BDACC Building Design And Climate Change May Tsang 10978016
GENOA is a province in the Liguria region of Italy. The city has a Inhabitants, 1st January 2010
municipal surface area
train journey between Milan and Genoa
population above 65 years
total population of 608,015, covering an area of 1,838 km². The Port of Genoa, favoured by its strategic geographic location, is placed at the centre of the important industrial and commercial area of northern Italy and is ideally located to serve central Europe’s consumer markets. multi-modal car park
car parking spaces
per 1,000 inhabitants
public open space
18th Century 16th Century
In 1528, Andrea Doria instituted a new constitution for the Port of Genoa that brought it under the control of the Spanish Empire.
With the introduction of trade routes to the New World and away from the Mediterranean region, the Port’s fortunes began to decline. At the end of the 18th Century, Napoleon made the Port of Genoa a French protectorate, calling it the Ligurian Republic. France then annexed the new republic in 1805.
In 1684, the French bombarded the Port, and Austria occupied the city in 1746. In 1768, the city had to turn Corsica over to the French.
Rainfall (mm) Rainy Days
The Black Death brought an end to the Republic’s golden age when the disease arrived in Europe from the Genoese trading post at Theodosia in the Crimea. The Port of Genoa suffered a near-total population and economic collapse.
The city underwent an era of economic recovery, bringing new fortunes to many Port of Genoa families. The Port reached a new peak and it was a magnet for many worldfamous artists and architects.
The Port of Genoa reached its political peak when it won the naval Battle of Meloria in 1284 over the Duchy of Pisa and when it defeated Venice in 1298.
The French dominated the Port of Genoa. After that, the Visconti of Milan ruled the city. Genoa lost Corsica when it revolted. It lost its colonies in the Middle East to the Ottoman Empire and Arab powers, and it lost Sardinia to the Kingdom of Aragon.
The several centuries that followed made the city lose its power becoming only a small and unimportant city. Nevertheless, Genoa continued to build its merchent fleet slowly and became the leading commercial carrier of the Mediterranean Sea.
After the plague subsided, the Port adopted the Venetian model of government and was presided over by the doge. The period was also the time of continuous wars against Venice.
The Germanic Lombards ruled the Port, and they destroyed the city’s Roman walls.
Town was occupated by the Greeks but its fine harbour was in use much earlier perhaps by the Etruscan.
When the Frank Empire conquered the Lombards, the Port became part of that kingdom under the rule of Ademarus, the first Carolingian count of Genoa. The city’s walls were rebuilt during this period.
The Port became one of several independent city-states in Italy, a “Maritime Republic” like Venice and Pisa. The ports trade, ship-building, and banking activities gave it one of the biggest and most powerful navies in the Mediterranean region. Merchant families in the Port of Genoa struggled for domination.
The Port’s development and growth was intimately connected to maritime trade and traffic in these ancient days. Cultures with languages other than Ligurian established settlements on Castle Hill to operate manage their sea-borne trade. During this era, the Port was little more than a small sheltered Bay.
Being allied with Rome during the Second Punic War, the Carthaginians destroyed the city. The Port was rebuilt, and it won municipal status after the end of the Carthaginian Wars. It was a castrum, or fortified Roman town, with busy trade in skins, wood, and honey that were transported to mainland cities.
Genoa has a greater annual rainfall than any other place in the Mediterranean. The rainfall regime in the genoese area is strongly affected by both the closeness of the sea and the alpine-appenninic chain. Atlantic disturbances are also diverted to the Genoa Gulf because of the barrier effect of these mountains. The study of heavy intensity rainfall has frequently been responsible to the flooding in the Genoese area. These conditions cause continued instability processes with thunderstorm rainfalls concentrated in restricted areas. Very frequently in the area of Genoa the damage caused by flooding events are worsened by the occurrence of shallow landslides along the slopes. These landslides increase the sediment load of rivers and therefore their mass and energy. Besides they can create temporary barrages along riverbeds making possible the accumulation of thousands of cubic metres of water. When this huge amount of water is loosened all of the sudden, it can cause abnormal crests with unforeseeable flooding peaks, that have higher values than those referable to maximum rainfall events.
When international trade began to decline in the 20th Century, the Port of Genoa enjoyed increasing trade to and from northern Italy. During the beginning of the twentieth century, Sampierdarena was proudly called the “Italian Manchester” as a great industrial development had deeply influenced the social and economic structure.
Italy’s unification in 1861 increased the Port of Genoa’s influence, and it was Italy’s most important commercial port, competing with Marseille for Mediterranean trade. It also completed with ports in the North Sea for trade with Switzerland and inland central Europe.
Genoa forms the southern corner of the Milan-Turin-Genoa industrial triangle of north-west Italy, acting as one of the country’s major economic centres.
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210 10 AM
The map above shows the results of a census of rainfall induced shallow landslides (debris-flow and soil-slip) in the Genoa area between 1991 and 2002. Key: 1) Genoa Municipality area 2) Basins 3) Sub-basins a) Cerusa Valley b) Leiro Valley c) Varenna Valley d) Chiaravagna Valley e) Polcevera Valley f) Bisagno Valley g) Sturla Valley h) Nervi Valley.
