Page 1

URBAN GREEN SPACE TOWARDS PUBLIC HEALTH Architectural Research Paper


I

URBAN GREEN SPACE TOWARDS PUBLIC HEALTH

AP 403- RESEARCH PAPER

Submitted by:

Mayank Sahai 00759301612

MBS SCHOOL OF PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE GURU GOBIND SINGH INDRAPRASTHA UNIVERSITY SECTOR-9, DWARKA, NEW DELHI


ii

(2015-16) MBS SCHOOL OF PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE Sector 9, DWARKA, NEW DELHI

CANDIDATE’S DECLARATION

I hereby certify that the work which is being presented in the research paper entitled “URBAN GREENSPACE TOWARDS PUBLIC HEALTH” as a prerequisite for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Architecture and submitted in the MBS School of Planning and Architecture, under GGSIP University, is an authentic record of my own work carried out during a period of July 2015 to December 2015. The matter presented in this research paper has not been submitted by me for the award of any other degree of this or any other Institute.

(MAYANK SAHAI)

This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct to the best of my knowledge.

Date: ( Ar. Rajshree Mathur ) Supervisor

The Research Paper Viva-Voce Examination of MAYANK SAHAI, has been held on………………….

Signature of Research Coordinators

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH

Signature of External Examiner


iii

Abstract Urban green space, such as parks, forests, green roofs, streams, and community gardens, provides cri cal ecosystem services. Green space also promotes physical ac vity, psychological well-being, and the general public health of urban residents. More than 70% of the world's popula on will live in ci es within 30 years, in which 50% are concern about the health challenges resul ng from urbaniza on. Effec ve planning of the physical fabric of our future ci es is founda onal for delivering enhanced and equitable health outcomes, and powerful new evidence highlights the cri cal role that urban nature and green infrastructure can play in shaping healthy ci es. There is moun ng concern for the health of urban popula ons as ci es expand at an unprecedented rate. Urban green spaces provide se ngs for a remarkable range of physical and mental health benefits, and pioneering health policy is recognizing nature as a cost-effec ve tool for planning healthy ci es. Urban green space, such as parks, forests, green roofs, streams, and community gardens, provides cri cal ecosystem services. Green space also promotes physical ac vity, psychological well-being, and the general public health of urban residents. This paper reviews on the urban green space, especially parks, and compares efforts to green Delhi like ci es. This research shows that the percentage of green space in people's living environment has a posi ve associa on with the perceived general health of residents. Green space seems to be more than just a luxury and consequently the development of green space should be allocated a more central posi on in spa al planning policy. The term urban green space is used as comprehensive term comprising trees in all urban parks, forests and along the roads, canal etc which contribute greenery in the city. Three main component of the urban forest and green spaces are : Patch ( Urban domes c gardens, public and private parks, gardens, urban forest patches etc), corridor ( roadside avenues, walkaway and urban green ways etc) and Network structure ( layout of all the patches and corridors connec ng the patches).

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


iv

Acknowledgement I would like to express my great appreciation to Ar. Rajshree Mathur for guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the project and her support in completing the dissertation. She inspired me greatly to work in this research. Her willingnes to motivate, cotributes tremendously to my project. I would also like to thank her showing me some example that related to the topic of my research. I would also like to acknowledge with much appreciation my Dissertation Coordinators Professor Ar. S.K. Aggarwal and Profrssor Ar. J.B. Khadkiwala for their support and for giving me a good guideline for this research throughout numerous consulations. I would also like to extend my sincere thanks to the head libarian of MBS School of Planning and Architecture, Mrs. Sonia Kthakur for their constant help. This dissertation would not be complete without the acknowledgement of the support and encouragement of my batch mates. Finally, I would ď€ rst like to thank my mother, Mrs. Kusum Lata, without her continuous support and encouragement I never would have been able to achieve my goals.

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


v

CONTENTS Candidates' Declaration Abstract Acknowledgements List of Contents List of Figures List of Tables 1

2

3

4

5

ii iii iv v vi vii

INTRODUCTION

1

1.1 Aim

1

1.2 Need of study

3

1.3 Objective

4

1.4 Scope and Limitation

5

1.5 Methodology

5

1.6 Key Question

5

PUBLIC HEALTH AND LANDSCAPE

6

2.1 Urban landscape

7

2.2 Health impacts of Greenspace

9

2.3 Five principles of Healthy spaces

9

2.4 Human relation towards Green

14

URBAN GREEN SPACE TYPOLOGY

16

3.1 Parks

19

3.2 Streetscapes

22

CASE STUDIES

24

4.1 Parks: Victorian parks, London

25

4.2 Streetscapes: Boston's major roads

30

LIVE CASE STUDIES

37

5.1 Central Hub: DLF Cyber Hub, Gurgaon

38

5.2 Hauz Khas: South Delhi, New Delhi

45

5.3 Analysis: Need of Green

48

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


vi 6

7

WHY PROTECT URBAN GREEN SPACE

49

6.1 Urban Forestry

50

6.2 Present Condition of Green Delhi

52

6.3 Benets of Green Space

55

6.4 Heath Status of Delhi's Population : Analysis

59

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

61

References/ Bibliography

65

Annexure I

67

Annexure II

68

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


vii

List of Figures Fig1. Urban Forestry, New York Fig 2. Street Section of secondary Road, Boston Fig 3.Leicester Square, London Fig 4. Olympic Park, London, LDA Design Fig 5. Land Use Plan 2013, Delhi Fig 6. Central Green Space at Road Junction Fig 7 . The Navy Yard Central Green Fig8 .Causes behind disturbing air quality Fig 9 . Social Determinants of Health Fig 10 .People attraction towards Safe Zone Fig 11, Source: Creating healthy places Fig 12.HighLane 20th St. looking Dowmtown Fig 13 . Regular exposure to greenery can lead to better school behaviour, including improved relationship with peers. Fig 14. Rrace street pier' by james corner eld operations, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Fig 15 . The Settlement Health Map (Barton and Grant 2006) is developed from a concept by Dahlgren and Whitehead rst published in 1991 Fig16 .Creating Aspects of Green Space Fig17. The Navy Yard Central Green is a new park in the Philadelphia Navy Yard, a 1,200-acre ofce campus that's been slowly transforming over the past 15 years. Fig 18 . James Corner Field Operations—the landscape architecture rm that designed the High Line—worked on the park's design which features a series of outdoor "rooms" each with their own function and use, from recreation to stormwater retention and lounging. Hundreds of years ago, the site was a marsh with pockets of plants and water. The circular pods are a nod to Mother Nature's own design. Fig 19 . Rrace street pier' by james corner eld operations, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Fig 20 .Public Square by James Corner Field Operations Fig 21. Proposed space of Park in housing cluster Fig,22 This illustration shows a typical high street in a market town Fig23 . London Labour Party leaet, late 1930s. The image is of Victoria Park lido. Fig 24 . VictoriaPark-Tower Helmet

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


viii Fig 25, Authior. Source. http://www.reliableindex.com/index.php?page=search/images&search=victoria+park+lond on+uk&type=images Fig26 . Panoramic View of Pond Fig 27.Victoria Park Lake Fig 28 . Victoria Park London,. Home of Sunfest. Fig 29. Burdett_Coutts_Fountain,_Victoria_Park Fig 30. Swimming Pool, Victoria Park Fig 31. Series of tress during Autumn, Victoria park Fig 32. A Winter break Festival, Victoria Park Fig 33. Boston Complete Street : Mobillity Hubs Fig 34. A proposed Green Space in Boston Fig 35. Existing Central Space at East Boston Fig 36 . Proposed Central Space at East Boston Fig 37 . The new Boston Complete Streets approach puts pedestrians, bicyclists and transit users on equal footing with motor-vehicle drivers. The initiative aims to improve the quality of life in Boston by creating streets that are both great public spaces and sustainable transportation networks. It embraces innovation to address climate change and promote healthy living. Fig 38. Audubon Circle, Fenway Fig 39. Boylston Street, Fenway Fig 40. Causeway Street- Crossroads Initiative, Bullnch Triangle Fig 41. Centre and South Streets, Jamaica Plain Fig 42. DLF Cyber City, Gurgaon Fig 43. Delhi-Ajmer Express Highway in 1980 Fig 44. Delhi-Ajmer Express Highway in 2020 Fig 45. Cyber City, Gurgaon Fig 46. PedestrianCorridor, CyberHub Fig 47. Amphitheater, CyberHub Fig 48. Entrance the the roof Garden Resturant, CyberHub Fig 48. Cental Coffee Shop Plaza, CyberHub Fig 50. Roof Top, View from Ofces Fig 51. A view from Buiding No.10, CyberCity Fig 52.Comparative user age group intensity during different times of the day Fig 53. User Interface Foot Fall at different interval of time Fig 54 . Hauz Khas Complex Fig 55. A view of Hauz Kahas Lake from Historical Madrasa complex Fig 56. Causes behind disturbing air quality Fig 57. Boston Complete Street : Mobillity Hubs Fig 58. Categories of Benets of Green Space Fig 59. Creating Aspects of Green Space

