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UK July - August 2013

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Instrumentation Made

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Troubleshoot

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Discover Tasty

Nutrients!

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Maximum Yield’s

SAN FRANCISCO

LONG BEACH

CALIFORNIA

CALIFORNIA

July 27-28

OCTOBER 26-27


CONTENTS July/August 2013

38

FEATURES 32

Instumentation Made Easy and Troubleshooting By Dr. Lynette Morgan

Think Inside the Pot: Container Gardening & Design

40

By Dave Watkins

40

By Frank Rauscher

Amino Acids Explained By Eric Hopper

56

Amazing Aloe

By Jennifer Casey

56

48

DEPARTMENTS 8

From the Editor

71

Industry's Latest

10

MaximumYield.com

72

You Tell Us

12

Letters to the Editor

74

Talking Shop

14

Ask the Experts

76

Max Mart

16

MAX Facts

80

Distributors

24

Product Spotlight

82

Coming up Next Issue

70

Do You Know

By Heather Brautman

60

Photons: The Secret to Light Speed Growth By Grubbycup

64

Are Organic Pesticides Always Safer? By Bill Deboer

68

How to Make an Orchid Bloom By Heather Rhoades

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Maximum Yield | July/August 2013

Reverse Osmosis: How To Get the Most Out of your RO System

48

64 54

Organoleptic Quality —Which Nutrients Contribute to Good Taste?

44


FROM THE EDITOR | Linda Jesson We all know our gardens require a little bit more than tender love and care to keep producing those quality yields we are all after. That's why in this issue you'll find many tips and tricks to help you set up and maintain a high-producing grow space. In "Instrumentation Made Easy" we learn about the essential tools that will make our growing life easier, and in "Organoleptic Quality" we discover which nutrients contribute to good taste. Of course, high-quality water also plays a role in all this, so we also take a look at how to get the most out of your reverse osmosis system.

Message from the

Editor Linda Jesson

We combine those with informative articles about the amazing aloe plant, incredible photons, and why you might considering thinking inside the pot. In addition, we spotlight retail shop Hi9 in Cumbria that was founded via volunteers. To round it all off we get up close and personal with Global Hydro, the makers of the BudBox growing systems. We pair these informative articles with a couple of shorter reads, a few fun facts in our MAX Facts section and product spotlights on some of the latest gear growers are using these days. Have you attended an Indoor Gardening Expo yet this year? We've got two more events planned in our 2013 Grow Like a Pro tour. We'll be in San Francisco, California, for the tenth year in a row on July 27 to 28, 2013. After that, we'll be set up in Long Beach, California, on October 26 to 27, 2013. These events are open to all members of the indoor growing industry! More information, including special hotel rates and free passes, can be found at indoorgardenexpo.com Do you have a comment or question regarding the contents of this issue of Maximum Yield? We'd love to hear from you! E-mail editor@maximumyield.com to share with us.

contributors Dave Watkins hails from the Shires

Bill DeBoer is a laboratory scientist at Indiana-based steadyGROWpro. A master gardener intern, Bill is responsible for company’s laboratory operations, including the design and execution of research projects, plant propagation, seed germination and overall plant care. Bill has a BS and MS from Purdue University, and was previously a research technician for the US Department of Agriculture.

Heather Brautman’s hydroponics knowledge consisted of her favorite ride at Walt Disney World’s before she moved to California in October 2011. Since becoming Hydrofarm’s staff writer in February 2012, she’s been enjoying learning about grow media—like coco coir and perlite—not paparazzi. She has a master’s degrees in technical writing as well as PR/communications.

Dr. Lynette Morgan holds a B.

Jennifer Casey loves her two dogs, her husband, the amazing garden he grows and living in the country—in that order. Crafting, reading and cooking from the garden are her favorite ways to spend her time.

Grubbycup has been an avid

Eric Hopper has over 10 years of experience in the hydroponic industry as both a retail store manager and owner. He continuously seeks new methods and products that could help maximize garden performance. Eric resides in Michigan where he and his family strive for a self-sufficient and sustainable lifestyle.

Frank Rauscher is a certified horticulturist and consultant for the garden industry. He’s a contributing author to several publications and was writer and editor of the Green Pages. Frank finds that analyzing plant stress and finding solutions is exciting. He is very much at home bringing new ideas to the field of horticulture and indoor gardening.

of England and has spent the last 30 years answering gardening questions for radio and television. His common sense solutions and suggestions are the hallmark of his advice. His present goal is to involve and encourage more children to garden. Dave is president of the local Carnation Society and vice president of the county Fuchsia society.

Hort. Tech. degree and a PhD in hydroponic greenhouse production from Massey University, New Zealand. Lynette is a partner with SUNTEC International Hydroponic Consultants and has authored five hydroponic technical books. Visit suntec.co.nz for more information.

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Maximum Yield | July/August 2013

indoor gardener for over 20 years. His articles were first published in the United Kingdom, and since then his gardening advice has been published in French, Spanish, Italian, Polish, Czechoslovakian and German. He is also considered one of the world’s leading authorities on crochet hydroponics.

Become a Maximum Yield contributor and have your articles read by 475,000+ readers throughout the USA, Canada, UK, Europe, New Zealand and Australia. Maximum Yield is the largest free-toconsumer indoor gardening magazine in the world. Every issue is available on maximumyield.com, which has thousands of unique visitors monthly.


COMING UP ON THE WEB Indoor Gardening Expo Updates

We’re now halfway through the 2013 Grow Like a Pro Indoor Gardening Expo season. Be sure to mark the last two dates on your calendar; we’ll be in San Francisco, California, July 27 and 28 and in Long Beach, California, on October 26 and 27. Whether you’re a new or experienced gardener, these trade shows offer something for everyone. Stay tuned to indoorgardenexpo.com for details so you can plan your 2013 vacation. Also be sure to check out the expo buzz happening on our social media pages.

Got Questions? Get Answers.

Maximum Yield’s resident experts are available and ready to answer your modern gardening questions. Email editor@maximumyield.com or fill out the “Ask the Experts” form on maximumyield.com

july/august 2013 Maximum Yield is published bi-monthly by Maximum Yield Publications Inc. 2339A Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 Phone: 250.729.2677; Fax 250.729.2687 No part of this magazine may be reproduced without permission from the publisher. If undeliverable please return to the address above. The views expressed by columnists are a personal opinion and do not necessarily reflect those of Maximum Yield or the Editor. Publication Agreement Number 40739092

PRESIDENT/PUBLISHER - Jim Jesson GENERAL MANAGER - Don Moores BUSINESS MANAGER - Linda Jesson editorial Editor Linda Jesson editor@maximumyield.com Assistant Editor Julie McManus julie@maximumyield.com ADVERTISING SALES Sales Manager Ilona Hawser - ilona@maximumyield.com Account Executives Kelsey Hepples - kelsey@maximumyield.com Katie Montague - katie@maximumyield.com Jed Walker - jed@maximumyield.com DESIGN & PRODUCTION ads@maximumyield.com Art Director Alice Joe Graphic Designers Jennifer Everts Dionne Hurd Jesslyn Gosling ACCOUNTING Tracy Greeno - accounting@maximumyield.com

Free Digital Subscription to Maximum Yield Now you can receive Maximum Yield free to your inbox every month. Subscribe to the digital edition of Maximum Yield by simply filling out the form at maximumyield.com/subscriptions

Tell us what you think at editor@maximumyield.com. We’d love to hear from you. Connect to maximumyield.com instantly from your Smartphone with our Quick Response (QR) Code, found on the cover of every issue of Maximum Yield. Now you can access the best products, the most in-depth articles and information, and the latest news at high speeds. Simply download the QR Code Reader software compatible with your Smartphone, scan the QR Code and your phone’s browser will automatically launch, redirecting you to maximumyield.com. It’s that simple!

Connect with Maximum Yield

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Maximum Yield | July/August 2013

maximumyield.com facebook.com/MaximumYield indoorgardeningexpo.com twitter.com/max_yield

UK DISTRIBUTION Direct Garden Supplies Dutchpro Future Harvest Developments Europe Growth Technology Maxigrow Ltd. Nutriculture UK CANADIAN DISTRIBUTION Brite-Lite Group Biofloral Eddis Wholesale Greenstar Plant Products Inc. Hydrotek MegaWatt Northern Hydroponic Wholesale Quality Wholesale USA DISTRIBUTION Aurora Innovations BWGS General Hydroponics Humboldt Wholesale Hydrofarm Hydro International National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply Nickel City Wholesale Garden Supply R & M Supply Tradewinds AUSTRALIAN DISTRIBUTION Dome Garden Supply Futchatec Growth Technology Holland Forge House N Garden


LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Thanks, MY

Your magazine keeps me up to date with the latest and greatest in this industry. Easy-to-read articles, great product write-ups; in this era of indoor gardening, it is good to have a solid fall back for information and your mag keeps it coming. Thanks for all your hard work. Keep growing, Tony

Not a Green Thumb, Yet

I’m on disability and decided to try a vegetable garden. I found the tips [in Maximum Yield] on everything from watering to germinating and others very helpful as I am not a green thumb. Daniel

In Response to Indoor Garden Expos

This show is amazing! Last year we met amazing people, got amazing samples, learned so much and had a great time! Christian (via Facebook)

How Diluted?

I read Eric’s article on oxygen [“Dissolved Oxygen: the Hidden Necessity” by Eric Hopper in Maximum Yield March/ April 2013], which was very informative. Two questions: If you want to add H202, how diluted should it be and how much should you add? Also when is there enough DO to prohibit anaerobic to form? Niklas

Hi Niklas,

The 30 to 35% H2O2 can be used as 10 ml per 4 L fresh water to wash through infected root systems. This is a last-ditch attempt at saving crop from root rot, etc. Wash through a couple of times and rinse well. Add one 1 or 2 ml per 4 L with waterings for a couple weeks after that. The super blast of O2 will kill all kinds of microbes and hurts nutrients; it has saved crops, however!