1 2 3 4
Average Sunlight Hours Sea Temp oC Wind Direction
Minimum Temp oC Maximum Temp oC Average Temp oC
Italian American European North African
Genoa is located in the Mediterranean climate zone. The city has a microclimate, where the climate differs from other parts of Italy. Average yearly temperatures are about 16°C in January and 24°C in August. It has a mild Mediterranean climate, with no sudden changes in temperature. The average yearly temperature ranging between maximum and minimum temperatures is only 5.4°C, which is one of the lowest in Italy.
From its birth, the Port of Genoa has been Italy’s gateway to the Mediterranean and to international cultures that make it one of the modern world’s most interesting tourist destinations.
64 yrs +
The Port stretches uninterruptedly for 22 miles along a coastline that develops between Fiera and Voltri. It is a ‘one stop multi-purpose and multi-tasking port’ with more than twenty private operational terminals.
The city of Genoa currently has 6 different modes of transport. Industralised areas that, while at the beginning of 20th century developed in the western town boundary, have been incorporated into highly populated residential suburbs. Due to its orographic peculiarity, in particularly the lack of costal spaces, residential suburbs have been built in steep hill areas, which is difficult for public transport to access. In 1999 the main urban problem in Genoa was the deterioration of the environment downtown Genoa where continuous and increasing levels of the maximum permitted pollutants levels were recorded, mainly due to the traffic flows in the central areas.
18.7 18.8 34.2 34.3 35.4 35.6
A7 PIACENZA TURIN MILAN
GRANAROLO Stazione Genova PIAZZA PRINCIPE
A10 SAVONA VENTIMIGLIA NICE
The Genoa series consists of shallow, well drained soils that formed in residuum derived from granitic rocks. Genoa soils are located on mountains. They typically occur on convex summit and shoulder positions.
62.1 62.2 62.3 64.4 66.5 67.2 72.2 72.3 76.1 78.2
GE-AEROPORTO SESTRI PONENTE
S. Nicolo Carbonara
San Giorgio Caricamento
MANIN Stazione Genova BRIGNOLE
A12 LA SPEZIA PARMA ROME
QUARTO DEI MILLE QUINTO
Cristoforo Colombo Airport
Particle-size control section - Clay content: 20 - 30%. Rock fragments: Averages 60 - 80%, mainly cobbles. Lithology of fragments are granitic rocks such as granodiorite.
Fast Through Bridge
Mean annual soil temperature: 7 - 8 oC Mean summer soil temperature: 15 - 17 oC Depth to bedrock: 30 - 50 cm to a lithic contact Reaction: Slightly acid or neutral
A26 ALESSANDRIA VOLTRI TURIN MILAN SS1
Soil moisture: Usually moist from mid-October through mid-July, dry remainder of summer and early fall for 75 - 90 consecutive days in the four months following the summer solstice; xeric soil moisture regime that borders on aridic
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)
Carbon Monoxide (CO) Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
Total annual emissions per sector (tonne/year)
0% Power Plant
Combustion Service industry & Agriculture
Mining & Distrib. Fossil Comb.
SITE Genoa Granary Silos
1 Passenger Ferry Terminal Bridge 2 Maritime Station Genoa 3 Customs 4 Faculty of Economics 5 Maritime Museum 6 Ex-Warehouse
3 4 2
Other Mobile Sources
(Cargo route diagrams from Genova Today Genova Tomorrow exhibition booklet)
Genova > Rotterdam
Lisbon > Kiev
Epicentre of the Mediterranean
Palermo > Berlin
Lisbon > Kiev
Genova > Rotterdam (cargo & passengers)
Genova > Rotterdam (passengers)
Port city of the north west
The ponderous reinforced concrete grain silos were completed in 1901. It is a major piece of industrial archaeology currently awaiting redevelopment for new uses. During 1907, the building was expanded to 126 cells, carrying a total capacity of 50,000 tonnes from 23,000. The silos have been in operation until approximately the 1990’s and is now in a state of disrepair. The building is 220 metres in length and 7 storeys high, with the majority of the interior space used for granary storage. Other space on ground level includes the processing and storage of the loaded material.
The Genoa Granary Silos consist of a complex system of monolithic reinforced concrete portals, already experienced in Europe as “Hennebique patent”, these were made for the first time in Italy. It was the largest structure of that period entirely built out of reinforced concrete.
SILOS DI GENOVA
Northerly Winds Mistral Outbreak
Genoa Granary Silos 1899-1901 before extension
Genoa Granary Silos 1899-1901 after extension
The old photo, before the extension show a rather long monumental building, with a body emerging in which the chimney stands out distinctly. The building was originally 140 metres long and was later expanded to its present size as well as raised several times. The building occupies 7155m2 offering 344 cells (3x4 metre base).
PROPOSED PROGRAMMES Burlesque
THE Plot S exual l y assaul t ed
THE POWER OF WOMEN
B rut a l i s e d During the investigation, Marconi doesn’t believe that a woman wearing high heels could have killed a tall, bulky man in a service station toilet, all on her own.
> Different mindset on the display of the female form as opposed to strip bars. > World of illusion, dreams and fun. > Captivate men to the glamour and spectacle.
I nsecu r e
Marconi gradually realises that the crimes seem to be the work
of an attractive woman
who succeeds at her grim task because the victim has other things on his mind than the prospect of being murdered.
