

ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

<25

~1 ,600-3,000 MAX: 5,000

SANDHILLS /

1920-1939

1939-PRESENT

PLANT & HOUSE INHABITANT

ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

34


REMAINS OF ANTIOCH

Nebraska Highway 2

Antioch

Thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not much left of Antioch today aside from the Potash State Bank building and some concretefoundations. People passing by could easily mistake it for just another abandoned ranch.

Original-standing Unoriginal-standing Original-ruin

35

SANDHILLS /

ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH


POTASH


WHAT IS POTASH

POTASH DEPOSITS AROUND THE WORLD

BRINE

SOAP MINE

GLASS

FERTILIZER

Potash is made up of potassium oxide compounds and is found primarily in the form of solid deposits and in brines within lakes and seas. It is used to make various things like chemicals, explosives, soap, glass, and dyes, but it is most often used in fertilizer.

Potash can be found in multiple forms, the most common being solid deposits followed by salt water brines that are displaced all over the world. POTASH

ROCK SALT

39

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH /

POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH /

POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

40


POTASH IN GERMANY

MANUFACTURING TIMELINE

1915 Hoffland became first Potash plant in Nebraska. May 1917 Nebraska plant opened. Fall 1917 Alliance plant opened.

1916

Feb. - Sept. 1919 Potash district temporarily shut down due to low demand.

Jan. 1921 Hoffland stopped reduction operations.

Oct. 1919 Plants started to reopen to be haulted by a workers strike in the coal field.

Nov. 1921 Hoffland resumes.

Dec. 1919 Plants back running 24 hours a day.

1918

Sept. 1921 Almost all plants have declared bankruptcy.

1920

Spring 1916 American Potash Company plant opened.

Nov. 1920 Fertilizer manufacturers cancelled orders. Potash plants close.

June 1918 National plant opened.

Dec. 1920 Hoffland began building a refinery.

1922 Sept. 1922 Protection for the Potash industry is no longer guaranteed. Oct. 12, 1922 Last carloads of potash shipped from Hoffland bringing a final end to the potash boom of Nebraska.

Summer 1918 Western plant opened.

Nov. 1922 Wrecking crews demolish plants and houses are moved from Antioch to Alliance.

Potash was discovered in Germany in 1851 through explorations in mining. Soon, more potash deposits were found across the country and Germany became the world’s leading exporter of the mineral. However, when World War I started this production slowed significantly.

POTASH DEPOSITS

When the U.S. stopped receiving imports from Germany, Nebraska capitalized on the potash mineral found in brines and underneath some of their lakes. The Nebraska potash industry only lasted seven years but it’s impacts on the state were lasting.

OPEN CLOSED HOFFLAND OPEN

41

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH /

POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH /

POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

42


POTASH INDUSTRY

NEBRASKA POTASH TOWNS

MERRIMAN

ALLIANCE

ANTIOCH

HOFFLAND

ELLSWORTH

LAKESIDE

OMAHA CENTRAL CITY SUTHERLAND LINCOLN

The potash manufacturing industry was largely concentrated in small southern Sheridan County towns with outliers like Sutherland and Merriman. Hoffland, Antioch, and Lakeside had several 100 ton plants accompanied by 10-ton plants scattered throughout the area. This industry had further reaching impacts than just the Nebraska Panhandle.

POTASH PLANT

43

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH /

POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH /

TOWNS WITH PLANTS TOWNS WITH HEADQUARTERS

POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

44


NEBRASKA POTASH LAKES

BOX BUTTE

SHERIDAN

CHERRY

56

1

ANTIOCH AREA POTASH LAKES

2

MORRILL

8

GARDEN

ALLIANCE

16 LINCOLN

SHERIDAN COUNTY

As part of the research performed by Carl Modisett, John Show, and George Condra, it was determined that 102 productive potash lakes (84 known locations) existed in Nebraska. The University of Nebraska report established that the most productive potash region were in the corners of Sheridan, Garden, Morrill, and Box Butte counties near present day Antioch.

45

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH /

PRIMARY POTASH LAKE REGION

POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

HOFFLAND

NEBR

ASKA

HIGH

WAY 2

ANTIOCH

BOX BUTTE COUNTY

US HIG HW AY 36 5

1

A large concentration of the most productive potash lakes were located just north of Hoffland, Anitoch, and Lakeside. Jesse Lake, a large lake northwest of Antioch, was the primary source of potash brine piped to plants for processing some minor lakes north of Antioch such as Herian Pond, the Krause Lakes, and the School Section Lakes to name a few.