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Maximum Yield | July/August 2013

Hey Maximum,

I love your magazines! They are so helpful and informative and contain up-to-date technology tips. I can find solutions to my gardening problems and learn about new products and new methods. Connie

Your

Two

We asked on Facebook:

“Who supplements their indoor/greenhouse with CO2? How are you doing it and to what level and what difference in growth or yields are you observing?” Here are some of the great responses we received:

I do with a parts-per-million reader, flow regulator and CO2 tank that I refill weekly. I’ve seen enhanced yields as high as 20% from my standard production." Don Using rapid air exchange, plus having the brew kit in the room adds extra CO2 to the atmosphere; it is only an increase of 2-300 ppm [sic], but during veg this helps." Bailey

We want to hear from you! Maximum Yield Publications Inc. Snail-mail: 2339 Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 Email: editor@maximumyield.com Twitter: twitter.com/max_yield Facebook: facebook.com/MaximumYield


SIMON SAYS ask the experts

When feeding freshly cut unrooted clones, what nutrient solution and dosage do you recommend? Paul

Scott Thompson-Mon

tague

We don’t recommend attempting to feed your unrooted clones. Since roots are like mouths for plants, trying to feed an unrooted clone isn’t very productive. You want to limit your cuttings’ tasks during the propagation process, so giving them nutrients too early in their lifecycle can send mixed signals. Nutrients are fuel for growth, and during the rooting process you want your fresh cuttings to only concentrate on root development and not leaf and foliage production. Once your cuttings have started to root, a very light strength grow nutrient can be added to your solution to begin encouraging normal, healthy vegetative growth. We recommend dipping cuttings in a quality rooting gel and placing it in your cloner or medium. Roots are the most important component during cloning, so concentrate on getting the best possible roots first! Once you’ve established them, go ahead and begin to feed your ladies with your favourite growth formula. Scott Thompson-Montague

Can you give me results for growing crops in soil versus aeroponics—rates, yields, etc.? Ralph Smith Unfortunately there haven’t really been many relevant, scientifically accurate studies making this comparison between aeroponics and soil growing, the reason being that the conditions of such studies vary so much that a conclusive result would be hard to get. For example, if a soil of excellent physical and nutritional properties was compared against a poorly designed aeroponic system, the results an would be different than if a poorly structured soil Lynette Morg r. D was compared against a more superior aeroponic system. Factors such as the crop type, effect of environmental conditions on growth, water holding capacity and aeration of the soil, temperature of the nutrient, makeup of the nutrient solution, nutritional factors in the soil, pH, etc. all have such a huge result on variables such as yield that a standard comparison is very hard to make (i.e, it is not just the system that affects yields and growth rate; in fact sometimes the system only has a minimal effect). Dr. Lynette Morgan 14

Maximum Yield | July/August 2013


MAX FACTS

hydroponic news, tips and trivia

A Truly Green Use of Bicycles Coating the roof of your greenhouse on a bicycle? It might sound a little weird, but according to William Poppe of helderglas.nl it works just fine. “We used to do it by foot, but where’s the fun in that? You’re walking on glass, which is not stable, and the windows might break. This is a lot more labour-friendly and comfortable.” Transport of the coating bike is easier than that of a large machine, but the biggest advantage is that the windows can stay open, which means humidity and temperature levels won’t be affected. (Source: hortidaily.com)

MAXFACTS hydroponic news, tips and trivia Ancient Fertilisers

Home-grown Demand With the opening of a new 5.7 hectare greenhouse in Kent, APS Salads has seen a 50% increase in their greenhouse production within the UK. The expansion is part two of a three-part plan to increase production in response to increased demand from consumers for UK-grown produce. (Source: freshplaza.com)

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Maximum Yield | July/August 2013

Researchers from the University of Gothenburg in Sweden have spent many years studying the remains of a Stone Age community in Karleby outside the town of Falköping, Sweden. Using some highly advanced analysis techniques, researchers discovered elevated levels of the isotope N15 (nitrogen 15) in the remains of grains and other plants found at the site. The elevated levels could indicate that fertilisers were used in the area nearly 5,000 years ago. (Source: sciencedaily.com)


MAX FACTS

hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Just What Makes That Little Old Ant Change a Flower’s Nectar Content? As frequent visitors to flowers, ants act as pollinators when they forage on sugarrich nectar. However, a new study revealed that when feeding on a sample of nectar, ants transmitted sugar-eating yeasts. This resulted in higher fructose and glucose levels and lower sucrose levels. The chemical composition of nectar, including the type of sugars involved, differs among plant species and has been thought to be linked to pollinator type (for example, plants pollinated by hummingbirds tend to have nectar with high amounts of sucrose). By changing the nectar chemistry, ants could be indirectly affecting subsequent pollinator visitations. Indeed, a plant could lose some of its target pollinators, which would potentially affect overall seed set and plant fitness. (Source: sciencedaily.com)

A Gardener’s Best Friend New research suggests that the gardener’s best friend, the earthworm, is great at protecting leaves from being chomped by slugs. Spanish slugs are among the top 100 worst alien species in Europe and are considered a pest almost everywhere. However, scientific research found that the presence of worms increased nitrogen content of plants and reduced the number of leaves damaged due to slugs by 60%. Yet when they compared leaf area damaged the researchers found slugs also ate 40% less at high plant diversity than at low. Scientists explained that one of two things might be going on: the earthworms improved the plant’s ability to protect itself through the build-up of nitrogen-containing toxic compounds, or that in high diverse ecosystems these slugs eat less because they have to switch their diets more often. (Source: sciencedaily.com)

Celebrity Endorsed Veggies Kale—the star of the brassica family—has enjoyed a 40% increase in popularity over the past year. This boost is partly thanks to celebrity chefs like Jamie Oliver, who featured the green in a wide variety of recipes. (Source: telegraph.co.uk)

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Maximum Yield | July/August 2013


MAX FACTS

hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Bee Survival: Ban More Pesticides?

For 7 years Forever Flowering Greenhouses has been THE SOURCE for greenhouses materials, BREATHABLE blackout fabrics and all your Light Deprivation needs.

This spring, the European Commission slapped a two-year ban on insecticides suspected of killing off bee colonies. Studies suggest that the nicotine-like compounds fry bees’ navigation systems and leave them unable to learn, while weakening their immune system. But scientists now warn that other nerve agents targeting insect pests could also be harming bees and other pollinators. Christopher Connolly, a neuroscientist at the University of Dundee, argues that we should not allow farmers to spray a toxic soup of chemicals onto their crops. (Source: sciencedaily.com)

FFG, blazing the trail... Here we grow again! Forever Flowering Greenhouses is proud to offer: Breathable Wall. A breath of fresh air. Rigid breathable blackout material you can build with. Get full air flow when your light dep tarps are covering your greenhouse. For indoor and greenhouse ventilating needs. Herb-based plant super food. Inoculated with beneficial bacteria and endomycorrhizae. With kelp, humates, micro nutrients, and sugars. DEM is a complete superfood for your plants and microbes.

foreverflowering.net 888.784.4687 20

Maximum Yield | July/August 2013

From Landfill to Nature Reserve For longer than most people can remember, Mucking Marshes Landfill in England festered as an ugly reminder of just how messy we humans can be. Over the course of 50 years, the pile of trash there along the mouth of the River Thames grew and grew, fed by the refuse and waste of six London boroughs. But now, after years of effort on the part of conservationists, the scene today couldn’t be more different. Famed naturalist Sir David Attenborough and members of the Essex Wildlife Trust officially opened the Thurrock Thameside Nature Park— a 120-acre nature reserve of grassland, woods and marshes built atop the former landfill. The reserve will be expanded to cover an additional 725 acres over the coming years. (Source: treehugger.com)


Tomatoes with an LED Boost Recent research has found that tomatoes can contain more vitamin C if they are exposed to LED lamps while growing on the plant. Scientists chose several different plant varieties and suspended LED modules around the tomato clusters, which are normally shaded from sun by leaves. In the tomato variety that showed the strongest reaction, the tomatoes receiving extra light from the LEDs contained up to twice as much vitamin C as the tomatoes not exposed to the LEDs, even though the extra dose of light was equivalent to only a quarter of the natural light intensity on a sunny day. (Source: treehugger.com)

An App With Layers If you’re an onion grower holding a smartphone, you’re in luck. Nickerson-Zwaan has launched The Onion App to assist its customers in achieving successful onion harvests. The app is easy to download and user friendly. It contains information (images and text) on issues such as fungi, bacterial diseases, foliar, storage and viral diseases, nematodes, insects and non-parasitic disorders. The information is supplemented with practical recommendations. The app is kept up to date, and it works offline. The Onion App is available in Dutch, German and English languages, and is completely free of charge. (Source: freshplaza.com)

Banana the Number-one Fruit in Britain A recent survey carried out by the office fruit delivery company Fruitdrop found that most people in Britain—40% in fact—prefer to have a banana when it comes to snacking on fruit. The runner-up was apples at 23%. (Source: online.wsj.com)

Maximum Yield | July/August 2013

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Advertorial

Quantity, Not Quality? Now You Can Have Both

The latest lighting technology fresh out of Holland In 2012, Dutch horticultural lighting giant Hortilux Schréder introduced two new lighting systems into the UK hydroponics market based on their intensive commercial glasshouse technology and Philips lamp technology. The two new lighting systems, the HSE Daylight and the HSE 600W come with a built-in electronic ballast, an electronic lamp and reflectors. These systems boast excellent grow light efficiencies that pip traditional HID lighting systems to the post on light output. But interestingly, these two new systems, when combined in the same growroom, create a formidable force. In this article, we find out more about how UK hobby growers are combining two types of light for higher quality plants and increased yields. For successful flowering of plants indoors, growers traditionally use high pressure sodium (HPS) lighting for its high output of red/orange light, essential for adult growth and flowering. HPS lighting is still proven to be the most effective for indoor growing due to this high output of growth light. The problem many growers encounter when using HPS lights alone is that their plants experience accelerated, but leggy, growth as a response to red/ orange light. For this reason some growers choose to incorporate blue lighting from metal halides, LEDs or dual spectrum lamps to counteract this legginess because blue light (used in propagating) makes plants form more branch nodes. A new combination of lighting that has recently excited growers looking to boost their crops is the use of daylight spectrum lighting alongside HPS lights. Plants have evolved with the broad spectrum of light present in sunlight. 22

