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Types of Reproduction Asexual Sexual


Purpose of Reproduction • To make sure a species can continue. – Definition: Reproduction is the process by which an organism produces others of its same kind.


Asexual Reproduction • A new organism (sometimes more than one) is produced from one organism. • The offspring will have hereditary material uniform with the hereditary material of the parent organism. This means they will be genetically alike.


Types of Asexual Reproduction • • • •

Budding Regeneration Fission (Binary fission) Sporogenesis


Budding • Process by which a new, duplicate plant or animal begins to form at the side of the parent and enlarges until an individual is created. • Very common in plants;


http://www.waycross.edu/faculty/bmajdi/hydra%20budding.jpg


http://judyepstein.com/images/DesertImages/Budding-Purple-LG.jpg


Regeneration • The ability to restore lost or damaged tissues, organs or limbs. • It is a common feature in invertebrates, like worms and starfish.


http://www.vsf.cape.com/~jdale/science/starfishregenerating.jpg


http://classes.design.ucla.edu/Spring05/152BC/projects/saito/ex3/planaria.jpg


Fission • Also called binary fission. • Becoming two by division of the complete organism. • A type of cell division.


http://wappingersschools.org/RCK/staff/teacherhp/johnson/visualvocab/BinaryFissionParamecium.jpg


http://coris.noaa.gov/glossary/binary_fission_186.jpg


Sporogenesis  The mother cell divides its nucleus successively without dividing its cytoplasm  E.g. protozoa


Sexual Reproduction • Requires two sex cells – egg and sperm • The egg and sperm join to form an entirely new organism – Different from the parent organism


IMPORTANT! • Asexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent organism • Sexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically different from the parent organisms


Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages

Disadvantages

Asexual reproduction

Many identical descendants in a short space of time which are well adapted to an environment

If the environment changes, they do not adapt and the species may disappear

Sexual reproduction

Increases diversity because descendants are not identical to either of their parents but they have characteristics of each of them

The parents must come together to reproduce and that is not always easy


The reproduction function