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH /

POTASH PRODUCTIVE LAKES NON-POTASH LAKES

POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

46


ALKALINE LAKES

PATH OF POTASH

BRINE EXTRACTED FROM LAKES THROUGH WELLS [2-8% SOLID]

Nebraskaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s potash was drilled from Alkaline Lakes. Most of these lakes had fresh water on top with a strong brine on the bottom containing traces of potash. Underneath the lake bottom was a layer of rock salts also containing potash.

FRESH WATER

STRONG BRINE

IMPERVIOUS MUD

BODY OF SALTS

IMPERVIOUS BOTTOM

47

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH /

POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

PERCOLATED THROUGH 20 FLOOR SOLAR EVAPORATION TOWER [10-12% SOLID]

SECOND SOLAR EVAPORATION TOWER [15-17% SOLID]

3 EVAPORATORS BOIL AND PRESSURIZE POTASH [45-60% SOLID]

ROTATING DRYER USING OPEN FLAMES [100% SOLID]

POTASH CRUSHED TO A FINE POWDER AND SHIPPED

Potash was taken through 100s of potash wells drilled in alkaline lakes and pumped to a nearby solar tower to begin the evaporation process. It was next pumped to the plant which could be as far as 30 miles away. It was sent through another solar tower before being put through three sets of steel cylinders with steam pumped through that would pressurize, heat, and evaporate water from the brine. The product would then be sent through a rotating dryer that would use open flames and oil to fully crystallize the potash. It was then crushed, sacked, and sent away. SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH /

POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

48


POTASH INDUSTRY

49

POTASH INDUSTRY

TEN TON POTASH PLANT

WELL FIELD ON BRIGGS LAKE

JESSIE LAKE WELLS

SANDPOINT WELL HERIAN POND

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH /

POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

REDWOOD PIPING

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH /

POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

50


FACTORY IMPORTS

POTASH EXPORTS

BOSTON DETROIT OMAHA

CHICAGO

PHILADELPHIA

NEW YORK

CHARLESTON

HOUSTON

Coal was the main fuel source for the boilers and other machinery used in potash plants. Much of this came from mines in the Rocky Mountains, and was shipped to Nebraska along the Burlington Railroad.

51

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH /

COAL-RICH REGION

MAJOR RAILROAD

COAL USED IN POTASH PRODUCTION

MINOR RAILROAD

POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

Nearly 90% of the potash produced in Nebraska was used as fertilizer in the cotton-producing regions of the Southeast. Raw potash was transported to chemical plants to be mixed with other ingredients, then the fertilizer was shipped to farmers using the extensive Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy Railroad systems.

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH /

COTTON BELT REGION

MAJOR RAILROAD

MAJOR CHEMICAL PLANTS

MINOR RAILROAD

POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

52


POTASH PRICES 1913-1921

COAL EFFICIENCY

WORLD WAR I ENDS

$5.00

$4.00

$3.00 NEBRASKA POTASH PLANTS CLOSE

POTASH REDUCTION CO. IS FOUNDED

$2.00

WORLD WAR I BEGINS

$1.00

1913

1914

1915

1916

1917

1918

1919

1920

As tensions leading up to World War I heightened, the price of potash began to increase in 1913. When war with Germany broke out, it became clear that the United States needed other options to keep up with potash demand in the Deep South Cotton Belt and East Coast product manufacturing facilities. The founding of potash manufacturing in Nebraska came crucially before the skyrocket in prices as a result of the war. Ultimately, potash prices plummeted with the end of the war.

53

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH /

POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

1921

RATIO OF TONS OF COAL USED TO TONS OF POTASH PRODUCED

POTASH PRICES PER UNIT (20 LBS) FROM 1913-1921

4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5

1913

1914

1915

1916

Even at the height of the potash boom, the process was tremendously inefficient. It typically took about 2.25 tons of coal to produce 1 ton of potash. The introduction of the Swenson evaporators in 1916 drastically increased efficiency at Hoffland, and most plants constructed afterward included them. All potash production ceased between February and September 1919 due to boycotts from farmers and strikes in the coal mines, then resumed until the boom ended and the plants closed one-by-one. SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH /

