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BDACC Building Design And Climate Change May Tsang 10978016

disPLACENon-Place


ETHNICITY

GENOA is a province in the Liguria region of Italy. The city has a Inhabitants, 1st January 2010

GENOA

municipal surface area

train journey between Milan and Genoa

population above 65 years

Rome Naples

GENOA

total population of 608,015, covering an area of 1,838 km². The Port of Genoa, favoured by its strategic geographic location, is placed at the centre of the important industrial and commercial area of northern Italy and is ideally located to serve central Europe’s consumer markets. multi-modal car park

car parking spaces

per 1,000 inhabitants

railway stations

of coastline

public open space

PRECIPITATION 151

122

96

93

92

93

92

85

59

53

25 7

7

7

7

8

5

3

4

6

JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

JUL

AUG

SEP

SHADOWS

20th Century

18th Century 16th Century

In 1528, Andrea Doria instituted a new constitution for the Port of Genoa that brought it under the control of the Spanish Empire.

With the introduction of trade routes to the New World and away from the Mediterranean region, the Port’s fortunes began to decline. At the end of the 18th Century, Napoleon made the Port of Genoa a French protectorate, calling it the Ligurian Republic. France then annexed the new republic in 1805.

In 1684, the French bombarded the Port, and Austria occupied the city in 1746. In 1768, the city had to turn Corsica over to the French.

1861 185

Rainfall (mm) Rainy Days

The Black Death brought an end to the Republic’s golden age when the disease arrived in Europe from the Genoese trading post at Theodosia in the Crimea. The Port of Genoa suffered a near-total population and economic collapse.

The city underwent an era of economic recovery, bringing new fortunes to many Port of Genoa families. The Port reached a new peak and it was a magnet for many worldfamous artists and architects.

1684

The Port of Genoa reached its political peak when it won the naval Battle of Meloria in 1284 over the Duchy of Pisa and when it defeated Venice in 1298.

The French dominated the Port of Genoa. After that, the Visconti of Milan ruled the city. Genoa lost Corsica when it revolted. It lost its colonies in the Middle East to the Ottoman Empire and Arab powers, and it lost Sardinia to the Kingdom of Aragon.

1528

1349

The several centuries that followed made the city lose its power becoming only a small and unimportant city. Nevertheless, Genoa continued to build its merchent fleet slowly and became the leading commercial carrier of the Mediterranean Sea.

After the plague subsided, the Port adopted the Venetian model of government and was presided over by the doge. The period was also the time of continuous wars against Venice.

14th Century

The Germanic Lombards ruled the Port, and they destroyed the city’s Roman walls.

934

Town was occupated by the Greeks but its fine harbour was in use much earlier perhaps by the Etruscan.

13th Century

773

When the Frank Empire conquered the Lombards, the Port became part of that kingdom under the rule of Ademarus, the first Carolingian count of Genoa. The city’s walls were rebuilt during this period.

The Port became one of several independent city-states in Italy, a “Maritime Republic” like Venice and Pisa. The ports trade, ship-building, and banking activities gave it one of the biggest and most powerful navies in the Mediterranean region. Merchant families in the Port of Genoa struggled for domination.

15th Century

10th Century

The Port’s development and growth was intimately connected to maritime trade and traffic in these ancient days. Cultures with languages other than Ligurian established settlements on Castle Hill to operate manage their sea-borne trade. During this era, the Port was little more than a small sheltered Bay.

7th Century

5th Century

6th Century

Being allied with Rome during the Second Punic War, the Carthaginians destroyed the city. The Port was rebuilt, and it won municipal status after the end of the Carthaginian Wars. It was a castrum, or fortified Roman town, with busy trade in skins, wood, and honey that were transported to mainland cities.

HISTORICAL

209 B.C.

Palermo

9

10

8

OCT

NOV

DEC

Genoa has a greater annual rainfall than any other place in the Mediterranean. The rainfall regime in the genoese area is strongly affected by both the closeness of the sea and the alpine-appenninic chain. Atlantic disturbances are also diverted to the Genoa Gulf because of the barrier effect of these mountains. The study of heavy intensity rainfall has frequently been responsible to the flooding in the Genoese area. These conditions cause continued instability processes with thunderstorm rainfalls concentrated in restricted areas. Very frequently in the area of Genoa the damage caused by flooding events are worsened by the occurrence of shallow landslides along the slopes. These landslides increase the sediment load of rivers and therefore their mass and energy. Besides they can create temporary barrages along riverbeds making possible the accumulation of thousands of cubic metres of water. When this huge amount of water is loosened all of the sudden, it can cause abnormal crests with unforeseeable flooding peaks, that have higher values than those referable to maximum rainfall events.

JANUARY

When international trade began to decline in the 20th Century, the Port of Genoa enjoyed increasing trade to and from northern Italy. During the beginning of the twentieth century, Sampierdarena was proudly called the “Italian Manchester” as a great industrial development had deeply influenced the social and economic structure.

Italy’s unification in 1861 increased the Port of Genoa’s influence, and it was Italy’s most important commercial port, competing with Marseille for Mediterranean trade. It also completed with ports in the North Sea for trade with Switzerland and inland central Europe.

NW

WNW

W

47 %

Genoa forms the southern corner of the Milan-Turin-Genoa industrial triangle of north-west Italy, acting as one of the country’s major economic centres.

GENDER

20N 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

NNE

30

94.23%

NE 25

20

E

ESE

10

5

SE SSE

S

15

0 JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

330

a

Topple

Debris Flow

Debris Avalanche

Earthflow

km

APRIL

30

60

o

W

E

OCTOBER 240

120

210 10 AM

01

4 PM

SITE Analysis

10 AM

4 PM

10 AM

DEC

80o

5

JULY

NOV

70o

h

The map above shows the results of a census of rainfall induced shallow landslides (debris-flow and soil-slip) in the Genoa area between 1991 and 2002. Key: 1) Genoa Municipality area 2) Basins 3) Sub-basins a) Cerusa Valley b) Leiro Valley c) Varenna Valley d) Chiaravagna Valley e) Polcevera Valley f) Bisagno Valley g) Sturla Valley h) Nervi Valley.