Marconi shows Viola a photo and she discovers that the eyes in the photo are the same as in her
A fat lorry driver approaches her at a motorway cafe. He follows her to the toilet and on her exit, the man has died with an erection. A pool of blood into which a child drops a teddy bear marks the start of a trail of gutted corpses. The killer has left no trace of the weapon.
Giulia convinces Eva to join to gym
Giulia begins to organise Eva’s
life. As time goes on, Eva becomes more and more independent.
Conf i de nt
Giulia lives in a huge house in the Saragozza area of the city. She introduces Eva to her family and boasts about her room for a princess.
The Pr i nc ess
The killer notices that she is being followed as she leaves a club where she had been dancing. She realises she has reached a dead end and finds 2 men behind her.
Eva thinks about how she really has changed:
She reaches into her small sequined clutch bag and with 2 shots, the mens bodies are lying on their backs. One is still alive, she takes the hairpin from her hair and spears it into his eye.
the sad, newborn infant inside her has become a woman, a woman who knows what she wants.
WEAPONS Giulia celebrates her birthday at Eva’s flat. Eva thanks Giulia for doing so much for her over the past year. They get interrupted by police entering through the door. Eva jumps and freezes while Giulia panics and screams.
She is always eagerly waiting for Marco to come home and passes time dressing up in order to act as a security blanket and give the appearance of
Marconi and Tommasi go to check out the market in Montagnola to find the weapon (hairpin) used in the last murder. They show a vendor the hairpin and he instantly recognises it as one of his own. Marconi finds that the pistol the murderer had used belonged to a rich entrepreneur from Bologna. He told Marconi that he hadn’t even noticed that the pistol had gone missing.
Eva has given herself a birthday present, she’s persuaded her boss to give her a chance to get more involved at work. She has had a raise and she has bought a new car.
Is always kept at home by Marco. Cries almost every day because she desires Marco’s company but he is always going out, leaving Viola home
Viola approaches Marconi and tells him she has dreamed of deluges of blood. Marconi visits Viola to ask for more details about her dream.
Dru g d ealin g
Viola notices that Marco has gone out again but is not his usual self. She discovers that he has been behaving
Underestimating the power of women
strangely and acting differently.
Ma rily n p art y
Viola finds a packet in Marco’s shirt pocket and discovers that he has been dealing drugs.
Marconi goes undercover to the club where the killer had left before the two men were killed. He meets Samantha, who got together with the murderer that night.
2 Sided Personalities
Samantha invites Marconi to a “Marilyn” party where he might catch the killer. He gets drugged and experiences some sort of hallucination and gets tortured by a horrendous doll.
S ta nl e y k ni fe
Marconi breaks the news to Viola that Marco has been arrested.
M arco arrest ed ...
P i s tol Tommasi informs Marconi of another killing. He rushes to the murder scene and discover the entrepreneur, to which the pistol had belonged to, is dead.
Inspector Marconi arrests Giulia for the murder of her father and others. She hysterically shouts “I haven’t killed anyone!” and shouts at Eva for her help.
Eva had stolen Giulia’s fathers’ pistol during the time she was at Giulia’s house before killing Giulia’s father.
Italy has few natural resources. With much land unsuited for farming due to poor soil conditions, Italy is a net food importer. There are no substantial deposits of iron, coal, or oil. Most raw materials needed for manufacturing and more than 80% of the country’s energy sources are imported.
You cannot get rid of the past even if you try to reinvent yourself
Exclusion of People
RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM BATHING BURLESQUE ENTERTAINMENT ACTING AS TENSION BETWEEN TWO CONVENTIONAL PROGRAMS
Women in Society
The airship will allow for passenger service and potentially cargo hauling, allowing better connection between the port and the city. Temporary and permanent exhibition spaces will also be provided for the annual science festival, one of the most important events of scientific dissemination. This space will be more family orientated and children will be unaware of the adult entertainment on the other side of the building.
STEAM HEATING DRAINAGE AIR QUALITY VENTILATION
PRIVACY SECURITY ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING ARTIFICIAL VENTILATION SOUND TRANSMITTANCE & ACOUSTICS
SAFETY SERVICING CIRCULATION EXCESS HEAT NOISE AT UPPER LEVEL
CIRCULATION MAINTENANCE NATURAL VENTILATION FLEXIBILITY & GROWTH PUBLIC/PRIVATE SEPARATION
PASSENGER SERVICE TRANSPORT
Changing Rooms Entertainment Burlesque Treatment Room Relaxation Room Entertainment Burlesque Entertainment
Rooms Relaxation Room Offices Changing Burlesque
The nature of burlesque has multiple views and interpretations, making it suitable for audiences of any social background.
Isolation Today the identification between the city and port seems to be no longer effective. Ports are now highly specialised and mechanised tools for moving goods and passengers. They work as gears of a mechanism that connects sea routes and land transport networks and must improve efficiency diminishing frictions; so they tend to be enclosed non-places, physically isolated form the urban fabric and not permeable to the local flows.
Due to the orographic peculiarity, in particularly the lack of costal spaces, residential suburbs have been built in steep hill areas, which is difficult for public transport to access. The main urban problem in Genoa was the deterioration of the environment downtown Genoa, where continuous and increasing levels of the maximum permitted pollutants levels were recorded, mainly due to the traffic flows in the central areas.
