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July 21-22





Maximum Yield USA | May 2012

CONTENTS July 2012




The Full Menu: Beneficial Elements for Plant Growth by Dr. Lynette Morgan


Start Your Plant’s Day Right: Organic and Chemical Nutrients by Grubbycup


Organic Nutrients for a Sustainable Tomorrow by Matt LeBannister


RO Water: Your Nutrient Formula’s BFF


Roots, Shoots and the Party of Six


Growing Minds: School Gardens and Why They're Important

by Richard Gellert by Bill DeBoer

by Annie Spiegelman

136 110 Low-maintenance Hydroponics: Self-watering Containers by Casey Jones Fraser

120 Let There be Light

by Dr. J. Benton Jones, Jr.

126 Happy Ginger (in Hydroponics)




From the Editor


Green Thumb Gardening


Letters to the Editor



by Eric Hopper



Tips and Tricks

154 What’s Infecting Your


Ask the Experts


You Tell Us


MAX Facts


Talking Shop


Product Spotlight


Coming up in August


Beginner’s Corner


Max Mart


Growing for Health




10 Facts On...


Do You Know?

by Dr. Mike Nichols

136 Battle of the Bugs: A Guide to Beneficial Insects

Vegetable Garden? by Frank Rauscher

162 Amazing Aloe: Beat the Burn With Nature’s Natural Nurse by Heather Brautman

174 Feelin’ Hot, Hot, Hot: How to Help Your Plants Deal With Summer Heat by Karen Wilkinson

188 Natural Cultivation: Fusing Modern and Traditional Techniques by Yoni Serruya


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

FROM THE EDITOR | JESSICa RaymOND Author and restaurateur Alice May Brock once said, “We are indeed much more than what we eat, but what we eat can nevertheless helps us to be much more than what we are.” Nutrients, the #1 most requested and asked about topic from Maximum Yield readers, is our focus this issue and we are confident you’ll enjoy reading all 226 pages—our largest magazine of the year. This information-packed issue looks at nutrients from a plant’s perspective. Consider this: what a plant eats does not define it; the food it ingests cannot transform its inherent being. But, if it eats a healthy, balanced diet it will grow stronger and live longer. Well-fed edible crops will also sustain us humans more completely. As gardeners, we manage and manipulate our plants’ health. This is a great responsibility that, if done incorrectly or half-heartedly, will affect their wellness. Kicking off our section on nutrients is “The Full Menu” on page 54, which details the elements that enhance growth, development and other plant functions. Next is “Start Your Plant’s Day Right.” Here, Grubbycup encourages growers to understand how nutrients work and to question why they’re adding

certain ones to their garden. Breakfast is, after all, supposed to be the most important meal of the day! Finally, a Nutrients Issue wouldn’t be complete without touching on organic and sustainable plant food (see page 74). Believe it or not, food isn’t everything, which is why we rounded out this expansive issue with features on low-maintenance hydro systems, Jessica Raymond, editor amazing aloe and hydroponic ginger, dealing with summer heat, the characteristics of light and much more. If want to see this issue “live,” visit Maximum Yield’s 9th annual San Francisco Indoor Gardening Expo on July 22, 2012. With over 400 exhibits and displays of the latest products and technologies from around the world, gardeners will be treated to the best the industry has to offer. Check out page 224 or visit for more details.

CONTRIBUTORS Casey Jones Fraser owns Garden

Eric Hopper has over 10 years of

Frank Rauscher is a certified

Richard Gellert owns Hydro-Logic

Dr. J. Benton Jones Jr. has 50

Purification Systems, providers of cutting edge water purification technologies. His knowledge of and passion for water quality has been instrumental in helping gardeners achieve the high quality harvests. Hydro-Logic offers a complete line of water purification solutions for guaranteed garden success.

years of experience growing plants hydroponically. He is an Emeritus Professor at the University of Georgia, Athens and has authored eight books and written articles for magazines that deal with hydroponic issues. He currently has his own consulting company, Grosystems, Inc. Dr. Jones currently lives in Anderson, SC, USA.

Matt LeBannister developed a

Dr. Mike Nichols is a retired

Heather Brautman’s hydroponics knowledge consisted of her favorite ride at Walt Disney World’s before she moved to California in October 2011. Since becoming Hydrofarm’s staff writer in February 2012, she’s been enjoying learning about grow media—like coco coir and perlite—not paparazzi. She has a master’s degrees in technical writing as well as PR/communications.

Bill DeBoer is a research scientist at Indiana-based steadyGROWpro. A master gardener intern, Bill is responsible for overseeing the company’s laboratory operation, including the design and execution of research projects, plant propagation, seed germination and overall plant care. Bill has a B.S. and M.S. from Purdue University, and was previously a research technician for the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Dr. Lynette Morgan holds a B. Hort.

Grubbycup has been an avid indoor gardener for over 20 years. His articles were first published in the United Kingdom, and since then his gardening advice has been published in French, Spanish, Italian, Polish, Czechoslovakian and German. He is also considered one of the world’s leading authorities on crochet hydroponics.

Karen Wilkinson works for EZCLONE Enterprises, Inc., as its social media editor. She came to them with a background in journalism and technical writing and is learning to grow, clone and write for the hydroponics community. She’s a budding gardener and loves growing her own vegetables.

Grove Organics, in Northern Kentucky/ Greater Cincinnati. He has a degree in communications and electronic media. He believes that indoor gardeners can achieve the highest quality crops and maximum yields when proper science is applied. Since 1998, Casey has been testing various nutrients and supplements in search of outstanding harvests.

university lecturer and an honorary research associate in the College of Sciences at Massey University, New Zealand. He speaks extensively at conferences for international organizations such as the United Nations, and also writes and consults on a range of intensive horticultural topics. Tech. degree and a PhD in hydroponic greenhouse production from Massey University, New Zealand. Lynette is a partner with SUNTEC International Hydroponic Consultants and has authored five hydroponic technical books. Visit consultants.htm and suntec. for more information.

Annie Spiegelman Raised and hardened in the asphalt jungle of New York City, Annie Spiegelman moved to the Bay Area over fifteen years ago and became a passionate environmentalist and Master Gardener. She is the author of three books on gardening (and life).


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

experience in the hydroponic industry as both a retail store manager and owner. He continuously seeks new methods and products that could help maximize garden performance. Eric resides in Michigan where he and his family strive for a self-sufficient and sustainable lifestyle.

horticulturist and consultant for the garden industry. He’s a contributing author to several publications and was writer and editor of the Green Pages. Frank finds that analyzing plant stress and finding solutions is exciting. He is very much at home bringing new ideas to the field of horticulture and indoor gardening. green thumb as a child, having been born into a family of experienced gardeners. During his career, he has managed a hydroponic retail store and represented leading companies at the Indoor Gardening Expos. Matt has been writing articles for Maximum Yield since 2007. His articles are published around the world.

Become a Maximum Yield contributor and have your articles read by 250,000 readers throughout USA, Canada, UK, New Zealand and Australia. Maximum Yield is the largest free-to-consumer indoor gardening magazine in the world. Every issue is available on, which has thousands of unique visitors monthly.

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Faithful Reader Writes in

Congratulations to you and Dr. Morgan for “Organic Hydroponics” (Maximum Yield USA, April 2012). Outstanding! You might enjoy reading “Understanding Certification,” in Acres USA, May 2012. I hope you are planning to promote hydroponics technology for realistic commercial production and not just a backyard or momand-pop operation. Congratulations again, James B. Cleary

First-class Feedback

As I am sure you all are aware, your publication is absolutely topshelf. At least half of my indoor gardening success has come from the education I have received while reading Maximum Yield (MY). It is a privilege to have access to articles written by these accomplished experts, doctors and educators. Many of the articles about the state of modern horticulture— such as the renovation of large urban buildings for the purpose of indoor produce production— have enlightened me to issues I might never have stopped to think about otherwise. After looking long and hard for a reliable and constant modern gardening periodical, I have found more outstanding, useful and simplified (for those of us with no doctorate) information in MY than in any other publication. Thank you all for the great publication. For what it's worth, Jeff S., the hillbilly West Virginia

Monica Rakowski

Hallo Aus Deutschland

Monica here from KP Indoor Garden Store in Lakebay, Washington. First, thank you so much for printing the article about our shop last month; it looked so great and we had an awesome response. I went to Germany to visit my family a couple weeks ago and I took a copy of that issue with me. I took a photo with it in front of some cool German-style buildings. I'm not sure if you want to print the photo, but I'd love to pass it along to you just in case. I thought it would be cool to show that Maximum Yield is making its way around the world! Thank you again for the article about our shop, Monica Rakowski KP Indoor Garden Store Lakebay, Washington

Subscribe to Win

Every month we give away a special issue of Maximum Yield to one lucky eNews subscriber. If you aren’t subscribed, you can’t participate. Get involved, share your thoughts and participate in discussions monthly and you could win. Sign up today at so you can start winning! Maximum Yield Team


After reading the editor’s letter from the March 2012 issue of Maximum Yield USA, I love the fact that you explain the issue so well and break down plant science and chemistry. I happen to love growing and I have read a lot of books on the topic. I have gone through the trials and errors. I just wanted to let you know it is a great letter, as is the magazine in general. Keep up the good work. Thanks, Terry D. Haight, Jr. 16

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

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Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

VoLUME 13 – NUMBER 4 July 2012 Maximum Yield is published monthly by Maximum Yield Publications Inc. 2339A Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 Phone: 250.729.2677; Fax 250.729.2687 No part of this magazine may be reproduced without permission from the publisher. If undeliverable please return to the address above. The views expressed by columnists are a personal opinion and do not necessarily reflect those of Maximum Yield or the Editor.

Publication Agreement Number 40739092 Printed In Canada. PRESIDENT/PUBLISHER - Jim Jesson GENERAL MANAGER - Don Moores BUSINESS MANAGER - Linda Jesson EDIToRIAL Editor-in-Chief Jessica Raymond Assistant Editor Jessica Skelton ADVERTISING SALES Director of Sales Raymond Henderson Account Executives Ilona Hawser - Ashley Heppell - Hayley Jesson - Emily Rodgers - Phil Shakespeare - DESIGN & PRoDUCTIoN Art Director Alice Joe Graphic Designers Jennifer Duong - Liz Johnston - Denise Higginson - ACCoUNTING Tracy Greeno - Tara Campbell - USA DISTRIBUTIoN Aurora Innovations • BWGS • General Hydroponics Humbolt Wholesale • Hydrofarm • Hydro International National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply • Nickel City Wholesale Garden Supply • R&M Supply • Tradewinds CANADIAN DISTRIBUTIoN Brite-Lite Group • Biofloral • Eddis Wholesale • Greenstar Plant Products Inc. • MegaWatt • Quality Wholesale UK DISTRIBUTIoN Direct Garden Supplies • Growth Technology • Future Harvest Development Europe • Hydrogarden Nutriculture UK • Dutch Pro • Maxigrow AUSTRALIAN DISTRIBUTIoN Dome Garden Supply • House N Garden • Futchatec • Growth Technology • Hydraspher


You know, I’ve read a lot of books and have been through trial and error, and I have been asked repeatedly about inducing CO2 into a sealed (airtight) growroom. With that being said, I have yet to read an article that explains it in detail—mostly, is it necessary to have a vent in a sealed growroom if CO2 is kept at a consistent level with monitors? Thanks, Terry Haight, Jr.

A completely sealed growth chamber (or, “enclosed climate agriculture”) can be a Dr. Lynette Morgan difficult environment to maintain because a balance between light, heat, CO2 and humidity must be met while the air is continually recirculated instead of exchanged with the outside environment. Generally, it takes a lot of equipment to maintain all these plant growth variables at the same time. CO2 enrichment to levels as high as 1,000 to 1,500 ppm is used in growth chambers to help boost plant growth (note, higher levels can become toxic to plants). Often, compressed CO2 cylinders are used as a source since burners generate a lot of heat. The reason why most growing environments— including growth chambers and greenhouses—are vented is to not only replenish the CO2 plants take up, but to also remove heat buildup and water vapor. Plants release large amounts of water vapor into the air when they transpire, which rapidly increases the humidity (particularly under warm growing conditions). High humidity has negative effects on plant


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

growth—if the plants can’t transpire due to high humidity, the flow of nutrients (particularly calcium from the roots to the leaves) is severely restricted and the plant growth stagnates. High humidity also allows for the growth of fungal spores and bacterial pathogens. So, in order to keep the heat and humidity down, moist air is vented out and replaced with drier air—often at a rate of one complete air exchange per minute. If venting and air exchange are not used in an enclosed environment, heat and humidity must be controlled in other ways. It is possible to use large dehumidification units to remove water vapor and air conditioners to control heat; however, all of thesse must be run at once to maintain the required humidity levels (50 to 67% for most plants). So, a completely enclosed growing chamber requires heat and water vapor removal from the air, as well as lighting and CO2 enrichment at the correct level, to maintain balanced growth. In theory, if all these parameters are met, the enclosed environment can be run with no venting; however, there are certain gases (such as ethylene) that might still build up in a tightly sealed room, so sources of this and any other unwanted gases need to be carefully checked for. Dr. Lynette Morgan



Vertical Gardens Meet interior desiGn

There’s a growing trend that combines vertical gardens with interior design—a concept that is particularly popular with small-space, urban dwellers. Some of the more popular designs include a tall-racked garden that is designed to block the sun in summer and, after the leaves fall off, allow sun in during the winter (much like vines do); a modular system where small pots are held to the wall with strong magnets, making it easy to pull off for watering or rearranging; and a vertical, self-sustaining planter system that harnesses hydroponic technology. (Source:


identifyinG disease-carryinG aphids can reduce insecticide use

Scientists from the United States Department of Agriculture have found a way to distinguish aphids that spread plant viruses from those that do not by using protein biomarkers. They discovered that the insect’s ability to transmit yellow dwarf viruses was linked to the presence or absence of nine proteins found in the insect's cells. Aphids do not need all nine biomarker proteins to spread the virus, but there are some that are essential. The findings are expected to lead to development of a test to identify potential disease vectors. Currently insecticides are used to control aphids and reduce the incidence of some viruses; however, this method is not the most effective since not all aphids transmit viruses and spraying is expensive and can harm the environment, people and animals. (Source:

alGae Grown for fuel


h Ap

Arizona-based algae biofuels company Heliae has decided to try harnessing the growth of algae on a commercial scale. By promoting the scaled production of algae, Heliae’s technology will allow its partners to access markets of functional foods, animal feeds, fuels, chemicals, pharmaceutical and cosmetics. However, the company’s main goal is to create a sustainable source for transportation fuels. “We will never take our eyes off the transportation fuels,” says Dan Simon, president and CEO of Heliae, talking to Forbes. “But there are stepping stones to get us there.” (Source:


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012



Biocontrol aGent tested to Battle inVasiVe Kudzu BuG

Sure, it will feed voraciously on the stems of the vine that ate the south, but the Kudzu bug (Megacopta cribraria) also has a taste for legumes—including some of the big industrial crops in the southern United States. To combat the problem, the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is currently evaluating a top natural enemy of the bug, the parasitic wasp Paratelenomus saccharalis. This beneficial bug is non-stinging and harmless to humans, pets and other animals. However, it lays its eggs in those of Megacopta’s. Upon hatching, the wasp’s maggot-like brood devour the pest’s own developing embryos, reducing the size of the next generation. Megacopta belongs to a unique insect family that doesn’t originate in the Americas. Thus, importing its co-evolved natural enemies isn’t expected to endanger native U.S. bug species. Still, the wasp must pass a long list of requirements to confirm its host specificity and environmental safety; hence, the current trials are taking place in an ARS quarantine facility. (Source:

how plants chill

Plants elongate their stems when grown at high temperature to facilitate the cooling of their leaves, according to new research from the University of Bristol. When grown at higher temperatures, plants have an elongated, spindly architecture and develop fewer leaf pores, known as stomata. The researchers suggest that the increased spacing of leaves observed in high temperaturegrown plants might promote the diffusion of water vapor from stomata, thereby enhancing the cooling process. Understanding why plants alter their architecture in response to heat is important as increasing global temperatures pose a threat to future food production. (Source:


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

desKtop coMputer GardeninG

This modified desktop computer uses its own heat to control the soil temperature and help with the germination and growth of plants. The compact DIY unit allows the plants to flourish in an office space with limited sunlight. The top of the case is made of acrylic, so one can see the inner workings of the computer and the soil used for growing the grass above. There are also acrylic tubes in the center of the computer to slightly heat the soil, allow for more surface area and help with drainage. In terms of regulating the temperature of the case and the soil, there is a variable-speedfan control on both the inlet and outlet fans. Turning the fan speed down increases the temperature inside the case and, correspondingly, raises the soil temperature. (Source:



new and iMproVed heartfriendly oats

University of Wisconsin-Madison plant breeders have developed a new oat variety that’s significantly higher in beta glucan, the oat-exclusive compound that makes this grain so cardio-friendly. The new strain is 2% higher in beta glucan on average than other oat varieties on the market, which translates to a 20% boost in levels of this compound in products made from the oat. Nutrition researchers liken beta glucan to a sponge that traps cholesterol-rich acids in the bloodstream. Consuming 0.11 oz. daily of this soluble fiber—in combination with a healthy diet— might lower the blood’s level of LDL (the so-called bad cholesterol), which lessens the risk of coronary heart disease. (Source:

hot air + cool water + tall tower = enerGy

A 3,000-ft. tall tower that will generate clean electricity from hot dry air and cool water will soon be built in San Luis, Arizona. Once built, air will be sprayed with cool water at the top of the tower, making it denser and heavier. This air would then travel downward through the tower, powering wind turbines that generate electricity. It is estimated that the tower will produce up to 2,500 MW-h, one-third of which will go to pumping water. The idea behind the downdraft energy tower was originally patented in 1975, and the design would work anywhere—so long as the hollow structure is tall and in a hot, dry climate. (Source:


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

leaf “staMp” could detect crop diseases

Hideaki Tsutsui of the University of California has developed an early warning system for crop diseases: to print biosensors directly onto maize leaves. These biosensors detect pathogens, such as aflatoxin, through chemical reactions that turn areas of the leaves different colors. He likened the basic mechanism to that of home pregnancy tests, which have areas that turn blue to indicate a positive result. (Source:



pacKinG MushrooMs

Mushrooms are a key ingredient in a new brand of packing blocks used to cushion products. More precisely, the blocks are made with mycelium—the hidden “roots” of mushrooms that are usually found beneath dirt or wood. Workers inoculate mycelium into pasteurized bits of seed husks or plant stalks, then place the mix into clear plastic molds shaped like the desired packaging pieces. The mix is covered for about five days as millions of mycelium strands grow around and through the feedstock, acting as a kind of glue. The hardness and other qualities of the molded pieces can be manipulated by altering the type of feedstock or mycelium used. Once the piece is grown, it is then heat dried to kill the fungus, insuring that mushrooms can’t sprout from it. Since the mycelium is cloned, the product does not include spores, which can trigger allergies. The product breaks down in six to nine months and can be thrown on a compost pile. It’s also technically edible, though is not recommended as a snack. (Source:

rooftop fish farMs

The prototype Globe/Hedron is a bamboo greenhouse designed to utilize aquaponic farming techniques. Optimized to feed four families of four all year round, the unit could annually produce 220 lb. of fish and 880 lb. of vegetables. The geodesic-dome design allows the fish tank’s weight to be redistributed to a larger surface, so the unit can be placed on more roofs without any structural building adaptation. The dome can also be equipped with PV panels and cooling turbines to generate energy, and the basic structure can be adapted with greenhouse panels or insulating panels to suit different environments and weather conditions. Once on the market, the unit could sell for about the price of a small car. (Source:

underwater carBon storaGe

Seagrasses are recognized for their many ecosystem benefits, such as filtering sediment, serving as habitats for marine life and protecting coastlines against floods and storms. Now researchers have found that seagrass meadows might also reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon stores. Studies show that coastal seagrass beds can store up to 83,000 metric tons of carbon per 1.54 sq. mi. (mostly in the soils beneath them) and that the global carbon pool in seagrass beds is as much as 19.9 billion metric tons. Seagrass meadows can store up to twice as much carbon as the world’s temperate and tropical forests. (Source:


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012



air-cleaninG houseplants a

Common houseplants such as philodendron, peace lily, corn plant, Gerbera daisy, spider plant, golden pothos, English ivy, Marginata and others can pull chemicals from the air and break them down through their leaves, roots and soil. Dr. Bill Wolverton, a retired NASA scientist, found in his experiments that plants can remove up to 87% of the toxins in a room over 24 hours. All of the houseplants tested by Wolverton were able to remove formaldehyde, benzene and trichloroethylene. To clean the air in an average home or office, place one potted plant per 100 square feet of floor space. In commercial buildings, atriums of plants can help filter circulated air. (Source:

Vertical farMinG retrofittinG to Battle co2 eMissions

fewer winter honey Bee losses

According to the annual survey conducted by the USDA, the Bee Informed Partnership and the Apiary Inspectors of America, total losses of managed honey bee colonies were 21.9% nationwide for the 2011/2012 winter. This represents a substantial drop in mortality compared to the previous five years, when winter losses of 29 to 36% had been reported. The unusually warm winter during 2011/2012 could be one possible contributing factor to the decline in colony losses, although no direct scientific investigation of the weather connection has been conducted. (Source:


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

Vertical farming and agriculture are usually focused on urban planning and architecture for food production; now, it’s also being looked at for combatting CO2 production. The latest phase in this trend has been heralded by architecture firm Influx_Studio, who is looking at retrofitting buildings with green areas and sustainable technology to lower CO2 emissions. As part of a wider initiative called Decarbonize Chicago, the firm is looking at retrofitting the Marina City’s Tower in Chicago with a range of sustainable technologies, including farming areas, solar panels, wind farms, hydroponics bays and an algae bioreactor. The building hopes to take a three-pronged approach to tackling carbon emissions. Firstly, carbon will be directly taken from the air using the algae bioreactor. Secondly, CO2 will be absorbed by the algae and vertical farms as the plants grow. Finally, the other sustainable-energy technologies within the building with further reduce carbon emissions because less fossil fuel will be used to maintain the building. Each element not only reduces CO2 individually, but they also work together—for example, the wind turbines bring air into the algae system— to increase overall effectiveness. (Source:



HOTTEST ITEMS ask sk for them at your local indoor gardening store

Gro1 Green led rechargeable work light by dl wholesale This super-bright work light from DL Wholesale features 78 green high-intensity LED light bulbs for maximum viewing power. It can stand on a flat surface or be hung using the two attached hooks on either end. This work light features a rechargeable battery, and includes a wall outlet charger and a car charger. The Gro1 flashlight line also includes a 28 LED Large Flashlight, a nine LED Mini Flashlight, a 19 LED Head Light and a five LED Hat Light. All the Gro1 flashlights are safe to use in your greenhouse at night because they use green LED lights, which do not disturb plant growth cycles. To learn more, visit your local retailer.

charlie’s compost Charlie’s Compost is a natural fertilizer and soil amendment made of manure recycled with other locally sourced carbon products. Three generations of beneficial microbes transform these natural products into a complex mix of plant-available nutrients and humic acids that build up soil for long-term performance. See your local hydroponics store for more information.

dosatron's dosa-Klean Introducing Dosa-Klean, an exciting new solution designed specifically to clean and maintain fertilizer injectors. Dosa-Klean, with Aqua Lube, is an easy-touse, water-soluble concentrate that removes rust and calcifications while it lubricates the injector’s interior seals and all moving components. Using Dosa-Klean can assist in extending the life of fertilizer injectors. For more information, visit your local hydroponics retailer.

autopot’s 24 pot system The 24 Pot Growing System by AutoPot is one of their most popular systems. It offers a unique and extremely simple way to provide your plants with everything they need. The system requires no electricity, timers or pumps; just gravity pressure from a water tank. Once set up, the tray’s AQUAvalve takes over and provides all 24 pots with water and nutrients when required. Unlike other irrigation systems, there is no recirculation of nutrient or water, so the pH and EC remain constant in your reservoir. Easy to move and requiring minimal input, the system is extremely low maintenance. It can be left unattended for weeks at a time whilst still producing outstanding results. For further details, please visit your local retailer.


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012


autopot's flexitank 88 Gal. AutoPot is pleased to announce that their collapsible water tank—the FlexiTank— is now available in a new 88 gal. capacity. FlexiTank revolutionizes water storage: it reduces storage and shipping costs, requires no tools for assembly and takes minutes to assemble. It’s everything you need in one compact package. Once assembled, the FlexiTank can fit where other tanks cannot go and can be packed away at the end of the season. All of these features make the FlexiTank a truly cutting edge product. For more information, visit your local hydroponic store.

ltl co2 controller by dl wholesale The LTL CO2 by LTL Controls is a water-resistant, single-outlet, daytime CO2 controller with a built-in photocell that automatically deactivates CO2 production at night. This controller communicates the current ppm level using a series of blinking LED lights, and features an external non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) CO2 sensor for the most accurate ppm readings. The LTL CO2 also allows you to set the desired ppm and the ppm deadband setting. Visit your local hydroponics store to learn more.

ssteadyGrowpro's teadyG soilless Media Blocks This eco-friendly growing media is 89% air and 11% mass with an ideal blend of air porosity and water retention, which gives growers ultimate control over the growing process. Also, university studies show steadyGROWpro can increase your yields by 20%! High performance blocks from steadyGROWpro are designed for growing single plants from cuttings to maturity. In addition, plants can be started from steadyGROWpro sheet media or plugs, and transplanted to Medius 6 in. or Maximus 8 in. blocks. Suitable for drip or overhead irrigation, Medius and Maximus can be easily moved during the growing process. Consistent from top to bottom, the blocks are inert, sterile, will minimize algae growth and do not attract insects. Visit your local hydroponics store for more detailed information.

foliar spray and root dip by Microbe life hydroponics In today’s hydroponic world, foliar spraying is more commonly recommended and accepted to ensure your plants absorb their required nutrition directly. Non-toxic, non-pathogenic and safe for all vegetables and plants, Microbe Life Foliar Spray and Root Dip is a patent-pending, natural, humic and microbial-based product containing endo- and ectomycorrhizal fungi and beneficial bacteria, including photosynthetic microorganisms. It can also be used as a root dip to reduce transplant shock or introduced directly into your water reservoir for application during your regular watering schedule. It is compatible with all standard nutrient and fertilizer programs and the use of CO2, works well with all indoor and outdoor systems, can be used during all stages of growth and will not burn plants. Visit your local retailer for more information.


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT humboldt honey hydro by humboldt nutrients Humboldt Honey Hydro is an excellent sweetener for all gardens. It promotes and facilitates the growth of beneficial bacteria and fungi in your soil or soilless media and dramatically enhances the quality of any plant’s fruit. With a thinner viscosity than our Honey ES, Humboldt Honey Hydro breaks down into the smallest possible sugars when dissolved in water, creating an easily accessible food for beneficial fungus, bacteria and plants. The sugars found in Humboldt Honey Hydro also help stressed plants to remain productive and vibrant, and can increase your plants’ brix levels. Expect a sweet, good taste and aroma when you use Humboldt Honey Hydro. For more information, visit your local hydroponic store.

nourish-l by Microbe life hydroponics

ltl stage 3 recycling and lighting timer by dl wholesale

Microbe Life Hydroponics is proud to introduce Nourish-L, a unique liquid conditioner derived from a rare, highly decomposed organic humus deposit. This rich substrate provides Nourish-L with high levels of water-soluble humic acids, resulting in a robust structure that can increase water retention and might enhance the ability of plants to absorb nutrients. Nourish-L also contains a rare mixture of natural carbon compounds—the ultimate food source for your soil and its microorganisms—made of marine animal carbon and vegetative carbon compounds. This verified organic product can be used with most indoor and outdoor systems. Visit your local retailer for more information.

The Stage 3 by LTL Controls is a multi-functional timer designed specifically to work with HID lighting. The Stage 3 has unique safety features to accommodate these lights, including an internal temperature sensor that automati-cally shuts off the lights when the maximum temperature is reached, a programmable setting that controls the cool-down period of the HID bulbs in the event of a power interruption and an internal clock with a backup battery to maintain accurate timing even in the event of a power outage. It also has a 30-second preset time delay between the two lighting outputs to reduce start-up surges and high in-rush currents. For more information, visit your local retailer.

atlas 2 pre-set co2 controller by titan controls

Titan Controls is excited to release the latest product in their CO2 controller line: the Atlas 2 Preset CO2 Controller. “Simple, straightforward and effortless” is how customers have described the Atlas 2’s trouble-free functionality. It’s factory calibrated and pre-set to maintain the CO2 level in your garden at 1,500 ppm, and also features a built-in photocell that allows the Atlas 2 to operate only in the daytime period when your plants can process CO2. Another industry first brought to you by the design team at Titan Controls. Visit your local retailer for more information.


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012


sierra natural science's spider Mite control You don’t have to be Spiderman—or even have superpowers—to weave a protective web anytime you want. Harness the power of Hydrofarm’s SNS Spider Mite Control, a plant-protecting additive with 100% pure rosemary botanical extract. Spray on Spider Mite Control to keep away these devastating mites. It works by permeating the plant’s cell structure, leaking from the damaged cells and poisoning the spider mites when ingested. SNS Spider Mite Control is completely safe for plants, biodegradable, non-toxic to animals and can be used on edibles. Take a super stand and catch spider mites in your own web. For more information, visit your local hydroponics retailer.

triton's trawl by nectar for the Gods For enhanced flavors and aromas in your food crops, try Triton’s Trawl. It is a liquid fish bone bloom enhancement from Nectar for the Gods. It uses amino acids derived from fish cartilage to promote aesthetic qualities. For more information, please visit your local hydroponic store.

plant!t clay pebbles PLANT!T Clay Pebbles are made from 100% natural clay. They are clean, pH and EC stable, and offer great aeration and drainage. Due to their unique structure and large surface area, they offer the ideal environment to foster beneficial bacterial growth around the root zone, leading to healthier plants naturally. Their non-uniform shape results in an increased surface area that leads to better aeration and greater water retention. In addition they are also tumbled in the manufacturing process to give them softer edges that are kinder to new root growth when transplanting. PLANT!T Clay Pebbles will not float once fully wet, and are pre-cleaned. Visit your nearest retailer for more information.

hydrofarm's Measuring Beaker After you’ve got a grip on the new Hydrofarm Measuring Beaker, you’ll wonder how any other product ever measured up. We printed measure markings all around the beaker and included pour spouts on both the left and right sides. You’ll never twist your wrist again or hold liquids at an odd angle trying to read through the back of the beaker. You’ll also never worry about spills again with the sturdy and wide plastic base. The Hydrofarm Measuring Beaker sports divisions for cups, milliliters, pints and ounces, with permanent and easy to see green markings that won’t wash away. And it’s priced right so you can enjoy accurate convenience in the garden, kitchen, garage, laboratory and anywhere else your hobbies require you to get your pour on. Visit your local hydroponics store for more info.


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012


airavida’s smell Be Gone! Airavida Smell Be Gone! is the revolutionary new air freshener from the odor management experts at Airavida LLC. Unlike typical air fresheners and incense, which mask malodors behind an overbearing fragrance, Airavida Smell Be Gone! quickly and naturally eliminates odors through its proprietary blend of herbs and natural extracts. It is water-based, making it safe to use around children and pets, and it is free of phthalates, benzene and other carcinogens often found in glycolized air sprays. It is one of the only Green Business certified air fresheners on the market. The non-aerosol spray is carry-on approved and the travel-sized bottle is convenient to store in a car or hand bag. Safe, effective and ecofriendly, Airavida Smell Be Gone! is the new standard in complete odor management. Visit your favorite indoor gardening shop to learn more.

sunlight supply's sun system® harvest pro red line Sunlight Supply, Inc. is pleased to announce the arrival of the Sun System® Harvest Pro® Red Line™ Dual two 1,000 W switchable HPS/ MH 240 V ballast. It is the industry’s first monster core technology that operates two 1,000 W lamps (MH or HPS) independently. Pricing is comparable to buying one ballast and getting the second at half price. A two-compartment design keeps critical components cooler than any other ballast. The capacitor and igniter temperatures are greatly reduced by being in their own compartments separate from the ballast core. This capability lowers the temperature, ensuring a more reliable and longer lasting ballast. A heavy-duty handle allows for easy handling and mounting to a wall. For more information, visit your local hydroponics store.