Creep

20o

60

2.5 0

10o

50o

g

Tyrrhenian Sea

OCT

40o

300

b Rockfall

SEP

30o

f

e

AUG

N

c

d

JUL

SUN PATH

1 2 3 4

E

Block Slide

ITALIANS %

ENE

S

Translational Landslide

29

Average Sunlight Hours Sea Temp oC Wind Direction

Minimum Temp oC Maximum Temp oC Average Temp oC

N

Rotational Landslide

60

11

Italian American European North African

Genoa is located in the Mediterranean climate zone. The city has a microclimate, where the climate differs from other parts of Italy. Average yearly temperatures are about 16°C in January and 24°C in August. It has a mild Mediterranean climate, with no sudden changes in temperature. The average yearly temperature ranging between maximum and minimum temperatures is only 5.4°C, which is one of the lowest in Italy.

SW

W

53

From its birth, the Port of Genoa has been Italy’s gateway to the Mediterranean and to international cultures that make it one of the modern world’s most interesting tourist destinations.

WSW

SSW

64 yrs +

0-14 yrs

The Port stretches uninterruptedly for 22 miles along a coastline that develops between Fiera and Voltri. It is a ‘one stop multi-purpose and multi-tasking port’ with more than twenty private operational terminals.

WIND NNW

15-63 yrs

CLIMATE

Milan

Venice

4 PM

10 AM

4 PM

150 S


SOIL CONDITIONS

16.4 16.5

The city of Genoa currently has 6 different modes of transport. Industralised areas that, while at the beginning of 20th century developed in the western town boundary, have been incorporated into highly populated residential suburbs. Due to its orographic peculiarity, in particularly the lack of costal spaces, residential suburbs have been built in steep hill areas, which is difficult for public transport to access. In 1999 the main urban problem in Genoa was the deterioration of the environment downtown Genoa where continuous and increasing levels of the maximum permitted pollutants levels were recorded, mainly due to the traffic flows in the central areas.

18.7 18.8 34.2 34.3 35.4 35.6

GENOA

35.7 37.1

SS35

A7 PIACENZA TURIN MILAN

PONTEDECIMO

SS456

37.3

SS45

Underground

Poggino

ACQUASANTA

59.2 59.7

GRANARA

59.8

RIVAROLO

COSTA

59.9

GRANAROLO Stazione Genova PIAZZA PRINCIPE

A10 SAVONA VENTIMIGLIA NICE

61.1 61.3

The Genoa series consists of shallow, well drained soils that formed in residuum derived from granitic rocks. Genoa soils are located on mountains. They typically occur on convex summit and shoulder positions.

62.1 62.2 62.3 64.4 66.5 67.2 72.2 72.3 76.1 78.2

Principe

GE-AEROPORTO SESTRI PONENTE

PRA

GE-OVEST

Darsena Dinegro

Terminal

CORNIGLIANO

40%

S. Simone

S. Nicolo Carbonara

ZECCA

San Giorgio Caricamento

30%

Madonnetta

MANIN Stazione Genova BRIGNOLE

GE-NERVI

DE FERRARI

A12 LA SPEZIA PARMA ROME

STURLA

20%

SS1 NERVI

QUARTO DEI MILLE QUINTO

Cristoforo Colombo Airport

10%

Fiera Internazionale

TRANSPORT

Particle-size control section - Clay content: 20 - 30%. Rock fragments: Averages 60 - 80%, mainly cobbles. Lithology of fragments are granitic rocks such as granodiorite.

78.1

PEGLI

Fast Through Bridge

SAMPIERDARENA

Mean annual soil temperature: 7 - 8 oC Mean summer soil temperature: 15 - 17 oC Depth to bedrock: 30 - 50 cm to a lithic contact Reaction: Slightly acid or neutral

67.4

GE-VOLTRI

A26 ALESSANDRIA VOLTRI TURIN MILAN SS1

Soil moisture: Usually moist from mid-October through mid-July, dry remainder of summer and early fall for 75 - 90 consecutive days in the four months following the summer solstice; xeric soil moisture regime that borders on aridic

66.4

BRIN

GE-PEGLI

Preve

Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)

Highroads

RIGHI

60.4 60.7

50%

S.Pantaleo

BORZOLI

Carbon Monoxide (CO) Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

Highways

Cappuccio

GE-EST

59.1

60%

Funicular Railway

S.Antonino

56.1

Total annual emissions per sector (tonne/year)

Train Stations

Trensasco

GE-BOLZANETO BOLZANETO

POLLUTION

Panoramic Railway

CASELLA

Pino Campi

0% Power Plant

Combustion Service industry & Agriculture

Combustion Industry

Production Process

Mining & Distrib. Fossil Comb.

HAMBURG MILAN

ROTTERDAM

LE HAVRE

SITE Genoa Granary Silos

1 Passenger Ferry Terminal Bridge 2 Maritime Station Genoa 3 Customs 4 Faculty of Economics 5 Maritime Museum 6 Ex-Warehouse

3 4 2

TURIN

Road Transport

Other Mobile Sources

PORTO ANTICO

CARGO ROUTES

(Cargo route diagrams from Genova Today Genova Tomorrow exhibition booklet)

Solvent Use

5

6

A B

PARMA

2000 km

200 km

MARSEILLES

SAVONA

GENOA

BARCELONA

GENOA

C

1

D

LA SPEZIA

Views

VALENCIA ATHENS

Route 24

NICE

Route 5

Genova > Rotterdam

LIVORNO

Lisbon > Kiev

Route 1

Epicentre of the Mediterranean

Palermo > Berlin

Route 5

Lisbon > Kiev

Route 24

Genova > Rotterdam (cargo & passengers)

Route 24

Genova > Rotterdam (passengers)

Port city of the north west

The ponderous reinforced concrete grain silos were completed in 1901. It is a major piece of industrial archaeology currently awaiting redevelopment for new uses. During 1907, the building was expanded to 126 cells, carrying a total capacity of 50,000 tonnes from 23,000. The silos have been in operation until approximately the 1990’s and is now in a state of disrepair. The building is 220 metres in length and 7 storeys high, with the majority of the interior space used for granary storage. Other space on ground level includes the processing and storage of the loaded material.