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


ix Fig 60. Existing Central Space at East Boston Fig 61.Olympic Park, London, LDA Design Fig 62.Existing Central Space at East Boston Fig 63.Causeway Street- Crossroads Initiative, Bullnch Triangle Fig 64 .Graph Showing analysis of activities Fig 65. Aerial View : Humayun Tomb Fig 66. A poster for protesting Urban Forest in 1976 Fig 67. Central India : India Gate Fig 68. Population Growth in East Delhi Fig 69. The metro goes past the Central Ridge in New Delhi, offering a sweeping view of the Fig 70. Aerial view of New Delhi India’s upmarket South Delhi area depicting the new high rise huge Shopping Mall Complexes. Fig 71 .Land Used of Delhi 2011 Fig 72. Categories of Benets of Green Space Fig 73. Public Space Benets Fig 74 . Aerial View of Humayun's Tomb Fig 75. Parnanomic View of Vasant Kunj, Delhi Fig 76. Community Garden for Educational Society Fig 77. A ow chart Showing a General Health of Human Being in an environment Fig 78. Parts of Delhi Fig 79. South Delhi covered maximum green area

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


x

List of Tables Table 1: Different types of Typology of Green Urban Green Space can be created in an entire cities to control general Human Being Health. Table 2. Census Data 2011 ( Rural & Urban Population and its decadal growth from 2011 to 2021) in respect of India, Some of its States & Cities Table 3. Forest Cover and Forest Area per city dweller for some districts of Delhi Tabke 4: Table: Graph showing the analyzing status of Urban Public Health in different district of Delhi. Since, South Delhi covered a maximum area in Urban Forestry (78.9sqkm). Hence, population in south Delhi has better efď€ ciency in their environment and has the better strength of the relation between the amount of green space in living environments and perceived general health.

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


1

CHAPTER

1

INTRODUCTION

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


2

INTRODUCTION

Human connec on with place is a key factor in the struggle for a sustainable world. A good landscape design has the ability to reflect a community's culture towards a city progress and values and compels people to engage with their everyday surroundings. Vibrant public spaces signify a vibrant community and will be maintained and conserved for years to come.

Place making and related ini a ves such as tac cal urbanism and public interest design focus on strengthening our connec on to place by making it more accessible, communitycentered, aligned with nature and even playful. Place by design will highlight projects that transform the way communi es interact with place as a means of inspiring our a endees to improve their own places. The terms Urban Greenery, Green Space and Open Space all refer to urban design elements for green meant for recrea on or improving a neighborhood's aesthe c appeal and used in this research paper— trees and other plants in parks, sidewalks or elsewhere; public plazas, schoolyards and playgrounds; and public lands covered with trees, shrubs and grass. Urban Green infrastructure prac ces can vary in scope and scale. Examples of these prac ces include rain gardens, permeable pavement, green streets, rain barrels, street trees, urban parks, green roofs. The term "urban open space" can describe many types of open areas. One defini on holds that, "As the counterpart of development, urban open space is a natural and cultural resource, synonymous with neither 'unused land' nor 'park and recrea on areas." Another is "Open space is land and/or water area with its surface open to the sky, consciously acquired or publicly regulated to serve conserva on and urban shaping func on in addi on to providing recrea onal opportuni es.” In almost all instances, the space referred to by the term is, in fact, green space. However, there are examples of urban green space which, though not publicly owned/regulated, are s ll considered urban open space.

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


3

Studies found that there is weak evidence for the links between physical, mental health and well-being, and urban green space, the balance of evidence indicates conclusively that knowing and experiencing nature makes us generally happier, healthier people.

1.1 AIM To analyze How Urban Green Space influence the City ; Greenscapes; To puts the resources on architecture in the services of the public interest. Iden ty and prac cal problems of human interac on in the built environment and act as catalyst for public discourse through educa on. The aim of this study is to inves gate the strength of the rela on between the amount of green space in people's living environments and perceived general health.

Fig1. Urban Forestry, New York

1.2 NEED OF STUDY What do we mean by 'Health' and 'Landscape?? Public Health describes the science and art of promo ng and protec ng the physical and mental health and well being of popula ons in order to prevent illness, injury and disability. “The need of green to protect the Public Health.” Example; If Street Landscape is properly integrated in the design of a public space, it creates an iden ty and develops a sense of place around it. Items of street furniture comprising, for example, objects used to facilitate transporta on or the use of land adjacent to a street, are commonly used in urban areas with the aim of making the street more aesthe cally appealing.

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


4 The rela onship between green space and health is complex and mul dimensional. Green space may impact upon people's health and well-being through many different pathways. This research examines the rela onship between green space and general health, and then looks in more detail at the four poten al mechanisms by which green space could be posi vely influencing health and well-being.

Fig 2. Street Section of secondary Road, Boston

1.3 Objective The challenge was to answer the ques on: can Urban Landscape help create healthy places? To believe that the evidence in this research paper and especially the projects that we describe, provide a clear and posi ve answer. How we plan, design and manage our landscapes should be guided as much by their importance for health as for all of their other func ons. This aims to give public health professionals, planners and landscape architects a be er understanding of the contemporary role landscape plays in the crea on of healthy places. Understanding the local health issues and how design and or design elements can posi vity affect those issues are cri cal toward crea ng healthy places. For example, if the county popula on where a project is located has a higher rate of heart disease, selected design recommenda ons should be implemented to reduce this health risk.

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


5

1.4 Scope and Limitation Due to paucity of me and restric ve approach the study has various limita ons a ached to it : - Won't be able to achieve a prodigious research. - lack of ďŹ rst-hand precedents would strain the research work as analysis would require the formula on of Indian society by keeping the interna onal paradigm as a frame of reference.

1.6 Key Question What do we mean by 'health' and 'landscape'? Answer the ques on: can landscape help create healthy places? Can Green places op mize opportuni es for working, learning and development?

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


6

CHAPTER

2

PUBLIC HEALTH AND LANDSCAPE

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


2

7

Public Health and Landscape Health describes a state of complete physical, mentakl and social well-being, and merely the absence of illness and infirmity Public Health describes the science and art of promo ng and protec ng the physical and mental health and wellbeing of popula ons in order to prevent illness, injury and disability. health describes a state of complete physical, mentakl and social well-being, and merely the absence of illness and infirmity Landscape doesn't just include the wider countryside and green spaces, but Urban Spaces, such as civic squares and public realm. It is an area, as perceived by people, whose character is the result of the ac on and interac on of cultural and natural factors. The Landscape Architecture profession plans, designs and manages our land resource in order to secure the best possible outcomes for people, the environment and the economy.

Fig 3.Leicester Square, London

Fig 4. Olympic Park, London, LDA Design

Landscapes have long been seen as places of delight and relaxa on. Today, these associa ons are becoming more explicit: an increasingly strong evidence base demonstrates the posi ve effects that access to good-quality landscapes has on our health and wellbeing – and the nega ve effects when we don't. We also know that areas of social and economic depriva on, which are o en linked with poorer health and reduced life expectancy, can also be associated with limited access to good-quality green space. Some landscapes are referred to as green space or open space. This term is not only applied to open spaces such as formal Parks, but also to other predominantly green areas such as Playgrounds and incidental Open space. The complexity of the rela onship between people's behaviors, socio-economic backgrounds, health and green space makes establishing causal rela onships difficult, most studies support the view that green spaces have beneficial health effects.

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


2

8 There is weak evidence for the links between physical, mental health and well-being, and urban green space. Environmental factors such as the quality and accessibility of green space affects its use for physical ac vity. User determinants, such as age, gender, ethnicity and the percep on of safety, are also important. However, many studies were limited by poor study design, failure to exclude confounding, bias or reverse causality and weak sta s cal associa ons.

2.1 URBAN LANDSCAPE Urban landscape is basically formed of open and green spaces within an urban environment. However, it is not totally independent from the surrounding buildings and structures. Altogether, they form the character and iden ty of a city, and sense of place. It contributes to the cityscape by means of aesthe cs and func on. It also supports urban ecology. It is dynamic and constantly evolving. Urban landscape elements func on as separator and/or connector agents between different land uses. They can form a buffer zone between conflic ng uses (e.g. between industrial and housing areas) while they can facilitate movement of ci zens throughout the city (e.g. greenways). They have the flexibility to serve for mul ple uses and for different group of users in the community.