Maximum Yield | July/August 2013

When growers use red and blue plant lighting as a substitute, although these are the most used colours by plants, there are still many useful colours of the spectrum missing. Plants respond to all the colours between 400 nm and 700 nm, not just red and blue. This is why lighting experts are now designing systems with daylight spectrum output, and the word is out on what a difference this makes to your plants. The HSE Daylight system is the latest daylight spectrum technology to hit the horticultural market using Philips lighting technology for an ultraefficient system. The Philips MASTERColour CDM-T Elite 315W lamp is arguably the closest thing to artificial daylight on the market. The benefit growers get from daylight spectrum is a higher quality of plant due to the fact that it is the closest a grower can get to providing natural sunlight, allowing plants to form more branches for plentiful,

higher quality plant mass. When combined with your traditional HPS lighting, the results are impressive. It really comes down to simple science; excellent daylight spectrum gives more branch formations and quality produce. When combined with powerful HPS lighting, it adds excellent growth and flowering. Daylight lamps can also be used HSE 600W for propagation and

“The benefit growers get from daylight spectrum is a higher quality of plant due to the fact that it is the closest a grower can get to providing natural sunlight, allowing plants to form more branches for plentiful, higher quality plant mass.” vegging as well as combining with HPS. With daylight spectrum, propagation times are reduced and young plants establish themselves quickly, producing healthier, bulkier growth. Internodal lengths HSE Daylight are reduced resulting in squatter plants that are stronger, more productive and easier to harvest. The enhanced levels of UV-B (often lacking


Advertorial

For more information and a list of your nearest retailers visit www.maxigrow.com in growrooms lit with just HPS lights) help to guard against pests and moulds and also boost essential oil production—particularly useful for growers of culinary herbs. The HSE 600W HPS lighting system from Hortilux Schréder was launched in the UK in 2012 alongside their HSE Daylight system. Again combining Philips lamp technology with Hortilux Schréder glasshouse technology, the lamp in this system has the highest grow light output of all 600-W lamps on the hobby market at 1190 µmol per second. Hortilux Schréder are leading experts in the field of plant lighting, supplying an incredible 90% of the commercial glasshouse market internationally. The HSE 600W HPS lighting system was re-developed from their glasshouse model to become a lighting system with the same efficiencies that can be run in the home. What is special about this lighting system is that it allows you to use 400-V lamp technology from commercial glasshouses with your home’s 240-V supply for increased yields. The lamp is a Philips MASTER GreenPower Plus 600W/400V electronic lamp, the ‘Plus’ being the latest version with even higher output. The HSE 600W system has two state-of-the-art reflectors, the Delta and Zèta, which you can interchange

User reports: Growers switching over to using combined lighting with the HSE Daylight and HSE 600W systems have given glowing reports that the results are clearly visible. Jeff Winterborne, owner of Esoteric Horticulture Ltd in Surrey and author of the expert grow guide Hydroponics: Indoor Horticulture (Pukka Press: 2005), explains: ‘One recent customer reported up to 28% extra yield and 30% higher quality from his system of four HSE 600W lights and one HSE Daylight. Some customers are also using the Philips Agro 315W HPS lamp that is also compatible with the HSE Daylight system and they are getting the same yields as they would under 600W HPS lights but for half the power consumption.’

depending on your crop stage. The Delta gives a wider spread of light, perfect for even propagation and vegging young plants. The Zèta is designed especially for canopy penetration, sending down a powerful but plant-friendly beam of intense light to the canopy. This means more quality growth lower down the plant, not just full development and ripeness at the top. These reflectors were the result of vast amounts of photometric data and collaboration with both Philips and technology partners Raymax. Made with aluminium coated with glass atoms (known as MIRO-9), the reflectors give maximum reflection. This is great news for home growers looking for quality and uniformity across their crop—especially those who enjoy producing fast-growing, short-cycle, heavy-fruiting annuals such as chillies and bush variety tomatoes indoors. So, watch this space as we see the response to the revelation that plants can indeed be both quality and quantity.

PAR spectrum of light used by plants

Spectrum output from HSE Daylight with Philips MASTERColour CDM-T Elite lamp

Maximum Yield | July/August 2013

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

YOUR GUIDE TO THIS ISSUE’S

HOTTEST ITEMS Ask for them at your local indoor gardening store.

Sunmaster Dual Spectrum Grow+ Photonic Lamps Sunmaster HID Lamps promote healthy plant growth throughout the growth cycle. The new Sunmaster Dual Spectrum Grow+ Photonic is the latest in horticultural technology with high output red light and enhanced blue light for healthier growth from vegetation through to flower using just one lamp. Ideal for variable output power packs, the Dual Spectrum Grow+ Photonic has enhanced spectral stability at lowered, overdriven and fluctuating power levels giving plants the optimum spectrum for growth with each power mode. Check out your local indoor gardening store for more information.

Shear Perfection Pruning and Cutting Tools National Garden Wholesale® is excited to announce the arrival of the Shear Perfection™ Pruning and Cutting Tools. This new line of quality hand tools will perform for years. The titanium coated stainless steel blades will stay sharp during multiple uses and are very easy to clean. These shears include a comfort-grip handle with spring-loaded action for less fatigue on your hands. Storage is simple with an easy-lock mechanism. For right- or left-handed use. Shear Perfection—A Cut Above! Visit a retailer near you for more information.

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Maximum Yield | July/August 2013

Bluelab Soil pH Pen Packaging Error Oops! We’ve made an error on the packaging for our newest member of the pen family. The Bluelab Soil pH Pen is missing a zero and a dot from one of the fields in the specifications table. Just two little details… yet they are vitally important. The accuracy of the Bluelab Soil pH Pen at 25°C is ± 0.1pH. Packaging changes have been made; however, there will be some products circulating with the incorrect specifications. Visit your local indoor gardening store for more information.


Rainmaker Sprayers Sunlight Supply®, Inc. is excited to announce the arrival of the Rainmaker Sprayers. From the 0.95-L spray bottle to the 18.93-L battery-powered portable sprayer, these all-purpose sprayers feature chemical-resistant polyethylene plastic bodies. This durable plastic is translucent, allowing liquid level measurements to be easily identified. Rainmaker Sprayers in the 3.79- through 11.36-L sizes come with a funnel-top design, while the 15.14- and 18.93-L models feature a threaded wide-mouth opening and integrated filter to help prevent spilling or dripping. Rainmaker Sprayers can be used for a variety of home and garden applications, including cleaning agents, herbicides, pesticides and foliar feeding fertiliser or compost tea. For more information, please visit a hydroponics shop near you.

Dutchpro's Original Grow Hydro/Coco A+B Soft Water Dutchpro's award-winning Original Grow Hydro/Coco A+B Soft Water is a complete grow feed that’s proven to be perfect for hydro and coco methods. Soft water formulations are especially designed for soft water areas. This product has all the essential macronutrients and micronutrients necessary for exuberant growth. For fertilizer use mix 100 L of water with between 250 and 350 ml of Original Grow Hydro/Coco dependant on the desired EC level. Never mix the components in pure form with each other. Instead, add component A, water and then component B in equal parts (always rinsing the measuring cup well). Available in sizes ranging from 1, 5, 10, 20 and the new 50 L. Dutchpro nutrients are stable and clear and contain organic elements. Ask a local retailer for more information about Dutchpro products.

Maximum Yield | July/August 2013

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

The OG Air-cooled Reflector Designed in the United States by Growlite and manufactured by Growlush, the OG aircooled Reflector is a new design for growroom lighting that utilises a patented vertical orientation and a carefully researched and designed 360-degree parabolic reflector that allows it to evenly concentrate and layer light. In-house and independent evaluations have shown that a 600-W lamp fitted in an OG Reflector can effectively match the performance of a 1,000-W bulb in a horizontal air-cooled reflector. The OG also features Concealed Vacuum Airflow Technology, which allows it to efficiently exhaust heat away from the bulb by creating a cyclone effect to swirl air around the bulb and out of the reflector to the ventilation system. For more information, ask a local retailer.

B’Cuzz Bloom Stimulator For many plants the flowering period is the most important period in the cycle. The B’Cuzz Bloom Stimulator will force blooming at an early stage, which will start the flowering period earlier and ultimately make it last longer and happen more intensely. This bloom stimulator can be absorbed directly by the plant and it contributes to an explosive flower production. B’Cuzz Bloom Stimulator is available in the following sizes: 100 ml, 500 ml, 1 L and 5 L. Find out more information at a retailer near you.

Biobizz Try·Packs Each of the four Biobizz® Try·Packs™ consists of three 250-ml bottles of Biobizz® products. The combinations are: 1. Indoor·Pack: Bio·Grow®, Bio·Bloom™ and Top·Max™ 2. Outdoor·Pack: Fish·Mix™, Bio∙Bloom™ and Top∙Max™ 3. Stimulant∙Pack: Alg·A·Mic™, Top∙Max™ and Root∙Juice™ 4. Hydro∙Pack: Root∙Juice™, Top∙Max™ and Bio∙Heaven™ The four packs can be used on all kinds of substrates and mediums. The Indoor·Pack can be used from the beginning of the flowering phase on indoor crops. The Outdoor·Pack can also be used from the beginning of the flowering phase, but is more suitable for outdoor crops. The Stimulant∙Pack allows for an even better quality and quantity of a harvest. Finally, the Hydro·Pack results in a better harvest in hydroponic systems.

Growlush 600-W Programmable Digital Ballast The new Growlush 600-W Programmable Digital Ballast features the same quality, silent operation, dimming and super lumen functions as our previous silent, electronic ballasts, but adds the functionality of a built-in digital timer to manage your light schedule with down-to-the-minute accuracy, as well as a remote control option. Growlush ballasts feature low failure rates and are backed by a 3-year limited warranty and include safety features that include automatic shutdown in case of a short circuit, overheating or lamp failure. This modern, electronic ballast is up to 30% more energy efficient and can help to prolong lamp life by up to 10%. Additionally, users can seamlessly switch between MH and HPS bulbs and adjust light output on the fly from as little as 50% to as high as 110%. For more information, ask a local retailer.