WIND PATTERNS

E S

C

D

The Genoa Granary Silos consist of a complex system of monolithic reinforced concrete portals, already experienced in Europe as “Hennebique patent”, these were made for the first time in Italy. It was the largest structure of that period entirely built out of reinforced concrete.

Genoa Low

N W

B

SILOS DI GENOVA

Northerly Winds Mistral Outbreak

A

Genoa Granary Silos 1899-1901 before extension

Genoa Granary Silos 1899-1901 after extension

The old photo, before the extension show a rather long monumental building, with a body emerging in which the chimney stands out distinctly. The building was originally 140 metres long and was later expanded to its present size as well as raised several times. The building occupies 7155m2 offering 344 cells (3x4 metre base).

SITE Analysis


MARCONI

PROPOSED PROGRAMMES Burlesque

VIOLA

?

THE Plot S exual l y assaul t ed

GIULIA

KILLER

?

THE POWER OF WOMEN

B rut a l i s e d During the investigation, Marconi doesn’t believe that a woman wearing high heels could have killed a tall, bulky man in a service station toilet, all on her own.

> Different mindset on the display of the female form as opposed to strip bars. > World of illusion, dreams and fun. > Captivate men to the glamour and spectacle.

MARCO

I nsecu r e

Marconi gradually realises that the crimes seem to be the work

of an attractive woman

who succeeds at her grim task because the victim has other things on his mind than the prospect of being murdered.

Marconi shows Viola a photo and she discovers that the eyes in the photo are the same as in her

A fat lorry driver approaches her at a motorway cafe. He follows her to the toilet and on her exit, the man has died with an erection. A pool of blood into which a child drops a teddy bear marks the start of a trail of gutted corpses. The killer has left no trace of the weapon.

Giulia convinces Eva to join to gym

Giulia begins to organise Eva’s

life. As time goes on, Eva becomes more and more independent.

Conf i de nt

Giulia lives in a huge house in the Saragozza area of the city. She introduces Eva to her family and boasts about her room for a princess.

The Pr i nc ess

dream.

The killer notices that she is being followed as she leaves a club where she had been dancing. She realises she has reached a dead end and finds 2 men behind her.

Eva thinks about how she really has changed:

She reaches into her small sequined clutch bag and with 2 shots, the mens bodies are lying on their backs. One is still alive, she takes the hairpin from her hair and spears it into his eye.

the sad, newborn infant inside her has become a woman, a woman who knows what she wants.

WEAPONS Giulia celebrates her birthday at Eva’s flat. Eva thanks Giulia for doing so much for her over the past year. They get interrupted by police entering through the door. Eva jumps and freezes while Giulia panics and screams.

Classic Burlesque

alone.

She is always eagerly waiting for Marco to come home and passes time dressing up in order to act as a security blanket and give the appearance of

protection.

Marconi and Tommasi go to check out the market in Montagnola to find the weapon (hairpin) used in the last murder. They show a vendor the hairpin and he instantly recognises it as one of his own. Marconi finds that the pistol the murderer had used belonged to a rich entrepreneur from Bologna. He told Marconi that he hadn’t even noticed that the pistol had gone missing.

Eva has given herself a birthday present, she’s persuaded her boss to give her a chance to get more involved at work. She has had a raise and she has bought a new car.

Is always kept at home by Marco. Cries almost every day because she desires Marco’s company but he is always going out, leaving Viola home

Viola approaches Marconi and tells him she has dreamed of deluges of blood. Marconi visits Viola to ask for more details about her dream.

Dru g d ealin g

Viola notices that Marco has gone out again but is not his usual self. She discovers that he has been behaving

Underestimating the power of women

strangely and acting differently.

Ma rily n p art y

Viola finds a packet in Marco’s shirt pocket and discovers that he has been dealing drugs.

Marconi goes undercover to the club where the killer had left before the two men were killed. He meets Samantha, who got together with the murderer that night.

2 Sided Personalities

Samantha invites Marconi to a “Marilyn” party where he might catch the killer. He gets drugged and experiences some sort of hallucination and gets tortured by a horrendous doll.

S ta nl e y k ni fe

Marconi breaks the news to Viola that Marco has been arrested.

M arco arrest ed ...

P i s tol Tommasi informs Marconi of another killing. He rushes to the murder scene and discover the entrepreneur, to which the pistol had belonged to, is dead.

Inspector Marconi arrests Giulia for the murder of her father and others. She hysterically shouts “I haven’t killed anyone!” and shouts at Eva for her help.

Eva had stolen Giulia’s fathers’ pistol during the time she was at Giulia’s house before killing Giulia’s father.

Italy has few natural resources. With much land unsuited for farming due to poor soil conditions, Italy is a net food importer. There are no substantial deposits of iron, coal, or oil. Most raw materials needed for manufacturing and more than 80% of the country’s energy sources are imported.

Transport Infrastructure

CITY

PROGRAMME Analysis

You cannot get rid of the past even if you try to reinvent yourself

Exclusion of People

Relaxation

RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM BATHING BURLESQUE ENTERTAINMENT ACTING AS TENSION BETWEEN TWO CONVENTIONAL PROGRAMS

Women in Society

PORT

Public

Served

Private

Service

ADULTS

Passenger Service

Exhibition

The airship will allow for passenger service and potentially cargo hauling, allowing better connection between the port and the city. Temporary and permanent exhibition spaces will also be provided for the annual science festival, one of the most important events of scientific dissemination. This space will be more family orientated and children will be unaware of the adult entertainment on the other side of the building.