Fig 5. Land Use Plan 2013, Delhi

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


2

9

Urban landscape also contributes to the city scape in terms of visual quality. Within dense built environments, it creates a sense of openness and more a rac ve places to live. Urban landscape helps to balance human-scale in city centers where ver cal effect of buildings and structures dominates. It so ens the “hardness” of buildings and structures. Well designed and managed urban landscape can improve ci zens' quality of life in many other ways as well.

2.1 HEALTH IMPACTS OF GREEN SPACE A Dutch study published in 2003 looked at the health of over 10,000 people taking into considera on the amount of green space in their environment. In places where there was more green people felt that they had be er general health. In Japan, the links between healthy urban areas and the longevity of older people were also explored in a study of the five-year survival rates of more than 3,000 people. Two environmental factors increased the probability of surviving: having walkable green space near people's homes and residents having a posi ve a tude to their community.

2.2

FIVE PRINCIPLES OF HEALTHY SPACES

How our landscapes treat us should be guided as much by their importance for health and wellbeing as for other considera ons. This research paper underpins what we call 'the five principles of healthy places' which are derived from the health determinants. This will help public health, planning and landscape professionals link landscape with health and wellbeing, even in projects where health and wellbeing are not prime objec ves.

Fig 6. Central Green Space at Road Junc on

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH

Fig 7 . The Navy Yard Central Green


2

10 1. Healthy places improve air, water and soil quality, incorpora ng measures that help us adapt to, and where possible mi gate, climate change. Air, water and soil are the building blocks of our natural life support system. We need clean air and liveable temperatures. We need clean water, in sufficient quan es and in the right places. We need soils that are uncontaminated and support wildlife, food produc on and the full range of human ac vi es. For ex. Improving air quality, Establishing the effects of urban heat islands, Cooling the urban heat island effect, Managing water, Restoring contaminated land.

Fig 8 .Causes behind disturbing air quality

2. Healthy places help overcome Health Inequali es* and can promote healthy lifestyles. The need to address health inequali es is a major pre-occupa on for governments and public health professionals worldwide. Crea ng a physical environment in which people can live healthier lives with a greater sense of wellbeing is a hugely significant factor in reducing health inequali es. While this is a complex area, the provision of green, accessible, safe places is widely accepted as an important part of any programme that tackles health inequali es. For ex. By crea ng healthy neighbourhood, increasing opportuni es for physical ac vity etc,. **(Health inequalities: are preventable and unjust differences in health status experienced by certain population groups. People in lower socio-economic groups are more likely to experience chronic ill-health and die earlier than those who are more advantaged.)

Fig 9 . Social Determinants of Health

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


2

11 3. Healthy places make people feel comfortable and at ease, increasing social interac on and reducing an -social behavior, isola on and stress. The existence of a posi ve link between the provision of green space and people's ability to relax and interact is widely accepted. But in many places, parks are infrequent and access can be diďŹƒcult. There is increasing interest in making streets, shopping centres and indeed the whole urban realm more comfortable and easy to use for people of all ages and abili es, and in reducing the risks associated with an social behavior and fear of crime.

Fig 10 .People a rac on towards Safe Zone

4. Healthy places op mize opportuni es for working, learning and development. Whether at school, college or work, people spend a large propor on of their waking lives in their places of educa on and employment. An increasing body of evidence shows that people at work are less sick, and stay in their jobs longer, if they take physical exercise. There is also evidence to support programmes that increase the opportuni es for children to play outside and promote use of outdoor opportuni es for learning.

Fig 11, Source: Crea ng healthy places

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH

Fig 12.HighLane 20th St. looking Dowmtown


2

12

Fig 13 . Regular exposure to greenery can lead to be er behaviour, including improved rela onship with peers.

Fig 14 . The greener your child’s environment, the be er school our child would be able to cope with stress.

5. Healthy places are restora ve, upli ing and healing for both physical and mental health condi ons. Providing access to plants, gardens and nature enhances healing when people are ill or recovering from medical interven ons. But it isn't necessary to be ill to benefit from the restora ve effects of being in a lovely place. Neither do such places have to be remote: gardens, the local park, riverbank, canal or woodland can be important to people's sense of tranquillity.

Fig 15 . The Se lement Health Map (Barton and Grant 2006) is developed from a concept by Dahlgren and Whitehead first published in 1991

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


2

13

Fig16 .Crea ng Aspects of Green Space

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


2

14

2.4 HUMAN RELATION TOWARDS GREEN

Many people experience nature as an environment where they can rest and recover from daily stress. In the hec c society in which we live there is a growing need for nature as a source of relaxa on and recrea on. But the enjoyment of nature is not obvious anymore. Urban areas have recently experienced a decline in the quality and quan ty of their green space. The percentage of green space inside a one kilometre and a three kilometre radius had a significant rela on to perceived general health. The rela on was generally present at all degrees of urbanity. The overall rela on is somewhat stronger for lower socioeconomic groups. Elderly, youth, and secondary educated people in large ci es seem to benefit more from presence of green areas in their living environment than other groups in large ci es. (Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2566234/) The analyses show that green space is important in explaining the health differences between High dense area and Low dense area. Furthermore, the analyses show that the amount of green space is more strongly related to perceived general health than urbanity.

Fig17. The Navy Yard Central Green is a new park in the Philadelphia Navy Yard, a 1,200-acre office campus that's been slowly transforming over the past 15 years.

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


2

15

Fig 18 . James Corner Field Opera ons—the landscape architecture firm that designed the High Line—worked on the park's design which features a series of outdoor "rooms" each with their own func on and use, from recrea on to stormwater reten on and lounging. Hundreds of years ago, the site was a marsh with pockets of plants and water. The circular pods are a nod to Mother Nature's own design.

"We thought about what we could do to ac vate the space and how could we make this a place where employees or residents would want to come and socialize, or have mee ngs and conferences," Cooper says. "Liberty had the foresight to say, if we create a great public space, we'll be able to a ract great tenants."- JAMES CORNER

Fig 19 . Rrace street pier' by james corner field opera ons, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

"There is evidence that people within an area with green spaces are less stressed and when you are less stressed you make more sensible decisions and you communicate better," – Dr. White

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


16

CHAPTER

3

urban green scape: typology

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


3

17

Urban Green Space: Typology

A par cular land of green space draws people outside and fosters social contact. Provides open green spaces where people can congregate and opportuni es for posi ve social interac on and suppor ve friendly environments. Green spaces promote safer neighborhoods. When residents have more vested interests in a place, their par cipa on in community vigilance increases, and they will watch to make sure it's not being misused, damaged, etc. The be er maintained a residence or public space is, the safer it is going to be.

Fig. The Circle, Uptown Normal, The Circle is a living plaza where naturally-cleansed stormwater, public space, and transporta on work in unison. Located in the heart of Normal's central business district, the Circle func ons on its most basic level as a traďŹƒc circle resolving a poorly aligned intersec on.

Fig.Downtown boasts more than 350 acres of parks, waterways, trails and green spaces for all to enjoy. With more than dozen public spaces Downtown, there is a personalized place for everyone, and most are available to rent for a special event.

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


3

18

Table 1: Dierent types of Typology of Green Urban Green Space can be created in an en re ci es to control general Human Being Health.

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


3

19

3.1 Parks The role of the Parks could be developed to include a public health remit, a 'public health park ranger', responsible for improving the poten al of parks for community health gain, and for coordina ng the input of public sector and communi es into the development and u liza on of local parks. Parks are valued by users and non-users. Urban parks can posi vely affect living standards, improve the environment and a ract investment, tourism and employment.

Fig. A proposed Green Park of society in Noida Extension

3.1.1 History th

Urban parks were first developed in the 19 Century to benefit health, reduce disease, crime and social unrest as well as providing green lungs' for the city. The 1875 Public Health Act also enabled local authori es to maintain land for recrea on and to be able to raise funds for this. The parks were designed as mul -purpose areas, incorpora ng, in addi on to exercise and aesthe c factors, a range of facili es for the educa on and interest of local people, through the introduc on of botanical and o en small scale zoological gardens within some of the larger parks. The 1848 Public Health Act was a landmark in public health history7 and, amongst other provisions, there was an associated enablement to provide funds to municipali es for the crea on of public walks and parks.