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012


Microbe life's photosynthesis plus Beneficial Bacteria hi count Enhanced photosynthesis—a process vital to plant life—is achieved with Microbe Life Hydroponic technology. Photosynthesis Plus Beneficial Bacteria Hi Count enhances biological function at the foliar and root substrate levels, utilizing the sun’s energy and transporting minerals and carbon to the plant at improved rates. Additionally, the photosynthetic strains in Photosynthesis Plus will promote and ensure plant vigor. It is shelf stable for up to two years. This same culture consortium, produced by Ecological Laboratories, Inc., is currently used on tens of thousands of acres of food crops worldwide! Photosynthesis Plus comprises a complete ecosystem in a bottle. For more information, visit your local retailer.

co2Boost’s Boost Buddy

Co2Boost has added even more CO2-producing materials to their Boost Buddy, making it the largest CO2 bag on the market. This product offers a safe and organic way to add CO2 to your small (4 by 4 ft. or smaller) indoor growing environment, and is usable during all stages of growth. It requires no daily maintenance and produces no electricity or heat. With a breathe strip that is nine times the size of their competitors, the Boost Buddy is the most cost effective CO2 bag available for small areas today. To order, visit your nearest indoor gardening shop.

ssteadyGrowpro's teadyGrow teadyG rowpro's pro's 5 Gal. Bucket system s This new 5 gal. bucket system is designed as an all-in-one hydroponic system for growers. It comes complete with an internal water pump, water level and removal tube and basket loaded with steadyGROWpro H+ media. This stand-alone, easy-to-use system also features a flexible drip tube, allowing growers to direct and change the irrigation pattern to more quickly reach the root zone. For more information, visit your local retailer.

nutriculture’s ebb & flood Gain control of every aspect of your grow with Nutriculture’s Ebb & Flood systems. When using these low-level and space efficient systems, growers can expect bigger yields, adaptability and flexibility. Growers can control the number and duration of feeds to suit the growing environment and can use any growing medium, with or without pots. There are also size choices to suit any grow room from 2.3 ft. by 2 ft., up to 6.6 ft. by 3.3 ft. For more information about this product, visit your local retailer.


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012



sunlight supply's sun system digital 250/400 Sunlight Supply, Inc. is pleased to announce the arrival of the new and improved Sun System Digital 250/400. This state-of-the-art digital fixture will run both 250 and 400 W lamps. The integrated Galaxy® electronic ballast allows operation for both metal halide (MH) and high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps. The proprietary Smart Volt ballast operates at either 120 or 240 V (120 V cord included). This digital ballast is not only more efficient than its magnetic ballast competitors, but it also runs at a cooler temperature to reduce ambient heat. This is the next generation in Sun System, with clear, concise controls and easy-tooperate capabilities. Visit your local retailer for more information.

nutriculture’s nft Gro-tank The Nutriculture Gro-Tank takes a proven hydroponic growing method (nutrient film technique) from the glasshouse to the growroom. This commercial-grade system has been scaled down for the home grower. Growers can expect healthier crops—plants are never underwatered or overwatered, with no buildup of salts in the root zone—and up to four times greater yields when compared to conventional growing methods. With Nutriculture’s Gro-Tank, little medium is used, so there is less waste material to dispose of and fewer chances of disease. Visit your local hydroponics store for more information.


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012



HM Digital's COM-80 HydroTester HM Digital is proud to release its new COM-80, an economically priced, water-resistant handheld tester specifically designed for use in hydroponics. This easy-to-use meter is fast-acting and measures nutrients, salts and other dissolved solids in either EC or TDS with four modes (μS, mS, ppm and ppt). It also includes onscreen diagnostic messaging and temperature display in a large LCD. Along with these modes and features, its pinpoint accuracy and digital calibration make the COM-80 HydroTester the most versatile and cost-effective meter in its class. For more information, visit your local hydroponic store.

scissor fiX We found that using the most common cleaning technique on sticky scissors—rubbing alcohol with paper towels—was messy and took way too long, especially since the scissors need to be cleaned every five to 10 minutes. Scissor FIX’s high-tech aerospace foam and advance getit-clean solution, however, conditions your scissors with every use so they stay cleaner longer. The product is a one-handed cleaner, so you don’t need to set any material or the scissor down to clean them. Just dip, rub up and down several times with a rag on your leg or table to wipe clean, and you are back up and running in about four to five seconds. For more information, visit your local hydroponics retailer.

nutriculture's X-stream aeroponic propagator Nutriculture’s X-Stream Aeroponic Propagator delivers the fastest growing plants with the strongest root development and cuttings ready to transplant in just 10 to 14 days. In this unique environment, the stems of your clones are situated in a misting chamber and constantly sprayed with nutrients, with access to all the oxygen they need. The lack of growing medium means there is less risk of pests and disease. The pump and nutrient solution are easy to access, so you can check your plants’ progress without disturbing them. The X-Stream Aeroponic Propagator is available in sizes for 12 to 105 plants. For more information, visit your local retailer.

humboldt honey es by humboldt nutrients Humboldt Honey ES is a premium blend of cane molasses, yucca, kelp and ocean fish. This sweetener is as unique as it is strong. Just as the human body hosts beneficial bacteria in the digestive system, plants must host microbial life in their root zone to ensure proper digestion, growth and health. Plants feed mycorrhizal and bacterial organisms near their root zone with sugars, and when a plant goes into a fruiting cycle, they immediately divert sugars from their root zone to their fruiting bodies. It is at this time that using Humboldt Honey ES becomes most crucial so that the microbial life in the root zone don’t suffer and starve as the plant naturally channels sugars to new flowers, buds and fruits. For more information, visit your local retailer.


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012


PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT Gorilla Grow tents Engineered with a patent-pending adjustable extension system, Gorilla Grow Tents enable the indoor home gardener to increase the height of their indoor grow tent easily and quickly from the standard 7 ft. height to 8 ft. or even 9 ft. tall. Each tent is framed with doubly reinforced structural poles, which allow for no-stress accessory and component suspension. Designed with the thickest 1680D IR blocking fabric mesh insulation (essentially three to nine times thicker than any other tent on the market today), Gorilla Grow Tents maintain perfect temperature and humidity throughout while eliminating odor and sound. All Gorilla Grow Tents come with simple instructions, grow room design plans and ideas, and lifetime customer service and support. For more information, visit your favorite indoor gardening shop.

spectrapure's eliminator ro 100, 200 and 400 The Eliminator RO™ 100, 200 and 400 gal.-per-day systems feature a cost-saving 2:1 waste water ratio and a built-in pressure gauge to indicate when to change your pre-filters. They are complete systems with a float valve, an automatic in-line shutoff valve and a manual flush valve. The Eliminator RO™ 100 makes a great entry-level RO system, which is easily upgraded to a 200 gal.-per-day system by simply switching out the membrane. For maximum production in a cost-effective package, look no further than the Eliminator RO 400. These systems are produced to our exacting standards and are backed by our inhouse tech support and an industry-leading three-year warranty. Visit your local retailer to learn more.

lumiGrow's lumiBulbs

Exercise your right to light with products from the LumiGrow line. With the right light, such as LumiBulb’s red and far red LED bulbs, you can target plants’ primary photosynthetic and photomorphogenic responses. LumiGrow’s LED grow lights, available in two sizes, work along the PAR spectrum and run 75% cooler than HID lights. The smaller LumiGrow LED grow light even offers individually adjustable red and blue lighting, so you can pick and choose what you need when. If thin is in, get the skinny on the LumiGrow LumiBar, which replaces up to six T5 fluorescent tubes in a single 48 in. by 18 in. structure. Use the LumiBar for shelf growing and multi-layer crop production. For more information, visit your local retailer.


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012



By Dr. Lynette Morgan


FuL L Menu: Beneficial Elements for Plant Growth While science has identified a total of 17 essential elements required for their growth, plants also have the ability to make use of a number of other substances and elements that enhance growth, development and other functions‌


AU 54

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012




The Full Menu: BeneFicial eleMenTs For PlanT GrowTh

As hydroponic growers, we want to make the most of the quality. Cobalt might also play a role in slowing leaf aging technology and information we have access to. However, and disease resistance in some species. Trace amounts of Se have been found to stimulate growth in a variety of with advances in plant nutritional research occurring all the time, we always have much to learn about crop plant species, including ryegrass, lettuce and potato, and to nutrition and how we can best use hydroponic nutrient also provide the plants with more resistance to ultraviolet formulations to their full advantage. radiation. There is also evidence that boosting One area of interest to soilless growers has Se levels in hydroponically grown always been the use of beneficial mineral plants can help protect from The elements, which are those outside the biotic stress. range of the 17 essential macro- and Titanium is another 1 7 nutrients micronutrients required by plants element whose role in essential for to grow. Plant matter contains plant development and over 60 elements, some as diverse metabolism has been plant growth: as titanium (Ti), gold (Au), studied for over 90 years. Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), When maize is provided potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and uranium (U). Since plants with Ti in solution, magnesium (Mg), sulfur (S), evolved in soil, they developed the yield increases and chlorine (Cl), iron (Fe), the concentration of manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), sugars in the grain also copper (Cu), boron (B), rises. Studies have also molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), found that the chlorophyll oxygen (O), carbon (C), content of hydroponic hydrogen (H) tomato plants increased when Ti was added. Another interesting potential the beneficial element is iodine (I). ability to make Iodine stimulates the synthesis of cellulose use of a number and the lignification of the stem tissue, which helps the Studies have found that the chlorophyll of substances mechanical strengthening of the plant. This element content of hydroponic tomato plants and elements also increases the concentration of ascorbic acid and the increased when titanium was added to the nutrient solution. that, while not amount of total free amino acids in crops, and seems to essential for growth, have been shown to have the ability increase salt tolerance by facilitating a lower to enhance growth, development and other functions. chlorine (Cl) uptake. There are increasing reports of other beneficial elements Other beneficial elements that might play a role in plant growth and development. Some of the beneficial elements that have undergone These include silver (Ag), cerium (Ce), chromium (Cr), considerable investigation by scientists are aluminum (Al), lanthanum (La), rubidium (Rb), tin (Sn), serium (Sr), cobalt (Co), sodium (Na), selenium (Se) and silicon (Si). vanadium (V) and tungsten (W). Lithium (Li) has been Sodium, often seen as a troublesome and unwanted reported to affect the transport of sugars from leaves to element that can accumulate in hydroponic systems, does roots in certain plants and to increase the chlorophyll in fact have a role in some plants. It can replace potassium content of potato- and pepper-plant leaves. (K) as an osmoregulator and facilitate nitrate uptake. It is likely there are other elements whose quantities Aluminum is beneficial to some plants species, particularly in plant tissue are so minute it is hard to quantify their those adapted to acidic soils. Particularly, tea plants show role or presence, but these will lead to some exciting increased antioxidant properties and increased growth in discoveries in plant nutrition in years to come. Also, we the presence of Al in the root zone. only just added one of the extra elements to the preCobalt can have a number of beneficial effects, especially established list of essentials—nickel (Ni)—so it is possible in leguminous plants (like peas) where it increases growth, that other beneficial elements could follow suit in nodule number and weight, and seed pod yield and the future.


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

The Full Menu: BeneFicial eleMenTs For PlanT GrowTh

Most of the nutrients mentioned have two things in common: The growth advantage of certain elements is often species dependant and most, but not all, extras are only required in minute quantities and become toxic if the levels are too high. There is, however, one exception: silica.

incorporated into the tissues, Si can’t be redistributed thought the plant; so, Si needs to be in constant supply if the entire plant is to contain a useful amount. (Si is many plant tissues at 10% or higher dry weight.) The role of Si in plants is multifunctional. It contributes to strength and thickness of cell walls, helping to keep plants upright and to position Silica (Si) the leaves for good light interception. Silicon is a common element It also plays a role in resistance to that makes up more than 25% attacks by fungi and insects, and of the Earth’s crust. In fact, provides greater tolerance to plant the concentration of Si in stress due to high salinity, heavy metal soil is equal to that of many toxicity, drought, UV radiation from macronutrients, such as K and sunlight, extremes of temperature, etc. calcium (Ca), and well in excess Silica reduces the incidence and severity of powdery Several plants, including rice, sugar mildew disease. of phosphorus (P) levels. Silicon cane and tomatoes, actually require is mostly available to plants as Si as an essential element, while a monosilicic acid—Si(OH)4—which is taken up by the roots large number of other species have shown this element to offer from soil water. The element is then deposited as amorphous growth benefits like increased absorption and translocation of silica throughout the plant, mainly in cell walls. Once several macro- and micronutrients.


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

The Full Menu: BeneFicial eleMenTs For PlanT GrowTh

Beneficial elements & human health Higher animals like humans eat to obtain certain elements they require to survive, many of which are beneficial to plants as well—for example, Na, I, Co, Se, Si, Cr, Sn,V and F. In the past there was concern raised that crops grown in soilless systems, such as hydroponics, could be deficient in some of the minerals people need for good health. More recent research, however, has shown that most hydroponically grown produce contains similar levels of elements to plants grown in soil and, what’s more,

using beneficial-element-enhanced nutrient solutions can turn hydroponics into a tool for producing nutritionally superior food. Indeed, human nutrition and health can be improved by having crops naturally incorporate human-benefitting (and plant-benefitting) elements into their tissue at increased levels, especially since these elements are incorporated into plant tissue in a more biologically active form that is more suited to human intake. For example, hydroponic garlic grown in an Se-enriched nutrient solution has potent anti-cancer properties that are direct results from the form of Se that developed inside that plant tissue. The potential for enrichment of human diets with beneficial element and organic supplements in hydroponic crop production is huge and something that even small growers can take advantage of.

How to add beneficial elements to hydroponic nutrient solutions Hydroponic garlic has been grown in Se-enriched nutrient solutions to boost the levels of Se, which has human health benefits.


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

Many water sources, particularly well water, already contain a range of the additional elements found in plant tissue; however, the levels and types of elements will vary depending on the location and soil type. Some beneficial elements also find their


way into hydroponic nutrient solutions from dust, growing medium or tiny amounts of soil contamination, but growers can intentionally boost these levels by supplementing their nutrient solution. In the early days of hydroponics, some growers added small volumes of soil extract or sea water to their nutrient solution as a source of diverse microelements, but this often led to issues with salt accumulation. Now, there are far more advanced ways of adding in the While it’s not practical for a hydroponic grower to obtain and weigh out the extremely tiny quantities needed of the pure salts of these elements, large scale manufacturers of nutrient formulations and hydroponic additives can do this with a high degree of accuracy and ensure growers are using the correct levels of these elements. As a simpler approach, there are other organic- and mineral-based hydroponic additives and nutrient products—such as seaweed concentrates, concentrated vermicast extract, organic nutrients and mineral clay supplements—that So, planning a full menu of elements for your plants includes giving thought to both the essential macroand micronutrients and a whole host of other potential

and solutions for hydroponics, this is something well worth taking advantage of. MY

Cobalt is particularly beneficial to leguminous plants such as peas and beans.


Maximum Yield USA |


Maximum Yield USA | May 2012

Maximum Yield USA | May 2012


by Grubbycup

Start Your Plant’s Day

Right: Organic and Chemical Nutrients A plant needs elemental nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium for healthy growth, but where it gets these nutrients presents growers with a whole plateful of choices‌


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

sTarT Your PlanT's DaY riGhT: orGanic anD cheMical nuTrienTs

Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) are elements. As such, there is no difference between those elements from an organic nutrient and from a chemical nutrient. Elemental N, for example, is the exact same regardless of the source. For this article, let’s keep looking at N: the most important of the above elements. Unfortunately, plants can’t absorb pure elemental N directly and there isn’t a way to feed plants a pile of single N atoms. There is plenty of nitrogen gas (N2) in air, but plants can’t split the two atoms apart. What garden plants most often use as their source of N is nitrate (NO3)— which is an N atom connected with three oxygen (O) atoms— because this compound is easy for plants to separate. Woody plants like trees can also use ammonium (NH4) as a source of N. Animal waste and plant material that has fallen to the ground are two sources of N that occur naturally in untended wilderness. To emulate this, manufactured organic nutrients tend to be made from naturally occurring materials with minimal processing. One advantage to this is that the materials (eg., leaves, lawn clippings, livestock manure, etc.) can often be collected cheaply and require little processing before use—often just maturing or composting. Compost (3-1-2) is very similar to what happens in nature when leaves and assorted other plant material winds up on the ground when nobody is around to rake it up. Blood meal (12-0-0) and alfalfa meal (2-1-2) are two other organic fertilizers that are based on things found to supply natural setting plants with nutrition. As these things decompose (or compost), bacteria and fungi convert them into ammonia (NH3) and ammonium. Another organic source of ammonia is the waste products of animals, which contain N in the form of urea (CO(NH2)2). The ur ea is converted to ammonia by bacteria using the enzyme ureasec. Regardless of the source, if the ammonia is exposed to acidic conditions (pH less than seven) it picks up another hydrogen (H) atom and converts to

ammonium—this part of why pH can have an effect on plant growth; if the pH is too high, this conversion is inhibited. Beneficial bacteria then convert the ammonium to nitrate, which can then be used by the garden plants.



Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

I like to compare organic nutrients to eating oatmeal for breakfast, as they tend to be bulky and release their nutrients over a long period of time.


I like to compare organic nutrients to eating oatmeal for breakfast, as they tend to be bulky and release their nutrients over a long period of time. Some forms of organic fertilizers can continue to release nutrients for more than one season, improving the general long-term health of the soil. Also, with the exception of high-ammonia “hot” manures, organic nutrients are less prone to overfeeding; compost, worm casting and fish excrement can be used in almost unlimited quantities without causing nute burn—which is wrinkledpaper-like damage on the leaves of the plant from using too much fertilizer. However, since organic nutrients tend to be less processed, they can also be more prone to clogging hydroponic systems that rely on sprayers and pumps. The NPK values for organic nutrients

are also usually lower than for chemi chemical-based solutions because the per percentage of nutrient to total mass tends to be lower. And since they are closer to a natural state, the NPK values for organic products tend to be less exact than with chemical-based fertilizers, which can be made to exact recipes. However, there is more than one way to make ammonia. It can be manufactured chemically from nitrogen gas by applying heat, pressure and an iron catalyst. Ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) and ammonium nitrate ((NH4)(NO3)) are other manufactured forms of N. All of these chemical nutrients allow some (or all) of the steps needed to create nitrate to be skipped because they start the N further along the path and closer to the finished nitrate. However, they also do not last as long as organic compounds before giving up the N it contains. Chemical nutrients are more like having an energy drink for breakfast. They are shortcuts to the process and release their nutrients quickly, then need a top up to avoid a “crash.” However, chemical nutrients can allow for a greater level of control as to how much and when the N becomes available to the plants since they are shortcuts to the natural process. This can allow for a higher nutrient level and performance than is possible with organic nutrients.

sTarT Your PlanT's DaY riGhT

With this level of control comes responsibility, however, as introducing an overabundance becomes a much more likely temptation—one which can result in nute burn or overloading and damaging natural systems with the runoff. For example, adding a chemical nitrate allows for the entire nitrate-creation process to be skipped and an immediate supply of N to the plants, but—because chemical nitrates are water soluble—what isn’t taken up by the plant will quickly wash downstream (unless recirculated). Overdosing plants with chemicals can also imbalance a natural system to the point that it becomes inhospitable to beneficial bacteria and fungi. Depending on the exact chemical used, there might also be “leftover” residue that can build up in the system over time. This is where the practice of watering heavily without nutrients for a time (flushing), which helps wash away any leftover chemical buildup, comes from. So, the differences between chemical and organic nutrition are not as absolute as they are often portrayed. They both use the same process to supply the same elements to the plants and they are both tools that can be used successfully when used correctly. The primary differences are in how many shortcuts are taken and what remains afterward. Although purists on both sides might strongly disagree, I believe there is little reason not to make use of the benefits of both in moderation. Plants awaiting organic nutrients to become available might benefit from a little chemical boost to tide them over, and long-lasting organic materials can help create a buffer for fast-acting chemical nutrient gardens. After all, sometimes a big hearty high fiber breakfast is what a person needs to start the day and sometimes all one needs is a good, strong cup of coffee. As always, understanding why you are adding something to your garden, and how it works, goes a long way toward picking the one that’s right for you. MY


Maximum Yield USA | July May 2012 2012

Organic Nutrients for a



In the quest for a sustainable future, it is not enough to simply grow our own food. We must also grow in a knowledgeable, responsible and environmentally friendly way using appropriate systems, growing mediums, nutrients and more‌ 74

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

by Matt LeBannister

"Seaweed and kelp grow in vast underwater forests and can be harvested from the ocean, grown naturally or farmed, or can be gathered off beaches as they inevitably wash ashore." Everyone wants a sustainable future to live in and we, as gardeners, tend to strive toward this goal in our own ways. There are always some choices that are better than others—certain lights are more energy efficient than others, a number of greenhouses allow us to use the sun’s energy to provide light and heat, and some growing mediums are reusable and sustainable. This article is going to focus on a different, yet related, area: organic, sustainable nutrients.

Seaweed and Kelp

One such organic sustainable nutrient is seaweed, including the large brown variety known as kelp. Seaweed and kelp grow in vast underwater forests and can be harvested from the ocean, grown naturally or farmed, or can be gathered off beaches as they inevitably wash ashore. Since seaweed is extremely fast growing and does not harm native species—in fact, many animals feed, live and raise their young in dense kelp forests—these underwater plants are ideal candidates for a sustainable source of organic nutrients for the indoor garden. However, seaweed- and kelp-based organic nutrients are not only a great choice because of how environmentally friendly they are. They are also full of what plants need. While having Maximum Yield USA | July 2012


orGanic nuTrienTs For a susTainaBle ToMorrow

insignificant NPK levels, kelp-based nutrients do contain over 70 essential vitamins, minerals, amino acids, trace elements and plant hormones. This is what enables kelp to grow half 1.64 ft. a day, reaching lengths exceeding 100 ft. These fertilizers also contain natural antibiotic properties that can suppress harmful bacteria while promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria. Organic kelp-based fertilizers help facilitate the uptake of nutrients and can help relieve the stress in cuttings and plants after being transplanted. It is possible to dry seaweed and kelp into meal that can be mixed into your growing medium. There are also many liquid forms of seaweed-based fertilizers that are water-soluble, which can easily be added to a hydroponic reservoir, hand watered into planters or foliar sprayed. A benefit to liquid kelp-based fertilizers is that they are assimilated by the plants immediately, while kelp and seaweed meal can take up to a month or more to be assimilated by plants.

Seabird Guano

Seabird guano is an organic nutrient that is sustainable and can be collected with minimal disturbance to the wildlife and ecosystem. Seabird guano—the droppings of fish-eating seabirds—is high in nitrogen, phosphorous and calcium, with an average


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

"Worm castings are also a cost-effective solution for plant nutrients that could be utilized by poorer nations and regions where soil conditions are less than ideal." NPK around 10-10-3. The best seabird guano comes from Chile and Peru, where the Humboldt current along the coast keeps the rains away and prevents the decomposition of the guano. Seabird guano is watersoluble and has little odor, and can be assimilated by plants in one to four months when applied in powder form. For use in hydroponic systems or for quicker assimilation, liquid seabird-guano-based fertilizers are recommended. Or, as a DIY project, you can wrap powdered seabird guano in a nylon stocking and soak it in a bucket for one to three days to make your own liquid fertilizer that won’t clog pumps or drippers in hydroponic garden systems.

Worm Castings

Worm castings—also known as vermicompost or worm humus—are the organic materials that have been digested by worms. Nutrient levels vary depending on what the worms have been fed, but there is usually some

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012


orGanic nuTrienTs For a susTainaBle ToMorrow

nitrogen and many trace elements. Worm castings are an excellent choice because it won’t reach toxic levels of nitrogen and burn plants. They also promote healthy soil and beneficial bacteria and fungi. Worm castings should be used in conjunction with some other organic nutrient because vermicompost will help break it down, making the nutrients more easily assimilated by the plant. Worm castings can also be used to help soil/soilless mediums retain more water. However, worm castings are dense and can cause the medium to have poor aeration, so be careful not to over apply. Worm castings are an environmentally friendly option for an organic garden fertilizer because converting biowastes into a plant friendly nutrient reduces the waste that goes to landfills. Worm castings are more readily available to plants than regular compost, which can take years before it is safe to use in a garden. Worm castings are also a cost-effective solution for plant nutrients that could be utilized by poorer nations and regions where soil conditions are less than ideal.

Fish Emulsion

Fish emulsion is a soluble liquid fertilizer made of fish waste that has been heat and acid processed. It contains many micronutrients, has an average NPK of 4-1-1, and releases nutrients quite fast. Fish emulsion is beneficial for tender


Maximum Yield USA | July May 2012 2012

plants like seedlings and cuttings, and can be topwatered, used in a hydroponic solution or foliar sprayed. The only downside of fish emulsion is that it can smell pretty foul—even the brands that are “deodorized” can have a bad odor. Fish emulsion is a great sustainable source of organic nutrients for plants. With fish stocks steadily depleting, fish farming is becoming more common and the runoff water from these farms is loaded with fish emulsion. Indeed, many fish farms are collecting the runoff water, processing it and selling to indoor and commercial gardeners. Some farms are also turning to aquaponics to incorporate gardening into their system. Here, the runoff from the fish farms is pumped to greenhouses and hydroponic systems, providing plants with the nutrients they need to thrive. You can make your own fish emulsion if you have a fish tank at home. Whenever the water in the tank needs replacing, just use it to water your plants.

Making Your Own Compost Tea

Another way to get a soluble organic fertilizer that is environmentally responsible is to make your own compost tea. By making it yourself, you can control exactly what is going into the substance. Some common ingredients are fish emulsion, soluble seaweed or kelp, molasses, worm castings, processed insect manure and seabird guano. To make your own compost tea, fill a nylon sock with your combination of water-soluble organic nutrients

orGanic nuTrienTs s For a susTaina susTainaBle T Taina Ble ToMorrow

"Every choice we make has an effect on the world and those around us." and soak them for a few days in a bucket filled with water. The sock will filter out anything that might clog up pumps or drippers used in hydroponic systems. After a few days the compost tea will be ready to added to a hydroponic reservoir or diluted and top-watered. Another way to make compost tea is to get an old drip coffee maker (you can easily find one at thrift shops and reuse stores). Insert a coffee filter, add your water-soluble organic nutrient mix into the filter and run water through the coffee maker, just as you would when making coffee. The nutrient will percolate through the filter and you will end up with a coffee pot full of compost tea. A warning, however: making your own compost tea can stink, so it might be best to create it in a shed, the


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

garage or on a porch or balcony. Nutrient contents will also vary, so testing with an EC or ppm meter will help you dilute the solution to a plant-safe level. Every choice we make has an effect on the world and those around us. There are consequences to our actions. Starting a garden is a step in the right direction, but we must always try to be better. Think of where your plants’ nutrients come from and what effect harvesting or creating that nutrient might have on the ecosystem. Using organic nutrients from a sustainable source can make gardening that much more environmentally friendly and, gradually, lead to a better tomorrow. MY

Maximum Yield USA | May 2012


RO Water: by Richard Gellert

Your Nutrient Formula’s BFF A perfectly balanced nutrient formula that includes all the macro- and micronutrients necessary for your plants’ is the not-so-secret prescription for growing success. However, to be assured that every single component of this formula is accessible, you must start with a base of pure water…


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

ro waTer...

The best way to ensure that you're starting with a clean foundation of pure water on which to build your formula of plant-specific nutrients for the perfect nutrient solution is to use water produced by reverse osmosis (RO). This is the only way to guarantee that every single part per million (ppm) of your chosen nutrient formula is being maximized toward plant growth. Nutrient companies use RO water in the manufacture of their product, so they can safely and accurately measure and control their particular formula. These same companies also recommend that their customers do the same.





Na Conversely, starting with a base of contaminated tap water with high ppm—made up of all sorts of unknown chemical contaminants—obviously does not guarantee the efficacy of your nutrient formula. Additionally, those high ppm are generally not made up of the best stuff for your plants. Sodium and chloride are often present, as are all sorts of chemical and natural contaminants. Without getting a professional water test, it’s impossible to know what the heck is in there. Characterization of contaminants aside, the amount of ppm alone can present a problem. For example, say the ppm of your water is 300 straight out of the tap. Maybe your plants are young at this point and only require 600 ppm of nutrient solution. This presents you with a dilemma: do you add 600 ppm of your nutrient, bringing your total to 900 and potentially damaging your plants with an overly rich solution? Or, do you only add 300 ppm of nutrient to bring up the whole solution to the recommended 600 ppm level, potentially depriving your


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

ro waTer...

"The calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate present in tap water are generally too large a molecular structure for plant roots to absorb efficiently."

plants of 300 ppm of necessary nutrients in order to leave room for the 300 ppm of mystery contaminants in you water? Either way, your formula is far from the perfect balance required for ideal plant growth. Many people think that the ppm of their water is made up simply of calcium and magnesium, two beneficial minerals that are actually vital to the growth of plants. What they don’t realize is that—although calcium and magnesium are necessary and are frequently a major part of the ppm—the calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate present in tap water are generally too large a molecular structure for plant roots to absorb efficiently. Therefore, these compounds need to be chelated (broken down) into a more usable form. This can be accomplished through fulvic and humic acids, as well as beneficial biologicals; still, these methods require time and energy from the plants—time and energy better spent growing big and strong. Also, nutrient lock-out—which is when large particles


Mg ppm

Mg 88

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012


ro waTer...

of calcium and magnesium cluster on the roots of plants and prevent other nutrients from being absorbed—is nearly always a result of people using tap water with excessive amounts of calcium and magnesium in addition to plant nutrients that also have calcium and magnesium, creating an imbalanced Ca:Mg ratio. Some nutrient manufacturers make a hard-water nutrient formula, with decreased levels of Ca and Mg; however, since there’s no way to regulate the specific hardness levels of your tap water (which can fluctuate widely week to week), a hard-water-specific formula seems like a rather unspecific solution. So, in the end, utilizing RO water and adding plantspecific calcium and magnesium is the best way to ensure fast absorption and assimilation of the substances that ultimately promote explosive plant growth. The ultimate goal of hydroponics, its mission, its reason for being, is to grow plants as big and as healthy as possible in the smallest amount of time possible. The easiest and fastest way to get the most out of your nutrients is to use the purest water. This in turn can shorten the time needed per harvest, meaning you can get more harvests per year. Experienced gardeners know that reverse osmosis is the best way to get that pure water, and that utilizing pure water means that you’ll be using your feed formula the way that its manufacturer intended. MY


"The ultimate goal of hydroponics, its mission, its reason for being, is to grow plants as big and as healthy as possible in the smallest amount of time possible."


Ca ppm


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012


Roots, Shoots Party Six & the of

by William DeBoer

For some people, hydroponics is counterintuitive. Don’t plants’ roots rot in water? How do you know you are providing the right nutrients to the plants? Isn’t it costly and less efficient than planting in soil? In this article, William DeBoer dispels some of these misgivings—as well as breaks down a few complex ideas into simple ones—by looking at water quality in hydroponic systems…


>61 ppm o

68 F

Hydroponics is the soilless growth of plants by immersing the roots in a nutrient solution. This nutrient solution can be administered in an open system (a one-time flushing of the roots) or a closed system (where the solution is recirculated repeatedly). For hydroponic growers, the relationship between roots and shoots is paramount.


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

Roots need carbohydrates produced by the leaves for growth. Likewise, leaves depend on the roots for water (maintaining turgor pressure) and nutrients for assisting photosynthesis and various other biological processes. Since these plants are growing mostly in an aqueous environment, monitoring the water quality is integral for obtaining positive results. Just as water quality is important

Without adequate levels of oxygen, cellular respiration of root cells is reduced or ceases entirely.

to aquarium enthusiasts, so too should hydroponic growers have knowledge of certain parameters. Those parameters include temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC) and hardness and alkalinity. While most of these parameters do not need to be monitored on a weekly basis, all are important in regard to initial set-up. First, let’s discuss the role of temperature on plant growth. Temperature impacts plant growth directly through kinetics. Lower temperatures will reduce absorption of water/ions by the roots while increased temperatures will have the opposite effect. In addition, temperature has a direct impact on cellular respiration and DO in water. For example, if the temperature increased from 68oF to 86oF, the saturation of DO decreases by 17% while the rate of oxygen (O2) consumption via cellular respiration doubles. Therefore as temperature increases, the level of DO decreases and the demand for oxygen increases. As a general guideline, optimal temperature between 68oF and 86oF will facilitate ideal plant growth in hydroponic systems. Now let’s review the connection of temperature and DO in water. Arguably, one of the most important, albeit sometimes overlooked, water quality parameters in hydroponic systems is dissolved oxygen. Without adequate levels of oxygen, cellular respiration of root cells is reduced or ceases entirely. This reduction in oxygen leads to decreased water/ion absorption, which causes nutrient deficiencies and decreased growth. In anaerobic conditions, root necrosis (death) can occur, leading to total loss of the plant. Dissolved oxygen is less problematic in open systems than closed systems because of the constant inundation of water to the roots. As temperature increases, there is a decrease in the saturation of dissolved oxygen in water coupled with an increase in metabolic oxygen demand. The dissolved oxygen saturation point for temperatures

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012


rooTs, shooTs anD The ParTY oF six

of 68oF to 86oF is 8.84 and 7.53 ppm, respectively. When looking at water sources, inherent dissolved oxygen can range from 20 to 40% saturation; however, levels below 60% saturation can lead to decreased vigor. Thus mechanical mixing of water or adding O2 via air pumps might be a necessary step to maximize plant growth.