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Maximum Yield | July/August 2013


Sun System Dominator XXXL Air-cooled Reflectors Sunlight Supply®, Inc. is excited to announce the arrival of the Dominator XXXL 15.24- and 20.32-cm Air-cooled Reflectors, the latest addition to the Sun System® reflector line. These new massive reflectors have increased coverage area and excellent uniformity. This allows closer placement to plants. These reflectors are completely sealed with double-gasketed glass and captured thumb screws that pull the glass frame tight for an airtight seal. As with all Sun System reflectors, they feature a 95% reflective German aluminum interior. Unmatched in output, uniformity and performance, you can’t afford to not have this reflector in your growroom. Visit a retailer near you for more information.

Maxibright Dual Spectrum CFL Lamps The complete range of Maxibright Compact Fluorescent Lamps has been expertly designed for every stage of plant growth. Energy efficient with low heat output, they are safe to place close to your plants to maximise light to your plants. The Maxibright CFL range comes in blue 6,400K for promoting vegetative growth and red 2,700K for flowering and is available in 125 W, 200 W, 250 W and 300 W. Simply interchange between lamps to suit your plant stage. A new addition to the range is the Maxibright Dual Spectrum CFL in 250 W, the latest in horticultural technology providing a perfect balance of red and blue light throughout the plant cycle to give you healthier, bulkier growth. For more information, visit your local retailer.

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

Maximize the Life of Bluelab pH Products It is extremely important to use, care for and store pH probes correctly. If they are not used correctly they may break or die prematurely. Never store, rinse or soak Bluelab pH Pens or pH Probes in reverse osmosis (RO), distilled or de-ionized water. Pure water changes the chemistry in the reference, causing the probe to die. Bluelab has created the perfect solution to maximise the response time and life of Bluelab pH products. Combine Bluelab pH Probe KCl Storage Solution with a Bluelab Probe Care Kit–pH and you will have the tools you need to get the best life from your pH products. Bluelab pH Probe KCl Storage Solution is ideal for use with the following Bluelab products: Bluelab pH Pen, Bluelab Soil pH Pen, Bluelab pH and soil pH Probes. Available in 100-ml bottles. For more information, visit a retail store near you.

Xtreme Gardening’s Mykostart

CANNA COCO Substrates Growing in coco is one of the most popular growing methods in the UK. Therefore, years ago, CANNA developed two different substrates: CANNA COCO Natural and CANNA Professional Plus. CANNA COCO Natural is an organic product free of harmful viruses or soil diseases. It has an excellent water/air system and provides the ideal circumstances for this cultivation method. This product is very lightly buffered, meaning you have more control over the buffering process and have more influence on the plant’s growth and bloom. CANNA COCO Professional Plus is a pure, organic product with a homogeneous structure. It is free of harmful viruses and soil diseases thanks to CANNA’s unique production process, and it is fully buffered. It also has a complex water/air system that provides the ideal conditions. Just like the Natural, CANNA COCO Professional Plus contains trichoderma that protect the plant. Visit your local grow store for more information about both products.

Mykostart All-purpose Plant Starter Paks are an efficient and easy method of feeding new transplants. Add to plant holes, backfill and remember to water; it’s that simple. Slow-release organic and natural fertilisers are combined with root-boosting mycorrhizae in a unique biodegradable pack that keeps nutrients in the root zone—right where they need to be. More nutrients near the roots mean more nutrients in the fruits. For more information, visit a local retailer.

Dutchpro’s Original Bloom Soil A+B Dutchpro’s award-winning Original Bloom Soil A+B is a complete bloom feed purposely designed for soil. This product has all of the essential macronutrients and micronutrients necessary for exuberant bloom. For fertiliser use mix 100 L of water with 200 or 300 ml of Original Bloom Soil, dependant on the desired EC level. Never mix components in pure form with each other. Instead add component A, water and then component B in equal parts (always rinsing the measuring cup well). Available in sizes ranging from 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 L. Dutchpro nutrients are stable and clear and contain organic elements to keep plants vital and green until the end of the cycle. For more information, ask for Dutchpro at your local retail store.

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X-Stream Aeroponic Propagator The X-Stream range of propagators have been trusted by growers for years, but based on feedback from the market they have been redeveloped to provide even better results with improved flexibility. With an improved delivery system, the roots that are produced are stronger and transplanting can happen in as little as 10 days. What’s more, the number of cutting sites has increased, with the original 36- and 105-site propagators replaced by a 40 and a 120 site, respectively. The range is completed by a 12- and 20-site propagator. The full range has been developed to provide even greater access to your cuttings and improved product rigidity. For more information, see a local retailer.

Ostberg Americas Announces the CK Series Fan The CK is an in-line duct fan that combines the benefits of a radial fan with high pressure and low noise levels along with ease of installation. This compact fan installs in any position. It is also compatible with speed controllers, is moisture-resistant for use in humid/ damp locations and is manufactured from heavy-gauge galvanized steel. The UL507 models are finished with a baked epoxy coating, and all models have standard auto-reset thermal overload protection. The CK series is UL listed, and comes with a 10-year limited warranty. For more information, visit a local retailer.

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

Dutchpro’s Leaf Green Dutchpro’s award-winning Leaf Green is used to achieve good leaf development in your garden. Leaf Green gives plants a healthy and vital look. It is especially recommended for plants that have noticeable difficulties with their development. It also gives plants with a yellowish discolouring a fresh green colour. Also use it for improving a plant’s nutrient uptake. Leaf Green is non-ammonia based and comes ready to use as a spray-on liquid. Spraying on the leaves should be done at least three hours before the lights go on. Available in sizes ranging from 1, 5, 10 and 20 L. Dutchpro nutrients are stable and clear and contain organic elements. For more information, ask a local retailer about Dutchpro products.

Tomato & Vegetable 6-2-3 Tomato & Vegetable 6-2-3 is a technologically advanced blend of natural and organic fertilisers with Mykos root-enhancing soil microbes. The unique combination of nutrients provides even the hungriest heirloom with all the necessary food for abundant growth, while the beneficial Mykos helps bridge the gap between roots and the nutrients present in the surrounding soil. Learn more at a retail store near you.

CANNA COCO After years of research, CANNA succeeded in being the first to develop a fertiliser specifically tailored to the characteristics of the coco substrate. The constant quality and same recipe (for years!) have proved to be a huge success in the UK! Thanks to the special characteristics of the CANNA COCO substrate, CANNA COCO does not have a Vega and Flores version. Instead, CANNA has developed one unique formulation for both the growth and flowering phase. CANNA COCO is easy to use, dissolves directly and is extremely suitable for growing in many watering systems. For more information about CANNA COCO fertilisers, please visit a shop near you.

Ostberg Americas Announces the RKB Series Fan Ostberg Americas, Inc. announces the RKB series in-line centrifugal duct fan. The RKB is a compact, high-capacity, rectangular centrifugal fan that can be installed in any position. This product is UL705 approved. The RKB connects to rectangular ducts, has backward curved impellers, is manufactured from galvanized steel and has a swing-out design for easy cleaning. It is also designed specifically for high pressures in long runs of ducting. This product is moistureproof, approved for outdoor use and has maintenance-free motors protected from overheating with built-in thermo contacts. Six sizes (up to 198 m3/min) are available. Visit an indoor gardening store to learn more.

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FloraKleen FloraKleen is a salt clearing solution from General Hydroponics that removes all fertiliser residues on all substrates at any time. FloraKleen is designed to rid the substrates in hydro systems and soil from fertiliser residues at any time of the culture cycle. It is used during growing, prior to a nutrition change for example, or between crops to clean systems and substrates from accumulated salts. It is used in hydroponics with any substrate, as well as in soil. Its high concentration and low price make FloraKleen the economical choice to protect your plants in both hydroponics and soil-based environments. Check a retail store near you for more information.

New Maxibright CFL Pro Reflectors Compact fluorescent lighting (CFL) is ideal for propagation and growing larger plants, giving you energy efficient and affordable lighting with low heat output. The new Maxibright CFL Pro Reflector uses highly reflective anodised aluminium for excellent light output and even light distribution across your plants for optimum growth. For durability in humid growing environments, the Maxibright CFL Pro is built with a powder-coated steel body to prevent rust and corrosion. The reflector body has a built-in power switch to give you easy power control. Available in single and twin models; the single will run one CFL lamp (max. 400 W) and the twin will run two CFL lamps (max. 800 W). Also, check out the latest Maxibright CFL range: red and blue 125 to 300 W, and the new dual spectrum 250 W. Contact your nearest Maxibright retailer for more information.

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&

Instrumentation Made Easy+

Troubleshooting by Dr. Lynette Morgan

A beginner’s u’ll need s yo t n e m u r t s in e h t o d n a guide t n e d r a g w e n ur to understand yoo when things what to d go wrong.

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“while an electronic weather station may be great for the garden in the backyard, its not much use being able to measure rainfall or wind speed in your grow room!”

Pesky insects—green peach aphid infesting plants is a common problem when troubleshooting for pests.

As exciting and delightful as a new indoor hydroponic garden can be for any hydroponic newbie, the vast assortment of instrumentation, equipment, tools and gadgets associated with the hobby can be a little overwhelming to anyone just starting out. Luckily, sticking to the basics is relatively simple and an investment in reliable instruments will make the hydroponic experience a whole lot more interesting and a little less dependent on good luck. Troubleshooting unexpected problems is another aspect of indoor gardening that may baffle newcomers. Plants are part of a biological system and biological systems are not always

predictable or trouble-free, although with an indoor garden most problems are not that difficult to deal with once you have a little experience under your belt. Pest and disease outbreaks are the most common frustrations, as the identification of culprits munching on plants or strange ‘furry or powdery’ growths on leaves tends to be the first troubleshooting experience for new growers.