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


3

20

Fig 20 .Public Square by James Corner Field Opera ons

Encounters with nearby nature help alleviate mental fa gue by relaxing and restoring the mind. Within built environments parks and green spaces are se ngs for cogni ve respite, as they encourage social interac on and de-stressing through exercise or conversa on, and provide calming se ngs. Having quality landscaping and vegeta on in and around the places where people work and study is a good investment. Both visual access and being within green space helps to restore the mind's ability to focus. This can improve job and school performance, and help alleviate mental stress and illness. 3.1.2 Beneď€ ts of Parks and their Potential for Improving Public Health Urban parks have the poten al to contribute greatly to the improvement of the public's health through improving the physical, mental and social well-being of park users, as well as providing opportunity for community interac on, economic development and improving the environment. Obesity is the main sign of physical inac vity and parks provide opportuni es for exercise from walking and cycling to informal and formal organized spor ng ac vi es such as football, tennis and bowls. Parks can be an essen al element in crea ng a sense of place that can be important in nurturing community spirit. They provide areas for community social mixing, the organiza on of social events, community involvement and volunteering. Parks provide opportuni es for community development as well as exercise and play, and encourage the mixing of people of dierent ages, ethnicity and social class. Parks are increasingly used for environmental educa on and are important for integra ng the wider curriculum into outdoor environments.

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


3

21 3.1.3 What prevents people from using parks? Ÿ

Physical constraints for example distance to the green space and the presence of obstacles such as roads to cross.

Ÿ

Traffic issues associated with traveling to local open spaces including safety (especially for children), pollu on, a lack of transport op ons and the absence of safe pavements, walking and cycling paths.

Ÿ

Social and cultural factors for example public open spaces can be perceived as 'risky' and associated with crime.

Ÿ

An -social behavior including harassment (racial and otherwise), verbal abuse, bullying, noise, in mida ng dogs and people, li ering, graffi and vandalism.

Ÿ

The perceived risk of mugging and sexual assault.

Ÿ

Poor design including disused features such as fountains.

Ÿ

Conflic ng roles such as raucous play versus quiet apprecia on, and gentle walking versus fast cycling and skateboarding.

Ÿ

Personal a tudes and lifestyle choices including lack of me, feeling too red from work, and a lack of mo va on to take exercise.

Fig 21. Proposed space of Park in Housing Cluster, London

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


3

22

3.2 Streetscapes Streets have many varied func ons, and whenever work is being considered in the street environment, it will be essen al to consider the street holis cally in order to achieve and maintain a high standard of design or maintenance. This means taking into account not only the physical aspects of the street scene, but also considering the street from engineering, aesthe c and social standpoints.

This will help show how proposed works would affect the way people would use the street, and also reveal the type of provision needed to sa sfy the needs and aspira ons of all users, that is those living in working in and visi ng and travelling along the street. The image of a city is reflected in its streets, from the fixtures that light them to the sidewalks that frame them. Coordina ng the features and components of the streetscape help define an area's character and create a dis nc ve sense of place. Streets define how a city presents itself to the public. An a rac ve and cohesive streetscape is a vital part a city's physical appeal.

Fig,22 This illustra on shows a typical high street in a market town

3.2.1 HISTORY The Urban Design Element of the City of Omaha's Master Plan, adopted in December 2004, calls for the crea on of “A handbook of design and installa on standards for streetscape elements that is adopted by the city and applies to all streets, with specific standards for areas of civic importance.” The standards set forth in this handbook were developed by a volunteer commi ee represen ng some of Omaha's leading engineers, landscape architects, planners and Architects, working with the City of Omaha's Planning, Parks and Recrea on, and Public Works Departments, the Nebraska Department of Roads, and the Omaha Public Power District (OPPD).

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


3

23 3.2.2 THE BENEFITS THAT HIGH QUALITY STREET ENVIRONMENTS

1. Helping to build a sense of community. 2. Reducing crime and an -social behavior. 3. Promo ng tourism. 4. A rac ng new businesses and help exis ng businesses. 5. Promo ng walking and cycling. 6. Promo ng access to public transport. 7. Boos ng the morale of communi es and individuals. 8. Building a sense of ownership and pride in our street environment. 9. Improving accessibility for all. 10. Improving levels of highway safety. 11. Enhancing the overall townscape.

3.2.3 BASIC PRINCIPLES Six fundamental principles will help achieve the goal of crea ng high quality, environmentally responsible streetscapes in Omaha. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Implement sustainable prac ces Develop complete streets Use cohesive design elements Promote security and safety Coordinate maintenance with design and implementa on Protect and enhance historic character

Fig. An ideal/typical secondary street sec on: User Friendly

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


24

CHAPTER

4

case study:

- Parks: Victorian parks, London -Streetscapes: Boston's major roads

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


4

25

CASE STUDIES

4.1 Victoria Park, East London: 'The People's Park Victoria park is a huge and marvelous park with a long history, which is situated in the East End of London. It was established in the middle of the 19th century on the territory which belonged to Bishop Bonner and occupies 86.18 hectares. The main part of its territory is extensive lawns, playgrounds and the pond.

“Victoria Park in east London, a park inaugurated under royal patronage in 1840, hardly seems to qualify as a municipal dream. But it has a proud democra c history – it's earned its nickname, the People's Park – and has flourished under municipal patronage for many years. It deserves its place.” - William Farr The Park is called the People's Park And all the walks are theirs And strolling through the flowery paths They breathe exotic airs, South Kensington, let it remain Among the Upper Ten. East London, with useful things, Be left with working men. The rich should ponder on the fact Tis labour has built it up A mountain of prodigious wealth And filled the golden cup. And surely workers who have toiled Are worthy to behold Some portion of the treasures won And ribs of shining gold. Fig.Victoria Park Aerial View

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH

-

William Morris


4

26

4.1.1 History An act of parliament to create a Royal Park was passed in 1841 and land procured – making use of the exis ng open space of Bonner's Fields and a further expanse of brick fields, market gardens, gravel pits and farmland. James Pennethorne, the architect of the Office of the Commissioners of Woods and Forests, was commissioned to design the new park.

Fig. A drawing of the proposed layout published in 1841.

By the mid-40s, as construction and planting continued, the park was open. There was no official ceremony, 'no feast of oratory and ceremonial to gladden the hearts of the East Enders. They just took the park over in 1845 and used it'.(2) The first victory for the people. In the la er half of the 19th Century, Victoria Park became an essen al amenity for the working classes of the East End. Victoria Park's reputa on as the 'People's Park' grew as it became a centre for poli cal mee ngs and rallies of all stripes. This park is an ideal place for family walks and is famous for its informal atmosphere. It is a very popular place among the Londoners and the tourists and has 12 million visitors per year. If you are red of a busy city life, Victoria Park is the best place for sport ac vi es and for spending me on the open air. Fig23 . London Labour Party leaflet, late 1930s. The image is of Victoria Park lido.

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


4

27

4.1.2 NEIGHBOURHOOD AFFORDANCES

Fig 24 . VictoriaPark-TowerHelmet, London

218 acres with two lakes, ornamental gardens, various sports facili es including tennis courts and a bowling green. It is famous for its open-air concerts and fes vals beside the Chinese summerhouse, the Pagoda. There are a number of play areas for children, a paddling pool, and enclosures with deer. Some shelters are also available around the park. Wheelchair friendly paths and public toilet facili es, including a disabled toilet (on west side, near cafe).

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


4

28

4.1.3 DISCRIPTION The park has two cafes, The Pavilion Cafe in the West and The Park Cafe in the East. There are two playgrounds, one on either side of the park, as well as spor ng facili es and a skatepark in the East. The park is home to many historic ar facts and features and has decora ve gardens and wilder natural areas as well as open grass lands. Victoria Park is also used as a concert venue and hosts many fes vals each year.

Fig 26 . Panoramic View of Pond

Central parks are an important part of our urban landscape and communi es. The Northwest has thriving ci es and towns, where growth is leading to be er facili es and opportuni es for individuals and communi es. We need to ensure that access to green space is maintained and improved, and that we promote the importance of healthy lifestyles and a good quality of life for all the Northwest's people.

Fig 27.Victoria Park Lake

The Victorians, however, thought that access to such environments would supply areas of clean air where the populace could relax and enjoy natural vistas. The parks were designed as mul -purpose areas, incorpora ng, in addi on to exercise and aesthe c factors, a range of facili es for the educa on and interest of local people, through the introduc on of botanical and o en small scale zoological gardens within some of the larger parks.

English parks are used by a large number of people: in one extensive survey, 62% of adults were found to have visited a victoria park during the previous year, with over 80% of these visi ng at least once per month during spring and summer. This equated to approximately 1.8 lakh visits to parks per year.

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


4

29

Fig 28. Victoria Park London,. Home of Sunfest.

Fig 29. Burde _Cou s_Fountain,_Victoria_Park

Fig 30. Swimming Pool, Victoria Park

Fig 31. Series of tress during Autumn, Victoria

Fig 32. A Winter break Fes val, Victoria Park

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


4

30

4.2 StreetScapes: Boston's Major Streets Boston is a walking city with a rich collec on of street uses and public spaces where residents and visitors are encouraged to gather and enjoy the city. Mayor Menino (an American poli cian who served as the 53rd Mayor of Boston) is introducing a Coordinated Street Furniture Program which will provide these spaces with basic ameni es comparable to that found in many European ci es such as Paris and Berlin. He address fundamental quality of life issues such as safety on the street, connec vity to work and home, access to transporta on op ons, and the crea on of a clean and comfortable public environment.