1917

1918

1919

1920

HOFFLAND

1921

AMERICAN/ WESTERN

POTASH MANUFACTURING / WESTERN POTASH

54


WESTERN COMPANY


SITE LOCATION

SITE LOCATION

NEBRASKA HIGHWAY 2

BURLINGTON NORTHERN SANTA FE RAILROAD

ANTIOCH

57

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING /

WESTERN POTASH

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING /

WESTERN POTASH

58


SITE ACCESS

TOPOGRAPHIC ELEVATIONS

3890 3886 3882 3878

3890

3888 8

3886

DIAGRAM 3884

3882

3880

3882

BURRINGTON RR 3880

HIGHWAY 2 3884

3878 3886

3886

PARKING

SECONDARY

TERTIARY

PRIMARY

3888 3880

59

3882

3884

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING /

3886

WESTERN POTASH

RAILROAD

3888

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING /

WESTERN POTASH

60


MATERIALITY

MATERIALITY INVENTORY

CONCRETE

STEEL CONCRETE

STEEL

BRICK

BRICK

61

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING /

WESTERN POTASH

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING /

WESTERN POTASH

62


REPETITION

RUIN AXES

There are some elements that are repeated in the site, but they are not the strongest aspect of the site.

VERTICAL

HORIZONTAL

REPETITION

63

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING /

WESTERN POTASH

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING /

WESTERN POTASH

64


RUIN SECTIONS

WESTERN POTASH SITE

SECTION A 0’ 4’

32’

B

A

SECTION B 0’ 4’

65

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING /

WESTERN POTASH

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING /

WESTERN POTASH

32’

66


RUIN ELEVATIONS

FACILITIES PROGRAM

SOUTH ELEVATION 0’ 2’

16’

WESTERN COMPANY

NATIONAL COMPANY

NEBRASKA COMPANY

AMERICAN COMPANY

ALLIANCE COMPANY

N

EAST ELEVATION 0’ 2’

The four potash production plants in Antioch were all located near lakes from which brine could be pumped. The brine would be pumped to the nearby plants where production would take place before being shipped via railroad.

16’

RESERVOIRS POTASH PLANTS ROADS RAILROAD

67

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING /

WESTERN POTASH

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING /

WESTERN POTASH

68


SUN/SHADOW

SUN/SHADOW

N

N E

SPRING

W

E

W

S

FALL

S

N

N

E E

W

SUMMER

69

W

S

WINTER

S

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING /

SUN AT 9AM

SUNRISE

SUN AT 9AM

SUNRISE

HOURLY SUN

SUNSET

HOURLY SUN

SUNSET

WESTERN POTASH

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING /

WESTERN POTASH

70


TEMPERATURE

AVERAGE WIND

NNW

N 15

NNE

12

NW

NE

9 WNW

6

ENE

W

E

0

WSW

ESE SE

SW SSW

S

SSE

TEMPERATURE ( F)

3

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

JAN

FEB MARCH APRIL MAY

JUNE

JULY

Diagram showing the low, average, and high temperatures of the site throughout the year.

71

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING /

AUG

SEPT

6-9 MPH

AVERAGE

3-6 MPH

9-12 MPH

LOW

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING /

NOV

DEC

HIGH

0-3 MPH

WESTERN POTASH

OCT

WESTERN POTASH

72


PRECIPITATION

5

ENVIRONMENT

PRECITITATION FOR 2014

4 MONTHLY TOTAL PRECITITATION (IN.)

3 2 1 0

JAN

FEB MARCH APRIL MAY

JUNE

JULY

AUG

SEPT OCT

NOV

DEC

WATER (LAKE) 5

PRAIRIE GRASS

VEGETATION

AVERAGE PRECITITATION

4 MONTHLY TOTAL PRECITITATION (IN.)

3 2 1 0

JAN

FEB MARCH APRIL MAY

JUNE

JULY

AUG

SEPT OCT

NOV

DEC

The rainy season begins in late April. 0+IN.

3+IN.

1+IN.

4+IN.

key CACTI

SILT

FLOWER

2+IN.

73

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING /

WESTERN POTASH

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING /

WESTERN POTASH

74


SITE WALKTHROUGH

75

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING /

SITE WALKTHROUGH

WESTERN POTASH

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING /

WESTERN POTASH

76


SITE WALKTHROUGH

77

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING /

SITE WALKTHROUGH

WESTERN POTASH

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING /

WESTERN POTASH

78


SITE WALKTHROUGH

79

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING /

SITE WALKTHROUGH

WESTERN POTASH

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING /

WESTERN POTASH

80


SITE WALKTHROUGH

81

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING /

SITE WALKTHROUGH

WESTERN POTASH

SANDHILLS / ANTIOCH / POTASH MANUFACTURING /

WESTERN POTASH

82

Profile for Mark Bacon

What Remains  

Antioch, Nebraska, Potash Manufacturing UNL College of Architecture Arch 311 2015 Rural Occupation Studio

What Remains  

Antioch, Nebraska, Potash Manufacturing UNL College of Architecture Arch 311 2015 Rural Occupation Studio

Profile for mbacon
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