He had thought that he could treat any girl like he treated his fiancée, but he was wrong as the girl who had kept him hidden in her home grassed him up after Marco had given her a beating. Marco had threatened her and hit her.
From that day she hasn’t been able to stop. She does it for herself, just to live. She needs to spill blood in order to cleanse herself, to clean up the world. Eva tells herself that she does it for all of womankind.
CURRENT GENOA ISSUES Lack of Natural Resources
Marco was arrested for selling drugs to children. He had also slept with several Romanian girls in exchange for drugs and he killed a minor, without showing any pity.
Eva had started killing when a boy in a red scarf wanted her money had threatened her with an old yellow Stanley knife. She struck him in the face and kicked him so forceful that she had shut him up forever. She then picked up the knife from next to the body and had put it in her pocket, almost like a war trophy.
Giu lia a rre s ted. . .
> Multi-interpretations of the genre. > More focused on the ‘tease’ in striptease than the ‘strip’. > Audience tend to be mixed gender, age, race and class. > Tends to put emphasis on style and are sexy rather than sexual.
FLOATING INTO THE FUTURE
The airship docking station addresses the issue of the transportation problems of Genoa. The airship has some very unique qualities that enable it to probably be the most fuel efficient and environmentally friendly air transport system possible. Airships use the lifting power of Helium to keep them in the air and not the thrust of their engines, therefore making them one of the most efficient and ecologically acceptable forms of aviation. They are also generally much quieter Bathing was a social and intimate setting that also than other aircrafts. aided the social cohesion of the Roman people, Science Festival even between classes since most could use them Family and they were very affordable. Orientated The aim is to create a bathing complex which will integrate neo-burlesque performances to entice men for entertainment and pleasure purposes up to a certain extent.
Contamination within Society
Ha i r pi n
KILLER V A
Upper class have easier access to corruption
Dep ressed an d lo n ely
> “Grotesque imitation of the dignified or the pathetic.” > A literary, dramatic or music work intended to cause laughter by caricaturing the manner of serious works.
INTIMACY & RELAXATION
N o f o r g e t t i n g...
Passenger Terminal Observation
Waiting Room Storage Exhibition Space Offices
Atelier Fleuriste incorporates an innovative response to its climatic condition, which being in a Mediterranean climate is similar to the conditions of Genoa. Set in a row of 19th century houses, the brick façade has been replaced by glass panes down which flows a steady stream of running water. The precedent highlights a radical change in context with an extraordinary impact as the new insertion radically changes the perspective of the whole row.
The intervention has triggered a general progress of regeneration of the surrounding context that has taken its cue from the new full height glazed frontage, allowing for solar radiation to warm up the building. Also integrated is a water cascade, designed to avoid overheating of the interior during the summer. The sound of water can also help reduce the background noise of traffic.
Reduced Street & Traffic Noise
This striking façade is further offset by the many original structural parts left in place. It is this juxtaposition that makes the whole project work; the new elements integrate intelligently with the 19th century architecture, yet stands as a distinctive features in their own right.
THE ROMAN BATHS ROME
HYPOCAUST A Furnace B Under Floor Chamber
Furnaces Hot Room Warm Room Cold Room
C Columns of tiles supporting floor
D Bridging tiles
F Box-shaped tiles G Chimney
Rooms that needed to be heated the most were placed closer to the furnace. The furnace was always burning, which created heat that flowed through the spaces in the raised floor. This heated the floor and rest of the room. When the hot air from the furnace cooled, it left the room from flues in the wall vents in the roof. The Romans built flues into the walls so they did not take up any space that was needed. A series of tunnels made of brick and mortar connected the aqueducts, water tanks, and pools. The air flow system was also created by ducts made up of stone or brick tunnels under the floor and went to a large open space beneath the raised floor, and then into the wall flues. The wall flues also helped to insulate the room and the rising hot air kept the warmth inside the bath houses.
Hypocausts were created over 2,000 years ago by the Romans. They were used to create heat as well as to distribute it in the public bathhouses. The small pillars of stacked bricks would have supported a fireproof floor that was heated by means of air circulation in the underfloor chamber with an external furnace as heat source. In addition to the hypocaust, there were sometimes hollow walls to help maintain even temperatures and prevent condensation.
THE THERME VALS PETER ZUMTHOR Built using locally quarried Valser quarzite slabs and concrete, the building is made up of 15 different table-like units, 5 metres in height with cantilevered concrete roof units supported by tie-beams. These units fit together like a giant jigsaw puzzle. The courses of stone are layered flush one on top of the other on the exposed side of the wall, and staggered on the back, to enhance the concrete bonding. Slabs of the same stone were also used on the floor of the indoor and outdoor pools and circulation areas as well as on certain ceilings, stairs, door openings and benches.
The remarkable simplicity of the building’s appearance and the concealment of complexity is the result of sophisticated structural engineering, complex detailing that achieved the desired integration of waterproofing, thermal insulation, expansion joints and services in the structural mass of the building. The building looks simple, but Zumthor states that ‘the complexity is hidden in the mass’. Every element of the thermal baths building, from the stone courses to the lintels and steps is carefully calibrated to achieve a continuous ‘fabric whose texture flows in an even, uninterrupted rhythm’.