BATHING

BURLESQUE

STEAM HEATING DRAINAGE AIR QUALITY VENTILATION

PRIVACY SECURITY ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING ARTIFICIAL VENTILATION SOUND TRANSMITTANCE & ACOUSTICS

DOCKING STATION

EXHIBITION

SAFETY SERVICING CIRCULATION EXCESS HEAT NOISE AT UPPER LEVEL

CIRCULATION MAINTENANCE NATURAL VENTILATION FLEXIBILITY & GROWTH PUBLIC/PRIVATE SEPARATION

PASSENGER SERVICE TRANSPORT

SCIENCE

Hot Room

Changing Rooms Entertainment Burlesque Treatment Room Relaxation Room Entertainment Burlesque Entertainment

Cargo Hauling

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

18+

FAMILY

Rooms Relaxation Room Offices Changing Burlesque

Bathing

Entertainment

The nature of burlesque has multiple views and interpretations, making it suitable for audiences of any social background.

SPATIAL ISSUES

Isolation Today the identification between the city and port seems to be no longer effective. Ports are now highly specialised and mechanised tools for moving goods and passengers. They work as gears of a mechanism that connects sea routes and land transport networks and must improve efficiency diminishing frictions; so they tend to be enclosed non-places, physically isolated form the urban fabric and not permeable to the local flows.

Due to the orographic peculiarity, in particularly the lack of costal spaces, residential suburbs have been built in steep hill areas, which is difficult for public transport to access. The main urban problem in Genoa was the deterioration of the environment downtown Genoa, where continuous and increasing levels of the maximum permitted pollutants levels were recorded, mainly due to the traffic flows in the central areas.

2A

He had thought that he could treat any girl like he treated his fiancée, but he was wrong as the girl who had kept him hidden in her home grassed him up after Marco had given her a beating. Marco had threatened her and hit her.

From that day she hasn’t been able to stop. She does it for herself, just to live. She needs to spill blood in order to cleanse herself, to clean up the world. Eva tells herself that she does it for all of womankind.

CURRENT GENOA ISSUES Lack of Natural Resources

Marco was arrested for selling drugs to children. He had also slept with several Romanian girls in exchange for drugs and he killed a minor, without showing any pity.

Eva had started killing when a boy in a red scarf wanted her money had threatened her with an old yellow Stanley knife. She struck him in the face and kicked him so forceful that she had shut him up forever. She then picked up the knife from next to the body and had put it in her pocket, almost like a war trophy.

Giu lia a rre s ted. . .

> Multi-interpretations of the genre. > More focused on the ‘tease’ in striptease than the ‘strip’. > Audience tend to be mixed gender, age, race and class. > Tends to put emphasis on style and are sexy rather than sexual.

FLOATING INTO THE FUTURE

The airship docking station addresses the issue of the transportation problems of Genoa. The airship has some very unique qualities that enable it to probably be the most fuel efficient and environmentally friendly air transport system possible. Airships use the lifting power of Helium to keep them in the air and not the thrust of their engines, therefore making them one of the most efficient and ecologically acceptable forms of aviation. They are also generally much quieter Bathing was a social and intimate setting that also than other aircrafts. aided the social cohesion of the Roman people, Science Festival even between classes since most could use them Family and they were very affordable. Orientated The aim is to create a bathing complex which will integrate neo-burlesque performances to entice men for entertainment and pleasure purposes up to a certain extent.

Neo-Burlesque

Contamination within Society

Ha i r pi n

KILLER V A

Upper class have easier access to corruption

Dep ressed an d lo n ely

> “Grotesque imitation of the dignified or the pathetic.” > A literary, dramatic or music work intended to cause laughter by caricaturing the manner of serious works.

Airship Terminal

INTIMACY & RELAXATION

Deck

N o f o r g e t t i n g...

Bathing

Passenger Terminal Observation

E VA

Bathing

Airship Docking

Waiting Room Storage Exhibition Space Offices

Childrens Area

Exhibition Space

Exhibition Space


Atelier Fleuriste incorporates an innovative response to its climatic condition, which being in a Mediterranean climate is similar to the conditions of Genoa. Set in a row of 19th century houses, the brick façade has been replaced by glass panes down which flows a steady stream of running water. The precedent highlights a radical change in context with an extraordinary impact as the new insertion radically changes the perspective of the whole row.

Solar Radiation

Water Cooling

The intervention has triggered a general progress of regeneration of the surrounding context that has taken its cue from the new full height glazed frontage, allowing for solar radiation to warm up the building. Also integrated is a water cascade, designed to avoid overheating of the interior during the summer. The sound of water can also help reduce the background noise of traffic.

Warm Air

Reduced Street & Traffic Noise

This striking façade is further offset by the many original structural parts left in place. It is this juxtaposition that makes the whole project work; the new elements integrate intelligently with the 19th century architecture, yet stands as a distinctive features in their own right.

THE ROMAN BATHS ROME

G

HYPOCAUST A Furnace B Under Floor Chamber

Furnaces Hot Room Warm Room Cold Room

C Columns of tiles supporting floor

F

D Bridging tiles

E

E Floor

D

F Box-shaped tiles G Chimney

Rooms that needed to be heated the most were placed closer to the furnace. The furnace was always burning, which created heat that flowed through the spaces in the raised floor. This heated the floor and rest of the room. When the hot air from the furnace cooled, it left the room from flues in the wall vents in the roof. The Romans built flues into the walls so they did not take up any space that was needed. A series of tunnels made of brick and mortar connected the aqueducts, water tanks, and pools. The air flow system was also created by ducts made up of stone or brick tunnels under the floor and went to a large open space beneath the raised floor, and then into the wall flues. The wall flues also helped to insulate the room and the rising hot air kept the warmth inside the bath houses.

C

A

Hypocausts were created over 2,000 years ago by the Romans. They were used to create heat as well as to distribute it in the public bathhouses. The small pillars of stacked bricks would have supported a fireproof floor that was heated by means of air circulation in the underfloor chamber with an external furnace as heat source. In addition to the hypocaust, there were sometimes hollow walls to help maintain even temperatures and prevent condensation.