“Here's what I see all across this great city - people working together to make Boston a be er place to live and to raise children, to grow and pursue dreams. And it was from Boston that one in every six American families began their journey into the land of the free.� -

Streets are not only vehicular thoroughfares that provide transport of goods, services and people from one des na on to another, but are places to gather, window shop or pause to survey life passing by. Understanding the a ributes of the street: the neighborhood that it is located in, the func onality of its uses, the connec ons that it uniquely provides, the scale and density of the surrounding built environment, and what it can physically accommodate, is an important part of designing a street. The Boston Transporta on Department (BTD) has two core func ons – daily opera on of our transporta on network, and the planning and design of our streets for the future. Star ng in 2009, BTD has led an inter-departmental process that fundamentally changes the way in which the streetscape is planned, designed, and engineered in the City of Boston.

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


4

31 This became Boston Complete Streets - an approach that places pedestrians, bicyclists, and transit users on equal foo ng with motor vehicle users.

Fig 33. Boston Complete Street : Mobillity Hubs

4.2.1. The Facts about Streets 1. The share of people driving alone is the lowest it's ever been. 2. The share of people taking transit to work is the highest it's ever been. 3. For the first me in the history of the American Community Survey (ACS is part of the US Census) the number of people biking, walking, and taking the T to work exceed the number of people driving alone. 4. Streets and sidewalks make up 56% of City owned land.

4.2.2.Mattapan Square Beautication The Boston Public Works Department received state funding to beau fy Ma apan Square. Proposed work includes: § § § §

Adding landscaping planters to the median between River Street and Babson Stree Adding landscaping planters around the Rise/Gateway to Boston sculptures Repairing the granite curbing around exis ng tree pits Pedestrian ramp repairs

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


4

32

Fig 34. A proposed Green Space in Boston

4.2.3. Central Square, East Boston Central Square is a neighborhood Main Streets district in the heart of the East Boston community. Laid out in the days of horse and carriage, the square includes vast expanses of pavement and an oval park in the center that is diďŹƒcult to access. The redesigned square will reclaim much of the pavement for pedestrian use by narrowing the streets, expanding the park, and widening the sidewalks to create spaces for outdoor sea ng, cafes, and greenscape elements.

Fig 35. Existing Central Space at East Boston

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


4

33

Fig 36 . Proposed Central Space at East Boston

Fig 37 . The new Boston Complete Streets approach puts pedestrians, bicyclists and transit users on equal foo ng with motor-vehicle drivers. The ini a ve aims to improve the quality of life in Boston by crea ng streets that are both great public spaces and sustainable transporta on networks. It embraces innova on to address climate change and promote healthy living.

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


4

34

4.2.4. Boston Complete Streets : Future Greenovate Boston is a collec ve movement and innova ve solu on to ensure a greener, healthier and more prosperous future for the city by mee ng the City's goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 25 percent by 2020. Propelled by crea vity and drive, Greenovate Boston will encourage con nued sustainable growth within the city, making Boston the greenest in the United States.

Boston Bikes was created three years ago as a part of the City's vision for a vibrant and healthy city that benefits all its ci zens. It seeks to make Boston a world-class bicycling city by crea ng safe and invi ng condi ons for all residents and visitors. WalkBoston is a non-profit membership organiza on dedicated to improving walking condi ons in ci es and towns across Massachuse s. Founded in 1990, our goal is to make walking and pedestrian needs a basic part of the transporta on discussion.

LivableStreets Alliance is a non-profit organiza on that believes urban transporta on has the power to make Metro Boston more connected — and more livable. We challenge people to think differently and to demand a system that balances transit, walking, and biking with automobiles. We promote safe, convenient, and affordable transporta on for all users in urban Boston.

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


4

35

4.2.5. Boston Complete Streets : Projects 1 )Audubon Circle is a historically significant gateway from the north into Boston and the Emerald Necklace park system. Located at the intersec on of Beacon Street and Park Drive, Audubon Circle has a history of speeding and traffic accidents. The new design will improve safety by elimina ng slip lanes, controlling le turns, and adding bicycle lanes on Beacon Street. A new urban design concept will re-emphasize the historic circle with benches, walls, trees and planters that will green the space and treat stormwater from the streets and sidewalks.

Fig 38. Audubon Circle, Fenway

2)Boylston Street between Fenway Park and the Longwood Medical Area is a street in transi on. Tradi onally a mix of auto-oriented uses (fast food, motels and gas sta ons) and neighborhood convenience stores, the street is currently being redeveloped to include elegant, mixed use developments with street level restaurants and cafes, and upper story housing and office space. This redevelopment creates a unique opportunity to capture setback space to create wider sidewalks with street trees and other greenscape elements, in keeping with the Emerald Necklace that bookends the space, and to add bike lanes.

Fig 39. Boylston Street, Fenway

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


4

36 3)The key goals of the Causeway Street project are to transform the corridor into a great pedestrian-oriented boulevard, make it the anchor for the Bulfinch Triangle business and entertainment district, and reconnect the West End and North End neighborhoods. The design will improve traffic opera ons and safety, provide significant upgrades to exis ng bicycle accommoda ons, and improve pedestrian ameni es and convenience.

Fig 40. Causeway Street- Crossroads Ini a ve, Bullfinch Triangle

4)Centre and South Streets form Jamaica Plain's primary small-business and community facili es spine. The Ac on Plan proposes a vision to sustain and enhance the corridor's unique iden ty and details streetscape guidelines to inform future public and private projects. New concept designs are proposed for Monument Square, Hyde Square and the Mozart Park area to widen sidewalks, create shorter crosswalks, address conges on, introduce greenery and highlight historic monuments and public art.

Fig 41. Centre and South Streets, Jamaica Plain

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


37

CHAPTER

5

LIVE case study:

- 5.1 Central Hub: DLF Cyber Hub, Gurgaon - 5.2 Hauz Khas: South Delhi, New Delhi - 5.3 Analysis: Need of Green

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


5

38

LIVE case study 5.1 Central Hub: DLF Cyber City, Gurgaon The excitement of the store fronts will then lend an organic growth pa ern to the site- combining the rigor of a well-planned night- me urban environment with the flavors of a local souk or bazaar- and resul ng in a great architectural project that augments the sense of community and civic pride. Uniquely designed as a low rise, real estate development area dedicated exclusively to gastronomy. Being the IT hub in the vicinity brings in regular foo alls on weekdays.

Fig 42. DLF Cyber City, Gurgaon

Cyber Hub in Gurgaon (DLF cyber city) is ver y popular with the office goers in the vicinity considering it is right in the middle of the corporate hub of Gurgaon. This is where people will some of the best restaurants and bars in the city and the place is always buzzing with crowd. Cyber Hub is ex tremely popular with people to unwind a bit and have a great me. The place is flooded with new and old food joints. The food ranges from street food joints to swanky restaurants and offers a 360 degree experience for the visitors. The three floor social centre is always brimming with people who land up with a single mo ve- food.

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


5

39

5.1.1 History Before Cyber Hub, the place was just a barren land becoming home for dump, bad sight for companies all around the area and an unhygienic place for the people around. And also there was no place to hangout for the people working so the thought of this place evoke. Gurgaon Cyber City was historically inhabited by the Hindu people and in early mes, it formed a part of an extensive kingdom ruled over by Rajputs of Yaduvansi or Jadaun tribe. In 1966, the city came under the administra on of Haryana with the crea on of the new state.

Fig 43. Delhi-Ajmer Express Highway in 1980

Fig 44. Delhi-Ajmer Express Highway in 2020

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


5

40 CITY CONTEXT. Being one of the fastest growing ci es in the country, Gurgaon personifies megalomania. With its insa able appe te for urbanism, Gurgaon today is a major highlight on India's map and has come an infinitely long way from its humble origins as a sleepy hamlet. This glamour packed city spoils one for choice with its gleaming shopping malls, uber modern hotels, terrific restaurants, electrifying nightlife and mul plexes, and some fine sightseeing a rac ons. CYBER HUB IN GURGAON (DLF CYBER CITY) IS VERY POPULAR WITH THE OFFICE GOERS IN THE VICINITY CONSIDERING IT IS RIGHT IN THE MIDDLE OF THE CORPORATE HUB OF GURGAON. THIS IS WHERE YOU WILL SOME OF THE BEST RESTAURANTS AND BARS IN THE CITY AND THE PLACE IS ALWAYS BUZZING WITH CROWD.

FIG 45. CYBER CITY, GURGAON

5.1.2. Ambience and Landscaping - Sea ng area in front of some food outlets and standalone cafes. A passage of 4.5 m - Walkaway. - Well defined flooring pa ern - stone used primarily kota stone and granite. - First floor are terraces with tensile roof.