Layer of peripheral insulation
Layers of construction and structures at bath level
Existing Structure New Additional Structure
Assembly of corner joints
GALATA MARITIME MUSEUM GUILLERMO VÁZQUEZ CONSUEGRA The idea behind the project was to free the building from the façades which had been added after it was no longer used as a shipyard and cover it with a sort of lightweight skin or film of aluminium and glass to preserve its interior. This type of wrapper also makes it possible to move closer to the façade or further away from it, as required. In this way the architect detached the new wrapper from the main façade to introduce a new space not included in the old building: a large entrance hall on a scale adequate to the building’s new public use.
G A L A T A
M U S E O
D E L
M A R E
Demolition of the side wall permitted its replacement with a huge window revealing a reconstruction of a large Genoese galley between two buttresses: the museum’s characterising element. A deep façade is created by the overlapping of three layers: the outer wrapper of glass, the vertical buttresses whose regularity imposes a repetitive vertical rhythm on the interior and the interior space itself, where the galley is the key to the whole design.
ATELIER FLEURISTE ELASTICOSPA
WHITE CUBE BERMONDSEY
Designed by Casper Mueller Kneer Architects, White Cube Bermondsey is the gallery’s third and largest venue in London. More than 5440 m2 (58,000 sq ft) of existing 1970’s warehouse space were transformed to provide exhibition spaces, warehousing, private viewing rooms, an auditorium and a bookshop. There are three distinct exhibition areas: The 'South Galleries' provide 780m2 of column free space and act as the principal display area. The 'North Galleries' are smaller and more experimental in character. ‘9x9x9’ is a centrally located cubic space, flooded with natural light. An auditorium allows the presentation of films and lectures. 1st Floor: Roof Structure & Office
Secondary Roof Beams
Existing Roof Bracing
Existing Portal Frame
Masonary Perimeter Walls
The existing building consists of two discrete areas. The main warehouse area is constructed of a portal frame roof spanning 35.5 metres. Existing portal frames are at a spacing of 6 metres. The main warehouse is formed of a series of steel portal frames with concrete cased columns. The building is stabilised using a combination of cross-braced vertical bays and portal frames. The two storey office building is formed by a combination of concrete cased columns and beams. Hollow ceramic blocks span approximately 400mm between beams to form the floor. The existing ground floor consists of a polished reinforced concrete slab of approximately 250mm in depth.
The Main Gallery structure is formed of a series of steel roof trusses supported by steel columns at 3 metres c/c. The use of steel roof trusses provides an effective and economical solution for the room span of 24 metres. A triangular ‘Pratt’ type truss positioned between existing roof beams allows the new truss to be located within the height of the existing pitched roof structure. This allows for maximum achievable new floor to ceiling heights of 5.5 metres. Secondary columns are provided at 1 metre c/c which support the loading of wall mounted art installations.
Bracing & Vertical Struts 100x8 Angle
Cross Based Vertical Bay RC Portal Frame
The new truss is positioned between the existing portal beams and raised above the level of the beam. The primary limitation on the achievable level of the truss is the location of existing bracing members in the roof.
2) Remove cladding, retain purlins.
3) Prop portal on left. Prop right portal with new column.
4) Remove portion of portal frame.
5) Install column reinforcement.
6) Install new box frame. Remove column reinforcement.
9) Roof cladding omitted for clarity.
10) Add cladding, glazing and waterproofing to rooflight.
Existing Portal Roof Bean
Typical Wall Panel Buildup 120 Jumbo Studs @ 333mm c/c
Typical Cross Section 24m
18mm Plywood Skin to Inside Face of Wall (+ Plasterboard Finish) 120 x 80 x 5 RHS Posts @ 1m c/c 120 x 120 SHS Columns @ 3m c/c Fireboard to External Face of Wall
24m Main 120 x 120 SHS Columns @ 3m c/c
Intermediate 120 x 80 RHS Columns @ 1m c/c (Jumbo Studs not Shown)
Viewing Gallery General Arrangement
4.5m Zone for M&E Service Distribution
Main Gallery General Arrangement Horizontal Bracing Locally in Roof
Steel roof trusses are designed to support ceiling finishes and temporary suspended art installations of up to 5 tonnes. Walls and ceilings are constructed as steel cages allowing art to be installed at almost any point within the space.
Superstructure Main Roof Truss Up-stand Column to Support Fire Barrier Main 120 x 120 SHS Columns @ 3m c/c
Stability of the building is provided by steel bracing of plywood racking panels, in combination with horizontal steel bracing members in the lower plane of the roof.
1) Structure with roof cladding as built.
Additional Bracing at Adjacent Bay
Roof Plan on Existing Building Stability
Roof Plan on Existing Building
Portal Frame Modification
9x9x9 is a centrally located cubic space with a 9 metre high ceiling. It has a translucent fabric ceiling and is flooded with natural light.
2 Storey Office Building
Ground Floor: 1) Entrance 2) Bookshop 3) North Galleries 4) Auditorium 5) South Galleries 6) 9x9x9
Intermediate 120 x 80 RHS Columns @ 1m c/c (Jumbo Studs not Shown) Vertical Bracing / Plywood Racking Locally in Walls
Stability System for Main Gallery Frame
DETAIL MASTERCLASS Component
Horizontal Bracing Locally in Roof
Vertical Bracing / Plywood Racking Locally in Walls
Stability System for Viewing Gallery Frame
The Viewing Gallery structure is formed of a series of steel beams (typical size 356x171x45UB) and 120 x 120 SHS steel columns. Secondary 120 x 80 RHS columns are provided at 1m c/c which support the loading of wall mounted art installations. Jumbo studs are provide at a maximum of 300mm c/c to support wall finishes.