B

THE THERME VALS PETER ZUMTHOR Built using locally quarried Valser quarzite slabs and concrete, the building is made up of 15 different table-like units, 5 metres in height with cantilevered concrete roof units supported by tie-beams. These units fit together like a giant jigsaw puzzle. The courses of stone are layered flush one on top of the other on the exposed side of the wall, and staggered on the back, to enhance the concrete bonding. Slabs of the same stone were also used on the floor of the indoor and outdoor pools and circulation areas as well as on certain ceilings, stairs, door openings and benches.

The remarkable simplicity of the building’s appearance and the concealment of complexity is the result of sophisticated structural engineering, complex detailing that achieved the desired integration of waterproofing, thermal insulation, expansion joints and services in the structural mass of the building. The building looks simple, but Zumthor states that ‘the complexity is hidden in the mass’. Every element of the thermal baths building, from the stone courses to the lintels and steps is carefully calibrated to achieve a continuous ‘fabric whose texture flows in an even, uninterrupted rhythm’.

Concrete cores

Layer of peripheral insulation

Layers of construction and structures at bath level

Existing Structure New Additional Structure

Assembly of corner joints

GALATA MARITIME MUSEUM GUILLERMO VÁZQUEZ CONSUEGRA The idea behind the project was to free the building from the façades which had been added after it was no longer used as a shipyard and cover it with a sort of lightweight skin or film of aluminium and glass to preserve its interior. This type of wrapper also makes it possible to move closer to the façade or further away from it, as required. In this way the architect detached the new wrapper from the main façade to introduce a new space not included in the old building: a large entrance hall on a scale adequate to the building’s new public use.

G A L A T A

M U S E O

D E L

M A R E

Demolition of the side wall permitted its replacement with a huge window revealing a reconstruction of a large Genoese galley between two buttresses: the museum’s characterising element. A deep façade is created by the overlapping of three layers: the outer wrapper of glass, the vertical buttresses whose regularity imposes a repetitive vertical rhythm on the interior and the interior space itself, where the galley is the key to the whole design.

PRECEDENT Analysis

STRUCTURAL STRATEGIES

ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIES

ATELIER FLEURISTE ELASTICOSPA

2B


WHITE CUBE BERMONDSEY

Designed by Casper Mueller Kneer Architects, White Cube Bermondsey is the gallery’s third and largest venue in London. More than 5440 m2 (58,000 sq ft) of existing 1970’s warehouse space were transformed to provide exhibition spaces, warehousing, private viewing rooms, an auditorium and a bookshop. There are three distinct exhibition areas: The 'South Galleries' provide 780m2 of column free space and act as the principal display area. The 'North Galleries' are smaller and more experimental in character. ‘9x9x9’ is a centrally located cubic space, flooded with natural light. An auditorium allows the presentation of films and lectures. 1st Floor: Roof Structure & Office

EXISTING STRUCTURE

Secondary Roof Beams

Existing Roof Bracing

4

Existing Portal Frame

Masonary Perimeter Walls

3

5

2 1

The existing building consists of two discrete areas. The main warehouse area is constructed of a portal frame roof spanning 35.5 metres. Existing portal frames are at a spacing of 6 metres. The main warehouse is formed of a series of steel portal frames with concrete cased columns. The building is stabilised using a combination of cross-braced vertical bays and portal frames. The two storey office building is formed by a combination of concrete cased columns and beams. Hollow ceramic blocks span approximately 400mm between beams to form the floor. The existing ground floor consists of a polished reinforced concrete slab of approximately 250mm in depth.

SOUTH GALLERY

The Main Gallery structure is formed of a series of steel roof trusses supported by steel columns at 3 metres c/c. The use of steel roof trusses provides an effective and economical solution for the room span of 24 metres. A triangular ‘Pratt’ type truss positioned between existing roof beams allows the new truss to be located within the height of the existing pitched roof structure. This allows for maximum achievable new floor to ceiling heights of 5.5 metres. Secondary columns are provided at 1 metre c/c which support the loading of wall mounted art installations.

Bracing & Vertical Struts 100x8 Angle

Cross Based Vertical Bay RC Portal Frame

The new truss is positioned between the existing portal beams and raised above the level of the beam. The primary limitation on the achievable level of the truss is the location of existing bracing members in the roof.

Loading

2) Remove cladding, retain purlins.

3) Prop portal on left. Prop right portal with new column.

4) Remove portion of portal frame.

5) Install column reinforcement.

6) Install new box frame. Remove column reinforcement.

9) Roof cladding omitted for clarity.

10) Add cladding, glazing and waterproofing to rooflight.

VIEWING GALLERY

Existing Portal Roof Bean

Typical Wall Panel Buildup 120 Jumbo Studs @ 333mm c/c

Typical Cross Section 24m

18mm Plywood Skin to Inside Face of Wall (+ Plasterboard Finish) 120 x 80 x 5 RHS Posts @ 1m c/c 120 x 120 SHS Columns @ 3m c/c Fireboard to External Face of Wall

21m

24m Main 120 x 120 SHS Columns @ 3m c/c

Intermediate 120 x 80 RHS Columns @ 1m c/c (Jumbo Studs not Shown)

Viewing Gallery General Arrangement

4.5m Zone for M&E Service Distribution

Main Gallery General Arrangement Horizontal Bracing Locally in Roof

Steel roof trusses are designed to support ceiling finishes and temporary suspended art installations of up to 5 tonnes. Walls and ceilings are constructed as steel cages allowing art to be installed at almost any point within the space.

Superstructure Main Roof Truss Up-stand Column to Support Fire Barrier Main 120 x 120 SHS Columns @ 3m c/c

Stability

Stability of the building is provided by steel bracing of plywood racking panels, in combination with horizontal steel bracing members in the lower plane of the roof.

1) Structure with roof cladding as built.

Additional Bracing at Adjacent Bay

Roof Plan on Existing Building Stability

Steel Truss

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Roof Light

Roof Plan on Existing Building

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Public Route

Portal Frame Modification

9x9x9 is a centrally located cubic space with a 9 metre high ceiling. It has a translucent fabric ceiling and is flooded with natural light.