As for the impact of pH on nutrient availability, the pH of water directly affects the availability of essential elements. Water and nutrient solutions are best kept slightly acidic, with a value of siz to 6.5—though it is acceptable to maintain pH between five to seven. Extremes of pH should be avoided. If the solution is too acidic (below five) then toxicity might occur due to excessive absorption. If the solution is too basic

Extremes of pH should be avoided. If the solution is too acidic (below five) then toxicity might occur due to excessive absorption.

(above eight) then nutrient deficiencies might occur due to precipitation of certain micronutrients. Another method of monitoring nutrient content is with total dissolved solids (TDS). TDS is the measure of both organic (proteins, carbohydrates, etc.) and inorganic (most of


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

the nutrients) content of water. Like many of the parameters discussed, extreme values of TDS should be avoided. TDS should not exceed 1,400 ppm with an acceptable range between 200 and 500 ppm. Levels below 100 ppm could indicate reduced nutrient availability and additional “fertilizer” is required. Electrical conductivity (EC) is the main way of estimating nutrient content. Electrical conductivity provides information pertaining to the concentration of ions or salt content in solution. For general purposes your water source should have an EC value below one dS/m. Water that is hard (contains Mg2+ and Ca2+) will have a larger EC value than soft water. Once you add nutrients (fertilizer) to the water, the EC value should be maintained above one dS/m and below three dS/m depending on the salts used. Ideal EC values of the nutrient solution should be between 1.5 and two dS/m. Carefully monitor water levels as quick evaporation can lead to salt toxicity due to a concentrating effect. Finally, let’s look at the role of hardness and alkalinity on water sources used in hydroponics. Hardness and alkalinity are important factors when evaluating ideal water sources. Hardness measures the amount of calcium and magnesium ions dissolved in water. Water that has a high amount of Ca2+ and Mg2+ (>61 ppm) is said to be hard while water that contains low or no amounts (< 60 ppm) is soft. It is the author’s opinion that there is not an ideal hardness, but you have to take into account the levels of magnesium and calcium in your source water when determining your nutrient solution. Indeed, the water source might contain

the necessary amount of both ions so that supplementation is not necessary. Alkalinity measures the acid neutralizing ability of the water. A high alkalinity (above 100 ppm, if calculations are based on mg/L of CaCO3) will be very resistant to changes in the pH while a low alkalinity or low

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012


rooTs, shooTs anD The ParTY oF six

buffering capacity of water can lead to dramatic swings in pH. The ideal level of alkalinity also depends on the grower. For some, the ability to adjust the pH quickly and easily is



dissolved solids is the measure of both organic (proteins, carbohydrates, etc.) and inorganic (most of the nutrients) content of water.


more ideal than the alternative. This is especially the case when reverse osmosis filtration is used to create soft water in hard water areas. Avoid using ion exchange resins (water softeners) as these units replace Ca2+ and Mg2+ with sodium (Na+), often at concentrations that are detrimental to plants. Hydroponics is a dynamic method for growing plants and hopefully this article has provided helpful guidelines and useful information, whether you are novice or an expert in hydroponics. Many of these recommendations are based on general principles and, as such, are not applicable to every plant. Always research the plant of interest, as well as your water source, prior to starting up a hydroponic system. MY


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

by Annie Spiegelman

Why School Gardens Matter Now More Than Ever When my son was in middle school, I received an email from a sixth-grade science teacher asking for parent volunteers to build a school garden. I told her I’d come by once or twice to lend some of my master gardening advice, but I wasn’t going to be hoodwinked into a long-term parent volunteer commitment. I’d been around the block. “I’m from New York. I can smell a rope-a-dope operation two zip codes away,” I told her. Yeah, right.


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

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GrowinG MinDs...

Garden Club students cooking fava beans they grew.

I’ve been coordinating the middle school organic garden now for over three years. When an 11-year-old student says, “My experiences in the school garden have been some of the greatest times of my life,” you can’t leave.You’re stuck; suckerpunched by a 6th grader. Just two months ago, Rey Mayoral, principal of Novato High School in Northern California, asked me to advise his studentrun Garden Club. I reluctantly said yes, knowing that (again) once I started I’d never escape. I decided if I were going to take on a high school garden, my goal would be to turn those teens into tree huggers and flower enthusiasts for life, just like the junk food and videogame companies aim to do with their products. Imagine children addicted to doing something good that won’t kill brain cells, clog arteries or make them sick, obese and lackadaisical. Academic success of America’s youth is strongly linked with their health. Children who eat well are more likely to perform well and have fewer behavior problems. This outdoor learning, away from sitting at a desk, encourages students to explore and problem-solve while building their self-esteem, nourishing their bodies and spirit and offering themselves an appreciation for the gifts of the natural world (even if they’re only pretending to look interested). I couldn’t say no. How can any parent not be concerned when the United States is rated number one globally in childhood obesity, and the Center for Disease Control claims that 100

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

GrowinG MinDs: school GarDens anD whY TheY’re iMPorTanT

any child born since 2001 now has a one out of three chance of becoming diabetic because of the abundance of cheap, highly processed food? On top of that, pediatricians now warn that today’s children might be the first generation of Americans since World War II to die at an earlier age than their parents. A school garden can literally be a lifesaver. Studies conducted by the National Gardening Association show that students who grow their own food are more likely to eat fresh fruits and vegetables. They’re also more likely to taste unfamiliar vegetables, such as kale—the latest trendy green leaf loaded with vitamins and antioxidants. We grew over 50 heads of kale this season in both of the school gardens. Students took gorgeous green heads home to their parents and they made the high school principal, a meat and potatoes guy, eat kale, kale, kale! (They felt that was great payback.) They also took home a strong, smart and sustainable message to their parents. They asked them why they weren’t composting in their own backyards when they learned in earth science class that our landfills are filling


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

Working in the middle school garden.

GrowinG MinDs...

Tasting the lettuce and kale.

up at an alarming rate and that food scraps and other organic waste take up almost half of all landfill space. They even brought their science books to me, showing facts about methane in the landfill; molecule for molecule, methane traps 25 times as much of the sun’s heat in the atmosphere as carbon dioxide, thus contributing significantly to global warming. They even quoted the words of our guest garden speaker, soil scientist Stephen Andrews from UC Berkeley: “Dirt is the stuff your nosey next-door neighbor digs up on you. Dirt is what comes out of your vacuum cleaner. It’s not soil. Soil is alive. Nothing grows in dirt. To make soil, add COMPOST!” Besides the proven enhanced academic achievement in science and the outdoor education in farming 101, a school garden promotes healthy mental and physical lifestyles, instills an environmental stewardship ethic and encourages community and a sense of place. Almost as important as all of the above is the fact that a school garden simply looks fabulous! Transforming an old weed patch surrounded by pavement into a growing oasis is aesthetically healing to all.

“Imagine children addicted to doing something good that won’t kill brain cells, clog arteries or make them sick, obese and lackadaisical.”


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

GrowinG MinDs: school GarDens anD whY TheY’re iMPorTanT

“Our garden is centered in a place on campus that gets a lot of traffic, so the plants and life growing in it are able to be shared by many people,” says Mary Buckley, president of the Garden Club at Novato High School. “For students, having this small cacophony of growing plants reminds them that more is grown at school than the size of your binder or to-do list; there is life. For the students that are able to participate in building the garden comes a small increase in responsibility and along with this comes a large sense of accomplishment.” In his best-selling book, Last Child in the Woods: Saving our Children From Nature-Deficit Disorder, author and journalist Richard Louv writes, “Children of the digital age have become increasingly alienated from the natural world, with disastrous implications, not only for their physical fitness, but for their long-term mental and spiritual health. Outdoor, unstructured play is not just fun, but is also profoundly important to raising children who are physically, mentally and emotionally healthy.” The good news? According to Dr. Michelle Ratcliffe, farm-toschool program manager for the Oregon State

“Our garden is centered in a place on campus Department of Agriculture, school gardens are not a fringe element that gets a lot of “I must have received traff ic, so the plants anymore. 1,000 calls this past year from people asking me to help them and life growing in it start a school garden or farm-toare able to be shared school program,” says Ratcliffe. There are now roughly 4,000 by many people.” school gardens in California alone.

Planting lettuce seed in March at Novato High.


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

“There are other things that are even more important than the academic value of the garden: its affect on our children. In a world full of TVs, video games, the Internet and cell phones, the garden has instilled the intrinsic value of caring for our Earth and each other,” says Nicole

GrowinG MinDs: school GarDens anD whY TheY’re iMPorTanT

Studying a banana slug.

Calmels, a middle school science teacher in the Bay Area. “The friendships and camaraderie built from the hours turning the compost pile, taking soil samples, witnessing heads of broccoli grow from tiny seedlings and learning botanical


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

names cannot be measured. The feeling of self-worth from contributing to such a project as part of a team cannot be tested. Our garden has raised a “science family” in the classroom. As a teacher, I couldn’t ask for anything better than that.” MY

For more on school gardens and science curriculums, visit the California School Garden Network ( and the National Gardening Association Kids Gardening program (, and check out How to Grow a School Garden: A Complete Guide for Parents and Teachers by Arden Bucklin-Sporer and Rachel Kathleen Pringle. Any donations of tools or garden products to school gardens would be greatly appreciated since public school budget cuts are growing like weeds. Also, contact Annie at with any corporate sponsorship ideas.

Low-Maintenance Hydroponics: Self-Watering Containers by Casey Jones Fraser

Thinking abouT ThaT summer vacaTion? vaca Well, subirriga irrigaTion—WiTh iTs concealed WaTer hydraTing The supply hydra groWing medium— gro mighT be The key To some Well-earned Time off. using This sysTem, indoor gardeners can go Week for a W eek or more WiThouT W iThou houTT WaTering... WaTering...


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

low-MainTenance hYDroPonics: selF-waTerinG conTainers

Many indoor gardeners have their precious plants blooming in 3 gal. or 5 gal. plastic pots. Fast-growing plants drink up moisture under bright horticultural lights, so growers have to water those pots three to seven times per week. Some even report watering twice daily. Either way, the time spent on this garden chore adds up quickly. However, maintenance could be drastically reduced, especially on hot summer days or under hot grow lights, if these gardeners used the same sized containers with sub-irrigation. Sub-irrigation containers—also known as self-watering pots—have a chamber of water under the soilless mix. Small sections of growing medium reach down into the chamber and act as wicks. The entire container is then watered slowly and steadily through the absorption of the solution from below. As you can imagine, this simple concept allows for much lower pricing than more complex hydroponic methods. Also, there are no pumps to get clogged. In my region, a local professional gardener has constructed an entire 4 ft. by 8 ft. garden bed with sub-irrigation. He fed and watered his crop each week, and beneficial bacteria, myccorhizae and enzymes were added to prevent rotinducing organisms from setting up shop in the layer of water and nutrients under the soilless mix. Even with this minimal watering, plants were robust and the harvest was bountiful. To accomplish sub-irrigation gardening at home, growers can either buy special containers made for the task or they can construct their own with materials from the grow shop and hardware store. Obviously, the prefab units are preferred for their ease of use and reliability, but many growers will want to build it themselves. So first, let’s look at the DIY method. You’ll need a drill, a bucket or container without holes, large-grade perlite, a piece of tubing, two 3 in. rockwool blocks and some soilless mix.


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

sTep 4: Place one end of the tube into the perlite, making sure the top end of the tube is above the rim of the pot. sTep 1: Drill a couple of ½ in. holes into the side of your container, about 3 in. up from the bottom.

sTep 5: Fill the container with a potting mix that is appropriate for self-watering planters.* (See Page 114) sTep 2: Place the two rockwool cubes (pre-soaked) into the container.

sTep 3: Pour in 3 in. of perlite, making sure the perlite is even with the rockwool cubes and the ½ in. hole.

sTep 6: Fill the perlite layer with nutrient solution via the watering tube. Water will trickle out of the ½ in. hole when it is full.

low-MainTenance hYDroPonics: selF-waTerinG conTainers

*my favoriTe mix for These conTainers, as Well as oTher indoor garden applicaTions, is a Well-mixed blend of The folloWing iTems: 1 parT peaT-based poTTing mix 1 parT coir-based poTTing mix 1 parT rockWool groW cubes

sTep 7: Soak the soil and add a healthy plant. Keep the plant watered by refilling every seven to 14 days, or as needed. Prefabricated sub-irrigation containers are even easier to use, and take only seconds to set up. These plastic containers have specially made inserts to create their water chambers. The insert raises the soilless mix up off the bottom of the planter, allowing space for water or nutrient solution. Many of these containers have great conveniences like overflow holes to prevent overfilling and, similar to the DIY container, a tube for refilling the water chamber. For growers who use sub-irrigation to cultivate culinary herbs, such as basil, rosemary or thyme, you will be impressed with the increase in those plants’ essential oils. These containers create varying moisture zones in the soil, with roots growing in drier soil at the top, moist soil in the middle, and water in the sub-irrigation chamber. With these mixed moisture levels growers can inoculate the growing medium and the water chamber with high populations of microbial organisms. As the roots grow into the solution, they are coated with microbiology—which seems to result in a direct increase in essential oils in herb plants. Of course, with increased 114

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

oils you can also expect increased flavors and aromas. Another advantage of subirrigation growing is a better breakdown of organic substances in the root zone. Many growers incorporate organic products, such as kelp, into their feeding regimens. Plants cannot take up these organic substances directly; bacteria must break them down first. The sub-irrigation chamber is the perfect environment for this organic breakdown. If you are growing with 100% organic inputs, try using these techniques. You might find increased yield from better nutrient availability. If you are growing motherplants, also called donor plants, these types of self-watering pots can be an ideal method of keeping the old ladies happy and healthy.Top off the pot once every week or two, and you won’t need any pumps or timers to irrigate them. Motherplants with a constant source of moisture often produce soft growth that is perfect for fast-rooting clones.

So, let’s look at the advantages of growing your prized plants in pots with pockets of water. The most obvious advantage is less watering, which gives you more time for other garden maintenance or, perhaps, a road trip. And finally, drought-weary gardeners and organic gardeners can expect healthier plants with the possibility of heavier harvests. If any of those sound good to you, try growing in a few sub-irrigation containers.You might like them so much you’ll convert your entire garden. Check with your local hydroponics retailer for more details on the various sizes and brands available in your area. MY


Are You

Covered? by Jonathan Valdman

Thinking about crop insurance in these times of growing climatic uncertainty? A greenhouse might be the answer…

There is so much debate going on today about climate change. Is the Earth warming up? Is it cooling down? Are we going to have another drought or do we need to prepare for a flood? The one thing we can probably all agree on, however, is that the climate is changing—and with that change comes unpredictability. Change is good for people; it keeps us on our toes. In agriculture, though, change equals potential risk. Greenhouses are the great equalizer in this equation, allowing growers to operate despite the unpredictability of modern weather. In a greenhouse, the grower is in control. The season, temperature, humidity and even lumen levels can be dialed in to suit the specific needs of the grower.


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012


"Greenhouses can be erected anywhere— from vacant parking lots to rooftops— and since virtually every aspect of the microclimates they contain can be controlled precisely by the grower, these structures are effective weapons in the war against climatic unpredictability."

We’re also seeing farmers bringing their gardens closer to people more often these days as well. Greenhouses can be erected anywhere—from vacant parking lots to rooftops—and since virtually every aspect of the microclimates they contain can be controlled precisely by the grower, these structures are effective weapons in the war against climatic unpredictability. Any structure where the environment is protected from outside natural ambient temperatures, yet is still affected by direct solar radiation, can technically be called a greenhouse. It can be as simple as a piece of greenhouse film pulled over some bent willow branches or as complicated as Epcot’s space-age example of agricultural control, which includes a lazy river carrying tourists through seemingly impossible growscapes of trees rooted in sand and plants hovering in space. For most people, though, a greenhouse is something in between, with the level of complexity usually dictated by budget constraints. Traditionally, greenhouses were used to extend the growing season late into fall or to get a jump start on spring planting. Today, though, more farmers are looking to grow through the hot season—although hot season greenhouse growing does present some challenges. Unlike fully isolated indoor growing environments, greenhouse climates are affected by what is called solar gain. Solar gain refers to the increase in heat within a structure caused by solar radiation. It is then


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

the grower’s challenge to limit the impact of solar gain with material designed to reflect radiation and methods to facilitate air exchange and cooling. The most effective form of air exchange is a system in which the roof is retracted and air is passively removed from the greenhouse. Fan and pad systems are another method used to cool greenhouses, although these are most effective in drier climates and in greenhouses that do not exceed 144 ft. in length—anything longer and the cool air will be heated too much as it moves across the length of the house. Another simple and effective way to address solar gain is with proper UV-stabilized fabric coverings and the use of shade cloth drawn over the crop during the hottest part of the day or season. Air conditioning is still another option, although it is very inefficient in terms of cost and environmental impact. So, whether you are a backyard gardener looking to supplement your family’s food supply or a large-scale commercial grower, chances are a greenhouse will work for you. Greenhouse growing is more efficient than indoor cultivation and more reliable and controllable than outdoor agriculture. There are many greenhouses on the market and there is certainly one out there suited to your needs. The bottom line is that whether you are building your own greenhouse or purchasing a kit, you should first take the time to discuss your circumstances with an expert in the field to help you choose the structure best suited to your particular situation and climate. MY

arTicle TiTle


There be Light How Wavelength Composition, Intensity and Duration Affect Plants by Dr. J. Benton Jones, Jr.

There are three characteristics of light—be it natural or artificial—that impact plants: wavelength (spectral) composition, intensity and duration. Dr. J. Benton Jones, Jr. shares some of his personal experiences with the high and filtered light energy effects on plant response and growth…

For several years, a colleague and I conducted a series of greenhouse tomato experiments in order to evaluate cultivar performance, and the effects of rooting media, plant population and topping on plant growth and fruit yield. These experiments were conducted in two greenhouses located just a few miles from each other, yet if you went from one greenhouse to the other, you would think that the experiments were entirely different due to the plants’ appearances. The tomato plants in the glass-covered


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

leT There Be liGhT

greenhouse had a dull-green leaf color and long internode stems, while the tomato plants in the fiberglass-covered greenhouse had a lustrous dark-green leaf color and short internode stems. The differences between the plants were a direct result of the greenhouse coverings. When light passes through any substance, even the atmosphere, its intensity (energy level) decreases and there is a shift in wavelength distribution. The extent of these changes depends on the characteristics of the atmosphere and substance through which the light is transmitted. The wavelength shift that occurs when light passes through a greenhouse glazing material is evident in two ways. One, light reflecting from the internal surfaces is shifted into longer wavelengths and trapped as heat. Secondly, the glazing material will either diffuse the light or allow it to pass through directly. In the above experiment, I found that fiberglass filters out the long (red) wavelength radiation, producing diffused light, whereas glass filters out the shorter (blue) wavelengths and maintains the direct-light characteristic. Today, there are tables in many greenhouse books that give the transmission properties of various glazing materials.


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

“Light reflecting from the internal surfaces is shifted into longer wave lengths and trapped as heat.”

One time, when I was investigating a newly developed hydroponic rooting system—again using tomato as the test crop—I conducted my experiments in a double-walled polyethylene-covered greenhouse. The obtained tomato fruit yield and quality were beyond my expectations. No doubt the new hydroponic rooting system was a contributing factor, but it wasn’t the primary one. No, this high yield was mainly due to the filtering of the sunlight that passed through a thin water film that had been trapped between the two polyethylene sheets.

To get a “feel” for the changes in light characteristics, one can record photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) with a PAR light meter both inside and outside a greenhouse on various days, correlating each reading with that day’s atmospheric conditions (clear and cloudless, high humidity, etc.). The PAR meter is partially affected by the spectral composition of the light striking it; however, this instrument cannot determine wavelength shift. (Nonetheless, there is little data on the spectral wavelength shifts that occur when light passes through glazing materials—something that needs to be done.) Several years ago, I consulted with a South Carolina greenhouse tomato grower who had kept daily records of noontime PAR readings. He was one of four growers—three located in South Carolina, one in Georgia—whose fruit yield and quality were lower than what they had obtained in previous years. My repeated visits didn’t uncover what might be the possible cause(s) until that first grower remarked that measured incoming radiation was considerably higher than what he had recorded in previous years. That was the clue that led me to obtain weather station measurements of solar radiation; however, the only solar information being recorded was daily minutes of sunshine. After correlating minutes of sunshine versus fruit yield obtained by these four growers in previous years and the current year, a colleague and I came to the conclusion that if the monthly minutes of sunshine exceeded 10,000, then fruit yield and

leT There Be liGhT

quality would be lower than if minutes of sunshine were less. From this experience, I recommend installing moveable shade in the greenhouse to be pulled over the plant canopy during periods of high radiation (mainly during the noon hour). Such a result might not apply at all latitudes, however, since these observations were made during the spring months in South Carolina, whose latitude is approximately 35oN and solar readiation intensity can be high. These four greenhouse tomato growers’ experience of low yield and poorquality fruit occurred during drought conditions—cloudless days and low amounts of suspended atmospheric moisture, which results in high direct radiation intensity impacting the plants. In environments where the atmosphere is moist, the reverse phenomenon exists. For example, I have walked fields of wheat and alfalfa in Saudi Arabia and have seen the vigorous growth and high


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

yields being obtained. This is due to a high amount of suspended water vapor and particulate matter in the desert environment, which produces diffuse radiation (and is one reason the desert seems so bright to the eyes).

So, whenever something unexpected happens, I have learned from these and other experiments to not initially look down, but up to determine what the light conditions are—or were—before I make any further judgment. MY



(in Hydroponics) by Dr. Mike Nichols

Globally loved ginger is normally grown in tropical/sub-tropical soil. Author Dr. Mike Nichols, however, has decided to try growing this rhizome with hydroponicsâ&#x20AC;Ś


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

“The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger comes from fragrant essential oils, particularly gingerols, found within the rhizome.”

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a swollen root—or, rhizome— that is consumed as a food, a spice or flavoring, and a medicine against nausea. There are over 1.5 million tonnes of ginger produced in the world, but as a tropical/sub-tropical crop the main production areas are found in India and PR China (approximately 350,000 t each), followed by Indonesia, Nepal, Nigeria and Thailand (about 150,000 t each). There is even a small area of ginger produced in Australia that supplies the local market and is exported worldwide. The plant itself comprises several upright, grass-like leaves that grow from the rhizome, which has both fiberous and thick roots. The plant steadily expands with the production of new rhizomes (the roots come first and produce the stalks from which leaves grow). The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger comes from fragrant essential oils, particularly gingerols, found within the rhizome. The success or failure of ginger production is determined by the health of the “seed pieces” (pieces of the rhizome) and the health of the soil. Diseases, particulary fusarium and pythium, and pests like nematodes can seriously reduce production. All growers anticipate some losses every season due to disease. However, most growers believe that a 10% loss in a patch is acceptable and, at times, some patches can experience over 80% losses. In Hawaii, the soil pathogen problem is so serious that it is normal to fumigate the soil with methyl bromide. The Queensland bulletin on ginger production also cites crop establishment in Australia being anything from as low as 5% to up to 95% due to soil-borne pathogens.That being said, it’s no surprise that disease-free planting material is highly desirable.

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012


haPPY GinGer in hYDroPonics

“The success or failure of ginger production is determined by the health of the “seed pieces” (pieces of the rhizome) and the health of the soil.” While at a hydroponics conference in Adelaide last year I was asked about growing ginger using hydroponics. I confessed complete ignorance, but this stimulated my interest to investigate the potential of using this production system—which is becoming well-established for many crops—for the less common goal of growing a root crop. The first approach was to review the existing literature on the subject. I, however, only discovered three papers on the hydroponic production of ginger—namely Kratky (1998), Rafie et al (2003) and Hayden at al (2004)—and numerous articles on the worldwide web that were how-tos without any research findings. The Kratky paper proposes that the production of ginger using a non-circulating hydroponic method, in which essentially the plants were grown in plastic nursery flats filled with a 128

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

growing medium comprised of peat, vermiculite and perlite. The plastic nursery flats were suspended eventually some 1.57 in. above a static nutrient solution once the roots had moved throught the medium into the solution. The Hayden paper was similar to some respects, except that instead of a static nutrient solution the growing medium was suspended above a tank in which the roots grew, and the nutrient solution was applied as a fine mist using aeroponics. The third (and simplest) system, explained in Rafie et al, used trays filled with a medium of coarse perlite. Plant spacing was 1.5 ft. by 1 ft. All systems appeared to work satisfactorily. The Hayden trial showed major disease problems when using peat as a growing medium, illustrated the importance of a growing medium (perlite in this case) for the rhizomes (as opposed to no growing medium), and demonstrated that heating the nutrient solution to 77ยบF produced rhizomes that were 50%

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012


haPPY GinGer in hYDroPonics

larger. The Kratky paper also showed low yields without the use of a medium over the rhizome and that the more medium volume the better. The Florida paper merely shows that the hydroponic system produced nearly double the yield of a field soil system. In our experiements, since ginger is not grown in New Zealand and introducing it via quarantine can be a tedious (and expensive) exercise, we purchased imported dried ginger roots (rhizomes) from a local supermarket from Fiji (or Australia) and from Thailand. It was unclear whether this might have been treated to prevent sprouting, but in fact it sprouted easily when planted in a moist growing medium in a greenhouse. We started the rhizome pieces in small pots filled with coir in September (Fiji source) and November (Thailand source), and once they had produced a shoot and some roots they were transferred into large pots filled with coir (cocopeat) and


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

“The key factor would be to isolate the beds from the soil, either by using beds on benches or a layer of polythene film over the greenhouse floor.” with a single dripper nozzle to each plant. A complete nutrient solution was applied with every watering, and the plants were grown in a greenhosue heated at 59ºF and ventilated at 77ºF. In early May, it was decided to examine the plants to determine whether any ginger had developed, and we were gratified to discover that the sytem had worked succesfully. As one might anticipate, the early planting had produced the greater yield and there clearly could be some advantage in planting even earlier than September so that the plants would be much larger in mid-summer when growth potential is greatest. Is this the way to grow ginger hydroponically? The answer (in my view) is a clear-cut no. The more sensible solution would be not to use pots, but to grow the crop in beds filled with a good, well-drained growing medium (coir certainly fits this bill) using hydroponics. The key factor would be to isolate the beds from the soil, either by using beds on benches or a layer of polythene film over the greenhouse floor. The importance of temperature is clear from the Arizona research, and this must pose the question of whether greenhouse production might even be an even better option in warm climates, such as India or Australia? Of course, the longer the plant is grown the higher the yield, but apparently the rhizomes also become more fibrous; so for candied ginger, the younger rhizomes are likely to be more desirable. If the crop is being grown for the oils alone, such as for flavoring ginger beer, then the oil content (and differences in chemical constitution) is likely to be influenced by genotype, possibly by harvest date, and by the way in which the crop has been grown. MY This article was originally published in Practical Hydroponic.

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012



by Jake Geraldo

Is CheCkIng ph

LeveLs ReaLLy


Is your pH up or dowN? THaT Is THe quesTIoN; buT wHy Is IT relevaNT? Jake Geraldo arGues THaT cHeckING your pH levels Is THe mosT ImporTaNT sTep IN THe waTerING aNd NuTrITIoN process… Even if you fill your watering can with high-grade nutrients, it could be going to waste if you’re not checking your pH levels. There are 14 points on the pH scale, with 14 being lye (commonly found in soap) and one being battery acid. That is an extreme difference—and if you think your plants won’t notice, think again. Certain nutrients are able to be usefully absorbed by the plant at different points on the pH scale, but these nutrients will get locked out if levels are too far up or down the scale. Most plants prefer a pH somewhere in the six to 6.5 realm, while extreme-weather desert plants do best with a high pH of around eight. Potatoes need to be kept at a low five. When checking your pH levels, there are three sources you should be looking at. First, the solution itself—after mixing in all of your nutrients, you should always check the pH levels. When mixing in things like kelp or humic acid, you will need a litmus paper test kit or a digital meter because the color-change kits


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

are of little to no use with dark nutrients. The next thing to check is your medium—depending on whether you are gardening in hydro or soil, there are different ways to get a reading. For hydro systems, use a leave-in meter. For soil gardening, there are small soil-test kits or a few styles of plugs that can be left in the medium.You can also check the run-off water from your soil. If the pH is different from what it was when you poured the solution in, you can be sure that the pH of your medium is off and you will have to start to recondition your soil by watering in a counter-agent. In soil gardening you are changing the pH levels over time by watering your plants. Over the course of your grow, your medium can change if you are always watering a little high or low on the pH scale and the soil can actually become harmful to your plants. Also note that liquid fertilizers tend to leave soil more acidic, so be sure to check pH levels often if they are your primary food sources.

before your soil is at the proper pH level. Compost or mulch regularly mixed in your soil will also help regulate the pH level.You should look at the pH scale as a guide to help you stop deficiencies from happening—recognizing problems and knowing what causes them is a great skill. More importantly, you should know “THere are sIGNs of where on the pH pH problems besIdes scale dIsappoINTING yIelds— that plaNT leaves doING THe missing key TwIsT afTer a waTerING, nufor example, someTImes trients INdIcaTes a pH problem.” can be taken up by your plants. That way you can provide the missing nutrient at a pH level that insures it will be absorbed easily by the plant. A foliar spray is one of the most effective ways to quickly fix specific nutrient problems because leaves can transfer nutrients faster than the root system. Maintaining optimal pH levels is a key In hydroponics, your medium is usually part of gardening that is easy to ignore inert—being rock or clay most of the because it is a last step; however, if you time—but it is important that the nutriwant to maximize the potential of your ent solution is mixed properly and the crops, it should be regarded as the most pH is stable. For example, if the nutrient important step in the watering process. packaging states that the solution will You have some options when adjusting change over the course of 24 hours, you the pH—you can spend a lot of money need to wait that full time before feedand have it dialed in all of the time, or ing it to your plant. you can do things on the cheap and There are also a few natural ways check your levels manually. Both methto adjust your pH by adding differods work fine—the important part is that ent dry amendments directly to the you are checking and checking often. soil. However, amendments need to be The key to a balanced diet (for your added early in the season to make sure plants) is proper pH—if you are properly they have time to break down in the dialed in with your pH levels, you cannot soil; otherwise, it will be harvest time have a deficiency! MY Maximum Yield USA | July 2012



eric Hopper

Battle of the Bugs: A Guide


BeneficiAl insects

There are few things as troubling as discovering an insect infestation in an otherwise flawless garden. Once discovered, a grower must immediately launch a counter-attack to get rid of those harmful bugs. Hereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a look at one environmentally friendly weapon in the anti-pest arsenalâ&#x20AC;Ś


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

BaTTle oF The BuGs: a GuiDe To BeneFicial insecTs

Nothing disturbs the production of a flourishing garden or the disposition of a horticulturalist like pests. These nasty buggers can wreak havoc on a plant’s ability to perform while frustrating the gardener into a frenzy of despair. Most gardeners’ first reaction is to buy an insecticide. Don’t get me wrong, there are some great insecticides on the market; however, before you reach for that can of poison, consider recruiting some beneficial insects to do the job for you.

BeneficiAl insects



Horticulturalists who have grown plants both indoors and outdoors notice a difference in terms of pest. Indoor infestations are generally much more destructive and overwhelming than outdoor pest problems. The reason for this is nature’s natural predators. Indoor gardens are safe havens for pests, whereas pests in outdoor gardens


every pest, t tHere Here is A At t le leAst leA Ast

one predAtory counterpArt tHAt cAn Be introduced into A GArden BotHersome BuGs.

Love thy Clones. More roots, more clones with Olivia’s Cloning Solution and Gel.


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

in order to nAturAlly BAttle tHe

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BaTTle oF The BuGs

are subjected to predatory bugs, birds and other critters that keep their populations in check. Some insect predators are actually drawn to plants by pheromones produced by the pests or the plant itself. Nature is a diverse and powerful force that provides balance in all ecosystems. This balance can be used to a horticulturist’s advantage: for every pest, there is at least one predatory counterpart that can be introduced into a garden in order to naturally battle the bothersome bugs. Here are a couple examples:

BeneficiAl insect: Predator mites (Phytoseiulus persimilis, Mesoseiulus longipes and Neoseiulus californicus) pest insect: Spider mites Most gardeners would agree that the worst-of-theworst pest is the spider mite. This is especially true in indoor gardens or greenhouse environments, where entire crops can be wiped out in a matter of days. There are some effective predatory insects that can be used to combat these relentless bugs and the three species of predatory mites (listed above) are the most effective at treating a spider mite problem. Most beneficial-insect suppliers will offer a combination of these three predator mites in one package. This is helpful because they all reproduce in slightly different environmental conditions. In introducing all three predator mites simultaneously, the hope is that at least one of the species will find the garden’s environment suitable for reproduction. Of the three, Mesoseiulus longipes is probably the most suitable for an indoor garden. They have the widest range of preferable humidity and temperature, but, most importantly, they find lower humidities—which are generally found within indoor gardens—suitable for reproduction.