Instrumentation: indoor gardens

The instrumentation required for an indoor hydroponic garden tends to be rather specific to the growing environment and system, so while an electronic weather station may be great for the garden in the backyard, it’s not much use being able to measure rainfall or wind speed in your grow room! Most hydroponic retailers have a great range of basic to advanced instrumentation that is specifically designed for indoor gardens, which will provide valuable and usually fairly easy-to-understand information. But while it’s great to have instruments that incorporate the latest and

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instrumentation made easy

Infrared thermometers are great tools for measuring leaf and solution temperatures.

ones will have to be moisture-proof as humidity in growing areas can cause havoc with electronic components. Instrumentation for indoor gardens doesn’t need to be complex; Other environmental monitoring instruments include light however, some tools for essential measurements such as light are meters—from basic handheld lux or foot candle meters always a good idea. to more advanced quantum (photosynthetically active radiation) meters with multiple sensors. Solution measurement is more specific to hydroponics and for the “Even beginners need to know what EC or ppm beginner a basic EC, CF greatest technology, every grower needs to understand and pH they should be running their solution or TDS meter—all of which measure the conthe basics about what they are at and how to adjust these levels, along with centration of nutrients in measuring and why, as well all the other growing basics—like the ideal solution—is essential. EC, as what the optimum values they should be checking for temperatures, humidity and light levels their CF and TDS meters come in a full range of different are. Even beginners need to plants require to thrive.” makes and models and know what EC or ppm and pH hydroponic retailers can they should be running their advise you on the best type solution at and how to adjust for growers. It’s also easy to measure pH, with a range of difthese levels, along with all the other growing basics—like ferent methods available, from inexpensive test strips or kits the ideal temperatures, humidity and light levels their plants sold by aquarium suppliers to electronic meters—you can require to thrive. even get combined EC, TDS and pH electronic meters.

Instrumentation for beginners

The basics of instrumentation don’t need to be complicated: just a few simple tools are essential—solution measurement devices, environmental monitoring tools and growing aids. Growing aids include tools like a hand lens or magnifying glass to check for tiny little critters such as mites, which can turn into serious plant infestations if not identified and controlled. Environmental monitoring tools can be as simple as a greenhouse temperature gauge. These can range from old-fashioned spirit thermometers to detailed digital temperature gauges with multiple probes, although the newfangled

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Why so many different instrumentation units?

One aspect of instrumentation many beginners (and often many experienced growers, too!) find incredibly frustrating is the range of different units used for measurement. For example, light can be measured and expressed as visible light—which is how the human eye experiences it (as lux, lumens, foot candles or watts per square meter or square foot), or by using quantum sensors (PAR meters), which measure plant-usable wavelengths of light in micromoles per m 2/s -1, or daily light integral in moles per day.


Solution concentration might be measured in CF, EC or TDS as ppm (parts per million), temperature in degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit and even the amount of moisture held in the air can be recorded as either relative humidity or vapour pressure deficit. It’s important to find out the exact units of measurement your instruments are calibrated for (particularly before you buy them) and then find out what the optimum values are for your garden in those same units. One measurement all growers should know about is EC, or the electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution, which is a measure of the concentration of dissolved salts in that solution. These dissolved salts conduct electricity, so an EC measure is an accurate way of determining concentration levels. EC is the pre-

“EC is the preferred unit of measurement for hydroponics—meters that give readings in ppm are not actually measuring parts per million, but measuring EC and then using an inbuilt, approximate conversion factor to give a reading in ppm.” ferred unit of measurement for hydroponics—meters that give readings in ppm are not actually measuring parts per million, but measuring EC and then using an inbuilt, approximate conversion factor to give a reading in ppm. This conversion factor is slightly different for different nutrient solution compositions, so it’s only an approximation. Investing in a meter that can display both EC and ppm is a great idea for growers who are familiar with ppm values but want to get accustomed to using EC as well. Conversion factors between the different units of measure for light, solution concentration and temperature can be used, but who wants to do that sort of math on a daily basis? Instead, know your instrumentation units of measure and find out what the optimal level is for your indoor garden. Once you have some experience with the basics of instrumentation its time to amp it up a bit and get a little more technically advanced in the garden. There are instruments that can give you a huge amount of data on the environment the plants are growing in, such as the solution’s composition, elemental and dissolved oxygen levels and a whole range of other factors—although all this may send a grower into information overload if it can’t be processed usefully and implemented to improve plant performance.

Troubleshooting growing conditions can be vital—cool night temperatures have caused this fruit deformity on a tomato truss.

Leaf yellowing, in this case interveinal chlorosis caused by magnesium deficiency, is just one of the symptoms of nutrient disorders. Maximum Yield | July/August 2013

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instrumentation made easy

Some of the most useful instrumentation for more experienced or technologically advanced growers includes dissolved oxygen (O2) meters for those with solution culture systems. Meters that measure total oxygen ppm and percentage of oxygen saturation are great tools for checking oxygen levels in your solution culture nutrient. Another great device is the electronic controller for larger automated systems, which measures and adjusts EC and pH all by itself while you are away from the garden. For really keen hydroponic growers there are even nutrient analysis systems for measuring individual elements in the nutrient on-site—which means no waiting time for analysis results to come back from the lab.

One such photometer hydroponic analysis instrument allows NO3, NH4, P, K, Ca, Mg and S in the nutrient solution to be measured directly by the grower. For those who love indoor tomatoes, a handheld or electronic brix (TDS) meter is a fun tool to measure sugars in the fruit, giving you a way to measure the overall ‘sweetness’ value of your tomatoes.

What are they called?

Here’s a list of instruments commonly used for indoor gardening: not all are essential and some are more highly specialized and geared towards the ‘hydro-geeks’ among us…

Measurement

Instrument(s)

Nutrient solution concentration

Plant stress/health

Electrical conductivity meter (EC meter) Conductivity meter (CF meter) TDS meter (total dissolved solids) ppm (parts per million) Electronic pH meter (pH range four to nine) pH test strips (colour change pH range often five to nine) pH liquid test kits (pH range often five to nine) Portable CO2 monitor (ppm of CO2) Infrared gas analyser (IRGA) Hygrometer (relative humidity percentage) Dry-and wet-bulb instrument or psychrometer Refractometer: manual (also called Brix meter) Refractometer: digital (Brix degrees) Photometer (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S in mg/l or ppm) Individual ion meters (cardy nitrate meter) Thermometer in °C or °F, digital or spirit Infrared thermometer for surfaces or solution temperatures Submersible thermometer (solution temperatures) DO meter (dissolved oxygen ppm and percentage of saturation) Quantum light meter (PAR measures plant usable wavelengths as micromoles m2/s-1) Photometric light meter (foot candles, lux, watts) Chlorophyll meter

Pest identification

Hand lens, macroscope, IPM scope

pH

CO2 (carbon dioxide) Humidity Brix (total soluble solids, fruit) Individual ions Temperature

Oxygen in solution Light

Troubleshooting

While instruments for measuring, monitoring and adjusting things in an indoor garden are valuable tools, some troubleshooting skills are going to be required by all growers sooner or later. Hydroponic problems tend to fall into five general categories: those caused by the environment (too hot, cold,

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shaded, humid or dry; not enough carbon dioxide, oxygen, air movement or ventilation), those caused by the nutrient solution (nutrient balance issues or incorrect EC/TDS/pH), those caused by unwelcome intruders (insects, viruses, fungi, bacteria), those caused by system faults (over or underwatering, for example) or those caused by grower error or inexperience— which of course might be the root cause of all of these issues.


While this may seem a little daunting, most beginners are able to enjoy a relatively trouble-free experience with their indoor garden once good control over the environment, plant nutrition and general plant growth has been established. The basics of troubleshooting start with knowing what a healthy plant should look like and then checking regularly for anything unusual. Important points to remember are: •

Symptoms showing on the tops of the plants—stunting or wilting, for example—may be due to a problem with the roots. Always check root health when troubleshooting vague symptoms.

Wilting may not be due to a lack of water—wilting can occur when the plant has been overwatered, if temperatures are too high, if the roots have been damaged and can’t take up water or if there is not enough oxygen in the root zone.

Be careful what you kill—not all microbes and insects are harmful; in fact, most are not. The ‘kill everything and be super-sterile’ approach is now seen as an old-fashioned idea when it comes to indoor gardens. Biodiversity— even with an indoor garden—is generally a good thing. There are beneficial insects that prey on insect pests and there are microbes such as fungi and bacteria that not only protect plants but play a role in nutrient uptake and plant health and protection. Some of these are naturally-occurring; some can be introduced with the use of commercially available products.

Instruments for measuring dissolved oxygen in nutrient solutions are sometimes used by growers with solution culture systems.

“Be careful what you kill—not all microbes and insects are harmful; in fact, most are not.” Some of the more common problems beginners may encounter are described briefly. There are many great books and Internet sources available should you require more detail on any of these issues. Powdery deposits are a sign of powdery mildew, a fungal disease of many indoor plants. Maximum Yield | July/August 2013

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instrumentation made easy

General poor growth: Young plants are yellowed or pale, stunted and refusing to grow:

While there are many causes of this, the most likely one is overwatering (it is possible to overwater plants in hydroponics and it’s a common problem with inexperienced growers, particularly in moisture-retentive substrates such as coco fiber). Overwatering may also encourage the root rot pathogen Pythium (check for brown, disintegrating root systems).

Insects on plants: Caterpillars chewing holes, whiteflies fluttering around the tops of plants, tiny black thrips (which also cause bronzing of leaves), tiny red insects (mites) creating speckled leaves, white waxy scaly insects on plants or roots (mealy bugs), twisted foliage on peppers (aphid feeding damage) and many more insect-related issues are all possible problems. Using a pest identification book or website is the first step, followed by applying the recommended control agent or spray.

Plants becoming very tall and stretched with pale, thin foliage and lack of productivity: You can blame this on low light levels, which is far more common in indoor gardens than high light levels, which can sometimes occur in outdoor crops and greenhouses in summer. Most beginners underestimate how much light their plants need (it may look bright to the human eye, but be far too low in intensity for a tomato!) and they also tend to cram far too many plants into a small area. The resulting competition for light results in tall stretched plants and low yields. Beginners should seek advice from horticultural lighting specialists about exactly how many lamps they need for the number of plants they want to grow and then check light levels on a regular basis because light levels fall as bulbs age.