The White Cube is a sustainable form of development to the extent that it would reuse an existing building and improve the standard of the current building. The original building dated back from the 1970s and was primarily used as a warehouse before the current redevelopment. The way the refurbishment is constructed also allows the gallery to revert to its original state for other purposes, if they were to vacate the premises after the 15 year lease.
The proposal is situated 800 metres away from London Bridge station, within a highly accessible major public transport hub. The location would not only reduce reliance on car usage, but would also promote sustainable transport methods such as walking, cycling and public transport. However, the proposal did not meet the 20% on site renewable requirement and other energy saving requirements as set out within Southwark and London Plan policy. Non-compliance with this important policy area must be considered in the light of the limited term of the lease, and the cost-efficiency of incorporating features such as PV panels which realise an economic return only over time.
Refuse storage for the site are located in three main places: The Royal Oak Yard (refuse compactor), in the rear yard on the corner of Morocco Street and Lamb Walk (locked wheelie bins containing food waste and recyclable materials) and on the North Side of the building near the staff entrance (a lockable wheelie bin of recyclable office waste).
SERVICES & INTEGRATION Public Space Private Space Vertical Circulation Waste/Bin Area
On occasion, specialist waste (paint, batteries etc. may be collected during servicing hours. No hazardous materials will be disposed of in general waste, any materials such as solvents or paint thinners will be treated under full K.O.S.H protocols and only disposed of by a licensed contractor. Existing refuse collections in Lamb Walk, Morocco Street and Bermondsey Street will be utilised for the wheelie bin. The compactor unit in Royal Oak is also fully portable and will be collected, emptied and returned once or twice a month.
Water Service & Drainage
All water services in the building has been installed, tested and commissioned and disinfected prior to use to BS 6700. Surface water drainage from the roof provides category 3 disposal of water to provide a higher level of protection for stored goods. Rainwater gutters have electric ice-melting tapes for security. Foul water drainage has been modified to suit the new layout. Kitchen areas have domestic style cooking facilities. As all catering will be done off site, grease eliminators are not necessary.
Cycle Racks for Staff & Visitors White Cube
Vertical Circulation / Fire Strategy Plant Public Route
ENVIRONMENT & ENERGY Sound Transmittance & Acoustics
The programmed use of an art gallery is not considered to be a noise generating use in itself, but the walls between the galleries and the warehouse are still insulated for acoustic purposes. Externally, associated servicing and visitors however, may give rise noise transmittance. Due to the close proximity of neighbouring residential occupiers, the servicing plant is restricted to control noise and disturbance through a suitable service management plan to limited the number, time, and type of movements, to ensure the impact upon neighbouring occupiers is acceptable.
Materially, the industrial character of the building was maintained and enhanced by new additions and modifications. The materials are set against the white gallery walls, often left untreated and self-coloured. The floors are powerfloated natural grey concrete. Ceiling materials include stretch fabrics for viewing rooms and galleries. Untreated and powder-coated steel meshes are used for the public corridor, the new entrance canopy and the entrance divider. Doors are made from untreated mild steel or stainless steel and glass. Concrete, grey granite and steel dominate the external landscaping. All materials were made for the first time for the UK due to the large nature of glazed doors, which were imported from Germany.
> 60 minutes fire resistance between galleries and warehouse.
> Smoke extract ventilation via roof ventilators in the warehouse. 3
Fire Escapes - Royal Oak Yard (West Side) Elevation
> Smoke extract via fan systems in the galleries and display rooms.
3D FAĂ‡ADE STUDY
New Entrance Canopy
The new canopy roof by the entrance is an elegant, slim element, which echoes the horizontal window bands of the existing building and provides artificial lighting to the entrance yard. The canopy is a light weight metal frame with steel mesh underside and white powder coated edges and surface mounted strip lighting. It creates a sheltered space in front of the building without being visually intrusive. Attention is drawn away from the large metal shuttered loading bays, which are separated visually from the visitors entrance by a metal mesh screen.
Photovoltaic Panels & Heat Pumps 1
WHITE POWDER COATED EDGES
Display Lighting - LED and recessed compact fluorescent type with control systems to provide a variable scene setting
TIMBER FRAME SUPPORT
Natural & Artificial Lighting
Low energy linear tube lighting is used throughout the building together with automatic switching of lighting circuits to ensure that the lumen watt ratio is equal to or better than that stipulated in the Building Regulations. The 9x9x9 gallery contains a rooflight, which uses entirely only natural daylighting. Other exhibition space uses a mixture of natural and artificial lighting.
Odours Due to the art gallery nature of the building, odours / fumes from use of solvent and paints etc. are required to be arrested, filtered and extracted through a smart express booth. Any such activity taking place should be prevented in the open yard.
Fire Escapes - Royal Oak Yard Elevation
> Sprinkler fire protections to the warehouse only.
Biomass boilers produce heat, which is captured and transferred to be used for space or water heating. The biomass boiler was rejected as it was difficult to meet the requirements of the clean air act and because of the need for a tall chimney.