2 Storey Office Building

Ground Floor: 1) Entrance 2) Bookshop 3) North Galleries 4) Auditorium 5) South Galleries 6) 9x9x9

9x9x9 GALLERY

Intermediate 120 x 80 RHS Columns @ 1m c/c (Jumbo Studs not Shown) Vertical Bracing / Plywood Racking Locally in Walls

Stability System for Main Gallery Frame

DETAIL MASTERCLASS Component

Horizontal Bracing Locally in Roof

Vertical Bracing / Plywood Racking Locally in Walls

Stability System for Viewing Gallery Frame

The Viewing Gallery structure is formed of a series of steel beams (typical size 356x171x45UB) and 120 x 120 SHS steel columns. Secondary 120 x 80 RHS columns are provided at 1m c/c which support the loading of wall mounted art installations. Jumbo studs are provide at a maximum of 300mm c/c to support wall finishes.

SUSTAINABILITY

The White Cube is a sustainable form of development to the extent that it would reuse an existing building and improve the standard of the current building. The original building dated back from the 1970s and was primarily used as a warehouse before the current redevelopment. The way the refurbishment is constructed also allows the gallery to revert to its original state for other purposes, if they were to vacate the premises after the 15 year lease.


The proposal is situated 800 metres away from London Bridge station, within a highly accessible major public transport hub. The location would not only reduce reliance on car usage, but would also promote sustainable transport methods such as walking, cycling and public transport. However, the proposal did not meet the 20% on site renewable requirement and other energy saving requirements as set out within Southwark and London Plan policy. Non-compliance with this important policy area must be considered in the light of the limited term of the lease, and the cost-efficiency of incorporating features such as PV panels which realise an economic return only over time.

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Waste Management

Smoke Detectors

Refuse storage for the site are located in three main places: The Royal Oak Yard (refuse compactor), in the rear yard on the corner of Morocco Street and Lamb Walk (locked wheelie bins containing food waste and recyclable materials) and on the North Side of the building near the staff entrance (a lockable wheelie bin of recyclable office waste).

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SERVICES & INTEGRATION Public Space Private Space Vertical Circulation Waste/Bin Area

On occasion, specialist waste (paint, batteries etc. may be collected during servicing hours. No hazardous materials will be disposed of in general waste, any materials such as solvents or paint thinners will be treated under full K.O.S.H protocols and only disposed of by a licensed contractor. Existing refuse collections in Lamb Walk, Morocco Street and Bermondsey Street will be utilised for the wheelie bin. The compactor unit in Royal Oak is also fully portable and will be collected, emptied and returned once or twice a month.

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Water Service & Drainage

All water services in the building has been installed, tested and commissioned and disinfected prior to use to BS 6700. Surface water drainage from the roof provides category 3 disposal of water to provide a higher level of protection for stored goods. Rainwater gutters have electric ice-melting tapes for security. Foul water drainage has been modified to suit the new layout. Kitchen areas have domestic style cooking facilities. As all catering will be done off site, grease eliminators are not necessary.

Cycle Racks for Staff & Visitors White Cube

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Vertical Circulation / Fire Strategy Plant Public Route

ENVIRONMENT & ENERGY Sound Transmittance & Acoustics

The programmed use of an art gallery is not considered to be a noise generating use in itself, but the walls between the galleries and the warehouse are still insulated for acoustic purposes. Externally, associated servicing and visitors however, may give rise noise transmittance. Due to the close proximity of neighbouring residential occupiers, the servicing plant is restricted to control noise and disturbance through a suitable service management plan to limited the number, time, and type of movements, to ensure the impact upon neighbouring occupiers is acceptable.

Material Choice

Materially, the industrial character of the building was maintained and enhanced by new additions and modifications. The materials are set against the white gallery walls, often left untreated and self-coloured. The floors are powerfloated natural grey concrete. Ceiling materials include stretch fabrics for viewing rooms and galleries. Untreated and powder-coated steel meshes are used for the public corridor, the new entrance canopy and the entrance divider. Doors are made from untreated mild steel or stainless steel and glass. Concrete, grey granite and steel dominate the external landscaping. All materials were made for the first time for the UK due to the large nature of glazed doors, which were imported from Germany.

Biomass Boiler

4

5

> 60 minutes fire resistance between galleries and warehouse.

> Smoke extract ventilation via roof ventilators in the warehouse. 3

Fire Escapes - Royal Oak Yard (West Side) Elevation

> Smoke extract via fan systems in the galleries and display rooms.

3D FAÇADE STUDY

2

New Entrance Canopy

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The new canopy roof by the entrance is an elegant, slim element, which echoes the horizontal window bands of the existing building and provides artificial lighting to the entrance yard. The canopy is a light weight metal frame with steel mesh underside and white powder coated edges and surface mounted strip lighting. It creates a sheltered space in front of the building without being visually intrusive. Attention is drawn away from the large metal shuttered loading bays, which are separated visually from the visitors entrance by a metal mesh screen.

Photovoltaic Panels & Heat Pumps 1

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6

2

WHITE POWDER COATED EDGES

Display Lighting - LED and recessed compact fluorescent type with control systems to provide a variable scene setting

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TIMBER FRAME SUPPORT

Smoke Detectors

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Natural & Artificial Lighting

Low energy linear tube lighting is used throughout the building together with automatic switching of lighting circuits to ensure that the lumen watt ratio is equal to or better than that stipulated in the Building Regulations. The 9x9x9 gallery contains a rooflight, which uses entirely only natural daylighting. Other exhibition space uses a mixture of natural and artificial lighting.

Odours Due to the art gallery nature of the building, odours / fumes from use of solvent and paints etc. are required to be arrested, filtered and extracted through a smart express booth. Any such activity taking place should be prevented in the open yard.

Key Issues:

Fire Escapes - Royal Oak Yard Elevation

> Sprinkler fire protections to the warehouse only.

Biomass boilers produce heat, which is captured and transferred to be used for space or water heating. The biomass boiler was rejected as it was difficult to meet the requirements of the clean air act and because of the need for a tall chimney.

