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TASK 1: Construct a concept map on this topic using the mind map software. Safe the file in the followings format: pdf, image files (jpg, png) OR copy the URL in WORD and submit in the ASSIGNMENT (Concept Map of Marine and Fresh Water) in PutraLMS. TASK2: Answer the following questions and save the file under your name and submit to the ASSIGNMENT in PutraLMS.

A. FILL IN THE BLANK 1.

Partially enclosed coastal regions where a river meets the sea called estuaries have a characteristic salinity profile called a salt wedge where freshwater floats on denser sea water .

2.

When nutrients are added to a lake, it can become eutrophic (nutrient rich) and this can degrade the quality of the lake.

3.

Lakes can be thermally stratified. The warm upper layer is called the epilimion , and the deeper colder layer is called the hypolimion . These two are separated by a zone of rapid temperature decrease called the thermocline .

4.

If the amount of organic material added to a river or stream is not excessive, algae grow and produce oxygen during the day. At night, the oxygen is consumed, resulting in diurnal oxygen shift .

5.

Aquatic environments are termed low oxygen diffusion

environments because oxygen diffuses slowly

through water. Furthermore, the solubility of oxygen in water is limited. This can lead to the formation of hyponic

(low oxygen levels) and axonic

(oxygen-free)

zones,

which

allow

.

They

specialized microorganisms to grow. 6.

Photosynthetic microbes and small plants suspended in water are called

phykoplankton

create organic matter that enters the microbial loop , a complex process that cycles organic matter from dissolved forms to particulate forms and then back to carbon dioxide and other materials. 7.

To supplement ATP production some microbes in the oligotrophic ocean areas use proteorhodopsi in the same way that archaea use bacteriorhodopsin. Other bacteria will use

anoxgenic anoxgenic

phototrophy , although it is not true photosynthesis since carbon is not fixed. Others acquire energy from inorganic compounds while using organic carbon sources in the process of lithoheterotrophy . 8.

Lakes vary in nutrient status. Some are

oligotrophic

(nutrient poor) and some are eutrophic (nutrient

rich). 9.

The release of inadequately treated wastes and other materials at a single location on a river or stream is a type of



point source

pollution. Runoff from fields and feedlots is a type of non-point source pollution.

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B. TERMS AND DEFINITIONS Place the letter of each term in the space next to the definition or description that best matches it.

1

E

2

K

3

F

4

Q

5

O

6

M

7

P

8

H

9

I

10

J

11

A

12

B

13

D

14

G

15

C

16

I

17

N

e A nutrient-enriched environment k A nutrient-poor environment f Environments with high flux rates for oxygen q A columnar set-up designed to resemble a naturally occurring aquatic ecosystem o Ratio of C:N:P; it is impacted by nutrient dynamics and is used to monitor these processes m Planktonic photosynthetic microorganisms and small aquatic plants P Planktonic viruses h Depleted in oxygen l The zone where light penetrates an aquatic system j Clumps of organic matter that escapes the photic zone and falls to the seafloor a Nutrients that enter from outside of streams b Nutrients produced by in-stream processes d The upper warmer layer in thermally stratified lakes g The colder bottom layer of thermally stratified lakes c The process primarily responsible for buffering the pH of oceans i The photic zone of deep lakes n Organisms adapted to high physical pressure environments

A. allochthonous B. autochthonous C. carbonate equilibrium system D. epilimnion E. eutrophic F.

high-oxygen diffusion environments

G. hypolimnion H. hypoxic I.

littoral

J.

marine snow

K. oligotrophic 

2


L. photic M. phytoplankton N. piezophilic O. Redfield ratio P. virioplankton Q. Winogradsky column



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water habitat Q&A