Compactor This should be treated as a separate entity outside of the general plant noise condition. Sound output, frequency of use and mitigation including acoustic insulation is at a specific condition. Opening and operational hours are limited to 09:00 to 18:00.
Environmental measures have been incorporated into the proposal that include controlled ventilation systems with air quality sensors so that only minimum ventilation is required to meet the requirements of the occupants. This is key in eliminating waste of energy and reduction of carbon emissions. Heat generated within the facility will be recovered and reused in other parts of the building whenever there is an opportunity to do so. Free cooling from outside air is utilised whenever possible. A digital building energy management system is provided to monitor and control the operation of all equipment and systems to ensure optimum use of energy. All major energy uses are separately metered and monitored. The air handling plant equipment is located on the lower level flat roof area of the building.
1) Pellet Hopper 2) Spiral Conveyor 3) Combustion Chamber 4) Heat Exchanger 5) Heat transferred to heating system and hot water cylinder 6) Ashtray
Photovoltaic (PV) uses energy from the sun to generate electricity to run most electrical appliances and lighting within the development. PV and heat pumps were considered unviable for the 15 year lease period.
Heating, Cooling & Ventilation
Perimeter access is readily achieved from the perimeter roadways of Lamb Walk and Morocco Street.
Renewable Energy Options Explored
Deliveries & Dispatch Loading and unloading may give rise to noise disturbances particularly to the southern elevation of the Royal Oak Yard. Hours of operations including use of mechanical shutters on site will be between 08:00 to 23:00.
1) Photovoltaic Panel 2) National Grid 3) Import/Export Meter 4) Inverter 5) Consumer Unit 6) Appliances 7) Heat Pump
Plant Noise A new mechanical plant has been installed associated with heating and ventilation of the premises. Standard conditions relating to maximum plant noise levels and further noise is applied to prevent disturbances.
The existing offices are to remain naturally ventilated via openable windows
Existing Offices Galleries
LIGHT WEIGHT METAL FRAME
Fresh Air Ventilation > 8 litres/second/person. > Extracted ventilation of 6 air changes per hour for smoke extract purposes.
SURFACE MOUNTED STRIP LIGHTING Mechanical Cooling Max 23oC
STEEL MESH UNDERSIDE
Public Corridor Storage
Heat for the ground floor spaces are generated by condensing gas-fired boilers with appropriate low-pressure hot water distribution to heat emitters. Underfloor heating is provided to all public areas to provide general low level background heating which will be supplemented by mechanical ventilation systems with warm air to provide closer control of temperature.
CONSTRUCTION MEMBERS DIMENSION 400 x 200 x 12.5 RHS
350 x 150 x 12 RHS
550 x 150 x 15 RHS
150 x 150 x 6.3 RHS
250 x 150 x 20 RHS
RECLAIMED BRICK WALL
DETAIL MASTERCLASS Component
> Reuse of building structure and material
SOLAR POWERED AIRSHIP
> Heat source and use through hypocaust system > Water source and use > Solar-powered emission free airship travel
ROOFTOP THERMAL POOL
Bathing aligned across the southwest side and have large openings to catch the heat of the afternoon sun. Changing rooms and offices are located on the opposite shady side.
A hypocausts system will be used to create and distribute heat throughout the bathhouses. The existing underground area makes it ideal for the system, allowing air circulation in an underfloor chamber with an external furnace as heat source. Rooms that require the most heat will be placed closer to the furnace.
The airships will use thin-film solar panels to create a cost-competitive, high speed vessel passenger services. The airship has no fuel costs, since it will use 67.2 kW of solar panels. Using an envelope with expandable gas cells will allow the airship to go from sea level to an altitude of 30,000 feet. This puts the airship above bad weather and also provides a clear, unobstructed environment for the solar panels. The colder temperatures at high altitude can also help boost energy production from the solar panels by up to 30%.
Touri st Flo w
> Sunlight on south faรงade
Pool open to the sky allowing outsiders to think that it is an ordinary, generic spa and unaware of the secretive burlesque element within the building.
Existing Structure New / Additional Structure
STUDIO SHADING DEVICE AS POTENTIAL DETAIL ON SOUTH FAรADE
SCHEMATIC SPACIAL ARRANGEMENT Exhibition Entrance
Passenger Service Entrance
Burlesque Entertainment (Above)
Office / Storage
Exhibition Cafe / Shop
1ST FLOOR Changing Rooms Relaxation Room Treatment Room
4TH FLOOR Office / Storage Passenger Waiting Area Exhibition
Burlesque Entertainment Burlesque Changing Room Exhibition Childrens Area
2ND FLOOR Changing Rooms
TOP FLOOR Bathing
Airship Docking Station
Burlesque Changing Room Hot Room Exhibition Childrens Area Office / Storage
THE CURRENT STRUCTURAL SYSTEM
Strip Out Works & Removal of Reinforced Concrete Columns
A) Section through Beam
B) Junction of Beam & Column
The current reinforced concrete columns are consistently arranged close together throughout the various floors of the building. In order to install new programmatic functions, various columns will need to be removed. The process are as follows: > Locally break the concrete cover to the reinforcement to expose the bars in the soffit of the beam and column. > Remove paving slabs immediately below the proposed prop position and install temporary propping. > Diamond, stitch-drill the full width of the column. Drill and burst the column to ground level and trim off reinforcing bars. > Locally break the concrete at the column location to below ground level and trim back columnâ€™s steel to below ground level. > Remove all loose material from the broken faces of the concrete. Treat the faces of concrete to be made good. > Make good at ground and beam soffit using proprietary mortar, allowing mortar to fully cure. Remove propping.