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


5

41

Fig 46. PedestrianCorridor, CyberHub

- Uplighter used to highlight the tensile and structural elements. - LED ligh ng is used to highlight the walkways and floor mounted. - The concessionaires have the flexibility for ligh ng their facades though the amphitheater area has pole-mounted flood down lights making it pre y bright outdoors at night.

Fig 47. Amphitheater, CyberHub - Tensile fabric, space frame above kiosks, stainless steel ar ficial trees, staircase railing with a combina on of glass and stainless steel, plus the designated walkways are finished off with flamed, an skid granite stone. The roof of kiosks is used for landscaping with different types of colorful hedges

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


5

42

Fig 48. Entrance the the roof Garden Resturant, CyberHub

- Mist irriga on system with proper drainage is used for roof landscape. A 3 m wide corridor is created on all floors towards NH8 side that is designated for service u lity and is covered with green landscaped walls and adver sing panels. - It amazingly provides as a sound barrier between NH8 traffic and the public areas. - The public u li es are located at the first floor that is connected well to the food court.

Fig 48. Cental Coffee Shop Plaza, CyberHub

5.1.3 Social Interaction : Survey (Annexure I)

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


5

43

5.3. Ageist Approach of the Gastronomic Hub

• • • • • •

This being an entertainment hub is spa ally ageist in its approach which is clearly represented by the stacking of the en re pavilion. The layer rooted to the ground func ons as a universal space : open to all age group During the day the degree of adults of the corporate world trumps other sectors of the society. The levita on of the second layer increases its degree of segrega on as these restaurants have greater associa on with the deeds of nocturnal frivolity. They face compara vely low foot fall during the day and the visita on rights are limited to an age group beyond 18. ( family crowd usually a miss). The third and the final layer is alienated and recessed both in form and func on. Most of them come to life at night open for adults only. During the day however these restaurants func on as family hubs.

5.4 Reason for Success • •

• •

Cyber Hub is situated in the heart of Cyber City. It acts as a magnet for Cyber City, drawing workers from the nearby complex. Cyber Hub is rela vely about food as it is about people. The place is flooded with new and old food joints. The food ranges from street food joints to swanky restaurants and offers a 360 degree experience for the visitors. Due to entertainment sec on one can also step into amphitheatre to witness live music concert which is now a regular thing in the Cyber City proximity. Another reason for its success is its accessibility as it allows easy access to people coming from outside Gurgaon via the yellow metro line.

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


5

44

Fig 53. User Interface Foot Fall at different interval of me

FOOTFALL •

Cyber City has ensured targeted foo alls and on a regular customer base. Being the IT hub in the vicinity brings in regular foo alls on weekdays. Weekends are packed with families from Delhi-NCR area. Cyber Hub gets an average daily foo all of 25,000 people compared with about 5,000 at leading food courts in malls.

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


5

45

5.2 Hauz Khas: South Delhi, New Delhi

Hauz Khas located in the southern part of Delhi is counted among major tourist a rac on for its historical importance. Hauz Khas is address of various historical monuments like the tomb of Ferus Shah Tughlaq, an ancient madrasa which has turned into ruins. Hauz Khas is also known for its greenery as it houses Deer Park and Rose Garden.

Fig 54 . Hauz Khas Complex

5.2.1. Green Infrastructure in Smaller Communities The place is popular for walking, jogging and weekend ou ngs. The Deer Park comprises man subsec on such as Duck Park, Picnic Spots, Rabbit Enclosure etc. The Park has historical tombs of Mughal Era. The park is accessible from Safdarjung Enclave and Green Park, Hauz Khas Village. It is also connected to District Park thus making is approachable from R K Puram near the courts side of Delhi Lawn Tennis Associa on.

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


5

46

Fig 55. A view of Hauz Kahas Lake from Historical Madrasa complex

The Deer Park along with the connected District Park (that houses the ancient Hauz Khas lake) and Rose Garden (accessible from IIT Delhi and Safdarjung Development Area) make up one of the largest green areas in New Delhi and are collec vely called “The Lungs of Delhi” because they provide fresh air in otherwise polluted hustling bustling mega metropolitan Delhi. The Park has four different wings i.e. Rose Garden, Deer Park, Fountain and District Park, Old Monuments and Hauz Khas Art Market. One can enjoy the en re area, once inside the park one cannot believe to be in the heart of Delhi. Besides the above the park has a beau ful restaurant Park Baluchi the right place to enjoy a day trip. Amongst Delhi's hidden treasure.

Fig 58. Early Morning view of hauzkhas park

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


5

47

5.2.2. Social Interaction : Survey Annexure II

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


5

48

5.3 Analysis : Need of Green It is important to understand the user's intended purpose for going to a green space. These are unsurprisingly varied. It is o en a venue for exercise and physical ac vity either on an individual or group basis. In addi on, some users may use the green space for a secondary purpose, such as a transport route to another loca on. Other uses of green spaces iden fied from previous studies include relaxa on and stress reduc on, to obtain peace and quiet, or to experience nature. Studies have also observed that people use green spaces for rest and restora on and as means to de-stress. Green spaces perceived to be “serene”, “social”, and “natural” were said to have greater restora ve effects. One meta-analysis reported that exercise undertaken in all green environments improved both self- esteem and mood. It also suggested that the presence of a water feature in a green space improved these posi ve effects. Urban green spaces are also used as places where social interac on occurs. One ethnographic study from Scotland observed that green space had different “social” meanings and understandings for different user groups. This in turn shaped how people “used” green spaces and facilitated different types of social interac on. Conversely, different types of green space facilitate different kinds of interac ons between people. Regular social interac on by park users, eg, could form the basis of greater community es, foster a sense of iden ty and belonging, and generate more social capital. It is important to recognize that not all users see green spaces in the same way. Studies have shown that there is an implied “correct” way to use green space, specifically for an apprecia on of nature, quiet contempla on, and gentle recrea on. Users who perceive the green spaces as a “playground”, who value the entertainment opportuni es, cafes, organized events, and facili es can be seen as in conflict with these ideas. An apprecia on of the variety of ways in which people use green spaces is therefore vital for effec ve planning.

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


49

CHAPTER

6

why protect urban green scape

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


6

50

why protect urban green scape ? 6.1 Urban Forestry : Importance Urbanisa on is a logical and well an cipated ( unsa sfactor y) consequence along the development of the ci es. The role of urban forest in ameliora ng urban habitats and improving quality of life is significant. Trees in urban system provide a variety of ecosystem ser vices including biodiversity conser va on, removal of atmospheric pollutants, oxygen genera on, noise reduc on, mi ga on of urban heat island effect, microclimate regula on, stabiliza on of soil, groundwater recharge, preven on of soil erosion and carbon sequestra on.

Fig 65. Aerial View : Humayun Tomb

Planning is important because trees are ver y o en considered as an a erthought once development has taken place rather than being incorporated as original design phase .For effec ve, planned and systema c management of the tree in ci es a measure of legal control is necessar y. Urban forestr y is the management of trees for their contribu on to the physiological, sociological and economic well being of the urban society. Urban forestr y deals with woodlands, group of trees and individual trees where people live

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


6

51

Fig 66. A poster for protes ng Urban forest in 1976

High quality green spaces bring considerable benefits to the people's physical and mental health and to the environment. Urban greens with their vide collection of trees and other plants have huge educational potential. Urban parks are an important recreational facility in developing as well as developed countries. People derive quantifiable benefits from the positive experience of viewing trees. The positive effect being both psychological as well as physiological.

Fig 67. Central India : India Gate

“People appreciate the urban green space sustainable. People appreciate that urban green space serve important social, psychological health, aesthetic, ecological and economic functions. Sadly these functions are frequently taken for granted.” - Rama Shankar Sinha

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


6

52

6.2 Present Condition of Green Delhi In India, NCT of Delhi is witnessing very high popula on growth. Density of popula on of NCT of Delhi ( in terms of persons per sq.km) is 11297 in 2011 which was earlier 9340 in 2001. To have a feel of the pace of urbaniza on of other Indian states and ci es we may refer the census data 2011 rela ng decadal growth of the popula on in respect of India.

Fig 55. Aerial view of New Delhi, India, popula on 22 million, density 30,000 per square mile.Overpopula on14

Table 2. Census Data 2011 ( Rural & Urban Popula on and its decadal growth from 2011 to 2021) in respect of India, Some of its States & Ci es

Fig 69. The metro goes past the Central Ridge in New Delhi, oering a sweeping view of the forest.