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

BaTTle oF The BuGs: a GuiDe To BeneFicial insecTs

BeneficiAl insect: Spider mite

destroyers (Stethorus punctipes)

pest insect: Spider mites

The spider mite destroyer is another excellent defense against the infamous spider mite. These tiny beetles are related to the ladybug and feed specifically and exclusively on spider mites. Spider mite destroyers are best used in conjunction with the predator mites due to a long establishment time. These tiny workhorses will eat around 50 spider mites a day and adult females will lay up to 15 eggs a day. The total life cycle (from egg to adult) of a spider mite destroyer is around 18 days, with a total lifespan of about eight weeks. When established, spider mite destroyers will reproduce at a rate that is fast enough to destroy a spider mite infestation, hence their appropriate name.

lives a portion of their life cycle in the medium is to use predatory nematodes. Predatory nematodes are tiny worm-like creatures that feed on the eggs and larvae of soil-borne insects. As soon as any signs of thrips or fungus gnats appear predatory nematodes should be watered in to the medium. Most beneficial insect suppliers sell a combination of both Steinernema and Heterorhabditis nematodes because they work at different depths in the soil. Combined with sticky traps to catch adults, predatory nematodes are an effective and non-toxic option for completely eradicating a thrip or fungus gnat problem.


parasite comes out instead of a new generation of whiteflies. This cycle continues until the whiteflies have been eradicated. Whitefly parasites work best on greenhouse whiteflies (the most common variety), but also work well on sweet potato whiteflies and other whitefly varieties. If you have a sweet potato whitefly problem, it could be beneficial to use whitefly predators. These beneficial warriors consume 200 to 800 whitefly eggs per day and prefer the eggs of sweet potato whiteflies (but are generally less effective on greenhouse whiteflies).


insects Are insects tHAt feed on A vAriety of

BeneficiAl insect: Predator nematodes (Steinernema nematode and Heterorhabditis nematode) pest insect: Thrips or fungus gnats

Besides being a huge nuisance, thrips and fungus gnats have something else in common: they both rely on soil or medium for a portion of their life cycle. A great way to treat any pest insect that


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

pest insects.

BeneficiAl insect: Whitefly parasites (Encarsia formosa) or Whitefly predators (Delphastus pusillus)

pest insect: Whiteflies Whiteflies are one of the easiest pest insects to identify. If you have an abundance of tiny white bugs, you guessed it, they’re whiteflies. Whiteflies themselves do little damage to the plants and are more of an annoyance than anything. When left untreated, however, the honeydew that the whiteflies deposit on the plants will eventually grow a pathogenic black mold that is detrimental to the plants. Whitefly parasites are a grower’s best defense against these annoying buggers. A whitefly parasite deposits its eggs in developing whitefly pupae. When the egg hatches a whitefly

BeneficiAl insect: Aphid predators (Aphidoletes aphidimyza) or Aphid parasites (Aphidius matricariae) pest insect: Aphids Gardeners with greenhouses or indoor gardens find aphid predators extremely effective against aphid infestations. A single release of aphid predators is usually sufficient to establish a population, but it can be advantageous when experiencing large aphid problems to release aphid predators a few times throughout the plant’s life cycle. Another choice for an aphid problem is aphid parasites, which act as an effective control and

BaTTle oF The BuGs: a GuiDe To BeneFicial insecTs

preventative measure. Aphid parasites lay their eggs inside living aphids, essentially destroying the aphid internally until they hatch from the remaining insect carcass.

GenerAl predAtory insects General predatory insects are insects that feed on a variety of pest insects. These opportunist bugs are some of the most common and most effective insects released in gardens for biological control. Below are a few examples:


BeneficiAl insect: Green lacewing larvae

(Chrysopa rufilabris)

pest insect: Thrips, aphids, mealybugs and whiteflies Adult green lacewings feed on nectar and pollen, but their larvae are ferocious predators that feed on a variety of pest insects. Green lacewing larvae are true opportunists and will feed on any insect, larvae or egg that they can inject with their paralyzing venom. These tiny creatures suck the life out of helpless pest insects at an extremely fast rate.


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012


pArAsites lAy tHeir eGGs

inside livinG ApHids, essentiAlly destroyinG destroyin G t tHe He A ApHid pHid intern internAlly internA A until t tHey Hey HA HAtcH HAtc tcH tc H from tHe t He rem remAininG remA Ainin ininG G insect cArcAss c Arc rcA Ass.


BaTTle oF The BuGs: a GuiDe To BeneFicial insecTs

Most beneficial insect suppliers will provide green lacewing eggs, which can be distributed evenly throughout the plants. When the eggs hatch, the tiny larvae will search and destroy, traveling up to 100 ft. to find their first meal.

BeneficiAl insect: Praying mantis (Tenodera sinensis) pest insect: Thrips, aphids, whiteflies, fungus gnat, mealy bugs and spider mites The praying mantis is the ultimate opportunist beneficial insect. These awesome bugs will eat anything they can catch. Praying mantis egg sacks can be hung within the gardenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s environment to promote hatching. When the egg sack hatches, over 100 miniature mantises will release their carnage on any and every pest insect they encounter. The tiny warriors will


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

grow into adults over a three to four month period. Mantises are very elusive creatures, so donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be surprised if you donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t see many after they hatch. A praying mantis will wait patiently, sometimes for hours, until an appetizing insect wanders by. Then, the mantis will pounce on its prey and devour it. Adult mantises are often very territorial and a

single adult mantis can claim a fairly large area as its exclusive hunting grounds. Also, mantises feed entirely on other insects making them a great choice for any enclosed garden space.

BaTTle oF The BuGs: a GuiDe To BeneFicial insecTs

BeneficiAl insect: Ladybugs (Hippodamia convergens) pest insect: Thrips, aphids, whiteflies,fungus gnat, mealy bugs and spider mites Of all the beneficial insects available to gardeners, none are as versatile or popular as the ladybug. Don’t let their reputation as a cute and cuddly insect overshadow their destructive power. Ladybugs are actually tiny beetles who, like the mantis, feed only on other insects. A ladybug’s favorite snack is aphids, but


few days. This is generally long enough to get them to establish on an outdoor crop. Ladybugs can also be stored at under 50ºF—where they’ll enter a dormant stage—for multiple weeks at a time. This allows a gardener to release adult bugs intermittently in their garden while storing the remaining bugs in a refrigerator. In some cases, ladybugs that are released intermittently will establish and reproduce better than those that are released all at one time.

implementAtion of BeneficiAl

insects offers A nAturAlistic ApproAcH to solvinG tHe onGoinG witH Horticulture.

these opportunists will eat virtually any insect they can fit into their tiny jaws of death. Ladybugs eat thousands of insects in their lifetime (about one year). Another great thing about an established ladybug population is that the larvae are just as carnivorous as the adults. The little larvae resemble tiny alligators and will feed on pest insects’ eggs and larvae. In outdoor gardens, however, ladybugs tend to fly away to their preferred food source, so getting them to establish on the plants can be a little tricky. A sugar water solution can be sprayed on the ladybugs to “stick” their wings together for a 148

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

pest insect proBlems AssociAted

BeneficiAl insect: Pirate bugs

(Orius insidiosus)

pest insect: Thrips, aphids and spider mites Pirate bugs are good to try when other treatments have failed. These beneficial insects feed on thrips, aphids and even spider mites. They feed on multiple stages of pest insects life cycles (eggs, larvae and adults), making them a popular choice for thrip and spider mite control. However, the adult pirate bugs will also bite humans—so, beware if you release a large population. Their bite is harmless, but annoying just the same.

The implementation of beneficial insects offers a naturalistic approach to solving the ongoing pest insect problems associated with horticulture. There are many advantages to such biological control methods, but the largest advantage is probably the removal of pest insects’ resistance. Any grower who has used chemical insecticides over a period of time only to see the pest become immune will attest to the ongoing anguish of that battle. However, an insect cannot build a resistance to being eaten. By using nature’s solutions, a grower can save their crops from devastation, relieve their frustration and feel good knowing they aren’t contributing to the creation of resistant “super” bugs. MY


Human knowledge and use of crop-boosting fertilizer has evolved in waves throughout history. Hereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a brief look back in timeâ&#x20AC;Ś

1. The benefits of farming rich river silt was known in Egypt 5,000 years ago.


Justus von Liebig (1803-1873) singlehandedly, more or less, founded the science of plant nutrition as he studied the importance of carbon dioxide and phosphorous in plants. He recommended chemical analysis of plant tissues to determine fertilizer needs and also described the Law of the Minimum, which states that plant growth is limited by an insufficient quantity of any nutrient, even if all other nutrients are adequately available.


The first commercial chemical fertilizer was sodium nitrate, which was mined in Chile and imported into the United States starting around 1830.


Synthetic sodium nitrate appeared in the United States in the 1920s, and many other commercial sources of nitrogen and other elements soon followed.


In 2009 about 19 million tons of fertilizer (N, P2O5 and K2O) were consumed in the United States.


Some byproducts of petroleum refining (sulfur, for example) do find their way into fertilizers in small amounts.

2. Animal manure and cut grass were used as fertilizer in China between 2,000 and 3,000 years ago.

3. Progress in understanding the value of good soil and how to amend it continued through ancient Greek and Roman times; however, as with so many other things, this came to a halt during the Dark Ages. 4. Agriculture improved during the Enlightenment when the chemical elements were discovered.


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

10. Synthetic fertilizer use is in decline (23 million tons were used in 2007) as we move toward more organic and sustainable methods.




Elemental Building blocks

of Growing by Chris Pianta

Fire, water, earth and air used to be the building blocks of the world. While atoms and string theory have taken over their places in science, there’s no denying that the four elements still play a critical role in growing healthy plants…


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

In ancient Greek times, well before the concept of chemistry, physics and even basic agriculture, all matter in the world was made up of four primary elements: fire, water, earth and air. These four elements— not atoms, not string theory, not bending of the fabric of time or space—were the ancient building blocks of the world Funny, these same four elements are the critical building blocks to healthy plants. The Big Four—fire (temperature), water (hydration), earth (soil) and air (porosity)—are the basics to a proper soil environment and, following that, healthy roots and plants. Humans have spent the better part of the last 100 years “improving” on nature in agriculture through chemistry. We have proven that with the right management, we can grow grass on concrete and plants in Styrofoam, but there is a price to pay for ignoring the basic four. Only recently have we realized that ignoring the basics results in a decline in soil health and quality. Fortunately, we also grasped

that properly utilizing the assets nature provides us with—and understanding the relationship between the big four and soil microbes—will improve our crops’ quality, yield and sustainability. Physical amendments for native or manufactured soils are primarily used to adjust porosity, either by adding capillary or noncapillary pore space in the soil, in order to enhance water and air movement. This will also help regulate the thermo capacity of a soil, which does not transfer heat very well at all (hence why soil is a great insulator), and promotes the health and vigor of the flora and fauna growing in it. Chemical amendments add nutrients to the soil or adjust the soil acidity. Out in the northeastern United States, acidity is a major issue with native soils. A pH below six reduces the availability of nutrients, especially nitrogen and results in poor appearance and growth. Growing up in Connecticut, an annual rite of spring was watching homeowners walk in a cloud of white dust and they covered their lawns with pulverized lime. In my early days managing garden centers, we would sell a truckload full of 50 lb. bags of lime per weekend to meet the demand. Now, with pelletized lime, the demand for powered lime is lower, but the need is still there; you will waste every dime you spend on fertilizers if your pH is not right. Biological amendments might be the “new” horizon, but they have been unknowingly used for centuries. As much as we loved (still love?) to use cow manure in the garden to help hold water and provide nutrients, it was really the power pack of microbes in the manure that resulted in the benefits to our plants. Soil microbes interact with plant roots symbiotically to promote cell development, the uptake of water and the absorption of nutrients. So, instead of using a “life is better with chemistry” thought process (with which all you do is add more fertilizers to get the results you need), it is clear that a properly biologically active soil can significantly reduce your need for fertilizers and still produce a better plant. The big four building blocks all play a role in our success as growers and horticulturalists, so don’t over think and don’t over tech a process that has worked successfully without human intervention for hundreds of millions of years. Keep it simple. Base your systems on what nature evolved the plant to grow in and you and your plants will see success. MY

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012



I nf e c t i ng Your Vegetable Garden?

By Frank Rauscher The rolling or curling of leaves on tomato and other plants can be a symptom of environmental stress— like too much fertilizer and overwatering or under watering—and herbicide damage; however it can also be a sign of viral infection...


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

whaT’s inFecTinG Your VeGeTaBle GarDen?

Every year we face a number of pests that try to spoil the production of vegetables and fruits that we desert gardeners grow.Viruses attacking our tomatoes are among those pests. Two primary agents are Beet Curly Top Virus (BCTV)—also known as Curly Top—and Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV).

Beet curly top virus BCTV is transmitted from plant to plant by the Beet leafhopper (Circulifer tenellus). An infected adult leafhoppers might land, probe, feed and lay eggs on many different plants, including tomatoes, beans, pepper, spinach, squash and various weeds, but generally prefers beets. Plants begin to show symptoms about seven to 14 days after they are first infected. Leaves of infested plants are dwarfed, crinkled, rolled inward and cupped upward. Roots are stunted and could exhibit a proliferation of secondary rootlets. Phloem tissues become necrotic and appear as dark rings when viewed in cross section. Plants do not grow, their stems become stiff. Generally, the fruit on the plant ripens prematurely and is deformed.Veins on the underside of leaves will usually have

a purple discoloration, and might be roughened. These often produce swellings or spine-like outgrowths.

Tomato yellow leaf curl virus TYLCV, also referred to as tomato leaf curl, is a viral disease that is usually transmitted by sucking insects and causes similar leaf roll symptoms as BCTV. This disease is a geminivirus and although it can be found on a variety of plants—chillies, eggplants, beans, nightshade and lisianthus, to name a few—the tomato is its favorite. In particular, this disease tends to be more of a problem in greenhouse-grown tomatoes than those grown outdoors. Sometimes plants can develop infections and show no obvious symptoms. Flowers might drop from the plant, but their shape remains unaffected. Depending on the time of infection, flowers might fail to set fruit even though they remain on the plant (early infection generally inhibits fruit production). If the infection occurs while fruit is developing, the fruit will ripen in a nearly normal manner. If the infection occurs while the plant is still young, the plant will remain small, with terminal and auxiliary shoots remaining upright. Leaves that develop soon after the infection occurs will cup downward, but later leaves will appear pale green or yellow and deformed, with leaf edges cupping upward.

Controlling the virsuses Unfortunately there is no cure for BCTV or TYLCV. Instead, control is prevention for this virus. First of all, it is vital to examine the plants and how they have been grown to determine whether it is an actual disease or it is environmental. For example, the cause is likely to be environmental stress or herbicide injury if an entire section of plants exhibit leaf-roll symptoms. Insects just aren’t that thorough, some of the plants will escape the infection. Trying to control curly top (caused by BCTV) is difficult and efforts to breed resistance to curly top into tomatoes have not been successful. Spraying tomatoes with insecticides does not control the disease because leafhoppers migrate from distant places and do not remain in one area long. By the time symptoms of curly top become evident, the leafhoppers


Spraying tomatoes with insecticides does not control the disease because leafhoppers migrate from distant places and do not remain in one area long.


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012


whaT’s inFecTinG Your VeGeTaBle GarDen?

have moved away to other crops. As such, transmission of BCTV from an infected plant to a healthy one is uncommon and removing symptomatic plants to prevent further disease transfer does nothing in the battle against these viruses.


There is no positive control for viral leaf curl (caused by TYLCV). Sucking insects, such as sweet potato whiteflies and aphids, should be controlled since they are insect carriers of the disease. Application of products that repel insects will reduce the sucking-insect count on your crop and, therefore, increase the odds that your plant can avoid the disease. Keeping areas weed-free will also reduce the odds of the virus being spread because plant sources

Keeping areas weedfree will also reduce the odds of the virus being spread because plant sources for the disease are often wild.



Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

for the disease are often wild. Removal of symptomatic leaves, stems and fruits will not eliminate TYLCV from otherwise healthy looking plants. Conversely, this might actually lead to further spread of the disease through infected tools, so thoroughly clean tools and other equipment that might have come in contact with the diseased plants with a one to 20 solution of bleach and water. In general, keeping plants as healthy as possible will build their immunity and make them less susceptible to insect attack. Avoid unnecessary injury during pruning and cultivating. Keep the weeds to a minimum, and try using insect repellent mulch like “cedar,” and keep some garlic barrier around. Keep plants as well spaced as is practical and most of all; good luck! MY

Maximum Yield USA | February 2012



Beauty & the Beast

Competitive Gardening and Hydroponics by Ryan M. Taylor com Throughout the growing season, competitive gardening competitions take place across the country at local and state fairs. Gardeners battle with one another to see who can grow the best—be that most beautiful, heaviest, hottest, longest or ugliest—flowers, fruits, grains, herbs, vegetables and pretty much anything else in a seed catalog. After conducting some research and interviews with local growers, it became clear to me that most competitive gardeners use traditional soil-based methods and that




Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

hydroponic methods of growing aren’t really on their radar. Initially, I thought perhaps they were just not familiar with the myriad benefits hydroponics offers growers: increased control over plant nutrition, efficient use of water, potentially bigger crops and better quality produce. So, in preaching these benefits, I appealed to their competitive urges by noting how the growers at Disney World Epcot hydroponically grew a record-breaking tomato plant that was trellised over 610 ft. and produced 32,194 tomatoes (approximately 1,152 lb.) in a single season. While they were impressed, they were still not convinced that hydroponics was appropriate for their crops.You see, many of my local growers chase the dream of growing the biggest of the big: pumpkins (1,810 lb. 8 oz.), squash (1,236 lb.) and watermelon (268.8 lb.). All three of these vining crops sprawl over relatively large areas, producing roots all along the vines. What would a hydroponic system that could accommodate such root growth and support the inevitably enormous weights look like? We didn’t really come to any consensus, but it did get me thinking on some tips for

those looking to compete while growing hydroponically. First, new growers should, in general, begin with plants that are relatively more manageable in terms of pruning requirements and space. Flowers, herbs and smaller fruit and vegetables can be grown with minimal time requirements when systems are properly automated. Also, more plants can be grown within a given space, allowing the grower to choose the best competition plants from a larger selection. In contrast, regardless of automation level, larger plants typically use more space, require increased amounts of maintenance and pruning time, and there are fewer plants to select from for competition; in other words, the margin of error is greater for smaller plants. While you won’t be able to boast about growing the largest vegetable ever, competitions abound for the smaller plants: the heaviest tomato (7 lb. 12 oz.), heaviest onion (16.52 lb.), heaviest sweet potato (81 lb. 9 oz.) and the hottest chili pepper (1,463,700 SHU) are just a few records that can be chased in a small space. Second, the type of system used should correspond to your plants’ physiology and competition goals. When growing whole plants for beauty, water culture offers advantages over the use of soilless media, which often splash onto plants or can lead to the growth of surface algae. Water culture—whether it be flood and drain, nutrient-film technique or deep water—is preferable because residues won’t build up on the plants, decreasing the risk of leaving water marks or injuries on the plants because you won’t need to clean them before showing. If, however, you are growing plant fruits or vegetables that won’t be affected by substrate splash or algae, soilless mixes work excellently. When attempting to grow the heaviest fruit or veggie, the biggest concern is how you will support its weight as the plants develop. I would recommend placing a trellis or stake supports independent of the growing system, simply to avoid injury to roots and facilitate easier system maintenance. Third, plants grown for competition have a different timetable than crops grown for eating. Just like a professional athlete who trains to peak at the time of a big competition, so too must you time the peak of your plants for competitions. It’s a good idea to pick the competitions you will enter and then plan accordingly to the development of the plants you are growing. So give hydroponics a whirl and try some competitive growing. Besides, in truth, there are no losers in these competitions— they are fun and you can usually eat the losers! MY Maximum Yield USA | July 2012


by Heather Brautman

Amazing Aloe: Beat the Burn With Nature’s

Natural Nurse

Before beating a quick path to the closest beach, lake, or apartment-complex pool, it’s become second nature to fill a bag with the essentials: bottled water, a steamy novel, floaties for the kids and sun block. However, even the most organized protected person can get hit with sunburn. Fortunately, there’s a cheap, completely natural salve close at hand… 162

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aMazinG aloe: BeaT The Burn wiTh naTure’s naTural nurse

"aloe is 99% water, and the rest is made up of the important parts that directly affect human healing."

Aloe vera—or simply “aloe”—is thought to have first sprouted seed in Northern Africa, but has furthered its roots around the globe to India, Central America, Australia, the Caribbean and the southern United States. According to the Arizona Cooperative Extension, aloe vera has been used medicinally for 6,000 years. The University of Maryland Medical Center states that aloe was one of the most frequently used prescriptions during the 18th and 19th centuries. It’s long since moved out from behind the pharmacy counter and onto the shelves (chances are it’s also freely propagating in a garden near you).

How it works Even if you’ve never broken off a leaf and spread the thin, viscous, clear liquid over a recent burn, you’re probably aware that the “lifeblood” of an aloe vera plant can cool and heal burns, blisters, scratches and scrapes. Aloe is 99% water, and the rest is made up of the important parts that directly affect human healing. Within that remaining 1%, there are polysaccharides (which help skin grow) and glycoproteins (which suppress pain and inflammation, kick-start the healing process). Union County College offers two ways you can take advantage of aloe vera’s beneficial sap. First, you can try going old school by simply breaking off a leaf and let the liquid run across the burn or itchy area. Or you can boil up something more potent by brewing up the plant’s dried sap and use it—after cooling the liquid—as a wash-out for wounds. Of course, aloe is so prevalent these days that it’s possible to completely skip the homegrown route entirely—whether it’s 164

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Maximum Yield USA | February 2012


aMazinG aloe

"also, keep in mind that aloe’s positive health benefits only work for superficial burns."

because you have a black thumb or simply prefer to let someone else do the work.You can find aloe vera extract everywhere. A short trip to a drugstore, pharmacy or holistic health store will reveal aloe vera in lotion, tincture, face wash, ointment and other products.

Paging Dr. aloe While some non-believers could toss claims about aloe’s “super powers” as bunk, holistic practitioners have touted its benefits for ailments such as diabetes, radiation-related mucositis, epilepsy and amenorrhea. Aloe, as mentioned above, is proven to work on burns. (The latter is according to Wilkes University, where practitioners cited aloe’s “beneficial effects for treating epidermal and superficial disorders and wounds”). University of Maryland cites some interesting statistics about use of aloe on minor burns: In one study, burns that were dressed with aloe healed completely in less than 16 days, compared to the 19-day recovery period of those treated with silver sulfadiazine (the traditional medication prescribed by physicians). Maryland also noted that aloe’s benefits extend to other ailments, as it aided sufferers of genital herpes and psoriasis with anti-inflammatory effects that bested hydrocortisone cream.

Grow your own Aloe vera could be called “easy vera,” as it is one of the most low-maintenance plants you’ll shephard through your garden. Aloe vera plants require very little water and thrive best in direct sunlight. This plant doesn’t ask for much. A simple potting mix with perlite, grit or sand will serve as a fine home. The Arizona Cooperative Extension notes that even cactus mix soil will work for the aloe vera plant. Make sure the plant’s new “home” has a drainage hole and only water when the soil is dry. Also, while these plants don’t quite enjoy “chilling out,” you can easily move them in from the frost and back out when the sun begins to blaze again. 166

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aMazinG aloe: BeaT The Burn wiTh naTure’s naTural nurse

Aloe vera plants make a lush addition to your garden, even if you don’t plan to break off a leaf or two. When the plants mature, you’ll have uniform light green color with fronds that extend up to 4 ft. in length. Just be careful with the soft, but prickly spines around the edges. Invest in your aloe plants and they’ll reward you with a stalk bearing cylindrical yellow flowers in a rosette shape. If you do plan to use your aloe plant for healing purposes, don’t worry that breaking off a leaf will destroy the plant or cause necrosis to set in. Stem wounds and broken roots heal themselves (most successfully under shady conditions). When you’re ready to buy your seedlings or cuttings, you’ll find them online through a variety of sellers, from massive mass merchandisers to specialty succulent shops.You can also venture out and buy from local nurseries, where you might even get advice on planting and supporting your new in-house first aid. The biggest key to avoiding disappointment (i.e., discovering something you’ve planted is not what you planned on) is to do your research. Buy from trusted vendors, who have feedback and encouraging information on their websites. Pop into your nearby horticultural shop and ask who they buy from, or who they’d recommend. Then get growing!

limitations and considerations Holistic practitioners and DIY-ers alike might both strongly advise you try to take the homegrown route as much as possible, but even a strong contender such as aloe has its limitations. Influential health affiliated organizations such as the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey state that pregnant women should not take aloe vera in pill format. Women who are looking to conceive, or are unsure whether they are currently pregnant, should stay away too and find other ways to cool their burns. The University of Colorado Denver also warns a larger group of people against the use of aloe vera in pill format— which can serve as a stimulant laxative—including people suffering from chronic constipation, inflammatory intestinal diseases and kidney disease. UC Denver also echoes the University of Medicine and Dentistry’s warning against pregnant women taking aloe vera supplements, and also adds children under 10 years old to the warning list. UC Denver also warns that people allergic to garlic, tulips and onions might also find themselves allergic to aloe vera, which is considered to be in the same Lillaceae plant family. 168

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"this plant doesn’t ask for much. a simple potting mix with perlite, grit or sand will serve as a fine home."

aMazinG aloe: BeaT The Burn wiTh naTure’s naTural nurse

"While aloe has shown to reduce recovery time by up to nine days for some burns, it should never be applied to an open wound."

Also, keep in mind that aloe’s positive health benefits only work for superficial burns. More intense burns from hot stove coils or boiling water, and chemically-induced blisters should be treated by medical professionals immediately. In some cases, there’s just no plant-based option for treating something so severe, especially when delaying care could result in life-threatening infection, blood loss or improper healing. The University of Maryland also notes that while aloe has shown to reduce recovery time by up to nine days for some burns, it should never be applied to an open wound. MY


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

by Kar en Wilkinson


Hot Hot Hot How to Help Your Plants deal With Summer Heat

Rising temperatures means peak growing season is finally here. However, heat can turn deadly for plants if we’re not careful. Here’s how to keep your outdoor and indoors plants alive and thriving during the summer… 174

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Feelin’ hoT, hoT, hoT

Summertime can elicit some of the most blissful thoughts of all seasons. Our childhoods were spent swimming, camping, carelessly running through sprinklers and laughing. Sometimes we got too much sun, but that’s a small price paid for the years of responsibility-free hot days and warm nights that seemed to never end. As adults, summertime doesn’t necessarily conjure the same thoughts and emotions. We have responsibilities—spouses, bills, jobs—and, unlike our former selves, don’t get three months off to bask in the longest days of the year. We also moan about the heat and oftentimes forget it’s these crucial months that make our gardens grow. Still, summertime gardening bears its own unique set of challenges. While the long, sunny days get the tomato plants popping and peppers rocking, extreme temperatures do indeed affect our precious gardens and crops. Like any living creature, plants have their own set of instincts when faced with environmental changes, and a long period of high temperatures is one thing they don’t handle well.

"We also moan

about the heat and oftentimes forget it’s these crucial months that make our gardens grow."


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Feelin’ hoT, hoT, hoT

The Simple Science The science behind plants in hot summer weather is pretty simple: the rate of photosynthesis (the process plants use to make sugar) starts to rapidly drop after a critical high temperature is reached, according to the Iowa State University Department of Horticulture. The “critical” high temperature varies from species to species, but generally anywhere between 90ºF and 100ºF will slow the food-making process for most plants. On that note, respiration (the process that releases the energy of stored sugars to fuel growth) will continue day and night, depleting the plant’s food reserves. Severe water loss—known as desiccation—can also occur when transpiration (the process by which leaves release water vapor to the atmosphere) exceeds the moisture absorbed by the roots, according to the university. An obvious sign of desiccation is wilted leaves. As the leaves’ water content decreases, they wilt to slow the rate of water loss; however, this also causes leaf temperatures to increase due to reduced evaporative cooling. Along with high temperatures, a large temperature fluctuation (more than 15 to 20 degrees) causes slow growth and stunts the process. A greenhouse can act as a buffer for such major changes, if you’re container gardening. And just as outside temperatures heat up, so does the soil surrounding your plants’ roots. While not a realistic range for the outdoor grower, the ideal soil temperature for optimal chemical activity is between 65ºF and 70ºF. Soil temperatures above 75ºF dehydrate roots and can literally cook them as the soil gets hotter. So, when roots get too hot they will send stress signals to shut the leaves down (wilting) before too much damage can occur when high temperatures persist. To sum it up, plants can die from starvation if extremely high temperatures continue for weeks at a time. However, this is almost completely avoidable if you’ve got some handy tips up your sleeve. Broken down by growing space, below are some useful tips for keeping your plants healthy and happy during the summer’s hottest days.


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Feelin’ hoT, hoT, hoT

Traditional Outdoor Gardening: •


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Areas of the garden that face west or south will naturally be hotter and get the brunt of direct sunlight. This can be wonderful for plants that require full sun, and detrimental to those needing only partial sunlight. Keep in mind the sun’s habits when planting your crops. Water slowly to prevent runoff, and do so deeply and regularly. Some people say it’s best to water in the morning or evening in order to prevent shocking the plant roots. However, if you forget and need to tend to your plants during the heat of the day, it’s better than not watering them at all. Adding a thick layer of clean mulch (3 in. or so) on your garden beds will help conserve moisture and protect plants’ roots from extreme temperatures. Mulching can be done at any time of the growing season, but doing so early on—just after preparing the soil and planting—is ideal.

Feelin’ hoT, hoT, hoT

Outdoor Container Gardening: •

• •

Containers can be more susceptible to temperature fluctuations than any other growing medium. Soil over 90ºF will harm roots, and oftentimes soil in containers will heat up to well above 100ºF when the air temperature is lower. As stated previously, mulch! Thanks to their innate ability to be mobile (thanks to the help of their humble humans), container plants can be moved to shaded areas when the heat really kicks in.

Greenhouse Gardening: • • •

Use proper ventilation. Crack windows and doors and use fans, especially if signs of plant stress pop up (scorched or wilted leaves). Apply shade using blinds, netting or paint where necessary. During heat waves, remove panes from the greenhouse to increase airflow. Make sure plants aren’t touching any siding or the roof of the greenhouse because they can easily burn during high temperatures.

GrowRoom Gardening: •

Use an exhaust fan to remove hot, stale air and to bring in cooler air. This should be placed on a timer and set to turn on once an hour for at least five minutes. Another way to combat high temperatures indoors is to hook the fan up to a thermostat. This way you can have the fan kick on when the temperature exceeds a specific degree. If using artificial lighting, make sure to not place the light or heat source too close to the plants. This can quickly heat up the outer layer of soil, where demost of the feeder roots live. If these roots are de stroyed, they take a week or two to return.

"when roots get too hot they will send stress signals to shut the leaves down (wilting) before too much damage can occur when high temperatures persist." 182

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Maximum Yield USA | March 2012


Feelin’ hoT, hoT, hoT

"respiration (the process that releases the energy of stored sugars to fuel growth) will continue day and night, depleting the plant’s food reserves."

• •

Maintain an optimal nutrient temperature between 60ºF and 75ºF. The ideal is 65ºF, as water retains the most oxygen in this state. Anywhere above 85ºF and below 50ºF is moving toward the danger zone, as root damage can easily occur at these temperatures. High nutrient/water temperatures also lead to evaporation and create a breeding ground for disease. Use a reservoir chiller to better control the temperature of the water/nutrient solution. Install an electronic ballast. They give off minimal heat compared to that given off by magnetic coil ballasts. Consider installing T5 fluorescent lamps. They emit very little heat, have built-in electronic ballasts and produce twice the light of a T12 fluorescent.

Consider treating your plants as you would a small animal or baby—leaving them to fend for themselves during heat spells would be criminal! So, make sure they can breathe, have enough water (but, as always, don’t overdo it) and nutrients. As for yourself, the grower, don’t forget to treat yourself right this summer. Drink plenty of fluids and drape a damp-wet hand towel over your neck to keep cool while gardening. MY 184

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& Preventing by Jackie Rhoades

Late Blight on Tomatoes

Late blight tomato disease is the rarest of the blights that affect both tomatoes and potatoes, but it is also the most destructiveâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; it was the leading factor in the Irish Potato Famine of the 1850s where millions of people starved. As author Jackie Rhoades explains, vigilant observation and pretreatment are the only defences against this deadly organismâ&#x20AC;Ś


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

Symptoms of Late Blight on Tomatoes Phytophthora infestans, the pathogen that causes tomato late blight, needs tissue to survive. Sporangia from an infected plant are carried through the air, sometimes across several miles, and germination is almost immediate once they land on a suitable host. Tomato late blight takes only a few hours to take hold; all it needs is a little free moisture on the leaves from rain, fog or morning dew. Once infected, late blight symptoms will become visible in three or four days. Small lesions appear on stems, leaves or fruit. If the weather is damp

"Once infected, late blight symptoms will become visible in three or four days."

and the temperature moderateâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;like on rainy summer daysâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;the pathogen would sporulate around these lesions and the late blight tomato disease would once again be ready to spread to the rest of the garden and beyond. The tiny lesions of late tomato blight are hard to spot and sometimes go unnoticed. The late blight symptoms become more obvious when the area around the lesions appears water soaked or bruised and turns grey-green or yellowed. Each late tomato blight lesion can produce up to 300,000 sporangia a day and each sporangium is capable of forming a new lesion. Once begun, late blight tomato disease can sweep through acres in a matter of weeks. Plant foliage will be completely destroyed and the fruit will be ruined by dark, greasy looking blotches of necrotic flesh.