Repair & Strengthening
The granary silos are currently at a state of disrepair, with much fabrication and joint repair required across the building. The need for continuous reinforcement hinders access for formwork erection and for watertight structures the need for a metal, expanding or rubber bar waterstops is an added complication. A stop end constructed using traditional timber or steel formwork is often difficult to fix. Instead, an expanded metal mesh, embedded in reinforcing steel on both sides can be used for all sizes of joints. The surface produced would be equivalent to or better than one produced by conventional scabbling. The subsequent concrete pour binds to the rough face produced to provide a shear key. The material is resistant to deflection, resulting in a very high shear strength which is identical to that of monolithic concrete. It is the ideal for lost formwork for producing quality joints in reinforced concrete.
Recycling the removed concrete columns can keep concrete out of landfill sites and help the environment. Concrete will be broken up and crushed into a certain size for easy removal and transportation. The concrete is then recycled back into future concrete work. The crushed concrete is used in the sub-base layer when masons are prepping the area for cement.
Walls C) Cross-Section through Beam & Floor E
D) Section through Main Beam C E) Method of Reinforcing Columns
F) Section through Secondary Beams & Floor
HENNEBIQUE SYSTEM FranĂ§ois Hennebique was a French engineer and selfeducated builder who patented his pioneering reinforcedconcrete construction system in 1892, integrating separate elements of construction, such as the column and the beam, into a single monolithic element. The Hennebique system was one of the first appearances of the modern reinforced-concrete method of construction.
From a structural point of view, the construction has an audience of foundation strengthened by ribs. This solution was necessary due to the poor soil conditions. There was a considerable load from the building with the need to make the basement usable. The cells, ceilings, pillars and roof are also of reinforced concrete. The reinforcement follows the maximum bending moments which vary from the bottom of the beam midspan to the top of the beam over the supports. The column is rigidly connected to the beams and slab so no bracing is necessary.
Floors & Ceilings PROS
> Resists compression and that of steel to resist tensile stress. > Steel reinforcement insulated by concrete cover. High inherent degree of fire protection and nil spread of flame. > Permits more audacious construction and longer spans with load-bearing structures characterised by minimum encumbrance. > Various shapes possible dependent upon potential of formwork material.
Columns & Beams
> Multi-storey structures can be formed near ground level and raised into position. > Damaged reinforced concrete can be repaired.
> Slow progress when necessary to wait for hardening before commencing next sequence or trade. > Slow sealing against weather. > Difficult to provide extension of existing structure (steel reinforcement must be exposed) and separate new structure required.
CURRENT PRIMARY STRUCTURE
STRUCTURE & MATERIAL Choice
INTERNAL MATERIAL CONSIDERATIONS CERAMICS ECOCARAT
> Maintains a constant healthy and comfortable atmosphere in every room it is installed in. > Absorbs and retains odours and dangerous chemical substances. > Absorbs excess moisture and releases it when the air is too dry, maintaining the humidity level between 40% and 70%. This action reduces the propagation of mould. > It purifies the air by capturing dangerous substances. > Eliminates condensation problems.
PROPOSED EXTERNAL STRUCTURES
The objective is to see whether it is possible to shift perceptions of these derelict sites from non-places to places. The reuse of the building will incorporate a methodology of insertion with different materials. By combining the use of existing and new material, both the past and present can be read.
Removal of chimney stack
Shading Device New Entrances
New glazing to maximise natural daylighting into relaxation rooms
ECOCARAT works in harmony with nature: it regulates the microclimate and air quality using only atmospheric pressure energy.
Shading device to be integrated to the south faรงade
Removal of Chimney Stack
LIGHT TRANSMITTING CONCRETE LITRACON
> Though the optical fibres compose only 4% of the concrete, some light is transmitted because of their parallel arrangement in a matrix between the two outer surfaces of each block. > Load-bearing structures can also be built from these blocks, since glass fibres have no negative effect on the strength of the concrete. > Embedded heat-isolation. > Light transmitting building blocks in various textures and colours.
SOUTH WEST ELEVATION
LITRACON rooms will be brightened and proximal objects situated on the brighter side of a Litracon wall will be revealed as silhouettes on the other side.
Central structure to be replaced with steel frame and glass box, allowing a vast amount of natural light through central core.
EXTERNAL MATERIAL CONSIDERATIONS Additional double height glass structure for entrance of the science festival and exhibitions.
NORTH EAST ELEVATION
STRUCTURE & MATERIAL Choice
A7 PIACENZA TURIN MILAN
RIGHI GRANAROLO Preve
GE-PEGLI A26 ALESSANDRIA TURIN MILAN A10 SAVONA VENTIMIGLIA NICE
Stazione Genova PIAZZA PRINCIPE
Madonnetta S. Nicolo Carbonara
San Giorgio Terminal Caricamento
Cristoforo Colombo Airport Fiera Internazionale
Fast Through Bridge
A12 LA SPEZIA PARMA ROME
STURLA QUARTO DEI MILLE
Stazione Genova BRIGNOLE