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


6

53

Table 3. Forest Cover and Forest Area per city dweller for some districts of Delhi

Fig 70. Aerial view of New Delhi Indias upmarket South Delhi area depic ng the new high rise huge Shopping Mall Complexes, penthouse suits and apartments coming up -helping booming Tourist economy in this south Asian Na on with construc

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


6

54

Fig 71 .Land Used of Delhi 2014

Delhi has the Geographical area of 1483 sqm. The Recorded Forest is 85 sqm(5.73%). Total Forest & Tree Cover in Delhi is 19.97% of the Geographical area. Forest Cover cons tutes 11.88% and the Tree Cover cons tutes 8.09 % of its geographical area. Total popula on of Delhi is 16753235. Hence the area of Forest & Tree cover per dweller is 17.680 sqm. Forest cover in Delhi despite very high rate of increase of popula on and associated developmental ac vi es has increased from 1.48% in 1993 to 19.97% in 2011. To ensure sustainable level of green space to provide desirable high quality

environmental condi ons to the urban ci zens, a mul pronged strategy has been adopted for greening in Delhi.

6.3 Analysis: Urbanisa on at a rapid pace is a reality at present. Urban Forestry is an important contributory factor in the ci es for environmental enhancement, control of air and noise pollu on, microclima c modiďŹ ca on and recrea onal purposes of the urban popula on. Before the city expands further a proper plan for greening in the city especially with respect to land availability in the form of parks and gardens, forest patches and road side planta on should be in place.

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


6

55

In addi on to avoid illegal diversion of green cover of the city for taking up developmental works or otherwise a legal framework should be in place. And therefore plan for urban forestry should be integrated into overall planning of the urban areas in advance otherwise greening of the urbanised area becomes more difficult once the se lement takes place especially in iden fying the land for the same and in greening the same.

6.4 Benets of Green Space : Future Consideration

Fig 72. Categories of Benefits of Green Space

Ÿ Ecological Benets § Green spaces provide habitat for a variety of birds, fish, animals, insects, and other

organisms, while also providing corridors and greenways to link habitats. § They prevent soil erosion and absorb rainwater, thereby improving drainage. § Trees have been shown to absorb pollutants; as few as 20 trees can offset the pollu on from a car driven 60 miles per day. § The urban heat island effect occurs o en in urbanized areas, where buildings, asphalt, and concrete absorb solar radia on and then remit it as heat, causing the air temperature of the city to rise. § Plants have been shown to reduce the urban heat island effect, directly by shading heat absorbing surfaces, and indirectly through EvapoTranspira on (ET) cooling.

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


6

56 § Green spaces can also reduce noise pollu

on, by dense screens of trees and shrubs, and can even cleanse par ally-treated wastewater. § Finally, green spaces and their inhabitants are a good indicator of overall ecological health of the ecosystem. This is an important measure in judging the ecological sustainability of the community.

Fig.Fig 73. Public Space Benefits

Ÿ

Social Benets

§ Provides recrea

onal use: a place to play, meditate, gather, or rest. § Green spaces give a sense of social place, allow one to gain social recogni on, enhance feelings of family kinship and solidarity, allow one to teach and lead others, provide opportunity to reflect on personal and social values, promote spiritual growth, and in general allow users to feel free, independent, and more in control than is possible in a more structured home and work environment. § Green spaces introduce the natural into the urban environment. § Green spaces provide a refreshing contrast to the harsh shape, color, and texture of buildings, and s mulate the senses with their simple color, sound, smell, and mo ons. § Green spaces foster a connec on between community residents and the natural environment that surrounds them, thus allowing for a more livable city. This is essen al in order for a community to be sustainable.

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


6

57

Fig 74 . Aerial View of Humayun's Tomb

Ÿ Environmental Benets § Reduces liquid waste and water consump

on (low-flow plumbing, rainwater collec on,

drought-resistant landscaping etc.) § Reduces solid waste (household garbage limits etc.) § Provides local recycling and compos ng centers. § Is a community facili es constructed in environmentally sound ways. § Community gardens provide chemical-free food produc on and gardening.

Fig 75. Parnanomic View of Taj Mahal and surroundings, Agra

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


6

58

Ÿ Individual Benets § By growing some of their own food, individuals and families have access to fresh, nutri

ous

food and the mixed meals that support nutri onal health. § Because it involves physical ac vity, community gardening promotes physical fitness and health. § As places where people come together with a common purpose, community gardens are places where people get to meet others. § Community gardens (single piece of land gardened collec vely by a group of people) regreen vacant lots and bring vegeta on diversity to public open space and other areas, making them a useful tool for urban improvement.

Fig 76. Community Garden for Educa onal Society § The diversity of plant types found in community gardens provides habitat for urban

wildlife, increasing their value for improving the natural environment. § By diversifying the use of open space and creating the opportunity for passive and active recreation, community gardens improve the urban environment.

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


6

59

6.4. Heath Status of Delhi's Population: Analysis There has been considerable work done in recent years exploring the value of urban green space of Delhi for health and wellbeing. They also have direct health benefits by providing urban residents spaces for physical ac vity and social interac on, and allowing psychological restora on to take place. Consequently, In Delhi like city where air pollu on keeps on increasing, there is a real need to understand the mechanisms by which these benefits accrue. Previously, much of the focus has been on the characteris cs of the urban green space that are likely to influence its use, such as its accessibility, quality, facili es, a rac veness, and security.

Fig 77. How quality open spaces impact on wellbeing through social, economic, environmental and cultural factor

Fig 78. Parts of Delhi

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH

Fig 79. South Delhi covered maximum green area


Tabke 4: Table: Graph showing the analyzing status of Urban Public Health in dierent district of Delhi. Since, South Delhi covered a maximum area in Urban Forestry (78.9sqkm). Hence, popula on in south Delhi has be er eďŹƒciency in their environment and has the be er strength of the rela on between the amount of green space in living environments and perceived general health. 6

60

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


61

CHAPTER

7

conclusion and recommendation

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


7

62

conclusion The literature to date has several key implica ons for urban planning. Firstly, urban planning can and should have a public health component in view of the purported health benefits. Improving the accessibility is likely to lead to greater use of urban green space. In prac ce, this could take the form of health impact assessments of urban developments. If urban green space planning is part of a wider health promo on policy, ac ve marke ng and promo on of its use is likely to be needed, especially where levels of provision or preexis ng use is insufficient. Radical shi s in current approaches to urban design may be called for. Secondly, residents use urban green spaces in a variety of ways. Therefore, it is important to understand how the green space may be used and what the needs of green In order to enable urban development to be er match local needs and values, public engagement in the planning and design process is key Furthermore, if urban greening programs are carried out without due a en on to the form these green spaces are to take or to related aspects such as city transport strategies, there may be no benefit in terms of popula on health. There remain several unknowns. Firstly, how much urban green space is needed, ie, what is the op mal green space ra o? Secondly, what enhancements are required and what degree of features are needed to facilitate usage and the benefits accrued from urban green space? How do we encourage its use?

F i n a l l y, t h e re i s a n e e d fo r f u r t h e r e co n o m i c wo r k to ca l c u l ate t h e co st to benefit/u lity of urban green space. This is challenging in view of the mul plicity of u ses a nd p oten al co-benefits a ccrued, a s well a s d ifficul es q uan f ying b oth the costs and a ributable benefits. In view of the mul plicity of purposes ser ved by urban green spaces, as well as the range of benefits to urban areas, they are more than a peripheral nicety and are a key aspect of urban planning and design.

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


7

63

recommendation The following 10 recommenda ons are a star ng point for embedding the role of landscape in delivering public health and wellbeing benefits at all levels of government and at all spa al scales : 1. A big ger role for public health in placemaking The public health sector needs to be more closely involved in guiding the planning, design and management of new and exis ng se lements to help ensure healthy, sustainable places everywhere. It needs to be involved at every stage of the development process, from policy and strategy, to engagement in the framing of specific proposals.

2. A resource commitment Public health should be granted the same long-term budgetary commitment that primary care, transport and other public services receive. There is already a great deal of policy support for improving public health outcomes across the UK. What we need now is more resources and longer-term funding for programmes that deliver health and wellbeing benefits through landscape.

3.. Realise na onal requirements at the local level Local planning policy needs to adopt the requirements that have been set out in na onal planning policy across the UK, to include the promo on of public health and wellbeing as an essen al part of crea ng sustainable communi es..

4 Recognise landscape as an asset The role of landscape in promo ng public health and wellbeing should be a central considera on in the prepara on of Joint Strategic Needs Assessments and Joint Health and Wellbeing Strategies (England), and Community Plans (Scotland); and through the func on of Health and Wellbeing Boards and Public Health England (England) and their equivalent bodies in other administra ons.

5 Use landscape in performance indicators for public health Greater considera on should be given to ways in which be er planned, designed and managed landscapes can contribute to achieving targets set out within performance management frameworks across the UK, such as the Public Health Outcomes Framework for England and the indicators in Scotland Performs.