Preventing Late Blight on Tomatoes Sanitation is the first step in controlling tomato late blight. Clean up all debris and fallen fruit from the garden area. This is particularly essential in warmer areas where extended freezing is unlikely and the late blight tomato disease might survive the winter in the fallen fruit. Currently, there are no strains of tomato available that are resistant to late tomato blight, so plants should be inspected at least twice a week. Since late blight symptoms are more likely to occur during wet conditions, more care should be taken during those times. For the home gardener, fungicides that contain maneb, mancozeb, chlorothanolil or fixed copper can help protect plants from late tomato blight. Repeated applications are necessary throughout

the growing season as the disease can strike at any time. For organic gardeners, there are some fixed copper products approved for use, otherwise all infected plants must be immediately removed and destroyed. Tomato late blight can be devastating to the home gardener and the commercial grower alike, but with close attention to weather conditions, garden hygiene and early detection, this killer of crops can be controlled. MY Printed with permission from

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012


Natural Cultivation: Fusing Modern


by Yoni Serruya

TradiTional Techniques

Learn how to set up a system that combines modern technology and organic growing techniques first employed by ancient pre-Columbian culturesâ&#x20AC;Ś


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

naTural culTiVaTion

These days, hydroculture systems using refined mineral fertilizers are in such common use that various specialized retail stores exist to supply all the necessary materials for such installations. However, a number of growers—striving for the quality of the finished product rather than ultimate productivity—have created a more natural cultivation process by coupling modern hydroponic methods with the traditional use of organic fertilizers. Some specialists are of the opinion that products grown with the mineral fertilizers used in classic hydroponics cannot rival the taste of crops produced with organic fertilizers. Although productivity with organic fertilizers is 25 to 30% lower, the grower will see a much greater quantity of sugars and active ingredients present in the mature products. In the beginning, before using organic fertilizers to grow hydroponically could be possible, a number of problems had to be solved. Classic liquid organic fertilizers had a tendency to sour when used in hydroponic systems since they were originally designed to slowly break down in solid soil with the help of bacteria. The absence of these bacteria in hydroponic systems caused nutrient solutions to slowly change into something that was poisonous to plants. Another problem was that the actual size of the molecules used in classic organic fertilizers—large and not quickly soluble in water— caused blocked irrigation channels. Over time, step by step, some growers began to understand that these problems might be solved by introducing benign bacteria into their hydroculture systems. 190

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naTural culTiVaTion: FusinG MoDern anD TraDiTional Techniques


"The absence oF These bacTeria in hydroponic sysTeMs caused nuTrienT soluTions To slowly change inTo soMeThing ThaT was poisonous To planTs."

In the middle of the 1990s, researchers involved in aquaristics (fish-keeping) noticed that using the nutrient solution from the bottom of their aquariums to feed their plants achieved exceptional results in the quality of the end product. The bacteria naturally present in the earth broke down the molecules in the aquarium water into ions that could be immediately taken up by the plants. From this, the researchers understood that if they could find a method for developing these benign bacteria strains in their hydroculture systems they could prevent souring of their nutrient solutions. In order to populate an area with a bacterial strain, you must create just the right conditions: mainly hiding places (porous clay granules) and high oxygen content,


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which are basic requirements for all life on Earth. By simply replacing the tank of the hydro system with an aquarium, and ensuring a sufficient oxygen supply and a porous substrate (clay granules, etc.), benign bacteria will develop by themselves. This process is dependent on what aquarists call “the

nitrification cycle.” During this process, ammonia—which comes from the droppings of fish and rotting organic material in the water (and is fatal to fish)—is

naTural culTiVaTion: FusinG MoDern anD TraDiTional Techniques

"in The Middle oF The 1990s, researchers involved in aquarisTics (Fish-keeping) noTiced ThaT using The nuTrienT soluTion FroM The boTToM oF Their aquariuMs To Feed Their planTs achieved excepTional resulTs in The qualiTy oF The end producT."

transformed by the aerobic nitrosonomas bacteria into nitrites. These nitrites are then transformed by nitrobacteria into nitrates, which are beneficial to plants. This cycle takes about two weeks—the amount of time it takes bacteria to populate the organic filter—and works as a water purification system. The molecules in the aquarium are held back by the substrate and are converted by the benign bacteria into nitrites and, eventually, nitrates. The plants take up the ammonia, nitrites and nitrates and the leftover water—now purified—can be put back


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in the tank or aquarium without risk for fish and plants. By combining aquaristics with hydrohydro culture you can set up a simple and al almost independent system using the most advanced technology in combination with archaic organic methods of cultivation that were employed by ancient cultures in places like Lake Titicaca in Peru.


Bioponics cultivation imitates the

breakdown of organic material in the soil through the means of a specially developed fertilizer in combination with aerobic bacteria and trichoderma fungi, which are added to an organic filter. By feeding on the carbon of organic material, these microorganisms produce minerals that—in contact with water— are transformed into ions that can be directly taken up by plants. Bioponic fertilizer, which is rapidly biodegradable and

naTural culTiVaTion: FusinG MoDern anD TraDiTional Techniques

must be absorbed by plants as quickly as possible, is readily soluble in water and does not contain large particles. In bioponics, everything in the soil that is good for the plant—humus, microorganisms, silica and trace elements—is replicated in a nutrient solution and something that is the equivalent of light soil (rich in nutrients and bacteria) is developed. This solution is called “liquid earth.” Management of bioponic cultivation is slightly different than for hydroponics,


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mainly in the area of EC and pH. In bioponics the pH level can vary more than in hydroponics—bioponics can tolerate levels between five and 7.5 and hydroponics requires levels between 5.5 and 6.5—and the EC stays weaker (0.6 to 0.7). The low EC found in bioponic systems is sufficient because an EC tester does not take into account the various organic molecules that are found in the nutrient solution but don’t have enough electroconductivity to be detected. MY

"in bioponics, everyThing in The soil ThaT is good For The planT—huMus, MicroorganisMs, silica and Trace eleMenTs—is replicaTed in a nuTrienT soluTion and soMeThing ThaT is The equivalenT oF lighT soil (rich in nuTrienTs and bacTeria) is developed."


Robert Schneider

Robert Schneider, director of education from Aptus USA recently sat down with Maximum Yield to talk about plant nutrition, gardener education and getting back in tune with nature… Maximum Yield (M Y): Can you tell us a little about Aptus and the company’s philosophy? Robert Schneider: The Aptus approach is the natural way; it respects fully the rules of nature and is a guideline to get back to ancient natural mechanisms: soil care and plant care. Aptus is the combination of soil bioremediation, plant stimulation and proper nutrition. Each Aptus nutrition technology focuses on preventing problems, versus only curing. The key to optimum plant health is through proper nutrition. We also believe that everything begins with education. At the end of the day, a product is only as good as the grower who uses it. The world of agriculture is rapidly changing and our 198

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generation has a massive responsibility to fix our broken food system. This only happens with knowledge and understanding of natural plant and soil systems. MY: How did Aptus get its start? Can you tell us something about the people behind the company? Robert: Aptus technologies were first used over a decade ago in Europe. They were originally formulated and applied to largescale commercial crops like potatoes, grapes, apples and strawberries. After much success and respect in commercial agri-business, the founders in Europe decided to repackage the products for the smaller-scale market…in early 2012 we launched in the United States. MY: Which of your products do you offer in the United States and what makes them great? Robert: Our core product line is the Premium Collection of Specialty Boosters…products that provide complete nutrition for a plant. The Premium Collection is fully organic or organo-mineral. We use nothing synthetic and don’t dilute

in water. Most important is the extreme concentrations and high bioavailability Growers typically experience improved plant health, shorter growing cycles, less pest attacks and fungal infections, and improved quality of end product. MY: What’s makes the technology you use so innovative and different from what others are using? Robert: All our technologies are based on natural plant and soil processes, but Aptus is not just an organic nutrient line. Many growers agree that organics provide better quality end product, but sometimes lack the bulk and speed of production promised by synthetic fertilizers. We bridge this gap by combining all-natural ingredients in forms that are immediately available to plants. This bioavailability means rapid plant response in growth, transition, flowering and maturation stages. MY: What is “maximum bioavailability” in layman’s terms? What are chelating nutrients and why are they important? Robert: Plants can only use nutrients they can absorb through roots or tissue. All nutrients must be in specific forms to be absorbed. Bioavailability refers to nutrients in the proper form for plant utilization. Chelate in Latin means “claw.” Chelates are specific clawshaped molecules that trap mineral ions (P, K, Ca, etc) and help the plant to absorb these minerals. There are synthetic chelates, like EDTA, that function in a similar way but are not as efficient...

MY: What tips can you offer indoor growers who are just starting out and using your products? Robert: A common question is, “Do you have any tips for better yields?”Yes—follow the feeding schedule precisely and don’t add anything else but your favorite base NPK nutrient. The research behind the feeding recommendations is extensive and the results are proven for many years. Before starting with Aptus, become educated. Not just about the products, but about plant science in general. No matter how good a product is, success in gardening is truly based on the grower. The more you understand, the better your results will be. MY: What can participants expect to learn when they attend one of your True Plant Science classes and how can MY readers learn more about dates and locations? Robert: We discuss general plant science and try to understand why plants behave certain ways. We also have a lot of Q&A throughout; the classes are informal and interactive. Our classes are always held at one of our exclusive retailers. Growers wanting to attend should ask their local shop or go to our website ( for a list of active retailers and class dates. We will also be adding web-based classes in the near future, and growers are always encouraged to email directly with specific questions. MY

MY: Why are silicic acid and l-amino acids important in plant nutrition? Robert: Silicic acid is truly a game-changing technology, yet it’s been around for as long as microlife has existed in soil. It is the only form of silicon that plants can uptake. Silicic acid performs three functions: 1) Manages nutrient uptake and utilization to help minimize lockout and deficiencies. 2) Provides a mechanical barrier to help the plant resist drought, heat stress, pest attacks and fungal infections. It also strengthens the plant tissue and increases dry weight. 3) Stimulates the plants natural immune response. L-amino acids are organic compounds and are the building blocks of proteins. Proteins are important for managing crops metabolism, structure, transport, communication and growth regulation on a cellular level. Lamino acids also provide peptides and organic nitrogen, induce plant stimulation and chelate nutrients. Maximum Yield USA | July 2012



AT A GLANCE Company: Super Roots Hydroponics Owners: Rio and Jeanette Finds the Feather Location: #105 - 1330 N. Hulbert Fresno, California Phone: 1-559-840-0122 Email: Website: Motto: “Keep on Growin’!”

The Roots Team, back row from left: Marc (sales), Tim (sales), Rio (owner), Brian (manager) Mike (operations), Will (manager); front row from left: Nata (sales), Jeanette (owner) and Brittany (Secretary).

Super Roots Hydroponics has always followed the “go big or go home” philosophy. Over the years, they’ve moved into a bigger building, hired over a dozen employees and stocked up on top-quality and out-of-the-ordinary products. They’ve even stood on a street corner, holding advertising signs and danced…

Beginning with a 3,600 sq. ft. Fresno warehouse, Super Roots Hydroponics anchored itself into the blossoming hydro-ag industry we all know and love today. The shop soon moved to a 10,000 sq. ft. warehouse (where the business is still located today); however, this store is tucked away in an industrial area that gets little foot traffic and is hardly visible from any major streets. Initially, business was slow for the new shop. As Rio recalls, “We were lucky to make a few sales during a typical day. We ran the register and whole shop with just 200

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

one person. We could remember every sale. If we made a thousand-dollar deal, we’d call each other and celebrate!” After about six months Roots decided to bring in another guy to help load soil and assist with daily operations. “Thankfully, we amassed a loyal following of customers, leading us to hire more employees, ultimately topping out at 14 workers. It took lots of hard work to get to this point and I am thankful for all of the support Roots has received over the years.” Rio goes on to say, “Customer service is crucial and we are delighted

every time we see one of our original customers walk through the front door.” The Super Roots staff also states that vendors and reps have also played an intricate role in fulfilling customers dizzying amount of requests for products and information. The “go big or go home” approach allowed for Roots to flourish in a community where commercial farm supply stores, corporate hardware-garden centers, established nurseries and small hydroponics stores sprawl across the landscape. Promotion of the business had always been a large part of this approach, and Roots launched a large advertising campaign that added its own personal touch to established marketing styles. Vinyl-lettered lawn signs even promoted the new shop nearly 75 mi. away in the snow-capped Sierra Nevada mountains. “We’ve even danced signs at major intersections around town!” Rio says. Today, Super Roots advertising formula incorporates stickers, flyers, billboards, radio spots, clothing, Internet, Maximum Yield ads, busses and a yearly customer appreciation/anniversary party. Still, “Getting your name out and customers in the door is only half the battle,” Rio points out. “We have to have cheaper prices, longer hours, better customer

service, more knowledge and a diverse selection of hard-to-find products to stay competitive.” The Super Roots crew has worked hard for almost four years bringing the latest technology and top-quality lighting, soil, nutrients and hydroponic systems to the Central Valley and beyond. Super Roots Hydroponics continues to offer products from known and trusted wholesalers like Hydrofarm, Sunlight Supply, Bloomington Wholesale, R&M Supply and Humboldt Wholesale. The shop is also fully stocked with top-shelf nutrients and supplements from Botanicare, General Hydroponics, House & Garden and dozens of others.

One employee Brian remarks, “Our staff…understands from first-hand experience how convenient and fuel efficient it is to shop at one store.” Utilizing customer requests as inspiration, dozens of odd and hard-to-find products from mini-washers to turkey bags are also now part of the store’s inventory. As said by one of our regular customers, Los, “Roots is the Lowes of grows!” MY Maximum Yield USA | July 2012



sPeciaL Lighting issue

Bright Lights, Big YieLds achieve enlightenment in your indoor garden. With fall just around the corner, now is the time to starting thinking about and planning a light scheme your crops will love. The selection of light articles in this issue will help you do just that. Look forward to measuring light— terminology, techniques and technologies; LEDS in the red, white and blue; and how artificial indoor light differs from natural outdoor light. Just some of the other articles rounding out this issue include:

• • • •

PhYsioLogicaL disorders of indoor croPs drink uP: how much water is too much? Lights infLuence on PLants more! Pick up this special Bright Lights, Big Yields—Lighting Issue at the 9th annual San Francisco Indoor Gardening Expo, July 22, 2012. maximum yield USa august will be available next month for free at select indoor gardening retail stores across the country and on Subscriptions are available at 204

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012



Family owned and operated, we open early and stay open late so that someone is always available to help our local gardeners with their growing needs. We are proud to be Lakewoodâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s only one stop hydro shop.

562-984-4769 GROW 4820 pARAMOUNT bLvd LAKEWOOd, cA 90712


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012




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Phone: 510.903.1808 Fax: 510.764.1246 13762 Doolittle Drive, San Leandro, CA 94577


Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

ALABAMA Alabama Organics 3348 Bethel Rd., Hammondville, AL 35989 256-635-0802 ALASKA Brown’s Electrical Supply 365 Industrial Way, Anchorage, AK 99501 907-272-2259 Far North Garden Supply 2834 Boniface Parkway, Anchorage, AK 99504 907-333-3141 Southside Garden Supply AK 12870 Old Seward Hwy., Unit 114, Anchorage, AK 99515 907-339-9997 Holmtown Nursery Inc. 1301 - 30th Ave., Fairbanks, AK 99701 907-451-8733 Ground Control Landscape ServicesHydroponic & Garden Supplies 1067 Ocean Dr., Homer, AK 99603 907-235-1521 Northern Lights Greenhouse & Garden Supply Suite 105-9737 Mud Bay Rd., Ketchikan, AK 9901 907-225-GROW (4769) Alaska Jack’s Hydroponics and Garden Supply 1150 S. Colony Way, Ste.9, Palmer, AK 99645 907-746-4774 Anuway Hydroponics Suite #1 2711 W Walnut, Rogers, AK 72756 479-631-0099 Peninsula Garden Supply AK 44224 Sterling Highway, Suite 4, Soldotna, AK 99669 907-420-0401 Far North Garden Supply 300 Centaur Street, Wasilla, AK 99654 907-376-7586 ARIZONA Casa Grande Hydroponics 205 N. Florence St., Casa Grande, AZ 85122 520-836-4606 Sea of Green Flagstaff

204-C E. Route 66, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 928-774-SOGF (7643) The Hydro Closet 5826 West Olive Ave. #106, Glendale, AZ 85302 02-361-2049 ____________________________

Growtown Horticulture Supply 1945 E. Indian School RD. Phoenix, AZ 85016 602-277-0121 ____________________________ Homegrown Hydroponics 2525 West Glendale Ave Phoenix, AZ 85051 602-368-4005 Sea of Green West 2340 W. Bell Rd., Suite 116, Phoenix, AZ 602-504-8842 Show Low Hydroponics 1400 E. Deuce of Clubs #2 Show Low, AZ 85901 928-537-4606 ACI Hydroponics 1325 South Park Lane, Tempe, AZ 85282 800-633-2137

Homegrown Hydroponics 601 East Broadway Rd., Tempe, AZ 85282 480-377-9096 Sea of Green Hydroponics 1301 E. University Dr., Tempe, AZ, 85281 800-266-4136 ____________________________

Gonzo Grow 10297 W Van Buren St., Suite 8 Tolleson, AZ 85353 623-780-GROW (4769) ____________________________ Natural Pools & Gardens 2143 North Country, Suite C, Tucson, AZ 85716 520-323-2627 Sea of Green Hydroponics 402 North 4th Ave., Tucson, AZ 85705 520-622-6344 ____________________________

Tucson Hydroponics & Organics 4235 W. Ina Rd., Ste. 131 Tucson, AZ 85741 520-395-2052 ____________________________ ARKANSAS Mickey’s Mercantile 1303 Hwy., 65 South, Clinton, AR 72031 501-412-0214 Old Soul Organics and More 1771 Crossover Rd., Fayetteville, AR 72701 479-444-6955 Growfresh Organics & More 2900 Zero St., Ste 106, Fort Smith, AR 72901 479-648-8885 Fermentables 3915 Crutcher St., N. Little Rock, AR 72118 501-758-6261 Anuway Hydroponics 2711 W. Walnut St., Rogers, Arkansas 72756 479-631-0099 CALIFORNIA Greenleaf Hydroponics 1839 W Lincoln Ave., Anaheim, CA 92801 714-254-0005 Grow It Yourself Gardens 401 Sunset Dr., Suite L, Antioch, CA 94509 925-755-GROW High Desert Hydroponics 13631 Pawnee Rd., #7, Apple Valley, CA 92308 760-247-2090 American Hydroponics 286 South G St., Arcata, CA 95521 800-458-6543 Humboldt Hydroponics 601 I St.,

Arcata, CA 95521 707-822-3377 Let it Grow 160 Westwood Center, Arcata, CA 95521 707-822-8733 ____________________________

Northcoast Horticulture Supply 639 6th St., Arcata, CA 95521 707-826-9998 ____________________________

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Sweet Harvest Hydroponics & Organics 1041 E. Grand Ave., Arroyo Grande,CA 93420 805-473-0004 Auburn Organic 4035 Grass Valley Hwy., Auburn, CA 95602 530-823-8900 High Street Hydro 180 Cleveland Ave., Auburn, CA 95603 530-885-5888 Quail Mountain Ranch 230 Palm Ave., Auburn, CA 95603


Tell 2 Friends Indoor Gardening 62 Sutherland Dr., Auburn, CA 95603 530-889-8171 Bakersfield Hydroponics Bakersfield , CA 661-808-4640 ____________________________

Stop N Grow 5455 Rosedale Hwy., Bakersfield, CA 93308 661-859-1988 ____________________________ Green Leaf Hydroponics 3903 Patton Way #103 Bakersfield, CA 93308 661-245-2616 Kern Hydroponics 2408 Brundage Lane, Suite B, Bakersfield, CA 93304 661-323-7333 ____________________________

The Hydro Shop 3980 Saco Rd., Bakersfield, CA 661-399-3336 ____________________________ Better Grow Hydro Los Angeles 5554 Bandini Boulevard, Bell, CA 91106 323-510-2700; 877 640 GROW Super Starts PO Box 732, Bellmont, CA 94002 650-346-8009

Advanced Garden Supply 3113 Alhambra Dr., Unit F, Cameron Park, CA 95682 530-676-2100 Precision Hydroponics 132 Kennedy Ave., Campbell, CA 95008 408-866-8176 Elite Horticulture Supply 22330 Sherman Way, C13, Canoga Park, CA 91303 818-347-5172 Hydro International 7935 Alabama Ave., Canoga Park, CA 91304 Advanced Hydroponics 17808 Sierra Hwy., Canyon Country, CA 91351 Myron L Company 2450 Impala Dr., Carlsband, CA 9210-7226 760-438-2021 661-299-1603 ____________________________

Hydrostar Hydroponics & Organics 1307 W. Sixth St., #211, Corona, CA 92882 951-479-8069

San Diego Hydroponics North County Coastal 6352 Corte Del Abeto #J Carlsbad CA, 92011 760-420-8934 ____________________________ The Greenhouse Garden Supply 7619 Fair Oak Blvd. Carmichael, CA 95608 916-515-9130 NorCal Creations PO Box 28, Cedar Ridge, CA 95924 Garden Connection, The 2145 Park Avenue, Unit 2 Chico, CA 95928 530-342-7762 Hydro King 2540 South Whitman Place, Chico, CA 959282 530-893-GROW (4769) Grow4Less garden Supply & Hydroponics 320 Trousdale Dr., Suite L Chula Visa, CA 91910 619-425-GROW Citrus Heights Hydrogarden 8043 Greenback Lane Citrus Heights, CA 95610 916-728-4769 Conrad Hydroponics Inc. 14915 Unit E, Olympic Dr., Clearlake, CA 95422 707-994 3264 Under The Sun 12638 Foothill Boulevard, Clearlake Oaks, CA 95423 707-998-GROW (4769) ____________________________

Northcoast Horticulture Supply 1070 Highway 101, Crescent City, CA 95531 707-464-1200 ____________________________

Berkeley Indoor Garden 844 University Ave., Berkeley, CA 94710 510-549-2918 Berkeley’s Secret Garden 921 University Ave., Berkeley, CA 94710, 510-486-0117 Hydroponic Connection, The 2816 San Pablo Ave., Berkeley, CA 94702 510-704-9376 Brentwood Hydroponics & Organics 560 Valdry Ct #85, Brentwood, CA 94513 925-634-6704 Good To Grow & Global Garden Supply 1350 Rollins Rd.,

Burlingame, CA, 94010 650-733-4420

Gro More Garden Supply 2937 Larkin Ave., Clovis, CA 93021 559-348-1055 ____________________________ G & G Organics and Hydroponics 901 W. Victoria Street Unit D, Compton, CA 90220 310-632-0122 Concord Indoor Garden 2771 Clayton Rd., Concord, CA 94519 925-671-2520 Hydroponics Plus 2250 Commerce Ave., Suite C Concord, CA 94520 925-691-7615

The Hydro Spot 21785 Temescal Cyn Rd., Corona, CA 92883 A+ Hydroponics & Organics 1604 Babcock St., Costa Mesa, CA 92627 949-642-7776 The Hydro Source 671 E. Edna Place Covina, CA 91723 877 HYDRO 82; 626-915-3128 Let it Grow 1228 2nd St., Crescent City, CA 95531 707-464-9086 ____________________________

Seaside Hydrogarden 1070 Hwy., 101 North, Crescent City, CA 95531; 707-465-3520 Pacific Coast Hydroponics 4147 Sepulveda Boulevard, Culver City, CA 90230 310-313-1354 Dr. Greenthumbs Hydroponic Garden Supplies 566 San Ramon Valley Blvd., Danville, CA 94526 925-314-9376 Constantly Growing - Davis 123 D St., Davis, CA 95616


Constantly Growing 6200 Enterprise Dr., Suite A Diamond Springs, CA 95619 530-642-9710 Harvest Hydroponics 6650 Merchandise Way Suite B, Diamond Springs, CA 95619 530-622-5190 Victory Garden Supply 1900 N Lincoln St., #100 Dixon, CA 95620 707 678 5800 ____________________________

The Lucky Garden Dublin Hydroponics 7071 Village Pkwy., Dublin, Ca 94568 925-828-GROW (4769) ____________________________ Grow A Lot Hydroponics, San Diego 1591 N. Cuyamaca St., El Cajon, CA 93612 619-749-6777 Indoor Garden Solution Inc. 12424 Exline St., El Monte, CA 91732, 626-453-0443 Go Green Hydroponics 15721 Ventura Boulevard, Encino, CA 91436 818-990-1198

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors


A Fertile World (Eureka) 6th Street, Eureka, CA 95501 707-444-0200 ____________________________ Bayside Garden Supply 4061 Highway 101 Ste 6 Eureka, CA 95503 707-826-7435

Humboldt Hydroponics 1302 Union St., Eureka, CA 95501 707-443-4304 ____________________________

Northcoast Horticulture Supply 60 West 4th St., Eureka, CA 95501 707-444-9999 ____________________________ Constantly Growing 4343 Hazel Ave., Fair Oaks, CA 95628


Fallbrook Hydro 208 E Mission Rd., Ste B Fallbrook, CA 92028

760-728-4769 ____________________________

Tulare County Growers Supply 435 W. Noble Ave., Unit A, Farmersville, CA 93223 559-732-8247 ____________________________ Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - North 6241 Graham Hill Rd., Felton, CA 95018; 831-335-9000 ____________________________

Eel River Hydroponics & Soil Supply 164 Dinsmore Dr., Fortuna, CA 95540 707-726-0395 ____________________________ The Shop 6542 Front Str., Forestville, CA 95436


Dirt Cheap Hydroponics 17975 H Hwy. 1,


Northcoast Horticulture Supply 357 Main St., Fortuna, CA 95540 707-725-5550 ____________________________ Nature’s Secret Garden and Supply 41469 Albrae St., Fremont, CA 94577

510-623-8393 Gro More Garden Supply 2686 Clovis Ave., Ste.109 Fresno, CA 93722

559-348-1055 ____________________________

Roots Grow Supply 1330 North Hulbert, #101 Fresno, CA 93728 559-840-0122 ____________________________ Tower Garden Supply & Organic Nursery 403 W. Olive Ave., Fresno, CA 93728

559-495-1140 Valley Hydroponics 207 E. Sierra Ave. Fresno, CA 93710; 559-449-0426 Grow Wurks Hydroponics 765 S. State College Boulevard. Suite J Fullerton, CA 92831 714-253-Grow (4769) SB Hydro 1109 W. 190th Street, Unit #F, Gardena, CA 90248 310-538-5788 Golden Gecko Garden Center, The 4665 Marshall Rd., Garden Valley, CA 95633 530-333-2394 Probiotic Solutions 20889 Geyserville Ave., Geyserville, CA 95441 707-354-4342 South Valley Hydroponics 320 Kishimura Dr., #3 Gilroy, CA 95020 866-848-GROW ____________________________

Zen Hydroponics 1801 Victory Blvd. Glendale, CA 91201 877 ZEN Grow; 818 806 4500 ____________________________

Fort Bragg, CA 95437; 707-964-4211

Hydrogarden Mendocino County 1240 North Main St., Fort Bragg, CA 95437

707-962-9252 ____________________________

A Fertile World (Fortuna) 610 7th St., Fortuna, CA 95540 707-725-0700 ____________________________


Stop N Grow 340 Pine Ave., Goleta, CA 93003 805-685-3000 ____________________________

All Seasons Hydroponics 17614 Chatsworth St., Granada Hills, CA 91344 818-368-4388 ____________________________

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

AG Natural 403 Idaho Maryland Rd., Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-274 0990 Grass Valley Hydrogarden 12506 Loma Rica Dr., Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-477-2996 ____________________________

Vital Landscaping Inc. 12817 Loma Rica Dr., Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-273-3187 ____________________________ West Coast Growers Hydroponics 13481 Colifax Hwy., Grass Valley, CA 95945 888-924-4769 Joy's Green Garden Supply 340-A Elm Ave, Greenfield, CA 93927 831-674-1416 M.G.S. 22540 D Foothill Boulevard, Hayward, CA 94541; 510-582-0900 Thrive Hydroponics 70 A West North St., Healdsburg, CA 95446 707-433-4068 Bear Valley Hydroponics & Homebrewing 17455 Bear Valley Rd., Hesperia CA 92345 760 949 3400 Emerald Garden 13325 South Hwy. 101, Hopland, CA 95482 707-744-8300 Surf City Hydroponics 7319 Warner St., Suite B Huntington Beach, CA 92647 714-847-7900 Dutch Garden Supplies Park Circle Suite 12 Irvine CA 92614 949-748-8777 West Coast Hydroponics, Inc. 27665 Forbes Road, Unit 10 Laguna Niguel, CA 92677 949-348-2424 La Habra Hydroponics 1301 S Beach Blvd., Suite O. La Habra, CA 90631 562-947-8383 ____________________________

Grass Roots Hydroponics 31875 Corydon, Suite 130 Lake Elsinore, CA 92530 951-245-2390 ____________________________ South County Hydroponics 22511 Aspan St., Suite E Lake Forest, CA 92630 949-837-8252 Clover Hydroponics & Garden Supply 43 Soda Bay Rd., Lakeport, CA 95453 707-263-4000 ____________________________

San Diego Hydroponics East County 11649 Riverside Dr., Suite 141, Lakeside, CA 92040 619-562-3276


Total Hydroponics Center Inc 4820 Paramount Blvd., Lakewood, CA 90712 562-984-GROW (4769) ____________________________ Weather Top Nursery 44901 Harmon Dr., Laytonville, CA 95454 707-984-6385 ____________________________

CNG Garden Supplies 22 Ricknbacker Circle, Livermore, CA 94551 925-454-9376 ____________________________ DL Wholesale 6764 Preston Ave. Suite D Livermore CA 94551 510-550-0018 ____________________________

National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply 6485 Brisa Street, Livermore, CA 94550 888-570-4678 (Southern CA) ____________________________ Garden Depot, The 203 Commerce Street, Suite 101 Lodi, CA 95240 209-339-9950 Valley Rock Landscape Supply 2222 N H Street; Lompoc CA 93436 805 736 0841; 805 735 5921 562 Hydro Shop 717 East Artesia Blvd. Long Beach Ca,90805 562-726-1101 ____________________________

Green Coast Hydroponics 2405 Mira Mar Ave., Long Beach, CA 90815 562-627-5636 ____________________________ Grow Light Express 5318 East Second St. Suite 164, Long Beach, CA 90803 888-318-GROW ____________________________

Long Beach Hydroponics & Organics 1772 Clark Ave., Long Beach, CA 90815 562-498-9525 ____________________________ Atwater Hydroponics 3350 Glendale Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90039; 323-663-8881 Green Door Hydro and Solar 830 Traction Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90013 212-625-1323 Hardman Hydroponics 3511 Youree Dr., Shreveport Los Angeles 71105 318-865-0317

Hollywood Hydroponics and Organics 5109 1/2 Hollywood Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90027-6105 323-662-1908 Hydroasis 2643 S. Fairfax Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90232 888-355-4769 LAX Hydro 10912 S. La Cienaga Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90304; 310-337-6995 Nirvana Hydroponics 340 South San Pedro Los Angeles, CA 90013 310-795-2914 ____________________________

Sunland Hydroponics 4136 Eagle Rock Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90065 323-254-2800 ____________________________

Superior Hydroponic Supply 5651 Hollywood Blvd., 90028 Los Angeles,CA 323 465-grow (4769) ____________________________ Green Giant Hydroponics 7183 Hwy. 49 Unit B Lotus, CA 95651; 530-622-4465 Big Momma’s 11455 Clayton Creek Rd., Lower Lake, CA 95457 707-994-1788 California Green Hydroponics 16491 Rd., 26, Suite 101 Madera, California 93638 559-674-1400 grow 22333 Pacific Coast Hwy., Ste. 101 Malibu, CA 90265; 310-456-2910 Deep Roots Garden Center & Flower Shop 207 N. Sepulveda Blvd. Manhattan Beach, CA 90266 310-376-0567 B & S Gardening Supplies 592 Commerce Court, Manteca, CA 95336 209-239-8648 Monterey Bay Horticulture Supply 218 Reindollar Ave., Suite 7A, Marina, CA 93933 831-38-HYDRO Two Chix Garden Supply 1230 Yuba St., Marysville, CA 95901 530-923-2536 ____________________________