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This is characterised by small plants, slow rates of development, a failure to set fruit and flowers dropping off. Environmental issues are often the cause of these sorts of problems. Most fruiting plants such as tomatoes and peppers need a day and night temperature differential for strong flowering and fruit set and in fact most plants benefit from day to night differentials. Having average night temperatures run lower than day temperatures promotes stronger growth and improved flowering. For example, tomatoes have an optimum temperature of 25 to 26.11°C during the day and 20 to 21.67°C at night. When night temperatures are the same as day temperatures or higher, flowering problems become more common. Capsicums are even more sensitive to day and night temperature differences than tomatoes. If overall temperatures are too hot or too cold for the species of plant being grown then the plants won’t produce happily. (It pays to research the ideal temperatures for growth).

“Most fruiting plants such as tomatoes and peppers need a day and night temperature differential for strong flowering and fruit set and in fact most plants benefit from day to night differentials.”

Solution troubleshooting: Provided a clean, high-quality water source is used and recommended rates of nutrients applied, nutrient solutions are fairly reliable in small indoor gardens. Growers using city water may need to be wary of water treatment chemicals such as chloramines and chloride, which can harm sensitive young plants and of hard water, which may create lime scale on pumps and equipment. Water softeners can also create problems as many use sodium in the softening process, which is an unwanted element that builds up in hydroponic systems. If you are experiencing these problems, rainwater collection or the use of small RO (reverse osmosis units) are a good solution.


The root disease Pythium is often the subject of troubleshooting by beginner growers

Furry growths, powdery deposits or slime on leaves are all symptoms of disease: Furry, fluffy and powdery deposits are usually fungal in nature while wet, slimy and rotting spots are characteristic of bacterial infections. Treatment sprays are very effective; however, it’s important to read the spray product labels to check which disease is controlled by which product.

‘Just plain weird’ problems: Sometimes troubleshooting is difficult, even for experts with decades of experience. If really weird plant afflictions are a problem, the best remedy is to remove affected plants and dispose of them quickly to prevent any spread. There are many viruses that cause strange plant symptoms as well as genetic abnormalities that may be impossible to identify, so removal is usually the safest option. MY

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THINK INSIDE THE POT Container Gardening & Design Tap into your creativity and design a container garden that suits your style, is the envy of your friends and neighbours, and looks good all summer long.

Wander around any garden centre or nursery and you are not likely to bypass the large container section. It is here that the terracotta, stone, wood and slate pots, troughs, mangers and stands are displayed. They all look good—the matching colours, sizes and designs are available in antique and modern styles. Some argue that matching containers look better than a rag bag motley collection of old containers that are more reminiscent of a car boot or garage sale. However, I council against throwing out the old or taking them down to the recycling centre— although that is an option that might help others in need. If you grow trailers (these are climbers without support like Hedera and clematis) they will quickly cover all the surfaces, and as long as keep them clean, they will do the trick and also will look pleasant. It would be nice if we could always start a new season with a matching designer collection of containers, but in reality we acquire our containers. Mom and dad present you with one; your friends think you would like one for Christmas; you spot a flowering container and add it to your collection because ins k t a you liked the plants in it. All in all you probably have about a W dozen assorted containers. Go on, count them up: two hanging by Dave

“I suggest always having an odd number of same containers on hand because odd numbers work well together.” baskets, one half basket on the fence, three stone urns, terracotta trough with matching giant flower pots and so on it goes. I suggest always having an odd number of the same container on hand because odd numbers work well in design. This is unless your look is strictly formal. What, apart from the material it is made of, makes a good container? The compost has to be free draining yet able to hold on to moisture and nutrients. The compost also should have an air filled porosity of 20%. Air filled porosity, or AFP, is the amount of air in the compost. So, how much of the bulk is air? The air 40

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content is a lot more important than most gardeners realise. With a container it is all too easy to compact compost. Look at a container that has been standing for two or three years. It looks as if it has shrunk. The sides of the compost are usually pulled away and the level has dropped from the top. So much so that when it is watered it runs straight down the sides and out of the container, hardly adding any moisture to the compost at all. It is compacted and over time has dried out too many times. Another rule to practice is regularly top dressing or even replanting in fresh, soil-based compost is essential. The full potential of the display will be realised and make it worthwhile when the neighbour asks why yours looks better than hers. The compost can be soil- based or soilless and should be ideal for all displays apart from acid lovers like heathers, ferns and dwarf conifers. Soil-based composts add weight, which prevents wind from blowing the displays over and acts as a benign barrier to hold on to water and nutrients. Add some moisture retaining material—either moss, gel or even waste substitutes. These will act as reservoirs, releasing moisture as the plants need it. Slow release feed is a great standard option and I also recommend using a boost feed at the start of flowering. A foliar feed will be more useful as long as you do it when watering in My ideal container is a 30-cm fuchsia the early morning “Regularly top dressing mossed-up basket, marinka around the sides or in the evening. of even replanting with blue lobelias using fuchsia Winston Watering at any in fresh soil-based Churchill as the king plant in the middle. other time and you compost is essential.” The new giant fuchsias also make a beautiful may run the risk display, with just three young plants filling a of water spots and 30-cm basket easily. burn marks. When selecting the plants for your containers think of how Another rule to abide by is when you have planted up the you view them. Do you want to be able to look down on your container always put some seed on top; it will develop and plants, like verbena? If so put them in low tubs. Do they look fill in as the original slows down, thus keeping that fresh look better from a height like trailing busy Lizzie? If so place them longer into the season. in half baskets and hang them at eye level. Planting in containers is a very personal thing. Your baskets Don’t feel like you must always group containers side-byand tubs will inevitably reflect your choices in colour and side. Explore design using them in a waterfall scheme to style. Many gardeners will use every colour under the sun achieve height and impact. Progressive larger pots, one inside in a fine mixed basket; others will stick to just a one colour another, will clothe quickly and be easier to water and feed, theme. Both are acceptable as long as it looks right to you as well as look great as columns on a patio. when your plants are fully grown.

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When we are considering how to improve our crops, one of our main concerns is that we want them to taste absolutely fantastic— sweet or tart, but never bland. To better understand the science behind this, let’s examine what it is that the roots actually take up. For example, if we want our fruits or veggies to taste sweeter, we might think that we should add sugar to our nutrient formulations—but would this actually work?

Providing an optimal supply of all the nutrients plants require is the best way to ensure good flavour. What these nutrients are and what level is optimal is the question—let’s take sulphur, for example. Sulphur is especially important, as it forms organic compounds within the plant that ultimately contribute to the flavour of the crops produced. Some soils are deficient in sulphur and you can address this by adding organic material like compost. Potting soil is generally rich in organic material, but the level of available sulphur can vary greatly.

“Sulfur is a structural subcomponent of amino acids, proteins and many micronutrients and is essential to the production of chlorophyll.”

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organoleptic quality

Adding straight elemental sulphur has negative trade-offs and this form of sulphur is extremely slow in becoming useful for your plants. When too much sulphur is added to a soil the pH can become too low— most plants prefer a pH of between 5.5 and 6. If you are growing tomatoes, the optimum pH for that plant is slightly higher, around 6.5 to 6.8. Sulphur is a structural subcomponent of amino acids, proteins and many micronutrients and is essential to the production of chlorophyll. Magnesium sulphate, for instance, is a chemical compound containing magnesium, sulphur and oxygen: MgSO4. Epsom salts are a form of this compound and are often used in nutrient formulas to promote rose blooms. Many of the micronutrients your plants need are delivered in this sulphate form in order to make them more available to the plant for uptake and also to add sulphur as a flavour enhancer. Sulphur is not very mobile within the plant and a lack of sulphur can be responsible for a number of plant health issues: poor photosynthesis, poor nitrogen fixation in legumes, poor conversion of nitrates into ammonium and proteins, and retarded formation of storage proteins in developing seeds. We apply lots of potassium to our plants in order to keep them strong, but this nutrient actually exacerbates sulphur loss. Stunted plants and uneven crop development are often the result of low sulphur levels, which can aggravate nitrate toxicity as well. The visual symptoms of a sulphur deficiency can look like general chlorosis— similar to a nitrogen deficiency—except the young leaves stay yellow over time and leaflet yellowing is general and uniform rather than varying throughout.

Plant roots take sulphur up as sulphate—this is another reason why the best way to apply sulphur to the soil is in the form of sulphates. Copper sulphate, ferrous sulphate, manganese sulphate (not to be confused with magnesium) and zinc sulphate are all excellent nutrient supplements to enhance flavour in your veggies. Sulphur is as important to a plant as nitrogen. Most growers pay plenty of attention to nitrogen for their crops, but don’t realise that sulphur is essential in order for plants to be able to use that nitrogen— without sulphate amino acids, proteins can’t be built and plants won’t grow. Sulphur content is lost by leaching from the soil and through anaerobic volatilisation, which happens when soil is kept too wet and insufficient oxygen is available. Because both nitrogen and sulphur are building blocks of proteins, an insufficiency of either one will cause a shortage

“Copper sulfate, ferrous sulfate, manganese sulfate (not to be confused with magnesium) and zinc sulfate are all excellent nutrient supplements to enhance flavour in your veggies.” of chlorophyll, which will in turn result in the plant being unable to convert sunlight into energy. A lack of sulphur or nitrogen will also cause an inadequate supply of the enzyme rubisco, which changes carbon dioxide into sugar. It sounds odd, but if you want really sweet veggies you’ll have to make sure they’re getting enough sulphur in their diet! Good soils are actually full of life—the unseen microbial organisms in the soil are responsible for the continued good health of your plants. The release of organic sulphur from soil humus is very slow and its benefit to plants is limited—mineralisation is where sulphur is converted by these beneficial microbes to plant-accessible sulphates. Here is where a potential conflict can get started. Too much straight elemental sulphur is antibacterial and can actually sterilise the soil to a degree— elemental sulphur is often used to sterilise injuries