Compactor This should be treated as a separate entity outside of the general plant noise condition. Sound output, frequency of use and mitigation including acoustic insulation is at a specific condition. Opening and operational hours are limited to 09:00 to 18:00.

Environmental measures have been incorporated into the proposal that include controlled ventilation systems with air quality sensors so that only minimum ventilation is required to meet the requirements of the occupants. This is key in eliminating waste of energy and reduction of carbon emissions. Heat generated within the facility will be recovered and reused in other parts of the building whenever there is an opportunity to do so. Free cooling from outside air is utilised whenever possible. A digital building energy management system is provided to monitor and control the operation of all equipment and systems to ensure optimum use of energy. All major energy uses are separately metered and monitored. The air handling plant equipment is located on the lower level flat roof area of the building.

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1) Pellet Hopper 2) Spiral Conveyor 3) Combustion Chamber 4) Heat Exchanger 5) Heat transferred to heating system and hot water cylinder 6) Ashtray

Photovoltaic (PV) uses energy from the sun to generate electricity to run most electrical appliances and lighting within the development. PV and heat pumps were considered unviable for the 15 year lease period.

Heating, Cooling & Ventilation

Perimeter access is readily achieved from the perimeter roadways of Lamb Walk and Morocco Street.

Renewable Energy Options Explored

Environmental Protection

Deliveries & Dispatch Loading and unloading may give rise to noise disturbances particularly to the southern elevation of the Royal Oak Yard. Hours of operations including use of mechanical shutters on site will be between 08:00 to 23:00.

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Fire Strategy

1) Photovoltaic Panel 2) National Grid 3) Import/Export Meter 4) Inverter 5) Consumer Unit 6) Appliances 7) Heat Pump

Plant Noise A new mechanical plant has been installed associated with heating and ventilation of the premises. Standard conditions relating to maximum plant noise levels and further noise is applied to prevent disturbances.

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The existing offices are to remain naturally ventilated via openable windows

Existing Offices Galleries

LIGHT WEIGHT METAL FRAME

Fresh Air Ventilation > 8 litres/second/person. > Extracted ventilation of 6 air changes per hour for smoke extract purposes.

SURFACE MOUNTED STRIP LIGHTING Mechanical Cooling Max 23oC

STEEL MESH UNDERSIDE

Public Corridor Storage

20oC 20oC

18oC

20oC

16oC

Heat for the ground floor spaces are generated by condensing gas-fired boilers with appropriate low-pressure hot water distribution to heat emitters. Underfloor heating is provided to all public areas to provide general low level background heating which will be supplemented by mechanical ventilation systems with warm air to provide closer control of temperature.

CONSTRUCTION MEMBERS DIMENSION 400 x 200 x 12.5 RHS

350 x 150 x 12 RHS

550 x 150 x 15 RHS

150 x 150 x 6.3 RHS

250 x 150 x 20 RHS

RECLAIMED BRICK WALL

DETAIL MASTERCLASS Component


ACCESS

KEY GENERATORS

> Reuse of building structure and material

SOLAR POWERED AIRSHIP

> Heat source and use through hypocaust system > Water source and use > Solar-powered emission free airship travel

HYPOCAUST

BATHING

ROOFTOP THERMAL POOL

Bathing aligned across the southwest side and have large openings to catch the heat of the afternoon sun. Changing rooms and offices are located on the opposite shady side.

A hypocausts system will be used to create and distribute heat throughout the bathhouses. The existing underground area makes it ideal for the system, allowing air circulation in an underfloor chamber with an external furnace as heat source. Rooms that require the most heat will be placed closer to the furnace.

The airships will use thin-film solar panels to create a cost-competitive, high speed vessel passenger services. The airship has no fuel costs, since it will use 67.2 kW of solar panels. Using an envelope with expandable gas cells will allow the airship to go from sea level to an altitude of 30,000 feet. This puts the airship above bad weather and also provides a clear, unobstructed environment for the solar panels. The colder temperatures at high altitude can also help boost energy production from the solar panels by up to 30%.

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Pool open to the sky allowing outsiders to think that it is an ordinary, generic spa and unaware of the secretive burlesque element within the building.

Existing Structure New / Additional Structure

STUDIO SHADING DEVICE AS POTENTIAL DETAIL ON SOUTH FAร‡ADE

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BUILDING Description

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SCHEMATIC SPACIAL ARRANGEMENT Exhibition Entrance

Passenger Service Entrance

Bathing Entrance

GROUND FLOOR

3RD FLOOR

Changing Rooms

Changing Rooms

Bathing

Relaxation Room

Burlesque Entertainment (Above)

Exhibition

Ticket Office

Office / Storage

Exhibition Cafe / Shop

1ST FLOOR Changing Rooms Relaxation Room Treatment Room

4TH FLOOR Office / Storage Passenger Waiting Area Exhibition

Burlesque Entertainment Burlesque Changing Room Exhibition Childrens Area

2ND FLOOR Changing Rooms

TOP FLOOR Bathing

Relaxation Room

Changing Rooms

Treatment Room

Observation Deck

Burlesque Entertainment

Airship Docking Station

Burlesque Changing Room Hot Room Exhibition Childrens Area Office / Storage

BUILDING Description


THE CURRENT STRUCTURAL SYSTEM

STRATEGIES

Strip Out Works & Removal of Reinforced Concrete Columns

A

A) Section through Beam

B

B) Junction of Beam & Column

The current reinforced concrete columns are consistently arranged close together throughout the various floors of the building. In order to install new programmatic functions, various columns will need to be removed. The process are as follows: > Locally break the concrete cover to the reinforcement to expose the bars in the soffit of the beam and column. > Remove paving slabs immediately below the proposed prop position and install temporary propping. > Diamond, stitch-drill the full width of the column. Drill and burst the column to ground level and trim off reinforcing bars. > Locally break the concrete at the column location to below ground level and trim back column’s steel to below ground level. > Remove all loose material from the broken faces of the concrete. Treat the faces of concrete to be made good. > Make good at ground and beam soffit using proprietary mortar, allowing mortar to fully cure. Remove propping.