Northcoast Horticulture Supply 1580 Nursery Way McKinleyville, CA 95519 707-839-9998 ____________________________ Mendocino Garden Shop PO Box 1301, 44720 Maint St. (at Hwy. 1), Mendocino, CA 95460 707-937-3459 Hooked Up Hydroponics 1004 W. 15th St. Suite B & C, Merced, Ca 95340; 209-723-1300

INDOOR/OUTDOOR GARDEN SUPPLY 1501 W. Main St., Merced, CA 95340 209-580-4425 The Urban Farmer Store 653 E. Blithedale Ave., Mill Valley, CA 94941 415-380-3840 Mission Viejo Hydroponics 24002 Via Fabricante Suite 502 Mission Viejo, CA 92691 949-380-1894 Coca’s Centr al Valley Hydroponics 116 West Orangeburg Ave., Modesto, CA 95350 209-567-0590 Year Round Garden Supply 11000 Carver Rd. #20 Modesto, CA 95350 Tel: 209 522 2727 ____________________________

Green Light Hydroponics 2615 Honolula Ave. Montrose, CA 91020 818-640-2623 ____________________________ South Bay Hydroponics and Organics - Mtn. View 569 East Evelyn Ave., Mountain View, CA 94041 650-968-4070 Redwood Garden Supply 55 Myers Ave., Myers Flat, CA 95554 707-943-1515 ____________________________

Endless Green Hydroponics 25 Enterprise Court, Suite 3 Napa, CA 94558 707-254-0200 ____________________________ Wyatt Supply 4407 Solano Ave., Napa, CA 94558; 707-251-3747 Conejo Hydroponics 3481 Old Conejo Rd., #106 Newbury Park, CA 91320 805-480-9596 Big Momma’s 2581 Stokes Ave., Nice, CA 95464 707-274-8369 ____________________________


Foothill Hydroponics 10705 Burbank Boulevard, N. Hollywood, CA 91601 818-760-0688 ____________________________ One Stop Hydroponics 12822 Victory Boulevard North Hollywood, CA 91606 818-980-5855 Lumatek Digital Ballasts 33 Commercial Boulevard, Suite B Novato, CA 94949 415-233-4273 Marin Hydroponics 55 Frosty Ln Novato, CA 94949 415-233-4104 Marin Hydroponics 1219 Grant Ave., Novato, CA 94945 415-897-2197 Roots Grow Supply 40091 Enterprise Dr. Oakhurst CA 93644 559-683-6622 3rd Street Hydroponics 636 3rd St., Oakland, CA 94607 510-452-5521 Medicine Man Farms 1602 53rd Ave., Oakland, CA 94601 707-980-0456 Plant-N-Grow 1602 53rd Ave., Oakland, CA 94601 707-980-0456 Hydrobrew 1319 South Coast Hwy., Oceanside, CA 92054 760-966-1885; 877-966-GROW Socal Hydroponics 1727-B Oceanside Boulevard, Oceanside, CA 92054 760-439-1084 Cultivate Ontario 2000 Grove Ave. #a110 Ontario, CA 91761 909-781-6142



RH Distribution 1751 S. Pointe Ave., Ontario, CA 91761 888-545-8112 ____________________________

DNA Hydroponics Inc 19345 North Indian Canyon Dr., North Palm Springs, Suite 2-F CA 92258 760-671-5872

Green Coast Hydroponics 496 Meats Ave., Orange, CA 92865 714-974-4769 ____________________________ Natural Pest Controls 8320 B Hazel Ave., Orangevale, CA 95662 916-726-0855 Greenback Garden Supply 9341 Greenback Ln., Ste C Orangeville, CA 95662 530-391-4329 ____________________________

Advanced Soil & Garden Supply 350 Oro Dam Boulevard, Oroville, CA 95965 530-533-2747 ____________________________ Igrow Hydro 2280 Veatch St., Oroville, CA 95965 530-534-4476 Orville Organic Gardens 5250 Olive Hwy Ste 1 Oroville, CA 95966 530-589-9950 US Orchid & Hydroponic Supplies 1621 South Rose Ave.,, Oxnard, CA 93033 805-247-0086 Pacifica Hydroponics 90 Eureka Square Pacifica, CA 94044

Stop N Grow 640 S. Frontage Rd., Nipomo, CA 93444 805-619-5125 ____________________________

National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply 1950 C South Grove Ave., Ontario, CA 91761 888-888-3319 ____________________________

Valley Garden Solutions Inc. 15650 Nordhoff Ave., Suite 104, North Hills, CA 91345 818-336-0041

Palm Tree Hydroponics 2235 E 4th St, Suite G Ontario, CA 91764 909-941-9017

Green Bros Hydroponics 14072 Osborne St., Panorama City, CA 91402 818-891-0200 ____________________________ Mission Hydroponics 1236 East Mission Pomona, CA 91766 909-620-7099 New Leaf Hydro 34150 123rd St., Parablossom, CA 93553 661-944-2226 Alternative Hydro 3870 East, Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91107 888-50-HYDRO Better Grow Hydro Pasadena 1271 E. Colorado Boulevard, Pasedena, CA 91106 626-737-6612 365 Hydroponics 2062 Lincoln Ave., Pasadena, CA 91103 626-345-9015 Supersonic Hydroponic and Organic Garden Supply 3850 Ramada Dr., Unit D2 Paso Robles, CA 93446 805-434-2333 Foothills Hydrogarden 3133 Penryn Rd., Penryn, CA 95663 916-270-2413 ____________________________

650-355-5100 ____________________________ Funny Farms Hydroponics 963 Transport Way, #12 Petaluma, CA 94954 707-775-3111 ____________________________

Flairform 1751 S Pointe Ave., Ontario, CA 91761 213-596-8820 GreenCoast Ontario Unit 102-103 1920 South Rochester Ave., Ontario, CA 909-605-5777 ____________________________


America’s Best Hydroponics & Gardening Center 641 W. Palmdale Blvd. Unit D Palmdale, CA 93551 661-266-3906 ____________________________

Hydroponics Unlimited 641 W. Palmdale Blvd. “D” Palmdale, CA 93550 661-266-3906 ____________________________ Palm Springs Hydroponics 4651 Ramon Rd., Palm Springs, CA 92264 760-327-ROOT

House of Hydro 224 Weller St., #B, Petaluma, CA 94952 707-762-4769 Wyatt Supply 1016 Lakeville St., Petaluma, CA 94952 707-762-3747

Best Yield Garden Supply 3503 West Temple Ave., Unit A, Pomona, CA 91768 909-839-0505 Mission Hydroponics 1236 East Mission Pomona, CA 91766 909-620-7099 Emerald Garden 8249 Archibald Ave., Ranch Cucamanga, CA 91730 909-466-3796 ____________________________

GreenLeaf Hydroponics 2212 Artesia Boulevard, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 310-374-2585 ____________________________ Radiant Roots Gardening & Hydroponics 1394 S Pacific Coast Hwy., Redondo Beach, CA 90277 310-540-2005 Shadow Valley Aquatics 75 Kimick Way, Red Bluff, CA 96080 530-526-0479 Bear Roots Hydroponics 1615 East Cypress, #5 Redding, CA 96002 530-244-2215 Dazey’s Supply 3082 Redwood Dr., Redway, CA 95560 707-923-3002 Humboldt Hydroponics 2010 Tunnel Rd., Redway, CA 95560 707-923-1402 Redway Feed Garden and Pet Supply 290 Briceland Rd., Redway, CA 95560 707-923-2765 Sylvandale Gardens 1151 Evergreen Rd., Redway, CA 95560 707-923-3606 ____________________________

Humboldt Hydroponics 2174 Pine Str., Redding, CA 96001 530-241-7454 ____________________________ Hydro King 105 Hartnell Ave., Suite C and D, Redding, CA 96002 888-822-8941 Orsa Organix 111 Willow St., Redwood City, CA 94063 650-369-1269 ____________________________

JNJ Hydroponics 4774 Phelan Rd. Suite 2 Phelan, CA 92371 760-868-0002 Turbo Grow 1889 San Pablo Ave., Pinole, CA 94564 510-724-1291 Hillside Hydro & Garden 4570 Pleasant Valley Rd., Placerville CA 95662 530-644-1401

Mendocino Greenhouse & Garden Supply 960 East School Way, Redwood Valley, CA 95470 707-485-0668 ____________________________

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

EZ Green Hydroponics 7017 Reseda Boulevard, Reseda, CA 91335 818-776-9076 Hydro Hills Hydroponics 19320 Vanowen St., Reseda CA 91335 Box Of Rain Inc. Po Box 302, Rexford, CA 59930 406-755-7245 Hi-Tech Gardening 5327 Jacuzzi St., #282, Richmond, CA 94804 510-524-4710 The Urban Farmer Store 2121 San Joaquin St., Richmond, CA 94804 510-524-1604 ____________________________

Discount Hydroponics 4745 Hiers Ave., Riverside, CA 92505 877-476-9487 ____________________________

All Ways Hydro 2220 Eastridge Ave. Suite C Riverside CA 92507 888-HYDRO98 ____________________________

Calwest Hydroponics 11620 Sterling Ave., Suite A Riverside, CA 92503 800-301-9009 ____________________________ Hydro Depot 5665 Redwood Dr., #B, Rohnert Park, CA 94928 707-584-2384 Igrow Hydro 9000 Atkinson St., Roseville, CA 95678 916-773-4476 Green Acres Hydroponics 1215 Striker Ave., Suite 180, Sacramento, CA 95834 916-419-4394 Greenfire Sacramento 3230 Auburn Boulevard, Sacramento, CA 95821 916-485-8023 Green Thumb H ydroponics 35 Quinta Court, Suite B, Sacramento, CA 95823 916-689-6464 ____________________________

KY Wholesale 8671 Elder Creek Rd. #600 Sacramento, CA 95828 916 383 3366 ____________________________ Mystic Gardens 8484 Florin Rd., #110, Sacramento, CA 95828 916-381-2464 Sac Hydroponics 9529 Folson Boulevard, Suite C Sacramento, CA 95827 916-369-7968 Skywide Import & Export Ltd. 5900 Lemon Hill Ave., Sacramento, CA 95824 916-383-2369


Tradewinds Wholesale Garden Supplies 1235 Striker Ave. #180, Sacramento, CA 95834 888-557-8896 Green Joint Ventures 61 Tarp Circle, Salinas, CA 93901 831-998-8628 ____________________________

Reforestation Technologies International 1341 Daton St., Unit G Salinas, CA 93901 800-784-4769 ____________________________

Xtreme Gardening 1341 Dayton St. Annex B Salinas CA 93901 800-784-4769 ____________________________

National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply 1900 Bendixsen St. , Bldg. 1, Samoa, CA 95564 800-683-1114 (Northern CA) ____________________________ Greenmile Hydroponic Garden Supply 1480 South E. Street, Suite D, San Bernardino, CA 92408 909-885-5919 Garden Shed, The 1136 El Camino Real San Carlos, CA 650-508-8600 Pure Food Gardening/ Microclone 830 H Bransten Rd. San Carlos,CA 94070-3338 Green Gopher Garden Supply 679 Redwood Ave., Suite A, Sand City, CA 93955 831-899-0203 Modern Gardens 26620 Valley Center Dr. Santa Clarita, CA 91351 661-513-4733 Best Coast Growers 4417 Glacier Ave. Suite C, San Diego, CA 92120 800-827-1876 City Farmer’s Nursery 4832 Home Ave., San Diego, CA 92105 619-284-6358 Green Lady Hydroponics 4879 Newport Ave., San Diego, CA 92107 619-222-5011 Home Brews & Gardens 3176 Thorn St., San Diego, CA 92104 619-630-2739 ____________________________

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Innovative Growing Solutions (IGS) 5060 Santa Fe St. Ste.D San Diego, CA 92109 858-578-4477 ____________________________

Mighty Garden Supply 4780 Mission Gorge Pl. #A-1, San Diego, CA 92120 619-287-3238 ____________________________

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

Grow Your Own 3401 Traval St., San Francisco, CA 94116 415-731-2115 ____________________________ Hydroponic Connection Warehouse, The 1995 Evans Ave., San Francisco, CA 94124 415-824-9376 Nor Cal Hydroponics 4837 Geary Boulevard, San Francisco, CA 94118 415-933-8262

Miramar Hydroponics & Organics 8952 Empire St., San Diego CA 92126 858-549-8649 ____________________________

Plant It Earth 2279 Market St., San Francisco, CA 94114 415-626-5082 ____________________________

UrbanGardens advanced hydroponics and gardening

704 Filbert Street, San Francisco, CA 94133

Oracle Garden Supply 5755 Oberlin Dr., Suite 100 San Diego, CA 92121 858-558-6006 ____________________________ Pacific Beach Hydroponics 1852 Garnet Ave., San Diego, CA 92109 858-274-2559 ____________________________

San Diego Hydroponics Beach Cities 4122 Napier St., San Diego, CA 92110 619-276-0657 ____________________________ Wai Kula Hydrogardens 5297 Linda Vista Rd., San Diego, CA 92110 619-299-7299 Direct Hydroponics Wholesale 1034 W. Arrow Hwy. #D San Dimas, CA 91773 888-924-9376 Liquid Gardens 1034 West Arrow Hwy. #D San Dimas, CA 91773 888-924-9376 Extreme Hydroponics 11479 San Fernando Road C, San Fernando, CA 91340 818-898-0915 Plant It Earth 661 Divisadero San Francisco, CA 94117 415-626-5082

Indoor Garden Depot 1848 Commercial St. San Diego CA 92113 619-255-3552 ____________________________


Plant It Earth Warehouse 1 Dorman Ave., San Francisco, CA 94124 415-970-2465

Urban Gardens Unlimited 704 Filbert St., San Francisco, CA 94133 415-421-4769 ____________________________ San Francisco Hydro 123 Tenth St., San Francisco, CA 94103 The Urban Farmer Store 2833 Vicente St., San Francisco, CA 94116 415-661-2204 US Garden 417 Agostinio Rd., San Gabriel Ca 91776 626 285-5009 Inland Empire Hydrogarden 1301-C South State St., San Jancinto, CA 92853 Hahn’s Lighting 260 E. VA Suite 1, San Jose, CA 95112 408-295-1755 Plant Life 32 Race St., San Jose, CA 95126 408-283-9191 South Bay Hydroponics and Organics - San Jose 1185 South Bascom Ave., San Jose, CA 95128 408-292-4040 D&S Garden Supplies 17-130 Doolittle Dr., San Leandro, CA 94577 510-430-8589 Hydrogarden Delight 13762 Doolittle Dr., San Leandro, CA 94577 510-903-1808


San Diego Hydroponics North 802 N. Twin Oaks Valley Road #108 San Marcos, CA 92069 760-510-1444 ____________________________ H20 Gardening 355 West 7th St., San Pedro, CA 90731 310-514-1416 Marin Hydroponics 721 Francisco Blvd East San Rafael, CA 94901 415-482-8802 Pacific Garden Supply 128 H Carlos Dr., San Rafael, CA 94903 San Rafael Hydroponics 1417 Fourth St. San Rafael, CA 94901 415 455 9655 ____________________________

Green Coast Hydroponics 3560 State St., Santa Barbara, CA 93105 805-898-9922 ____________________________ Nutes Int’l 204 N Quarantina St., Santa Barbara, CA 93103 805-687-6699 Planet Earth Hydroponics 102 East Haley St., Santa Barbara, CA 93101 805 899 0033 ____________________________

Urban Grow Systems 204 N Quarantine St., Santa Barbara, CA 93103 805-637-6699 ____________________________ Santa Clarita Valley Hydroponics 25835 Railroad Ave. #26 Santa Clarita CA 91350 661 255 3700 661 255 3701 California Hydroponics 310 Coral St., Suite C Santa Cruz, CA 95060 831-423-4769 Hydro-Logic Purification Systems 370 Encinal St., Suite 150, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 888 H2O LOGIC Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - West Side 815 Almar Ave., Unit K, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 831-466-9000 Gottagrow Garden Supply 769 Wilson St., Santa Rosa, CA 95404 707-544-7782 ____________________________

Central Coast Hydrogarden 1951 Santa Barbara St., San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 805-544-GROW Healthy Harvest Hydroponics and Organics 2958 S. Higuera St., San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 805.596.0430

Green Logic Garden Supply 860 Piner Road, #38, Santa Rosa, CA 95403 707-843-3156 ____________________________

Organic Bountea 1919 Dennis Lane, Santa Rosa, CA 95403 800-798-0765 Wyatt Supply 747 Yolanda Ave. Santa Rosa, CA 95404 707-578-3747 Next Generation Hydroponics 10658 Prospect Ave., Ste.A Santee, CA 92071 619-438 2415 Santee Hydroponics 7949 Mission Gorge Rd., Santee, CA 92071 619-270-8649 Gardening Unlimited 60 Old El Pueblo Rd., Scotts Valley, CA 95066 831-457-1236 Pro Gardening Systems 765 Petaluma Ave., Sebastopol, CA 95472 707-829-7252 Better Choice Hydroponics 610 S. Washington St., Senora, CA 95370 209 533 2400 Go Big Hydroponics 4501 Van Nuys Boulevard, Sherman Oaks, CA 91403 818-789-3341 Bloom Brothers Garden Supply, Inc. 3293 Industry Dr. Signal Hill, CA 90755 562 494-0060 We Grow Hydroponics 3350 East Los Angeles Ave., Simi Valley, CA 93063 805-624-4566 Abundant Hydroponics LLC 1611 Shop St., #1-A, S. Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 530-54 HYDRO ____________________________

Advanced Garden Supply 2660 Lake Tahoe Boulevard, Building C, Unit 9, S. Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 530-541-4769 ____________________________ Farm H ydroponics, The 1950 Lake Tahoe Boulevard #3, S. Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 530-541-3276


HomeGrown Indoor Garden Supply 681 A Grider Way, Stockton, CA 95210 209-477-4447 ____________________________ Golden Harvest Hydroponics & Garden Supply 8626 Lower Sacramento Road #48, Stockton, CA 95210 209-951-3550 M&M Garden Supply 2509 West Lane, Suite B Stockton, CA 95205 209-939-0664 Pacific Ave Indoor Garden Supply 4633 pacific Ave Stockton , CA 95207 209-955-0945 City Farm Hydroponics 8903 Laurel Canyon Boulevard, Sun Valley, CA 91352 818-767-2076 ____________________________

Sunland Hydroponics 8300 Foothill Boulevard, Sunland, CA 91040 818-352-5300 ____________________________ Anthony’s Garden & Lighting Supply 30 Ridge Road, Suites 8 & 9 Sutter Creek, CA 95685 209-267-5416 Tahoe Garden Supply 645 Westlake Boulevard, Suite 2, PO Box 487 Tahoe City, CA 96145 530-581-3200 The Otherside Hydroponics 19425 Ventura Blvd Tarzana CA 91356 818 881 hydro (4937) Hydroponics 4 Less 41669 Winchester Avenue, Temecula, CA 92590 800-A1-HYDRO Inland Empire Hydrogarden 28822 Old Town Front St. #206 Temecula, CA 92590 886-74-HYDRO ____________________________

Valley Hydro and Organics 19230 Sonoma Hwy. Sonoma CA 95476 707-396-8734 Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - East Side 4000 Cordelia Lane Soquel, CA 95073 831-475-9900 ____________________________

Orange County Hydroponics 12797 Beach Boulevard, Stanton, CA 90680 714-893-9493 ____________________________

805 Hydroponics & Organics 1785 E. Thousand Oaks Boulevard Thousand Oaks, CA 91362 805-494-1785 ____________________________

Art of Hydro 2636 E. Thousand Oaks Blvd. Thousand Oaks, CA 91362 805-230-2227 ____________________________ Green Thumb Lighting & Garden 1647 W. Sepulveda Boulevard, Unit 5, Torrance, CA 90501 888-326-GROW

Los Angeles Hydroponics and Organics 3007-3009 W. Artesia Blvd. Torrance, CA 90504 310-323-4937 Anything Grows 10607 W. River Street, Building 3 Suite C, Truckee, CA 96161 530-582-0479 Hooked Up Hydroponics 339 S. Golden State Boulevard, Turlock, CA 95380 209-668-1300 Emerald Garden 307 East Perkins Street, Ukiah, CA 95482 707-463-2510 ____________________________

HydroPacific - Hydroponics & Garden Supplies 351 C Hastings Av., Ukiah, CA 95482 707-467-0400 ____________________________ Northcoast Hydrogardens 3450 North State Street, Ukiah, CA 95482 707-462-7214 Wyatt Supply 2200 N. State St. Ukiah, CA 95482 707-462-7473 Atlantis Garden Supply 2851 A Whipple Road, Union City, CA 94587 510-487-8007 Evergreen Hydroponics 923 N. Central Avenue, Suite B, Upland, CA 91786 909-946-7100 TNC Supply 9490 Main Street, P.O. Box 763 Upper Lake, CA 95485 707-275-9565 Everything Green 1650 Lewis Brown Dr. Vallejo, CA 94589 707 647 0774 Hydroponics Market 15816 Arminta St Van Nuys, CA 91406 818-305-6261 886-72-HYDRO ____________________________

Stop N Grow 4160 Market Street, Unit 11 Ventura, CA 93003 805-639-9489 ____________________________

BWGS-CA 7530 W. Sunnyview Avenue Visalia, CA 93291 888-316-1306 ____________________________ The Green Shop 66420 Mooney Boulevard, Suite 1 Visalia, CA 93277 559-688-4200 Kaweah Grower Supply 1106 1/2 N. Ben Maddox Way, Visalia, CA 93293 559-625-4937

Greentrees Hydroponics Inc. 2581 Pioneer Avenue, Unit D Vista, CA 92081 760-598-7551 Home Life Hydroponics and Organics 1745 East Vista Way, Vista, CA 92084 760-643-2150 Specialty Garden Supply 7 Hangar Way Ste B Watsonville Ca 95075 831-768-0420 Evergreen Farm Feed and Garden 1131 Main Street Weaverville, CA 96093 530-623-2884 California Hydro Garden 1043 South Glendora Avenue, Suite A West Covina, CA 91790 626-813-0868 No Stress Hydroponics 7543 Santa Monica Boulevard, West Hollywood, CA 90046 323-845-9874

Golden Valley Hydroponics 870 W. Onsott Rd. Ste F Yuba City, CA 95993 530-763-2151 Southern Humbolt Garden Supplies 34919 Yucaipa Boulevard, Yucaipa, CA 92399 909-797-6888; 707-459-6791 Yucca Valley Hydroponics 56825 Twentynine Palms Hwy. Yucca Valley, CA 92284 760 369 0300 COLORADO South Park Hydroponics 42 E Buckskin Rd. Alma CO 80420 719 836 1533 ____________________________

National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply 3550 B Odessa Way, Aurora, CO 80011 866-877-4188 (Northeast) ____________________________

Hydronation 2491 Boatman Drive, Suite B West Sacramento, CA 95691 916-372-4444 Flower Hut Nursery 603 4th Street Wheatland, CA 95692 530-633-4526 ____________________________

Green Coast Hydroponics 11510 Whittier Boulevard Whittier, CA 90601 562-699-4201 ____________________________ GreenWay Hydroponics 11510 Whittier Boulevard, Whittier, CA 90601 Lazy Gardeners Hydroponics ‘N’ More 14626 East Whittier Boulevard, Whittier, CA 90605 562-945-0909 Garden Spout, The 260 Margie Dr Willits, CA 95490 707-456-0196 Sparetime Supply 208 E. San Francisco Avenue, Willits, CA 95490-4006 ____________________________

Hydromagic Supply 40 N. East St. Suite F Woodland,CA 95776 530-661-0117 ____________________________ Urban Gardens 22516 Ventura Boulevard, Woodland Hills, CA 91364 818-876-0222 ____________________________

Ultra Lo Hydro 937-252-8224 ____________________________ Garden Highway Garden Supply 598 Garden Highway #22 Yuba City, CA 95991 530-755-2877

Nick’s Garden Center 2001 S. Chambers, Aurora, CO 80014 303-696-6657 ___________________________

The Big Tomato Indoor Garden Supply 14440 E. 6th Ave. Aurora, CO 80011 (303) 364-4769 ___________________________ Family Hydroponics-Boulder 2125 32nd Street Boulder, CO 80301 303-996-6100 Polar Ray 5171 Eldorado Springs Dr. Boulder, CO 80303 303 494 5773 Way To Grow 6395 Gunpark Drive, Boulder, CO 80301 303-473-4769 Deep Roots Garden Supply 1790 Airport Road, Unit 1 Breckenridge, CO 80424 970-453-1440 Mile High Hydroponics 37 Strong St. Brighton, CO 80601 303-637-0069 Brighton Hydroponics 839so.Kuner rd., Brighton CO 80601 303-655-1427 ___________________________

ACME Hydroponics 300 Nickel St Suite 3 Broomfield, CO 80020 720.524.7306 ___________________________ Colorado Grow 3400 Industrial Lane, Unit 10A Broomfield, CO 80020 303-465-GROW (4769) Hydrofarm CO 400 Burbank St Broomfield, CO 80020 800-634-9990

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

J&D Organic Growing Solutions 217 1/2 Clayton Street Brush, CO 80723 970-310-5408 BIG BloomZ 1011 Caprice Drive, Castle Rock, CO 80109 303-688-0599 ___________________________




Indoor Ga rdener. The 3225 I-70 Business Loop Unit A10 Clifton, Colorado 81520 970-434-9999 ____________________________ Indoor Garden Warehouse 8100 S Akron St., Suite 322, Centennial, CO 80112 720-496-2110 Garden Tech 737 Garden of the Gods Road, Colorado Springs, CO 80907 719-278-9777 Greenhouse Tech 917 East Fillmore, Colorado Springs, CO 80907 719-634-0637 Hydro Grow Supply 644 Peterson Road, Colorado Springs, CO 80915 719-596-2600 Purple Mountain Hydroponics LLC 1530 S Nevada Avenue, Colorado Springs, CO 80906 719-635-5859 Room To Grow LLC 422 South 8th Street Colorado Springs CO 80905 719-633-8682 Roots and Rocks Hydroponic and Organic Garden Supply 1014 S. 21st Street Colorado Springs, CO 80904 719-634-1024 ____________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 5275 Quebec St. Commerce City, CO 80022 720-222-0772








I F E R, C


R-n-B Horticultural Supply 25797 Conifer Rd #a-8 Conifer, Co 80433 303-838-5520 ____________________________

Roll-N-Green Farms Horticultural Supply 25797 Conifer Rd #A-8 Conifer, CO 80433 303-838-5520 ____________________________

Global Organics & Hydroponics 11 N Broadway Cortez CO 81321 970-564-8100 ____________________________



BWGS-CO 11685 E. 55th Avenue Denver, CO 80239 888-316-1306 ____________________________

Chlorophyll 3801 Mariposa St. Denver CO 80211 303-433-1155 ____________________________ Denver Hydroponic & Organic Center 6810 North Broadway, Unit D Denver, CO 80221 303-650-0091 Rocky Mountain Lighting and Hydroponics 7100 N. Broadway, Suite 3D Denver, CO 80221 303-428-5020 The Grow Outlet 4272 Lowell Boulevard Denver, CO 80211 303-586-5543 Way To Grow 301 East 57th Ave. Denver, CO 80216 303-296-7900 ____________________________

All Seasons Gardening 434 Turner Drive, Suite 2B Durango, CO 81303 (970) 385-4769 ____________________________ Blue Sky Hydroponics 1301 Florida Road Unit C Durango, CO 81301 970-375-1238 DHL Garden Supply 178 Bodo Dr.Unit B Durango, Co 81303 970-247-1090 Grow Store South, The 5050 S. Federal Boulevard, #37, Englewood, CO 80110 303-738-0202 Alpenglow Garden Supply 2712 South College Ave Fort Collins, CO 80525 970-266-8888 Bath Nursery & Garden Center 2000 E. Prospect, Fort Collins, CO 80525 970-484-5022 Gold Coast Hydroponics West 8101 S.W. Frontage Road Suite 300 Fort Collins, Colorado 80528 970-232-3220 Indoor Paradise Hydroponics 309 S. Summit View, Unit 17, Fort Collins, CO 80524-1462 970-221-3751 Way To Grow 3201 E. Mulberry Street, Fort Collins, CO 80524 970-484-4769

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.