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on succulents in order to halt the development of disease. So, even though you need to have a good level of sulphur in your soil, you also need to be very careful about over-application or you will undo the very process that you want to occur—mineralisation. Poor organic matter, soil humus and low microbial activity (common with pH levels that are either too low or too high) will decrease the amount of sulphur available to your plants. Using a nutrient formula with plenty of pre-mineralised sulphates is one safe way to deal with this conundrum. Elemental sulphur can only be plant-available after a long breakdown period (often several years). In order to produce sulphuric acid, elemental sulphur requires an initial phase of microbial oxidation. The micro-organisms that produce this elemental sulphur oxidation need most of the same nutrients that the plants need, plus a few more. The oxidising bacteria are mostly aerobic—which means they need plenty of soil oxygen in order to stay healthy and reproduce. When you water your plants too often you create soil with insufficient oxygen, which can definitely impede this vital process. The breakdown of elemental sulphur is a slow process even under ideal conditions. The primary minerals—calcium, sulphur, manganese, magnesium, copper, iron, boron and zinc—are in general all players in the quest for superior taste. Finding a plant nutrient that provides these in sulphate form can be a real game changer if you are interested in maximising organoleptic (taste) quality and plant health while keeping the process of growing as simple as possible. Indoor grows are often done in potting soils—while rich in organic matter, these soils also exhibit rapid draining characteristics and this can make them susceptible to sulphur deficiency. Keeping your soil microbes alive and healthy is one way to help this organic matter convert to sulphates. Complete soil tests can give you an idea of the amount of sulphur that is available for your plants, but it is still generally difficult to determine how much additional sulphur is needed—regular additions of mineral sulphates can be another way to keep ahead of this issue. Find and use a plant nutrient formula that provides a complete spectrum of nutrients, including micronutrients—if you can also find one that uses the sulphate form of the micronutrients, you will be on your way to a bettertasting crop.

“It sounds odd, but if you want really sweet veggies you’ll have to make sure they’re getting enough sulfur in their diet!”

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Reverse Osmosis by Jennifer Casey

How to Get the Most out of Your RO System Pure water is as important for your plants as it is for you—find out how to use a reverse osmosis filter to get the most out of your garden and learn how to extend the life of your filter membranes at the same time…

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Reverse osmosis isn’t a new idea in the world of hydroponic gardening—pure water is an integral part of any hydroponic system and most growers are aware of the need for water that’s free of contaminants. If you’re new to hydroponics or you have questions about water purification, though, then read on for a complete breakdown of reverse osmosis in layman’s terms. First, let’s take a minute to examine why we need pure water. Since ‘hydroponics’ means growing plants in water without the use of soil, then it makes sense that the quality of the water you employ should be good. Pure water is also an integral part of soil gardening, so chemicals and other contaminants detrimental to the health of your plants whether you grow hydroponically or traditionally. The water you give your plants should be the best you can make it. I say ‘make it’ because you can control the contaminants in your water—you don’t have to be stuck with that chemical tap flow from the municipality or the sludge in your well. The nutrient feed formula you give your plants is based on a measure of parts per million, which indicates how many parts of nutrients there “The stuff present in are per milyour water is also often lion parts of not only non-nutritious, water—we’ll but might actually be refer to this measurement toxic to your plants.” as ‘ppm’ from here on. When your water comes out of the tap it already has a ppm measurement that must be accounted for before adding nutrients. This means that if you already have 300 ppm water you’ll have to decrease the nutrients you administer by that number to avoid overloading your plants. This is a problem, though—because now your plants are getting fewer nutrients because of the non-nutritious crap that is present in your water source. The stuff present in your water is also often not only non-nutritious, but might actually be toxic to your plants.

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reason plants like algae don’t grow in swimming pools and hot tubs. You’d probably never consider using pool water for your plants, but city water straight from the tap is really just a milder version of the same stuff! Although some wells are ‘shocked’ with chlorine, generally well water users don’t have to worry as much about chlorine or chloramines—but calcium and magnesium are often found in much higher levels in well water. Additionally, contaminants such as cadmium, arsenic, boron, manganese, hydrogen sulfide (for that just-peeled egg aroma) and iron can be present in levels that are not only toxic to plants, but to the human body as well. Some of these substances— though more common to wells—are found in your tap water too, as municipalities “The calcium and magnesium found naturally in water... don’t have the means to is present in the form of large blocky particles that bind remove them. against the roots of your plants and can cause nutrient

Calcium and magnesium—minerals found in almost all water—are important nutrients for both plants and the human body. The calcium and magnesium found naturally in water, however, is present in the form of large blocky particles that bind against the roots of your plants and can cause nutrient lockout—basically, the particles crowd up against the roots and don’t allow any of the good stuff to get through. While this sounds dramatic, it’s not even the worst news about your water supply—chlorine or chloramines are also generally added to your water by your local municipality in order to kill bacteria and render the water safe for drinking. Unfortunately, these substances are great at killing plants as well and are the

lockout—basically, the particles crowd up against the roots and don’t allow any of the good stuff to get through.” Now that I have you good and worried, let’s talk about how an RO system can rid your water of these nasty contaminants so you can have a healthy garden. Water purifiers for your garden come in two types: dechlorinators and reverse osmosis systems. The difference is an extra filtration step in the RO systems. Dechlorinators employ two steps of filtration, the first being a sediment filter that traps large particles and keeps them from causing the next step/filter from getting clogged up. Sediment filters can usually be rinsed and reused regularly before their annual replacement. The next step in filtration is the carbon filter, which removes chlorine from the water—if your municipality uses chloramines, you’ll want to use a special KDF carbon filter. Chloramine is a chlorine molecule bonded with an ammonia molecule. This chemical is used in place of chlorine because it lasts longer in the water and won’t bubble out and evaporate like chlorine will. Good for water treatment, but bad for your plants! For simple dechlorinators this is where it ends—chlorine, chloramines and sediment are removed and water is improved. Ppm will not be greatly affected. If your water was under 150 ppm out of the tap, this might be enough filtration for your plants. However, if your ppm if higher than 150, if you have any funky contaminants in your water or if you simply want the purest water for your garden, an RO system is what you need. This is where the membrane comes in. In RO, a membrane looks like a plastic cylinder with a hole in either end. It’s called a membrane because the process of osmosis is actually

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the diffusion of water through a membrane, which is a barrier with small openings—or pores—that only lets certain things through. The cell walls of organisms (like humans and plants) are membranes and allow certain substances through but lock others out. Our skin is a membrane that lets some things in but keeps things like bacteria out. An RO membrane works the same way—it’s composed of a super-thin sheet of polymer punctured with tiny holes. By tiny I mean 1/1,000th of a micron, the perfect size for a water molecule to pass through. The sheet of polymer is then rolled up to create layer after layer. When the water is directed into the membrane, it has to diffuse through all these layers, meaning every single water molecule of purified water has to go through hundreds of these tiny openings. It’s like an exclusive night club—the bouncer only lets the right kind of molecules past the velvet rope. If you have used an RO system, you might have been surprised that the water didn’t come out immediately and with as much volume as it went in. Well, now you know why— it’s been waiting in line to get in to the club! It takes time for the good water to pass through the membrane molecule by molecule and the rest passes out of the membrane as waste water. People new to the process of RO are often surprised by the waste water factor; that is, the amount of unpurified water that remains for each measure of pure water. Most systems are built to support a ratio of three parts waste water to one

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part pure water—they are built this way because this ratio best supports the life of the membrane. Bear with me while I extend the nightclub metaphor—some molecules just don’t make it into the club. Calcium, magnesium and various other contaminants won’t get past the bouncer. This also helps explain why so much waste water is necessary. It’d be nice if these contaminants simply left, but they’re stub“If you have hard water, a born and water softener is also an kind of excellent way to preserve belligerent your membranes.” and they need to be forced to leave. The bouncer turns them away at the door, but then they hang around causing trouble, so good water molecules have to wash them away to make them go. The contaminants are stubborn and want to hang around the door fighting with the bouncer. The more waste water there is, the easier it is on your membrane (bouncer). Should you choose to use a flow restrictor to reduce your waste water there won’t be as much waste water to help wash those contaminants away and you may decrease the lifespan of your membrane. Damage to your membrane can happen in one of two ways: it can become either ‘fouled’ or ‘corroded.’ When contaminants build up in the membrane they won’t allow any other molecules through those tiny pores—effectively shutting down the club—or they might actually smash right through the opening, enlarging it and rendering it an ineffective barrier. Basically, they take out the bouncer and then anything can get in. In the former case, the membrane becomes clogged up—this is called fouling or saturating the membrane— and it will cause a dramatic decrease in your flow rate. Where there was a healthy stream there will only be a trickle, because those water molecules can’t get through. Should you neglect to change your carbon prefilter, you will have the opposite problem—as the chlorine that is now getting through your tired carbon filter will enlarge the openings and ‘corrode’ the membrane. Now

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the flow rate will actually increase, which seems great—until a ppm reading reveals that your rejection rate has decreased and you are no longer getting clean water. Either of these two things might have happened when it’s time to change your membrane, but restricting your waste water might mean that they have happened sooner rather than later because you are concentrating the water and you might be going through membranes a bit more quickly than before. If saving water is of primary importance this could be a may be a good trade, but individual needs vary from person to person. When considering how to best extend the life of your membrane, it’s good to recognize that this fouling/corroding issue also depends on what’s actually in your water. If your water is very high in chlorine or chloramines, corroding will be the main issue. If your water has iron or very high mineral content, then fouling will occur. In both cases, proper prefiltration can help preserve your membranes. Finding out what’s in the water by getting a water test or checking with your local water treatment center will help you to choose the right prefilter, such as a KDF —or, in the presence of iron, a philox filter. If you have hard water, a water softener is also an excellent way to preserve your membranes. It works by exchanging hardness (minerals) for salt, which doesn’t sound too plant-friendly—but salt is actually the ideal contaminant for RO to remove. It doesn’t get in the club but takes the rejection politely, leaving your membrane intact and still able to perform its job. It’s a good idea to explore what’s in your water. Start by finding the website of your local municipality or by doing an Internet search of your area and its water content. Your local hydro store is also an excellent resource—the employees there know all about what’s in the local water and can guide you to the product that will work best for you. And when you do get your RO system, be sure to change those prefilters to protect your membrane and save money. Once you start using pure water in your garden, the difference will amaze you!