Repair & Strengthening

The granary silos are currently at a state of disrepair, with much fabrication and joint repair required across the building. The need for continuous reinforcement hinders access for formwork erection and for watertight structures the need for a metal, expanding or rubber bar waterstops is an added complication. A stop end constructed using traditional timber or steel formwork is often difficult to fix. Instead, an expanded metal mesh, embedded in reinforcing steel on both sides can be used for all sizes of joints. The surface produced would be equivalent to or better than one produced by conventional scabbling. The subsequent concrete pour binds to the rough face produced to provide a shear key. The material is resistant to deflection, resulting in a very high shear strength which is identical to that of monolithic concrete. It is the ideal for lost formwork for producing quality joints in reinforced concrete.

Recycle Concrete

Recycling the removed concrete columns can keep concrete out of landfill sites and help the environment. Concrete will be broken up and crushed into a certain size for easy removal and transportation. The concrete is then recycled back into future concrete work. The crushed concrete is used in the sub-base layer when masons are prepping the area for cement.

Walls C) Cross-Section through Beam & Floor E

D) Section through Main Beam C E) Method of Reinforcing Columns

F) Section through Secondary Beams & Floor

HENNEBIQUE SYSTEM François Hennebique was a French engineer and selfeducated builder who patented his pioneering reinforcedconcrete construction system in 1892, integrating separate elements of construction, such as the column and the beam, into a single monolithic element. The Hennebique system was one of the first appearances of the modern reinforced-concrete method of construction.

From a structural point of view, the construction has an audience of foundation strengthened by ribs. This solution was necessary due to the poor soil conditions. There was a considerable load from the building with the need to make the basement usable. The cells, ceilings, pillars and roof are also of reinforced concrete. The reinforcement follows the maximum bending moments which vary from the bottom of the beam midspan to the top of the beam over the supports. The column is rigidly connected to the beams and slab so no bracing is necessary.

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Floors & Ceilings PROS

> Resists compression and that of steel to resist tensile stress. > Steel reinforcement insulated by concrete cover. High inherent degree of fire protection and nil spread of flame. > Permits more audacious construction and longer spans with load-bearing structures characterised by minimum encumbrance. > Various shapes possible dependent upon potential of formwork material.

Columns & Beams

> Multi-storey structures can be formed near ground level and raised into position. > Damaged reinforced concrete can be repaired.

CONS

> Slow progress when necessary to wait for hardening before commencing next sequence or trade. > Slow sealing against weather. > Difficult to provide extension of existing structure (steel reinforcement must be exposed) and separate new structure required.

CURRENT PRIMARY STRUCTURE

STRUCTURE & MATERIAL Choice


INTERNAL MATERIAL CONSIDERATIONS CERAMICS ECOCARAT

> Maintains a constant healthy and comfortable atmosphere in every room it is installed in. > Absorbs and retains odours and dangerous chemical substances. > Absorbs excess moisture and releases it when the air is too dry, maintaining the humidity level between 40% and 70%. This action reduces the propagation of mould. > It purifies the air by capturing dangerous substances. > Eliminates condensation problems.

PROPOSED EXTERNAL STRUCTURES

The objective is to see whether it is possible to shift perceptions of these derelict sites from non-places to places. The reuse of the building will incorporate a methodology of insertion with different materials. By combining the use of existing and new material, both the past and present can be read.

Glazed Faรงade

Removal of chimney stack

Shading Device New Entrances

New glazing to maximise natural daylighting into relaxation rooms

ECOCARAT works in harmony with nature: it regulates the microclimate and air quality using only atmospheric pressure energy.

Shading device to be integrated to the south faรงade

Removal of Chimney Stack

LIGHT TRANSMITTING CONCRETE LITRACON

> Though the optical fibres compose only 4% of the concrete, some light is transmitted because of their parallel arrangement in a matrix between the two outer surfaces of each block. > Load-bearing structures can also be built from these blocks, since glass fibres have no negative effect on the strength of the concrete. > Embedded heat-isolation. > Light transmitting building blocks in various textures and colours.

SOUTH WEST ELEVATION

LITRACON rooms will be brightened and proximal objects situated on the brighter side of a Litracon wall will be revealed as silhouettes on the other side.

Central structure to be replaced with steel frame and glass box, allowing a vast amount of natural light through central core.

EXTERNAL MATERIAL CONSIDERATIONS Additional double height glass structure for entrance of the science festival and exhibitions.

NORTH EAST ELEVATION

STRUCTURE & MATERIAL Choice


SS456 SS35

A7 PIACENZA TURIN MILAN

CASELLA

Pino Campi

PONTEDECIMO

Trensasco

BOLZANETO

GE-BOLZANETO

SS45

Poggino Cappuccio

S.Antonino

GE-EST ACQUASANTA

GRANARA

S.Pantaleo

BORZOLI

COSTA

RIVAROLO

RIGHI GRANAROLO Preve

BRIN

GE-PEGLI A26 ALESSANDRIA TURIN MILAN A10 SAVONA VENTIMIGLIA NICE

GE-VOLTRI VOLTRI

PRA

Principe

GE-AEROPORTO

PEGLI

SESTRI PONENTE

SS1

Stazione Genova PIAZZA PRINCIPE

GE-OVEST

Darsena Dinegro

Madonnetta S. Nicolo Carbonara

ZECCA

San Giorgio Terminal Caricamento

CORNIGLIANO

S. Simone

MANIN

DE FERRARI

Cristoforo Colombo Airport Fiera Internazionale

Highways

Train Stations

Highroads

Funicular Railway

Fast Through Bridge

Underground

A12 LA SPEZIA PARMA ROME

STURLA QUARTO DEI MILLE

SAMPIERDARENA

Panoramic Railway

GE-NERVI

Stazione Genova BRIGNOLE

QUINTO

SS1

NERVI


BDACC - Building Design & Climate Change