Hydro Shack, The 220 Main Street, Suite E Frisco, CO 80443 970-668-0359 ____________________________ GWS Hydroponics 7025 Highway 82 Building 4B, Glenwood Springs, CO 81601 970-384-2040 Hydro Planet 711 Washington Avenue, Golden, CO 80401 303-279-6090 Rocky Mountain Hydroponics and Organics 15985 S. Golden Road Golden, CO 80401 720-475-1725 Desert Bloom Hydroponics 445 Pitkin Avenue, Grand Junction, CO 81501 970-245-6427 970-668-0359 ____________________________

Primo Gardens 1600 North Ave. Suite B Grand Junction, CO 81501 970-241-1209 970-668-0359 ____________________________ Greeley Nutrients 700 11th Street Unit 101 Greeley CO 80631 970 673 8302 Your Grow Bud 6801 South Emporia St. Suite 106 Greenwood Village, CO 80112 Tel: 303-790-2211 GroWize 3225 S. Wadsworth Boulevard, Lakewood, CO 80227 303-986-2706 Grow Store, The 8644 W. Colfax Avenue, Lakewood, CO 80215 888-510-0350 ____________________________

MileHydro 355 S. Harlan St. Lakewood CO 80226 303-935-4769 ____________________________ Ever Green Hydroponics Inc. 1131 Francis Street, Suite A, Longmont, CO 80501 303-682-6435 ____________________________

Ultra Lo Hydro 937-252-8224

Lyons Indoor Gardening 138 Main Street, Lyons, CO 80540 720-530-3828 Head Start Hydroponics & Organic Gardening Emporium 34500 US Highway 6, Unit B-9, North Edwards, CO 81632 970-569-313 Grow Depot 1434 W. 104th Ave. Northglenn, CO 80234 303-459-7878

Good To Grow 335 Westport Avenue Norwalk, CT 06851 203 956 5600 ____________________________

Pueblo Hydroponicss and Organics - Downtown 113 W 4th St, Pueblo CO 81003 719 542 6798


Pueblo Hydroponics and Organics- South 2704 S Prarie Ave Suite C Pueblo CO 81005 719 564 2660

FLORIDA ____________________________

Pueblo Hydroponics and Organics 609 E Enterprise Dr Pueblo West CO 81007 709 647 0907 Salida Hydroponic Supply 1242 C Street Salida, CO 81201 719-539-4000 ____________________________

Cultivate Hydroponics & Organics 7777 W. 38th Avenue, A120A, Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 303-954-9897 ____________________________ CONNECTICUT ____________________________

Sunny Day Organics 1867 Coastal Hwy. Rehoboth Beach, Delaware MD 19917 302 703 2538

Urban Sunshine 1420 E. Altamonte Dr. Altamonte Springs, FL 32701 407-830-4769 ____________________________ Best Hydro 4920 Lena Road, Bradenton, FL 34211 941-756-1928 Palm Coast Hydroponics 4490 N Hwy US1 Ste. 108 Bunnell FL 32110 386 246 4119 ____________________________

East Coast Hydroponics & Organics 461 Forrest Avenue, Suite 105 Coca, FL 32922 321-243-6800 ____________________________ GreenTouch Hydroponics Inc. 5011 S State Road 7, Suite 104 Davie, FL 33314 954-316-8815

CT Home Grown 45 South Canterbury Canterbury, CT 06331 860-546-6161 ____________________________

Absolute Hydroponic Garden Center Inc 1607 Old Daytona Steet Deland, FL 32724 386-734-0696

Grow Crazy 11 Berlin Rd. Unit 2 Cromwell CT 06416 203-660-8486

Organic Grow Hut 2 780 Deltona Blvd. #107 Deltona, Florida 32725 1-888-574-grow 386-259-5777

Harvest Moon Hydroponics 775 Silver Lane, East Hartford, CT 06118 860-568-4067 LiquidSun® CT 10C South Main Street, East Windsor, CT 06088 860-254-5757 ____________________________

____________________________ Rogue Hydroponics 160 Broadway Hamden, CT 06518 866-277-4432 ____________________________ Victory Hydro Gardening 1387 E. South Boulder Rd. Louisville, CO, 80027 303-664-9376 ____________________________


Organix Hydroponics 749 Saybrook Road, (Tradewinds Plaza) Middletown, CT 06457 860-343-1923

Gold Coast Hydroponics 1539 SW 21st Avenue, Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33312 1-800-780-7371 ____________________________

Biofloral 6250 NW 27th Way, Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33309 877 735 6725 ____________________________ Green Thumb Hydroponics Supplies 13482 North Cleveland Avenue, Fort Meyers, FL 33903 239-997-4769 Gardener’s Edge Gainesville 5000 NW 34th Street, Suite 13, Gainesville, FL 32605 352-375-2769


Florida Garden Supplies 2692 W 79 Street, Hialeah, FL 33016 1-800-931-5215 ____________________________ Hydro Terra Cor p. 924 North Federal Highway, Hollywood, FL 33020 954-920-0889 Simply Hydroponics & Organics (North) 3642 South Suncoast Boulevard, Homosassa, FL 34448 352-628-2655 Hydroponics International Inc. 7029-10 Commonwealth Avenue, Jacksonville, FL 32220 904-693-6554 ____________________________

Grower’s Choice & Hydroponics 11855 North Main Street, Jacksonville, FL 32218 904-683-4517 ____________________________ Urban Organics & Hydroponics 5325 Fairmont Street, Jacksonville, FL 32207 904-398-8012 Simply Hydroponics & Organics 7949 Ulmerton Road, Largo, FL 33773 727-531-5355 GrowSmart Indoor Garden Centers 14587 Southern Boulevard, Loxahatchee, FL 33470 561-429-3527 Palm Beach Discount Hydroponics – West 14703 Southern Blvd. Loxahatchee, FL 33470 561 296 8555 Atlantic Hydroponics 430 Count Street, Melbourne, FL 32901 321-821-1535 ____________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 2975 West New Haven Avenue, Melbourne, FL 32901 321-821-0853 ____________________________ Advanced Hydro Gardens 4960 NW 165 Street, Suite B-4, Miami, FL 33014 866-97-HYDRO Blossoms Experience, The 7207 NW 54th Street, Miami, FL 33166 866-452-4769 ____________________________

Florida Garden Supplies 9545 Sunset Drive, Miami, FL 33173 800-931-5215 ____________________________ Future Farms Inc., The 14291 SW 120th Street, Suite 105 Miami, FL 33186 305-382-2757

Gold Coast Hydroponics 4241 SW 71st Avenue, Miami, FL 33155 1-800-780-6805 Growing Garden Inc., The 12811 SW 42nd Street, Miami, FL 33175 305-559-0309 VitaOrganix 7921 NW 67th St Miami, FL 33166 786 845 8633 3D Hydroponics and Organics 7139 US Highway #19, New Port Richey, FL 34652 727-847-3491 ____________________________

Florida Garden Supplies 8442 Tradeport Drive, Unit 200, Orlando, FL 32827 ____________________________

Urban Sunshine 6100 Hanging Moss Rd ste 50 Orlando, FL 32807 407-647-4769 ____________________________

Urban Sunshine 6142 S. Orange Ave Orlando, FL 32809 407-859-7728 ____________________________ Green Winters Inc. 147 Tomoka Avenue, Ormond Beach, FL 32174 386-235-8730 800-931-5215 The Healthy Harvest Ste. 126 21113 Johnson St. Pembroke Pines, FL. 33029 954-538-1511 Eden Garden Supply 5044 N. Palafox Street, Pensacola, FL 32505 850-439-1299 Healthy Gardens and Supply of Florida, Inc. 196 East Nine Mile Road, Suite F, Pensacola, FL 32534 850-912-4545 ____________________________

National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply 455 S. Andrews Avenue, Pompano Beach, FL 33069 877-649-3567 (Southeast) ____________________________ Hydroponic Depot II 2395 S Tamiami Trail #19 Port Charlotte FL 33952 941 255 3999t EZ Grow Green 604 S.W. Bayshore Blvd. Port St. Lucie, Fl 34983 772-807-7755 Urban Sunshine Organic & Hydroponic Gardening 2841 South Nove Rd., Ste. 5 South Daytona, FL 32119 386-236-9989 386-492-6978 Mr. Nice Guy Hydroponics 1800 NW. Federal Hwy., Stuart, FL 34994 772 934 6785

Esposito Garden Center 2743 Capital Circle NE, Tallahassee, FL 32308 850-386-2114 Evershine Hydroponics 1519 Capital Circle NE Unit #35 Tallahassee FL 32308 850-765-0040 Grace’s Hydro-Organic Garden Center 8877 North 56th Street Tampa, FL 33617 813-514-9376 Harvest Time Hydroponics 14414 N. Florida Avenue, Tampa, FL 33613 813-264-7101 Hydroponics of Tampa 120 W. Bougain Villea, Tampa, FL 33612 813-333-6828 Stoney Hydro @ Schiro’s Barn n Garden Supplies 7812 Causeway Boulevard, Tampa, FL 33619 813-626-0902 ____________________________

GEORGIA ____________________________

Atlantis Hydroponics 1422 Woodmont Lane, #4, Atlanta, GA 30318 404-367-0052 ____________________________

ILLINOIS Aerostar Global 824 South Kay Avenue, Addison, IL 60101 Brew and Grow 181 Crossroads Parkway, Bolingbrook, IL 60194 847-885-8282 Let it Grow - Carbondale West Main Street, Carbondale, IL 62908 573-450-5401

Flora Hydroponics, Inc. 1239 Fowler St. NW Atlanta, GA 30318

Alternative Garden Supply 615 Industrial Drive, Unit A Cary, IL 60013 800-444-2837

Flora Hydroponics Inc. 2475 Jefferson Road, Suite 600 Athens, GA 30607 866-404-0551

Brew and Grow 3625 N. Kedzi Avenue, Chicago, IL 60618 773-463-7430

Flora Hydroponics, Inc. 195 Paradise Blvd. Athens, GA 30607 ____________________________

Fertile Ground 463 West MacArthur Drive, Cottage Hills, IL 62018 618-259-5500 Brew and Grow- Crystal Lake 176 W. Terra Cotta Ave. Crystal Lake, IL 60014 815-301-4950 ____________________________

Worm’s Way Florida 4412 North 56th Street, Tampa, FL 33610 800-283-9676; 813-621-1792 ____________________________

Monkey Hydroponics 940 West Oakland Ave. Unit A1 407-574-8495 ____________________________

Happy Planet Hydroponics 11433 U.S. HWY 441 Tavares FL, 32778 352-253-1001 ____________________________

365 Hydroponics 13054 W Colonial Drive Winter Garden, FL 34787 407-656-GROW(4769) ____________________________ Cultivating Eden Hydroponic Supplies 946 18th Avenue SW, Vero Beach, FL 32962 772-564-8880 ____________________________

Florida Garden Supplies 8020 Belvedere Road,Unit 4, West Palm Beach,FL 33411 800-931-5215 ____________________________ Palm Beach Discount Hydroponics – East 968 North Congress Ave. West Palm Beach, FL 33409 561 296 6161

Atlantis Hydroponics 2561 West Point Avenue, College Park, GA 30337 678-510-0032 ____________________________ Alpha Hydroponics and Garden Supply Inc. 3904 N Druid Hills Rd. Suite 247 Decatur GA 30033 404 590 4769 Savannah Hydroponics & Organics 4107 Eighth Street, Suite C Garden City, GA 31408 912-349-4030 Atlantis Hydroponics 5182-B Brook Hollow Parkway, Norcross, GA 30071 770.558.1346 HAwAII Eco-Island Supply 810 Haiku Road, #394 Haiku, HI 96708 808-575-9171 Aqua Plant Hawaii / Kahala Hydroponics 4224 Wailae, Suite 1A, Honolulu, HI 96816 808-735-8665 Green Hands of Aloha 1713 Mary Street, Honolulu, HI 96819 808-847-4263 Ohana Greenhouse & Garden Supply 300 Hukilike Street, #2M, Kahalui, HI 96732 808-871-6393 Aiyah’s Garden 4558 kukui st. kapa’a, Hi. 96746 Aiyah’s Garden 3-3122 Kuhio Hwy. unit B-2 Lihue, Hi. 96766 808 245 2627 Pahoa Feed & Fertilizer 15-2754 Old Government Road, Pahoa, HI 96778 808-965-9955 IDAHO Boise Hydroponics 614 North Orchard Street, Boise, ID 83706 208-344-3053 Greenthumb Greenhouses 5895 Ensign Avenue, Boise, ID 83714

Midwest Hydroganics 20647 Renwick Road, Crest Hill, IL 60403 815-838-0100 ____________________________


Goldman’s Grow Shop 910 Greenwood Road, Glenview, IL 60025 847-657-7250 ____________________________

Grow Masters 4641 Old Grand Ave. Gurnee, Il. 60031 224-399-9877 ____________________________ Big Grow Hydroponics 9225 Trinity Drive, Lake In The Hills, IL 60156 847-854-4450 Grow Big Hydroponics 7817 B North 2nd Street, Manchesney Park, IL 61115 815-637-4769 ____________________________

Gardinside 618 S. Rt. 59 suite 104 Naperville, IL 60540 630-276-9885 ____________________________ Green Fields 8137 N. Milwaukee, Niles, IL 60714 847-965-5056

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors


Autumn Bloom Alternative Indoor Gardening 1020 Derby Street Pekin, Illinois 61554 309-642-6943 ____________________________ GroUp Gardening 221 N. 5TH St. Pekin, IL 61554 309-349-4407 Aerogro 502 N Prospect suite 18 Bloomington, IL, 61704 Prairie House Garden Center 15151 South Harlem Avenue, Orland, IL 60462 708-687-3131 Brew and Grow 3224 South Alpine Road, Rockford, IL 61109 815-874-5700 Brew and Grow 359 W. Irving Park Road Unit E, Roselle, IL 60172 630-894-4885 Organic Garden Center 9223 Skokie Blvd. Skokie, IL 60077 847-675-2722 ____________________________

Kreation’s Indoor Gardening Center 3427 Old Chatman Road, Springfield, IL 62704 217-341-0821 ____________________________ Water Works Indoor Gardening 1900 South Dirksen Parkway, Springfield, IL 62703 217-553-6929 ____________________________

Midwest Hydroganics 949 W Irving Park Rd. Streamwood IL 60107 630-483-1600 ____________________________


Worm’s Way Indiana 7850 North State Road 37, Bloomington, IN 47404 800-598-8158 ____________________________

Worm’s Way Mail Order 7850 North State Road 37 Bloomington, IN 47404 800-274-9676 ____________________________ Frogs Lilly Pad, The 706 Citation Road, Carmel, IN 46032 317-846-4610 Hops & Harvest 4616 E. DuPont Road, Suite Q, Fort Wayne, IN 46825 260-918-3035 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 1336 East Washington St. Indianapolis, IN 46202 317-780-8020 Magic Bulb Garden Center 6229 Allisonville Road, Indianapolis, IN 46220 317-202-2852 Maximum Grow Gardening 6117 E Washington Street, Indianapolis, IN 46219 317-359-GROW (4769) Next Generation Gardening & Hydroponics 6805 Madison Ave Indianapolis, IN 46227 317-786-0066 ____________________________

Five Point Gardens 56555 Oak Road, South Bend, IN 46619 574-287-9232 ____________________________ KANSAS Green Circle Hydroponics 6890 W. 105th Street, Overland Park, KS 66212 913-642-3888 KENTUCKY Garden Grove Organics 29 East 7th Street, Covington, (Cincinnati Metro), KY 41011 859-360-1843 ____________________________


BWGS-IN 1400 Hancel Pkwy., Mooresville, IN 46158 800-316-1306 ____________________________ Sunleaves Garden Products 7854 North State Road 37, Bloomington, IN 47404 888-464-9676


Worm’s Way Kentucky 1360 Donaldson Hwy. Suite A, Erlanger, KY 41018 800-669-2088 ____________________________ Grow Shop, The of Lexington 2320 Palumbo Drive, Suite 130, Lexington, KY 40509 859-268-0779

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Louisville Hydroponics 3471 Taylor Boulevard, Louisville, KY 40215 502-366-4000 New Earth Garden Center 9810 Taylorsville Road, Louisville, KY 40299 800-462-5953 The Wine-N-Vine Inc. 1524 East McGalliard RD. Muncie IN. 47303 765) 282-3300 Bluegrass Organic Grow Shop 125 Quinn Dr., Nicholasville, KY 40356 859 887 0677 LOUISIANA Geaux Hydroponics! 2126 O’Neal Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70816 225-751-4769 Laughing Buddha Nursery 4516 Clearview Parkway, Metairie, LA 70006 504-887-4336 Urban Organics 285 St. Claude Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70117 504-352-4709 Ourcrazydeals Hydroponics 201 Angus Drive, Yungsville, LA 70592 337-303-6146 MAINE The Urban Garden Center 600 Wilson St. Brewer, ME 04412 207-989-2020 LiquidSun of Maine 51West Gray Rd. Gray, ME 04039 207-657-8033 Natures Palate Indoor Garden Store 1321 Mercer Rd ( rte2) Mercer, Maine 04957 877-587-4150 207-587-4150 ____________________________

Evergreen Garden Center 301 Forest Avenue Portland, ME 04101 207-761-2800 ____________________________

High Tech Garden Supply Maine178 Rand Rd. Portland, ME 04102 Phone 207-899-4387 ____________________________ The Urban Garden Center 659 Warren Ave Portland, ME 04103 1-207-347-2350 Here We Grow 30 Parsons St. Presque Isle, ME 04769 207-SOY-BEAN (769-2326) Green Thumb Indoor Gardening 19 Stage Road, St. Albans, ME 04971 207-938-5909 New England Horticulture Supply 125 John Roberts Road Suite 1 South Portland, ME 04106 207-899-0510

Urban Garden Center 235 Lewiston Road, Topsham, ME 04086 207-373-0990 Greenlife Garden Supply 611 US Rt. 1 York, ME 03909 207-363-0844 MARYLAND East Coast Organics 2800 Sisson Street, Baltimore, MD 21211 Healthy Gardens and Supply 5001-F Harford Road, Baltimore, MD 21214 443-708-5144 Maryland Hydroponics Inc. 10051 North 2nd Street, Laurel, MD 20723 301-490-9236 Meadowview Feed & Garden Center 1202 Meadowview Road, Pasadena, MD 21122 443-817-0018 Maryland Hydroponics Inc. 12130 Nebel Street, Rockville, MD 20852 240-551-4625 Purple Mountain Organics 100-7010 Westmoreland Avenue, Takoma Park, MD 20912 877-538-9901 MASSACHUSETTS Greenlife Garden Supply 481 Boston Road, Unit 4, Billerica, MA 01821 978-262-9966 GYOstuff – Grow Your Own 2400 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02140 617-945-1654 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 29 Washington Street, Route 1 Foxboro, MA 02035 800-660-6977 Here We Grow 123 Russell St. (Rt. 9) Hadley, MA 01035 413-584-FARM (3276) LiquidSun® MA 8 Lynwood Avenue, Holyoke, MA 01040 413-539-6875 Green Path Garden Supply 276 West Main Street, Northborough, MA 01532 508-393-4181 ____________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 560 Boston Turnpike (Rt.9) Shrewsbury, MA 01545 508-845-4477 ____________________________

New England Hydroponics 15 D College Hwy. (Rt. 10), Southampton, MA 01073 888-529-9025


Worm’s Way Massachusetts 121 Worc-Providence Turnpike, Sutton, MA 01590 800-284-9676 ____________________________ MICHIGAN Get Growing Urban Garden Centre 142 S. Main St Adrian MI 49221 U Can Grow Hydro 2247 W. Liberty Ann Arbor MI 48103 Hydro Vision 11820 Belleville Belleville, MI 48111 (734) 325-6210 Growers Outlet 7720 Clyde Park SW Byron Center, MI 49513 616-878-4444 A Plus Hydroponics of Michigan LLC 9750 Cherry Valley Ave SE Caledonia MI 49316 (616) 891-0706 Hydro Vision 5844 N. Shelton Rd. Canton, MI 48187 (734) 335-6818 Absolute Hydro & Grow Centre 2583 Union Lake Rd., Commerce Township, MI 48382 248-937-8664 HydroMaster 36345 Groesbeck Hwy Clinton Twp, MI 48035 586-792-0277 Granny Green Thumbs 103 W. Grand River Flowerville MI 48836 Hydro Grow Room 15201 N. Holly Road, Unit B Holly, MI 48442 248-369-8333 ____________________________

Aric’s Indoor Garden Supply 611 Main st. Norway, Michigan 49870 (906)563-1518 ____________________________

Cultivation Station of Michigan Inc., The 6540 Allen Road, Allen Park, MI 48101 313-383-1766 ____________________________ Gro Blue Indoor Gardening Supplies 270 W. Liberty Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48104 734-913-2750 Grow Show, The 4095 Stone School Rd. Ann Arbor, MI 48108 734-677-0009; 734-677-0509 HotHydro® 5245 Jackson Road, Suite F Ann Arbor, MI 48103 734-761-5040; 877-893-0716

Homelight Gardens 3471 S. Huron Road, Bay City, MI 48706 989-922-0088 J&L Growco 206 S. Michigan Avenue, Big Rapids, MI 49307 231-796-1528 Greenway Gardens 916 W 13th St Cadillac, Mi,49601 231-775-7075 Hydro Vision 303 W 14 Mile Rd. Clawson, MI 48017 248-435-2250 ___________________________


Urban Gardening Center, The 2520 22nd Street, Detroit, MI 48216 313-898-0200 ____________________________

Superior Growers Supply 4870 Dawn Avenue, East Lansing, MI 48823 517-332-2663 ____________________________ Sunnyside Hydroponics 24930 Gratiot Avenue, Eastpoint, MI 48021 586-777-2528

Cultivation Station 3 Inc. 46912 Gratiot, Chesterfield, MI 48051 586-949-7453 ___________________________ H2O Grow Supply 3364 Arent Ct Coloma, MI 49038 269-468-3890 Van Hydro 7480 N State, Davison, MI 48423 810-653-8267 The Grow Station 5670 Telegraph Rd. Dearborn, MI 48127 313-406-5147 800-797-4769 (GROW) ____________________________

Hydro Giant 14455 Ford Rd, Dearborn, MI ____________________________

Hydro Vision 495 Fenway Dr. Fenton, MI 810-714-1719 ___________________________

Synthetic Sun Hydroponics, LLC 705 S., Loxley Houghton Lake, MI 48629 989-422-2800 ____________________________ Hydro Vision 1247 e Grand River Howell, MI 48843 517-552-4965 ____________________________

Superior Growers Supply, Inc. 2731 East Grand River Howell, MI 48843 517-376-6843 ____________________________

Synthetic Sun Hydroponics, LLC 799 S. Wisconsin Avenue Gaylord, MI 49735 989-731-8800 ____________________________

Growco Garden Supply 1042 Michigan Street, NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 877-939-6900 ____________________________ Home Grown Hydroponix 5333 Plainfield Suite C, Grand Rapids MI 49525, 616-361-2924 ____________________________

Hydro Giant 21651 W. 8 Mile Rd. Detroit, MI (8Mile & Lahser) 313-387-7700 313-216-8888 ____________________________

Horizen Hydroponics 1614 Leonard Street, NW, Grand Rapids, MI 49504 866-791-1664 ____________________________

Ultra Lo Hydro 937-252-8224 ____________________________

Flower Factory, The 2223 East Highland Road Highland, MI 48356 248-714-9292 ____________________________ Hydro Vision 2858 E Highland rd Highland, MI 48356 248-714-5556 Holland Hydroponic Outlet 587-40 East 8th Street, Holland, MI 49423 616-298-7395 ____________________________


The Grow Shop of Garden City 28505 Ford Road Garden City, MI 48135 734-956-5400 ___________________________

Cultivation Station – Eastern Market, The 2518 Market Street, Detroit, MI 48207 313-394-0441 ____________________________

Hydro Heaven 73647 W 8th Mile Road, Detroit, MI 48235 313-861-0333; 877-823-2076 ____________________________


Hydroharrys- HP 24047 Dequindre Road Hazel Park, MI 48030 248-541-0099 ____________________________ Hydro Grow Room 15201 N Holly Rd Unit B Holly MI, 48430 248-369-8333

Green Forest Indoor Garden Supply, LLC. 2555 N. State(M-66) Rd. Ionia, MI 48846 616-523-6111 ____________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 1745 West Main St. Kalamazoo, MI 49006 269-978-8697 ____________________________ Horizen Hydroponics 4646 W. Main Street, Kalamazoo, MI 49006 269-567-3333 Kalamazoo Indoor Garden 450 W. Maple, Kalamazoo, MI 49001 269-344-2550 ____________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 2815 East Grand River Ave. Lansing, MI 48912 (517) 580-0555 ____________________________ Hills Hydro 1290 S. Lapeer Rd., Lake Onion, MI 48360 248-693-5747

Horizen Hydroponics 5425 W. Saginaw Highway Lansing, MI 48917 517-323-ROOT ____________________________

Superior Growers Supply Inc. 3928 West Saginaw Highway Lansing, MI 48917 517-327-1900 ____________________________ Hills Hydro 700 Main St. Ste III Lapeer, MI 48446 810-245-8687 ____________________________

Superior Growers Supply 292200 Seven Mile West Livonia, MI 48152 248-473-0450 ____________________________ Northern Lights Hydroponic and Garden Supply 29090 Campbell rd. Madison Heights, MI 48071 248-439-6269 BIg Creek Hydroponics 555 Old Little Lake Road, Marquette, MI 49855 906-249-5297 Rootdown Hydroponics Indoor Garden Center 236 Mystic Ave. Medford, MA 02155 781-874-1693 Stealth Hydro 14630 King Dr. Milan, MI 48160 734 961 4333 Growing Consultant 2260 Apple Avenue, Muskegon, MI 49442 231-773-5600 Green Lantern H2O 1383 E. Laketon Ave Muskegon, Mi 49442 231-722-0420 Sunshine Supply Co. 5800 East Pickard Street, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48858 989-775-3700 Flo-N-Grow. 214 N. 2nd Street, Niles, MI 49120 269-683-1877 Super Grow 288 W. MONTCALM PONTIAC, MI 48342 248-24SUPER (78737) Green Earth Hydroponics 8127 Portage Rd. Portage, MI 49002 269-342-4190 Hydroponics Highway Inc. 2708 14th Ave. Port Huron MI, 48060 810-982-4769 Hydro Vision 66783 Gratiot Ave. Richmond, MI 48062 (586) 430-1956 Growers Edge 175 Marcell Dr Rockford MI 49341 Hills Hydro 896 S. Rochester Rd. Rochester Hills, MI 48307 248-650-4937 Green Thumb Hydroponics and Organic Indoor Supply 8460 Algoma Suite G Rockford MI 49341 616 884 5500


High Tech Garden Supply 28000 Groesbeck Highway Roseville, Michigan 48066 586-435-2335 ____________________________ Home Grown Hydroponics 8075 Gratiot Road, Unit C, Saginaw MI 48609 989-781-1930 ____________________________

Superior Growers Supply, Inc. 5716 South Pennsylvania Avenue South Lansing, MI 48911 517-393-1600 ___________________________

Hydro Giant 19363 Eureka Rd, Southgate, MI 734.281.8888 ___________________________ Hydro Vision 22180 Pontiac Trail South Lyon, MI 48178 248-435-2268 ____________________________

Cultivation Station of Michigan Inc., The 23529 Little Mack Avenue, St. Clair, MI 48080 586-775-9485 ____________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 7889 Telegraph Road. Taylor, MI 48180 313-908-7554 ____________________________ Hydro Grow, The 8210 Telegraph Road, Taylor, MI 48180 313-633-0641 Great Lakes Green Horticultural Supply 757 S. U.S. Highway 131 Three Rivers, MI 49093 269-278-130 Grow Store, The 90 N U.S. Highway 31 South , Traverse City, MI 49685-7923 231-421-5191 ____________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 720 South Garfield Ave. Traverse City, MI 49686 231-668-6913 ____________________________ Wild Child 7740 M 72 East Traverse City, MI 49690 866-711-GROW

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

Hydro Vision 1910 West rd Trenton, MI 48183 734-301-3745 ____________________________

Hydroharrys – WL 1138 E. West Maple Road Walled Lake, MI 48390 248-896-0099 ____________________________ Beste's Indoor/Outdoor Garden Supply 21410 Schoenherr Warren, MI 48089 586 776-1794 Hydro King Indoor Garden Supply 32000 Van Dyke Ave Warren MI 48093 Indoor Garden Superstore 2570 Dixie Highway, Waterford Twp., MI 48328 248-673-2200; 877 22 HYDRO ___________________________

Light Green Water 3661 Highland Road, Waterford, MI 48329 248-681-0001 ___________________________ Bubonic Hydroponics 38540 Michigan Ave Wayne MI, 48184 734-331-2316 ___________________________

Hydrospot 34236 Michigan Avenue, Wayne, MI 48184 734-722-1285 ___________________________

Synthetic Sun Hydroponics, LLC 3218 W. Houghton Avenue West Branch, MI 48661 989-345-8800 ____________________________ B&B Hydro Supply 28974 Warren Rd Westland MI 48185 G.C. II 1006 E. Colby St. Suite A Whitehall, MI 49417 231-893-2400 ___________________________

Indoor Eden 9281 East-M 36 Whitmore MI 48189 810-355-1465 ____________________________ AAA Hydroponics LLC 22 50th Street Wyoming, MI 49504 616-249-8338



Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

MISSISSIPPI Indoor Garden Shop LLC 1310 Bienville Boulevard, Ocean Springs, MS 39564 228-875-3725 ____________________________

Cultivation Station – Grand Rapids, The 4907 S. Division Ave., Wyoming, MI 49548 616-855-4440 ____________________________

Stealth Hydro 15 E. Cross Street, Ypsilanti, MI 48198 866-998-1916 ____________________________ MINNESOTA Duluth Hydroponics 26 W 1st Street Duluth, MN 55802 218-341-7253 The Interior Tomato, LLC 519 N. Central Ave. Duluth, MN 55087 218-260-5167 ____________________________

Sunrise Garden Center 5173 W. 4th St., Hattiesburg, MS 39402 601-264-9300 ____________________________ MISSOURI Versaponics Hydro Supply 879 S Kings Hwy Cape Girardeau, MO 63703 573 450 5401 ____________________________

HYDROGARDENS Heartland Hydrogardens 705 Vandiver Drive, Suite G Columbia, MO 65202 573-474-4769 ____________________________

Green Circle Hydroponics 12 East Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64106 816-421-1840 ____________________________ Indoor Gardening 10 NE 3rd Street, Faribault, MN 55021 507-209-1546 ___________________________ Brew and Grow 8302 Highway 65 NE., Minneapolis, MN 55432 763-780-8191 Interior Gardens 115 -1620 Central Avenue NE, Minneapolis, MN 55413 800-498-4178; 612-870-9077 ____________________________

Midwest Hydroponics 5825 Excelsior Blvd., St. Louis Park,MN 55416 888-449-2739 ____________________________ Eden Indoor Organic Gardens 831 Highway 75 North Moorhead, MN 56560 218-477-EDEN (3336) ____________________________

American Garden Supply 601-6th Avenue, North, Princeton, MN 55371 763-631-0543Q ____________________________ Still-H2O Inc. 14375 North 60th Street, Stillwater, MN 55082 651-351-2822 Eco Garden Supply 800 Transfer Door 25 in rear St. Paul, MN 55114 651-647-1896

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

One World – Life Products 906 Broadwater Billings MT 59101 406 839 9969 Heightened Harvests 3103 Harrison Avenue, Suite B Butte, MT 59701 Alpengrow Nursery Supplies 238 Highway 93 S., Eureka, MT 59917 406-882-4496 ____________________________

Grow Your Own Hydroponics 3617 Saint John Avenue, Kansas City, MO 64123 816-241-2122 Let It Grow - Springfield 2519 E. Kearney Street, Springfield, MO 65803 417-862-GROW U-Grow 1724 North, 13th Street, St. Louis, MO 63106 314-452-6368 ____________________________

Worm’s Way Missouri 1225 North Warson Road, St. Louis, MO 63132 800-285-9676 ____________________________

Green Thumb Organics 249 Mid Rivers Mall Drive, St. Peters, MO 63376 636-397-4769 (GROW) ____________________________ MONTANA Heightened Harvests 2018 Main Street #4, Billings, MT 59105 406-252-4311 Magic City Organic & Hydroponic Supply 812 Central Billings, MT 59102 406-245-LEAF(5323)

Butteopia 127 Main Street, Butte, Montana 59701 1-406-782-8476 ____________________________ Big Sky Garden Supply 528 West Idaho, Kallispell, MT 59901 406-755-1465 Box of Rain Indoor Garden Center 860 N. Meridian Road B-19, Kalispell, MT 59901 406-755-RAIN (7246) Cornucopia Grow Your Own 127 Stoner Creek Road Lakeside, MT 59922 406-709-1076 Dr. Green Thumbs 1106 West Park, Livingston, MO 59047 406-222-7440 Bizzy Beez LLP 5875 Highway 93 S, Whitefish, MT 59937 406-863-9937 NEBRASKA Bodhi Organic Garden Supply 1438 S1 St. Ste 6 Lincoln, NE 68502 402 438 6785 Patio-Ponics 3255 Cornhusker Highway, Suite 4 Lincoln, NE 68504 402-466-9218 ____________________________

Advanced Hydro-Ponics 10711 Mockingbird Drive, Omaha, NE 68127 (108th and L-Q) 402-991-6630 ____________________________

Hydro Store, The 1014 W. Sunset Road, Henderson, NV 89014 702-434-7365 AAA Indoor Organic Garden SuperCenter 2101 S. Decatur Boulevard, #21, Las Vegas, NV 89102 702-450-4769 ___________________________

Advanced Gardens Hydroponics 3111 South Valley View, (on Desert Inn West of Valley View) Suite V103 Las Vegas, NV 89102 702-257-4769 ____________________________ Advanced Gardens Hydroponics 7850 Dean Martin Dr. Suite 506 Las Vegas,NV 89139 702-247-4769 All American Hydroponics 2675 East Patrick Lane, Unit 8, Las Vegas, NV 89120 702-894-9888 Best Hydroponic Supply 6818 W Cheyenne, Las Vegas, NV 89108 702-750-9300 Hydro Store, The 7145 W. Ann Road, Las Vegas, NV 89130 702-434-9376 Nevada Hydroponics 4700 B Maryland, Suite 1, Las Vegas, NV 89119 702-798-2852 Anything Grows 190 West Moana Lane, Reno, NV 89509 775-828-1460 Everything Green Hydroponics Box 34869 Reno, Nevada 89533 The Hydro Store 121 Woodland Ave #160 Reno NV 89523 775 787 2760 NEw HAMPSHIRE The Beez Kneez Garden Supply 180 Emerald St., Keene, NH 03431 603-903-1488 ____________________________

Hydro101 545 Hooksett Rd. #24 Manchester, NH 03104 603-782-8894 ____________________________ Paradigm Gardens 8949 J Street, Suite 5, Omaha, NE 68127 402-339-4949 ____________________________ NEVADA Carson Valley Hydroponics 2520 Empire Ranch Road, Carson City, NV 89701 775-884-4769 Lorraine Ink 290 Spear Court, Fernley, NV 89408 775-575-7757

Natural Roots Hydroponics 24 Crown St. Nashua, NH 603-204-5528 NEw JERSEY Garden State Hydroponics 511 Avenel Street, Avenel, NJ 07001 888-300-8711 Bergen County Hydroponics 70 Essex Street, Hackensack, NJ 07601 201-342-2001


greentouch2 HYDRO PO N I C S

I N C .