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


7

64 6 Collabora on is key Professionals responsible for public health, landscape and planning should work together on the crea on and assessment of schemes in both the public and private sector. This collabora on, which will benefit all par es, should be encouraged and supported across all administra ons and at all spa al scales

7 Park Design Parks are o en sca ered about ci es, and many ci es have too few parks. Based on decades of research findings, parks should be managed as systems, not just for the usual purposes of beauty and recrea on, but also to help ci zens func on at their best. The Na onal Parks and Recrea on Associa on recommends that there be park space within 2 miles of every residence (with ¼- to ½-mile distances op mal for walkability) and that a city's park system provide 5 to 8 acres of park space for every 1,000 residents. People who spent me in a park with greater plant species richness scored higher on various measures of psychological well-being than those subjects in less bio diverse parks.

8 Building/Infrastructure Design Planters, gardens, green roofs, and other features can be incorporated into building design to address mental health and cogni ve func on.20 For example, the so rhythmic movements of a trees or grass in a light breeze or the light and shade created by cumulus clouds, called Heraclitean mo on, are movement pa erns that are associated with safety and tranquility, aiding the development of a calm, stable mental state; ligh ng or space design that mimics Heraclitean mo on could be incorporated into building design to create calm, peaceful areas that aid pa ents' recovery or improve workers' or students' produc vity. Bright daylight supports circadian rhythms, enhances mood, promotes neurological health, and affects alertness; increasing the use of natural light and reducing dependence on electric ligh ng can also significantly improve mental health and func on.

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


65

references http://journalistsresource.org/studies/environment/cities/healthbenets-urban-green-space-research-roundup#sthash.evluLiis.dpuf http://journalistsresource.org/studies/environment/cities/health-benets-urbangreen-space-research-roundup#sthash.evluLiis.dpuf http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4330853/ https://www.google.co.in/search?q=JAMES+CORNER&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa= X&ved=0ahUKEwiu58zvtvHJAhWDS44KHQyNBFIQ_AUIBygB&biw=1517&bih=703&dpr= 0.9#tbm=isch&q=james+corner+plan http://www.hoerrschaudt.com/ http://www.architonic.com/aisht/the-circle-uptown-normal-hoerr-schaudtlandscape-architects/5101740 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2566234/ https://www.nparks.gov.sg/learning/benets-of-greenery https://depts.washington.edu/hhwb/Print_Stress.html http://journalistsresource.org/studies/environment/cities/health-benets-urban-greenspace-research-roundup https://www.google.co.in/search?q=district+park+hauz+khas&espv=2&biw=1517&bih=7 52&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjQyPCcnIbKAhVGjo4KHW_kCSkQ_AUIB ygC&dpr=0.9#tbm=isch&q=district+park+hauz+khas+morning+walk http://www.delhionline.in/city-guide/hauz-khas-village https://www.ixigo.com/hauz-khas-deer-park-and-district-park-new-delhi-india-ne1311813 http://www.dda.org.in/greens/deer_park.htm http://www.indianholiday.com/tourist-attraction/new-delhi/parks-and-gardens-indelhi/deer-park.html http://www.thehubway.com/news/2015/09/06/BostonGlobe-thinking-outside-the-bikelane https://municipaldreams.wordpress.com/2013/07/09/victoria-park-east-london-thepeoples-park/

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


66 http://issuu.com/oriansteinberg/docs/green-cities_1_ http://issuu.com/tdgarden/docs/eco-city_planning https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=Xk06al1sAmUC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&d q=urban+landscape+public+health+pdf&ots=Y8mQ2qg0MN&sig=jWYoLRQy0pjhdX Wub7yMgrque5A#v=onepage&q=urban%20landscape%20public%20health%20pdf &f=false http://jpubhealth.oxfordjournals.org/content/33/2/212.short https://books.google.co.in/books?id=AXZz6JIV9ikC&pg=PA970&lpg=PA970&dq=urb an+landscape+public+health+pdf&source=bl&ots=vUZ5oA2TdN&sig=dnwyLU6NaAB Sq5ymFU0vfnDb6A&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwirvbOIkbTJAhWTxY4KHa1TCK4Q6AEIWTAI#v=onep age&q=urban%20landscape%20public%20health%20pdf&f=false https://www.planning.org/pas/reports/subscriber/archive/pdf/PAS_571.pdf http://edugreen.teri.res.in/explore/forestry/urban.htm

BIBLIOGRAPGHY 1) FACT SHEET-shootinginparks 2) Guide to HIA of Green space, Green space Scotland 3) Intech Urban Landscape Design 4) Public Health and Landscape_Creating Healthy Places 5) Rama-Shankar-Sinha 6) Richard-Burbidge-details-technical-le016177 7) World_Class_Streets_Gehl_08

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


67

annexure I ( 5.1 Central Hub: DLF Cyber Hub, Gurgaon)

5.1.3 Social Interaction : Survey

How important is Cyber City for Cyber Hub? Is it successful public space?

“I think Cyber Hub is more important Cyber City than vice versa. It is successful public space that caters to people from walks of life - whether its young college kids out for the evening or n office goes taking a stroll to forget about his hec c work life. The interna onal appeal of the place is a rac ve and the lack of closed spaces gives Cyber Hub an invi ng feel.” Mukesh Saxsena, Infinty Tower Does it draw crowds other than from the ofces of Cyber Hub?

“Yes.A lot people from Delhi and Noida, thanks to the metro connec vity and taxi services have started coming to Gurgaon to go to Cyber Hub - resturants like Hard Rock Café, Raasta and Farzi Café in that loca on offer respite from the hustle and bustle of daily life as well as turn into venues for touring bands and ar sts that are for midable lives acts that a ract a young and fervent crowd of fans and music lovers.”- Ankur Sahai, Ericsson Forum Is it convenient to access? Do people majorly use the metro? “It falls right next to the Vodafone sta on of the rapid metro line. Infact, the parking lot Cyber Hub can be access. Also the Hub has the various offices complexes in its vicinity so its very accessible by foot as well.” -Ajay Kapur, Suncity, Noida Is it in anyway democratic? It seems gentried as it mostly has eating places. Do more activities occur which are non-commercial?

“As fas as I know, it is pre y democra c, the place is o en witness to corporate band ba les, fun, family-centric ac vi es that place in the weekend as well as cheering crowds enjoying matches on the large screen at the gaint amphitheater it houses.” -Anand Bakshi, Infinity Tower Has it transformed anything majorly?(activity/pattern/destination/landmarks)

“Well the one thing it has done it has made people who don't live in Gurgaon come over and check out the spcae as well as provide a breath of fresh air of Gurgaon not the ar ficial air of offices, people who are used to having big, louds malls everywhere.” -Neeraj Gupta, Gateway Tower

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


68

annexure Ii (5.2 Hauz Khas: South Delhi, New Delhi)

5.2.2 Social Interaction : Survey

Is this your rst visit in Hauz Khas?What do feel coming up here?

“ I planned an ou ng here mainly coz of the great food joints in hauz khaus nearby. I wasn't expec ng much but when i reached i was happy to have visited. The entry if free but its opened only from morning ll a ernoon. There is a small pond where you can spot some ducks, fresh green grass is well maintained and the near by tombs give it a nice tradi onal touch. Overall nice ou ng for kids.” -Smiri Ray So many Parks, but whats different about Deer Park? Is it satised Open space?

“I took my twin boys to Deer Park for one main reason - lots of open space. Its a huge area with quite some number of people, yet there is a lot of space for pranksters like mine to run around like crazy and play. They are usually on "don't touch this", "don't take this", "don't go there" mode, but within the Deer Park, children can be the li le devils they want to be and play. We took a ball with us and it was amazing to seem them chase it through the park. The li le ducklings and that pond of water fascinated them a lot. The green tress, lots of birds and different kinds of leaves also amazed them. All in all highly recommended for children of all age groups.” -Honey Lalwani How important is Hauz Khas Park for public's Health? Is it successful public space?

“Located in South Delhi, the Deer Park is a perfect spot for an ou ng with friends. The greenery and the environment reveals the natural beauty of this place at its best. One can also consider it to be a jogging or a walking spot around 5 pm. Here you can relief yourself from stress and just relax your heart out.” - Dr.Keshav Mi al Did you come to Hauz Khas Park regularly? How much is important for you to live near a big space of green?

“Yes. I simply love this place. Whether you want a peaceful me away from the hustle-bustle of the city or you just want to walk around, this place is perfect for both. A huge lake dominates the place. A walk around the lake early in the morning is enough to freshen up the whole day.”

U RBAN L ANDSCAPE TOWARDS P UBLIC H EALTH


Architectural Research Paper - Urban Green Space Towards Public Health  
Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you