Green Touch 2 Hydroponics Inc. 888 Route 33, Unit 1, Hamilton, NJ 08619 609-570-8829 ____________________________ East Coast Horticultural Supply 1652 Hurffville Road, Sewell, NJ 08080 856-228-5290 77HYDRO 37 Fairfield Place, West Caldwell, NJ 07006 877-774-9376 Claraqua 4 Redwood Court, West Windsor, NJ 08550 NEw MEXICO AHL Year Round Garden Supply 1051 San Mateo Blvd. SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108 505-255-3677 ___________________________

All Seasons Gardening 3600 Osuna Road, Suite 406 Alburquerque, NM 87109 505-508-4292 ____________________________ Common Shaman 1319 San Mateo N.E., Albuquerque, NM 87110 505-255-6463 ____________________________

All Seasons Gardening 1228 Parkway, Suite E Sante Fe, NM 87507 505-438-GROW ____________________________ Santa Fe Hydroponics 821 W. San Mateo Road, Suite 4, Santa Fe, NM 87505 505-467-8454 NEw YORK Organica: Garden Supply & Hydroponics 296 Delaware Ave., Albany, NY 12209 518-618-7666 The Grow Room 32-32 49th Street Astoria, NY 11103 718-218-GROW (4769) Saratoga Organics & Hydroponic Supply 19 Front Street, Ballston Spa, NY 12020 518-885-2005; 800-850-4769 The Gr ape Vine 4020 Hempstead Turnpike Bethpage,NY,11714 516-731-1100 Bronx Hydro & Garden 39 Bruckner Boulevard, Bronx, NY 10454 718-993-3787 Bklyn Hydro & Garden 316 McGuiness Blvd Brooklyn NY 11222 718-383-0095 Brooklyn Farms 51Hicks Street St. Brooklyn, NY 11231 347-725-3491

Indoor Outdoor Gardener 8223 5th Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11209 718-836-2402 Hydroponics of Buffalo 1497 Hertel Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14216 716-838-3545 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 340 West at 59, Central Nyack, NY 10960 California Hydroponics 27 Corporate Circle, East Syracuse, NY 13057 315-432-9387 Upstate Hydroponics 2026 Lake Rd unit B Elmira, NY 14903 607-483-9199 ____________________________

Sunset Hydroponics & Home Brewing 1590 West Ridge Road, Rochester, NY 14615 866-395-9204 KG Garden Supply 4575 Commercial Drive New Hartford, NY 13413 877-KG-HYDRO LiquidSun of New York 1702 Fiero ave Rotterdam, NY 12150 518-952-4654 Hydroponics Shops of America 2606 Erie Boulevard, Syracuse, NY 13224 315-251-2516 ____________________________

FutureGarden Inc. 59 Central Avenue, Farmingdale, NY 11735 516-420-0884 ____________________________ East Coast Hydroponics 14649 Horace Harding Exp, Flushing, NY 11367 718-762-8880 Healthy Harvest Organics and Hydro 163 Broadway, Fort Edwart, NY 12828 518-480-4698 Saratoga Organics & Hydroponic Supply 10 Saratoga Ave S. Glen Falls, NY 12803 518-798-820 Greentree Nursery 308 Elmira Road, Ithaca, NY 14850 607-272-3666 Mikeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Nursery and Grower Supplies 199 E. Fairmount Ave, Lakewood, NY 14750 716-763-1612 Crossroads Hydroponics & Organics 181 S. Plank Rd. Newburgh, NY 12550 845-561-GROW Hudson Valley Hydroponics 217 Route 32 North, New Paltz, NY 12561 845-255-3633 Sunlight Solutions Hydroponics 2045 Niagara Falls Boulevard, Suite 13, Niagara Falls, NY 14304 888-GROWBOX The Grow Room 8 Bridge Street, Nyack, NY 10960 800-449-9630 Revolution Hydroponics 309 West State St. Olean NY 14760 716.373.Grow (4769) Mor Gro Hydroponics 5680 State Route 104 E Oswego , NY 13126 315-877-8725 Environmental Gardens 8 John Walsh Boulevard, Suite 310 Peekskills, NY 10566 800-254-0507; 914-736-6676 Harvest Moon Hydroponics Henrietta Townline Plaza, 3047 West Henrietta Road, Rochester, NY 14623 716-865-7353 Hydro Garden Center 1069B Lyell Avenue, Rochester, NY 14606 1-800-277-1322

Green Zone Hydroponics 2148 Niagara Falls Blvd. Tonawanda, NY. 14150 716-693-9663 ____________________________ Harvest Moon Hydroponics 147 Fourth Street, Troy, NY 10960 NORTH CAROLINA Advanced Hydroponic Garden 55 Shiloh Road #6 Asheville, NC 28803 1 (828) 277-3488 Fifth Season Gardening Company 21 B Westside Dr. Asheville NC 28806 828-225-5007 Fifth Season Gardening Company 45 Banks Avenue, Asheville, NC 28801 828-253-4112 Fifth Season Gardening Company 106 South Greensboro Street, Carrboro, NC 27510 919-932-7600 ___________________________

BWGS-NC 4045 Perimeter West Drive,Suite 400, Charlotte, NC 28214 800-316-1306 ___________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 2712 B Freedom Drive Charlotte, NC 28208 704-697-0911 ___________________________ Flow & Grow Hydroponics & Organic Garden Center 4521 Cumberland Road, Fayetteville, NC 28306 910-423-FLOW (3569) Fifth Season Gardening Company 1616 D-3 Battleground Avenue, Greensboro, NC 27408 336-271-3373 Good Harvest Garden Center 629 Oakridge Farm Hwy. Mooresville NC 28115 704-658-9136 Fifth Season Gardening Company 5619-A Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, NC 27606 919-852-4747 New Age Gardens 2236A US Highway 70, Swannanoa, NC 28778 828-299-9989


All Season Hydroponics 890 South Kerr Avenue, Wilmington, NC 28410 ____________________________ Progressive Gardens 6005 Oleander Drive, Wilmington, NC 28403 910-395-1156 OHIO Akron Garden Center 434 W Wilbeth Road, Akron, OH 44314 330-724-2700 Summit Hydroponics 1030 Kenmore Boulevard Akron, OH 44314-2114 330-753-5222 Campbells Indoor Gardening Supplies 1721 Greenville Road Bristolville, OH 44402 330-889-0049 Magic Home Gardens 209 Cemetery Road, Canal Winchester, OH 43110 614-837-2440 ___________________________

CincyPonics 3314 Harrison Ave. Cincinnati, Ohio 45211 513-661-3886 ___________________________ Dumont Seed Co. 619 30th ST. N.W. Canton, ohio 44709 330-492-0204 Dayton Hydroponics 4920 Provident Drive Cincinnati, Ohio 45246 513-942-7111 Eastside Hydroponics 834 Ohio Pike #318 Cincinnati, Ohio 45245 513-528-4769 Eastside Hydroponics 550 Ohio Pike #136 Cincinnati, OH 45255 513-528-GROW Kissed by the Sun Hydroponic 10740 Reading Road, Cincinnati, OH 45241 513-769-0159 Cleveland Garden Center Inc. 727 East 185th Street, Cleveland, OH 44119 216-481-7868 Grow Wizard, The 5700 Denison Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44102 216-961-2500 Herb-N-Garden Center 14901 Puritas Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44135 216-252-2001 Garden Indoors of Ohio 4720 Indianola Avenue, Columbus, OH 43214 800-833-6868 Magic Home Garden 4538 Indianola Avenue, Columbus, OH 43214 614-263-2440 Gardening-Indoor 48977 Calcutta-Smiths Ferry Rd., East Liverpool OH 43920 330-932-1023

Garden Connections 3341 Centerpoint Dr. Grove City OH 43123 614 871 0707 Advanced Hydrorganics Indoor Garden Center 5204 Darrow Road, Hudson, OH 44236 234-380-1287 Sweet Greens 5540 Brecksville Road Independence, OH 44131 800-421-7084 ____________________________

Hydro Gardens and Lights 1144 N Memorial Drive Lancaster, OH 43130 740-654-9376 ____________________________ Carefree Garden Center 134 West Drive, Lodi, OH 44254 330-302-4203 CropKing 134 West Drive, Lodi, OH 44254 330-302-4203 USA Hydrogarden 7450 Industrial Pkwy, Ste. A Lorain, Ohio 44053 440-282-4880 The Grow Shop 165 Davids St. Marion OH 43302 740-223-7467 ___________________________

Urban Gardens 671 E. Center Street Marion, OH 43302 740-375-2800 ____________________________ Top Garden Products 8600 East Avenue Suite C. Mentor, OH 44060 440-290-8773 Green Garden Indoor Garden Center 1664 North Main St. N. Canton, OH 44720 330-494-1234 Pet Finatics LLC 3150 Navarre Ave Suite A Oregon OH 43616 Indoor Gardens 1222 Hill Road, North, Pickerington, OH 43147 614-866-6065 ____________________________

Trinity Hydro Organics 465 Woodman Drive Riverside, OH 45431 937-252-GROW ____________________________ Toledo Hydroponics Ltd. 855 S. Holland-Sylvania Road, Suite 2 Toledo, OH 43615 877-893-0716 Greenleaf Hydroponics 1805 Elm Road, Warren, OH 44483 330-372-1039

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

Dayton Hydroponics 3856 Miamisburg-Centerville Road, West Carrolton, OH 45449 937-859-3999 Gardening-Indoor 9215 Market St. Youngstown (North Lima) OH 44452 330 758 0272 Harvest Moon 9215 Market Street, Youngstown (North Lima), OH 44452 800-776-8399 Indoor Garden Worx 906 Blue Avenue, Zanesville, OH 43701 866-900-9679 OKLAHOMA Tulsa County Hydro-Organics 1928 W. Albany, Broken Arrow, OK 74012 918-259-HYDRO AAAAHA! Hydroponics Unlimited P.O. Box 74, Oakhurst, OK 74050 Organics OKC Garden Supply 3620 N Pennsylvania Avenue, Oklahoma City, OK 73118 405-528-GROW The OKC Urban Gardener 3711 N. Western Ave. Oklahoma City, OK 73118 405-521-9300 Urban Garden 3141 E. 15th Street, Tulsa, OK 74104 918-289-0018 OREGON ____________________________

Aqua Serene 465 Applegate Way, Ashland, OR 97520 541-482-7600 ____________________________

Astoria Indoor Garden Supply 1343 Duane St. Unit C Astoria OR 97103 503 468 0606 ____________________________ Rogue Silicates Inc. POB 21, Azalea, OR 97410 541-837-8590 B.I.G.S. 155 SW Century Drive, Suite 401, Bend, OR 97702 541-385-5222 Herb N’ Jungle Hydroponics 930 SE Textron Drive, Bend, OR 97702 541-382-4010 Northern Light and Garden Beaverton 9290 SW Beaverton-Hillsdale Highway, Beaverton, OR 97005 503-297-7331 Westcoast Organic and Hydroponic Supply 12410 SE 282nd Avenue, Unit C Boring, OR 97009 503-766-4106 The Good Earth Organics 30088 Redwood Highway, Cave Junction, OR 97523 541-592-4496 Anthony’s Garden & Light Supply 93779 B Troy Lane, Coos Bay, OR 97420 541-266-8822


Corvallis Hydroponics & Organics 5490 SW Philomath Boulevard, Corvallis, OR 97333 541-738-2820 ____________________________

Aqua Serene 2836 W. 11th Avenue, Eugene, OR 97402 541-302-9073 ____________________________

Aurora Innovations PO Box 22041, Eugene, OR 97402 866-376-8578 ____________________________ SunInside Gardening Co. 665 Conger, Unit F, Eugene, OR 97402 541-686-9966 Advanced Indoor Gardens 17831 se 82nd drive Gladstone, OR 97027 503 305 6341 Northern Light and Garden Grants Pass 1203 Rogue River Highway, Grants Pass, OR 97527 541-474-1700 Paradise Supply LLC 560 NE. “F” Street, Unit C, Grand Pass, OR 97526 541-955-7293 Vital Organix 932-B SE “M” Street Grants Pass, OR 97526 541-226-9283 ____________________________

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Green Thumb Hydrogarden and Organic Supply 2021 West Main Street, Medford, OR 97501 541-779-8600 Growing Crazy (Hooked On Hydroponics) 817 W. 2nd Street, Medford, OR 97501 ____________________________

In & Out Gardens 1574 Skypark Drive Medford, OR 97501 541-858-3333 ____________________________ Ladybug Indoor Gardens 3960 W. Main Street, Medford, OR 97501 541-618-4459 Advanced Organics & Garden Supply 290- B Merlin Avenue Merlin, Oregon 97532 541-659-1466 H2organic LCC 620 NE 3rd Street, McMinnville, OR 97128 503-434-6107 ____________________________

Wizard’s Garden, LLC 621 Spruce Street, Unit C, Myrtle Point, OR 97458 541-572-2333 ____________________________ Green Zone Garden Center & Hydroponic Supplies 454 S.W. Coast Hwy Newport OR 97365 USA 541-265-8252 ____________________________

Garden Supplies

Oregon Rainforest Co. 19949 E. Burnside Street, Gresham, OR 97233503-465-9909 ____________________________ Healthy Harvest 1635 SE Tualatin Valley Hwy., Hillsboro, OR 97123 503-640-0995 ____________________________

In & Out Gardens 93484 Hwy 99 South Junctin City OR 97448 541-234-2342 ____________________________ Basin Indoor Gardening 417 N. Spring St. Klamath Falls, OR 97601 541-273-2023 Green Zone Garden Center & Hydroponic Supplies 1845 S W Hwy. 101 Ste. 3 Lincoln OR 97367 USA 541 994 7070 H2organic LCC 620 NE 3rd Street, McMinnville, OR 97128 503-434-6107

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

Gorilla Garden Supply 2011 Union Ave, North Bend, OR 97459 541-756-5005 ____________________________ Green Garden Indoor Garden Center 1664 North Main St. N. Canton, OH 44720 330-494-1234 ____________________________

Indoor Garden Depot 3260 SE Oak Grove Blvd., Oak Grove, OR 97267-1421 503-786-2445 ____________________________ American Agriculture 9220 Southeast Stark Street, Portland, OR 97216 800-433-6805 Bloom Garden Supply 518 NE 20th Ave. Portland, OR 97232 971-255-1336 BWGS-OR 18201 NE Portal Way, Ste. 104 Portland, OR 97230 888-316-1306

Everybody’s Garden Center 2701 SE 14th Avenue, Portland, OR 97202 800-669-5483 Garden Spout, The 4532 South East 63rd Avenue, Portland, OR 97206 503-788-4769 Homegrown Garden Supply 7112 NE Gilsan Street, Portland, OR 97213 877-EZ2-GROW Island Flowers & Indoor Garden Center 909 N. Tomahawk Island Drive, Suite 103, Portland, OR 97217 503-546-3185 Lights Distributing 9843 SW 55th Avenue, Portland, OR 97219 Rain or Shine 13126 NE Airport Way, Portland, OR 97230 503-255-1981 Roots Garden Supply 5426 North Gay Avenue, Portland, OR 97217 503-285-4768 Urban Flora 2865 South East, Portland, OR 97214 503-236-3344 BIGS Warehouse 2606 SW 4th Street, Unit B Redmond, OR 97756 541-504-8886 Indoor Garden Supply 536 SW 6th Street (rear alley), Redmond, OR 97756 541-504-7750 DC Hydroponics & Organics 7275 Green Siding Rd. Roseburg, OR 97471 541-679-3700 Roseburg Hydroponics 853 SE Stephens Street, Roseburg, OR 97470 541-229-1420 Indoor Garden Center 1697 SE 25th Street, Salem, OR 97302 503-566-7888 Northern Light and Garden Salem 1915 Lancester Drive, Salem, OR 97305 503-364-4769 Cascade Horticulture 39570 Pioneer Boulevard, Sandy, OR 97055 503-668-8242 Moonshine Park Farm 135 South East 62nd, Unit F South Beach, OR 97366 541-444-2298 J-N-B Hydro 2 Go 155 West Central Avenue, Sutherlin, OR 97479 541-459-9211 Samurai Greenhouse Supply 32067 Old Hwy. 34 Tanget, OR 97389 541-928-3431 Grow America Garden Supply LLC 11511 SW Pacific Highway, Tigard, OR 97223 503-841-6868 Pharmer Hydroponics 11135 SW Industrial Way Bldg 10-4 Tualatin, OR 97062 503-486-5751 PENNSYLVANIA Pocono Hydroponic Solutions 25 Route 611 Bartonsville, PA 18321 570-730-4544

Green Solutions Hydroponics 1700 Orange Street Berwick, PA 18603 570-752-1530 Garden Indoors of Pennsylvania 208 Route 13, Bristol, PA 19007 800-227-4567 422 GROW 1775 North Main Street Extension Butler, PA 16001-1327 724-561-3777 ___________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 20232 Route 19, Unit 6, Cranberry Twp., PA 16066 724-473-1113 ___________________________ New Moon Indoor Garden Supply 20550 Route 19 Perry Highway, Cranberry Twp., PA 16066 724-591-8086 Home Hydroponics of Pittsburgh 830 Route 119, Greensburg, PA 15601 724-836-1118 Buds to Blooms Garden and Supply Co., LLC 509 Orchard Avenue Kennett Square, PA 19348 484-860-8056 ____________________________

The Companion Plant 363 E. Main St Kutztown, PA 19530 610-683-9676 ____________________________ Flairform PO 1417, Lansdale, PA 19446 215-395-6353 ____________________________

RH Distribution PO 1417, Lansdale, PA 19446 888-545-8112 ____________________________ Esbenshades Greenhouses 546A East 28th Div Hwy Lititz Pa 17543 717-626-7007 Hydro Ponics of Harrisburg 310 South 10th Street, Lemoyne, PA 17043 877-684-3808 Always Green Garden Supply 4400 Old William Penn Hwy Ste. 106 Monroeville PA 15146 412-646-1243 New Stanton Hydro 150 Post Ave. New Stanton, PA. 15672 724-635-0297 The Companion Plant 363 E. Main St Kutztown, PA 19530 610-683-9676 Esbenshades Greenhouses 546A East 28th Div Hwy Lititz Pa 17543 717-626-7007 Full Bloom Hydroponics 84 South 24th Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 888-872-3602 Gardening-Indoor 20550 Rt. #19 Cranberry Twp. Pitsburgh PA 16066 724 591 8086

Home Hydroponics of Pittsburgh 2008 Smallman Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15222 412-232-7030 Healthy Gardens and Supply 1012 Lincoln Avenue, Prospect Park, PA 19076 866-32-HYDRO Northeast Hydroponics & Homebrewing 221 Scranton Carbondale Hwy. Scranton PA 18508 570-209-7924 Full Time Garden Supply 1011 Ritner Highway Shippensburg PA.17257 717-477-0350 Home Hydroponics of Pittsburgh 9 North Main St. Washington, PA 15301 724-222-0200 Western Pennsylvania Innovative Gardening 1177 Pittsburgh Road, Suite 103 Valencia, PA 16059 724-903-0800 Organic Garden Center 800 Washington Blvd. Williamsport, PA 17701 570-322-3120 ____________________________

National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply 450 Grim Lane, York,PA 17406 877-779-7111(Northeast) ____________________________ PA Hydroponics & Home Gardening Supply 20 Quaker Church Road, York Springs, PA 17372 717-528-4175 RHODE ISLAND Oakworld Garden Center 39 West Street, Barrington, RI 02806 401-245-5705 Solar Seed Hydroponics, Inc. 2406 Putman Pike, Chepachet, RI 02814 401-710-9010 Organically Grown 768 Atwood Ave Cranston, RI 02920 401-944-0549 Hydro-Earth 1243 Mineral Springs Avenue, North Providence, RI 02904 401-305-5520 The Organic Grow Hut 375 Putnam Pike- Ste 13 Smithfield, RI 02828 401-349-4141 South County Hydroponics 51 Old Tower Hill Road, Wakefield, RI 02879 401-783-1733 Mother Nature Hydroponics 1268 Post Rd. Warwick RI 02888 401-780-0600 LiquidSun® RI 1179 Central Avenue, Pawtucket, MA 02861 401-722-2724 ____________________________

Good To Grow 34 Nooseneck Hill Road, West Greenwich, RI 02817 401-392-3100 ____________________________

Growin’ Crazy 93 Kingston Road Wyoming, Rhode Island 02898 401-284-0810

Perpetual Harvest 75 Riverport Drive, Jackson, TN 38301 877-422-3391

SOUTH CAROLINA GreenSpirit Hydrogarden 1864 Meeting Street, Charleston, SC 29405 843-225-1GRO 247 Garden Supply 535 D Clemson Road, Columbia, SC 29229 803-788-4445 ____________________________

Advanced Hydroponic Garden 6912 Clinton Highway, Knoxville, TN 37921 866-938-3318

All Good Hydroponics & Gardening 6729 Two Notch Road, Columbia, SC 29223 803-708-4819 ____________________________

All Season Hydroponics 6729 Two North Road, 10B Columbia, SC 29223 803-708-4819 ____________________________ The Urban Garden Hydroponics 9557 Two Notch Rd. Ste. E Columbia, SC 29223 803-788-9313 ____________________________

All Season Hydroponics 1350 Hwy. 501 Business, Store 3&4 Conway, SC 29526 843-347-9266 ____________________________ Green Thumb Unique Gardening & More 1230 Rutherford Road, Greenville, SC 29609 864-271-8830 ____________________________

Greenspirit Hydrogardens 3600 Unite 1 Hwy.17 S. North Myrtle Beach, SC 29582 843-361-7777 ____________________________ SOUTH DAKOTA

Green Earth Products Inc. 5700 Highway 79 S.,Unit 1, Rapid City, SD 57702 605-342-1307 ____________________________ TENNESSEE Innovative Hydroponic Supply Inc. 3286 North Park Blvd. Unit G Alcoa TN 37701 865 984 0280 Atlantis Hydroponics 1800 Rossville Avenue, #3, Chattanooga, TN 37408 423-752-5400 Advanced Hydroponic Garden 783 French Mill Road, Dandridge, TN 37725 800-521-1643

Sun City Hydroponics 2235 Whitten Road, Suite 104, Memphis, TN 38133 901-372-8100 ____________________________

National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply 126 Belinda Parkway, Mt. Juliet, TN 37122 888-265-9005 ____________________________ All Seasons Gardening and Brewing Supply Co. 924 8th Avenue, South, Nashville, TN 37203 800-790-2188 ____________________________

Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Dallas) 3400 Elm Street, Dallas, TX 75226 214-744-4769 ____________________________

Organic Garden & Feed 3801 N Interstate Hwy 35,Suite126, Denton Texas 76207 940-381-9890 ____________________________ Earth Organics 1360 Lee Trevino Drive,Suite 105 El Paso, TX 79936 915-591-9500 Airline Hydroponics P.O. Box 980904, Trader’s Village #363, Houston, TX 77098 713-942-0484 Botani Garden 15120 Bellaire Blvd Houston, TX 77083 281-575-1999 Houston Discount Hydroponics 9384 Richmond Avenue, Houston, TX 77063 713-464-9406 Hydroponic Nation 9001 Frey Road Houston TX 77034 713-943-1115

Worm’s Way Tennessee 901 Main Street, Nashville, TN 37072 800-397-4153 ____________________________ TEXAS Abundant Harvest Hydroponics & Organics 3101 Avenue E East, Arlington, TX 76011 817-649-0100 Brite Ideas Hydroponics & Organics 4360 S.Congress Avenue, #310, Austin, TX 78745 512-444-2100 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Central Austin) 5126 Burnet Road, Austin, TX 78756 512-459-4769 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (South Austin) 2125-A Goodrich Avenue, Austin, TX 78704 512-440-4769 Third Coast Horticulture Supplies 7010 Burnet Rd., Ste.A Austin, TX 78757 512 459 4353

In-N-Out Garden Supply 11011 S Wilcrest Drive Ste K Houston, TX 77099 281-568-5265 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Houston) 7730 A Park Place Boulevard, Houston, TX 77087 713-641-4769 Ultimate Hydroponic Garden Supply 6125 West Sam Houston Parkway, North Suite 206 Houston, TX 77041 713-856-8425 Texas Growers Supply 5990 N. Sam Houston Pkwy. E. #602, Humble, TX 77396 281-441-3739 Field of Dreams Indoor Growing Supplies 5302 Slide Road Unit B,Lubbock, TX 79414 806-793-2901 Hydro Mart 3841 Main Street, Rowlett, TX 75088 972-475-6114 ____________________________

Happy Harvest Hydroponics & Organic 1500 C rescent Drive, Suite 202 Carrollton, TX 75006 972-466-1300 GroGreen Hydroponics 4015 Main Street, Dallas, TX 75226 214-370-9984 Jolly Green Hydroponics (Greenhouse Horticultural Supplies) 13628 Neutron Road, Dallas, TX 75244 866-WE-JOLLY; 469-341-5555 Lone Star Hydroponics and Organics 1302 Motor Circle, Dallas, TX 75207 214-634-9376

Sol Organics & Hydroponics 1634 Babcock Road, San Antonio, TX 78229 210-366-9082 ____________________________


Salt Lake Plant & Hydro 60 West 3300 S. #6 South Salt Lake, UT 84115 801-488-3200 ____________________________ VERMONT Greenthumb - Vermont 394 Route 15, Jericho, VT 05465 802-899-4323 Peak Hydroponic Garden Supplies 20 School Street, Plainfield, VT 05667 802-454-8000 LiquidSun® VT 1 Bellows Falls Road, (Route 5 North) Putney, VT 05158 802-387-1100 Green Thumb Gardening P.O. Box 235, Route 15, Underhill, VT 5489 800-564-9376 VIRGINIA Fifth Season Gardening Company 900 Preston Ave. Charlottesville VA 22903 434-293-2332 Clean & Green Technologies 196 Corning Drive, Christiansburg, VA 24073 866-694-1628 I Love Hydroponics 612 N. Sheppard Street, Richmond, VA 23221 804-377-3020 Lucky Roots 612 North Sheppard St. Richmond, VA 23221 804-377-3020 Blue Ridge Hydroponics & Home Brewing Company The Williamson Road Plaza, 5327 D Williamson Road Roanoke, VA 24012 540-265-2483 Inside-Out Garden Supply 6517 Backlick Road, Springfield, VA 22150 703-451-3259 I Love Hydroponics 368 Newtown Road, #105, Virginia Beach, VA 23462 757-490-5425 Hydroponics & Growlights 13400 Occoquan Road, Woodbridge, VA 22191 703-490-0700 wEST VIRGINIA Panhandle Hydroculture 800 East Moler Ave. Martinsburg, WV 25401 304-240-7587 wASHINGTON ____________________________

Innergrow Hydroponics 24451 Interstate Highway 20, Wills Point, TX 75169 866-475-4769 UTAH Wasatch Hydroponics 4050 South Howick, Suite 11E, Salt Lake City, Utah 84107 801-716-4133

Island Horticulture Supply 8608 S March Point Rd. Anacortes WA 98221 360 293 0000 ____________________________

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

Mike’s Indoor Garden Supply 6121 172nd Street NE #A, Arlington, WA 98223 360-474-1900 Belfair Garden & Lighting 24090 NE State Route 3 #F Belfair,WA 98528 360-275-2130 Green Gardens Distributing 12738 Bel-Red Road, Bellevue, WA 98005 425-454-5731 Northern Lights Gardening 4159 Hannegan Road, Bellingham, WA 98225 360-715-8585


North West Hydro Supply 1355Pacific Pl Unit 117 Ferndale WA 98248-7824 360-778-3254 ___________________________ Good 2 Gro 3507 W Clearwater Ave. Kennewick WA 99336 509-737-1313 ____________________________

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Island Hydroponic & Supplies 1515 5th Street #B, Marysville, WA 98271 425-299-5855

509 Grow 2718 N Division Spokane, WA 99207 509-327-GROW(4769)

Mike’s Indoor Garden Supply 1204 East Wheeler Road, Moses Lake, WA 98837 509-766-5856

Grow Center, The 2808 W Sprague Spokane WA 99202 509-456-GROW

M & R Lighting 17238 Memorial Drive, Mt. Vernon, WA 98273 360-848-1080

River City Hydroponics 1514 East Francis Avenue, Spokane, WA 99208 509-464-0246

Northern Lights Gardening 1524 Riverside Dr #2 Mt. Vernon, WA 98273 360-982-2217 ___________________________

Spokane Organic and Hydroponic Supply 4823 East Sprague Avenue E., Spokane Valley, WA 99212 509-534-4055 ___________________________

Liquid Sunshine Hydroponics 5087 Lincoln Road, Blaine, WA 98230 Kitsap Garden & Lighting 2130 6th Street, Bremerton, WA 98312 360-377-1277 M & R Lighting Unit C 22914 Highway 410, Buckley, WA 98390 253-891-4190 ____________________________

Indoor Tropics 5930 Sunburst Lane #B Cashmere, WA 98815 509-470-7782 ___________________________

Indoor Garden & Lighting 714 South Central Avenue, Kent, WA 98032 253-373-9060 ____________________________ Kent Garden Supplies Ltd. 18817 East Valley Highway, Kent, WA 98032 425-251-9299 Grogro Hydro 12403 NE. 124th Street, Kirkland, WA 98034 888-7-GROGRO 425-820-6200 ___________________________

Healthy Grow Indoor Garden Supplies 10 SE Everett Mall Way Suite B Everett WA 98208 425-374-2227 ___________________________

Indoor Garden Depot 8630 Evergreen Way, Suite B Everett, WA 98208 425-347-0700 ___________________________

KP Indoor Garden Store 8912 Key Peninsula HWY N Lakebay, WA 98349 253-884-SURE (7873) ___________________________ InDoor Gardening 1158 Commerce Longview WA, 98632 360-353-3851 ____________________________

Indoor Garden & Lighting 20505 Highway 99,, Lynnwood, WA 98036 425-673-2755 ____________________________ Go-N-Green Hydroponics 1241 State Ave Suite #102 Marysville, WA 98270 (360)386-8230

Indoor Garden Depot 1401 S. 324th Street, Federal Way, WA 98003 253-874-1112 ___________________________


Linda’s Gardening & Hydroponics 11522 Canyon Road East, Puyallup, WA 98373 253-531-9641 Renton Indoor Garden Center 207 Sunset Blvd. N, Building A, Renton, WA 98055 425-917-9000 Eco Enterprises 1240 NE 175th Street, #B Shoreline, WA 98155 800-426-6937 ____________________________

Garden Smart 500 Bond Drive, Castlerock, WA 98611 360-274-7960 Grow Center, The 615 South Fir DeerPark WA 99006 509-276-GROW

Indoor Garden & Lighting 8606 Preston Fall City Rd. SE Preston WA 98050 425-222-9661 ___________________________

Green Acres Indoor Garden & Lighting 514 State Ave Suite #102 Marysville, WA 98270 360-658-GROW (4769)

Maximum Yield USA | July 2012

Aqua Serene 3839 Stone Way North, Seattle, WA 98103 206-547-GROW (4769) ___________________________ Grogro Hydro 12316 32nd AVE NE #103 Seattle, WA 98125 Hydro-Tech 2121 Aurora Avenue, North, Seattle, WA 98103 206-547-2202 ___________________________

Sodo Hydro 1727 1st Ave. South, Seattle, WA 98134 206-682-9377 888-90HYDRO (904-9376) __________________________ Northwest Horticulture Supply 161 Hooker Road, #1, Sequim, WA 98057 360-582-0702

Waterworks Hydroponics 5039 S. Washington Tacoma, WA 98409 253-301-4343 ___________________________ Garden City Hydroponics 14103 Pacific Ave., S. Tacoma WA 98444 253-301-3985 ___________________________

Indoor Garden & Lighting 3839 6th Avenue, Tacoma, WA 98406 253-761-7478 ___________________________

Indoor Garden Supply LLC 1250 Atlantic Ave, Woodland, WA 98674 360-841-8055 wISCONSIN ____________________________

Aric’s Indoor Garden Supply 1104 West Wisconsin Avenue, Appleton, WI 54914 920-574-3258 ____________________________ Grow BIG Hydroponics 954 S. Westland, Appleton, WI 54914 920-749-4769 H2oGrow 1150 Madison rd Beloit WI 53511 608-289-1852 Brew and Grow 285 N. Janacek Road, Brookfield, WI 53045 262-789-0555 Garden Supply Guys 752 Memorial Drive - Suite A Green Bay, WI 54303 920-857-9493 Hydro Your Own 8501-75th Street, Unit C Kenosha, WI 53142 262 697 6112 Brew and Grow 3317 Agriculture Drive, Madison, WI 53716 608-226-8910 ____________________________

Solar Shop 306 West 4th Street, Tonasket, WA 98855 509-486-4508 ___________________________

Indoor Garden Depot 6400 NE Highway 99, Suite H, Vancouver, WA 98665 360-993-7779 ___________________________

National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply 4525 NW Fruit Valley Road, Vancouver, WA 98660 888-478-6544 (Northwest) ____________________________

National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply 5408 NE 88th Street, Building A, Vancouver, WA 98665 888-478-6544 ____________________________

Paradigm Gardens 4501 Helgesen Drive, Madison, WI 53718 608-241-3800 ____________________________ Brew and Grow 2246 Bluemound Road Ste. B Waukesha, WI 53186 262-717-0666 PUERTO RICO ____________________________

Tecno-Hydro Ave Campo Rico GJ17, PO Box 1450 Carolina, PR 00982 787-752-8252 ____________________________


1. 2.

Plants can make use of a number of substances and elements that, while not essential for growth, have the ability to enhance growth, development and other functions.




Ladybugs, both as larvae and adults, eat thousands of insects in their one-year lifespan.

animal waste and plant material that has fallen to the ground are two sources of nitrogen that occur naturally in untended wilderness.

While having insignificant NPK levels, kelp-based nutrients do contain over 70 essential vitamins, minerals, amino acids, trace elements and plant hormones—the same properties that enable kelp to grow 1.64 ft. a day, reaching lengths exceeding 100 ft.

“Nute burn” is the wrinkled-paper-like damage on plant leaves that results from using too much fertilizer.




The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger comes from fragrant essential oils, particularly gingerols, found within the rhyzome.

Classic liquid organic fertilizers had a tendency to sour when used in hydroponic systems since they were originally designed to slowly break down in solid soil with the help of bacteria. The absence of these bacteria in hydroponic systems caused nutrient solutions to slowly change into something that was poisonous to plants.

Bioponic cultivation imitates the breakdown of organic material in the soil through the means of a specially developed fertilizer in combination with aerobic bacteria and Trichoderma fungi, which are added to an organic filter.

The rate of photosynthesis starts to rapidly drop after a critical high temperature—which is species specific, but is generally between 90ºF and 100ºF is reached.



adding a thick layer of clean mulch (3 in. or so) on your garden beds will help conserve moisture and protect plants’ roots from extreme temperatures. mulching can be done at any time of the growing season, but doing so early on— just after preparing the soil and planting—is ideal.

Temperature impacts plant growth directly through kinetics. Lower temperatures will reduce absorption of water and ions by the roots while increased temperatures will have the opposite effect. In addition, temperature has a direct impact on cellular respiration and dissolved oxygen (DO) in water. an increase in temperature will decrease DO and increase cellular respiration.











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