Amino Acids Explained

Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and without these tiny organic compounds, life as we know it could not exist. Here’s how it all works… by Eric Hopper

A plant’s metabolism is a combination of complex physical and chemical events, including photosynthesis, respiration and the degradation and synthesis of organic compounds. Photosynthesis is the driving force that produces the substrates for respiration and the organic compounds used as the foundation for the biosynthesis of nucleic acids, amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and organic acids. When a plant is provided with optimal environmental and nutritional conditions, it produces its own amino acids, which serve as the building blocks of all proteins. Amino acids are organic compounds with an amino (-NH2) and a carboxylic acid group (-COOH), and they are required for plant functions throughout the plant’s entire life cycle.

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Amino acids are used for the synthesis of cellular molecules including chlorophyll, enzymes, proteins and vitamins. In other words, amino acids are required for virtually every plant function and life on earth would not exist without them. Amino acids play a vital role at the beginning of a plant’s life. During the germination process, an embryo will consume amino acids derived from proteins stored in the endosperm. Amino acids affect the plant’s metabolism in many ways. Amino acids are directly linked to vital plant functions, including the synthesis of structural proteins, contributing to the formation of phytohormones (auxins, ethylene, polyamines, etc.) and the regulation of water balance (particularly in times of stress). Amino

acids can also act as chelators of the essential nutrients required for normal plant development. So, if plants produce their own amino acids, why do horticulturists supplement additional amino acids? Plants grown in perfect conditions will create enough amino acids on their own to function properly; however, most plants are not grown in perfect conditions. When a plant is grown in less than desirable conditions, the amount of amino acids created can be hindered, which will result in slowed growth and reduced yields. In extreme cases, plants can actually break down structural proteins in order to obtain the essential amino acids. This activity requires a lot of energy that would otherwise be used to promote more


pathogens because a plant’s immune system’s functions are reliant on amino acids. With readily available amino acids, the plant’s immune system can work full tilt continuously.

Types of amino acids

growth or root stimulation. All this causes less than desirable results for the grower. By supplementing an amino acid formula, the grower can ensure their plants are receiving an adequate amount of amino acids—to which the benefits are multifaceted. Even in a room with a consistent environment and steady plant growth there are benefits to supplementing amino acids. The main advantage is heightened efficiency in terms of plant energy. The fewer amino acids a plant has to produce, the more energy it can redirect into growth. There is also an increase in the speed of growth because the supplemented amino acids are readily available. This allows the plant’s metabolism to continually function at high speed (there’s no having to wait for the plant to synthesis its own amino acids). Additional amino acids also give extra protection against

There are two types of amino acids: D-form and L-form. The D-form amino acids are larger molecules that cannot be used by plants. This is why any amino acid formula designed for horticultural use should be comprised mostly, if not entirely, of L-form amino acids. L-form amino acids, in the free form or in formation with small peptides, can be absorbed and used by plants. One process used by fertiliser companies to extract amino acids is the use of strongly acidic or alkaline solutions to extract the amino acids. Another method used to extract amino acids is an enzymatic hydrolysis extraction process. Whether you’re a novice or professional grower, the benefits of amino acid supplementation can be reaped by all. Some growers use them to optimise their already bountiful gardens, while others utilise them as a safeguard to stress and pathogens. Either way, as we learn more about the microscopic world and how it directly influences our garden’s performance, amino acid supplementation’s role will be significant in the future of organic nutrient composition and plant nutrition.

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g n i z a m A

Aloe:

Beat the Burn With Nature’s

Natural Nurse by Heather Brautman

Before beating a quick path to the closest beach, lake or apartment-complex pool, it’s become second nature to fill a bag with the essentials: bottled water, a steamy novel, floaties for the kids and sun block. However, even the most organized protected person can get hit with sunburn. Fortunately, there’s a cheap, completely natural salve close at hand…

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Aloe vera—or simply “aloe”—is thought to have first sprouted seed in northern Africa, but has furthered its roots around the globe to India, Central America, Australia, the Caribbean and the southern United States. According to the Arizona Cooperative Extension, aloe vera has been used medicinally for 6,000 years. The University of Maryland Medical Center states that aloe was one of the most frequently used prescriptions during the 18th and 19th centuries. It’s long since moved out from behind the pharmacy counter and onto the shelves (chances are it’s also freely propagating in a garden near you).

How it works

Aloe is 99% water, and the rest is made up of the important parts that directly affect human healing.”

Even if you’ve never broken off a leaf and spread the thin, viscous, clear liquid over a recent burn, you’re probably aware that the “lifeblood” of an aloe vera plant can cool and heal burns, blisters, scratches and scrapes. Aloe is 99% water, and the rest is made up of the important parts that directly affect human healing. Within that remaining 1%, there are polysaccharides (which help skin grow) and glycoproteins (which suppress pain and inflammation, kickstart the healing process). Union County College offers two ways you can take advantage of aloe vera’s beneficial sap. First, you can try going old school by simply breaking off a leaf and let the liquid run across the burn or itchy area. Or you can boil up something more potent by brewing up the plant’s dried sap and use it— after cooling the liquid—as a wash-out for wounds.

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Amazing Aloe Of course, aloe is so prevalent these days that it’s possible to completely skip the homegrown route entirely—whether it’s because you have a black thumb or simply prefer to let someone else do the work. You can find aloe vera extract everywhere. A short trip to a drugstore, pharmacy or holistic health store will reveal aloe vera in lotion, tincture, face wash, ointment and other products.

Paging Dr. Aloe While some non-believers could toss claims about aloe’s “super powers” as bunk, holistic practitioners have touted its benefits for ailments such as diabetes, radiation-related mucositis, epilepsy and amenorrhea. Aloe, as mentioned above, is proven to work on burns. (The latter is according to Wilkes University, where practitioners cited aloe’s “beneficial effects for treating epidermal and superficial disorders and wounds”). University of Maryland cites some interesting statistics about use of aloe on minor burns: In one study, burns that were dressed with aloe healed completely in less than 16 days, compared to the 19-day recovery period of those treated with silver sulfadiazine (the traditional medication prescribed by physicians). Maryland also noted that aloe’s benefits extend to other ailments, as it aided sufferers of genital herpes and psoriasis with anti-inflammatory effects that bested hydrocortisone cream.

Grow your own

burns that were dressed with aloe healed completely in less than 16 days, compared to the 19-day recovery period of those treated with silver sulfadiazine.”

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Aloe vera could be called “easy vera,” as it is one of the most low-maintenance plants you’ll shepherd through your garden. Aloe vera plants require very little water and thrive best in direct sunlight. This plant doesn’t ask for much. A simple potting mix with perlite, grit or sand will serve as a fine home. The Arizona Cooperative Extension notes that even cactus mix soil will work for the aloe vera plant. Make sure the plant’s new “home” has a drainage hole and only water when the soil is dry. Also, while these plants don’t quite enjoy “chilling out,” you can easily move them in from the frost and back out when the sun begins to blaze again. Aloe vera plants make a lush addition to your garden, even if you don’t plan to break off a leaf or two. When the plants mature, you’ll have uniform light green color with fronds that extend up to 1.21 m in length. Just be careful with the soft, but prickly spines around the edges. Invest in your aloe plants and they’ll reward you with a stalk bearing cylindrical yellow flowers in a rosette shape. If you do plan to use your aloe plant for healing purposes, don’t worry that breaking off a leaf will destroy the plant or cause necrosis to set in.


Stem wounds and broken roots heal themselves (most successfully under shady conditions). When you’re ready to buy your seedlings or cuttings, you’ll find them online through a variety of sellers, from massive mass merchandisers to specialty succulent shops. You can also venture out and buy from local nurseries, where you might even get advice on planting and supporting your new in-house first aid. The biggest key to avoiding disappointment (i.e., discovering something you’ve planted is not what you planned on) is to do your research. Buy from trusted vendors, who have feedback and encouraging information on their websites. Pop into your nearby horticultural shop and ask who they buy from or who they’d recommend. Then get growing!

Limitations and considerations Holistic practitioners and DIY-ers alike might both strongly advise you try to take the homegrown route as much as possible, but even a strong contender such as aloe has its limitations.

Influential health affiliated organizations such as the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey state that pregnant women should not take aloe vera in pill format. Women who are looking to conceive, or are unsure whether they are currently pregnant, should stay away too and find other ways to cool their burns. The University of Colorado Denver also warns a larger group of people against the use of aloe vera in pill format—which can serve as a stimulant laxative—including people suffering from chronic constipation, inflammatory intestinal diseases and kidney disease. UC Denver also echoes the University of Medicine and Dentistry’s warning against pregnant women taking aloe vera supplements, and also adds children under 10 years old to the warning list. UC Denver also warns that people allergic to garlic, tulips and onions might also find themselves allergic to aloe vera, which is considered to be in the same Lillaceae plant family. Also, keep in mind that aloe’s positive health benefits only work for

superficial burns. More intense burns from hot stove coils or boiling water, and chemically induced blisters should be treated by medical professionals immediately. In some cases, there’s just no plant-based option for treating something so severe, especially when delaying care could result in life-threatening infection, blood loss or improper healing. The University of Maryland also notes that while aloe has shown to reduce recovery time by up to nine days for some burns, it should never be applied to an open wound. MY

When you’re ready to buy your seedlings or cuttings, you’ll find them online through a variety of sellers, from massive mass merchandisers to specialty succulent shops.”

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Photons The Secret to Light

Speed Growth by Grubbycup Plants cannot grow without light, and the amount of light reaching your plants greatly affects how well they grow. Here, Grubbycup takes you through some of the math that will help determine if your plants are getting enough…

Photons are the tiny particle(ish) waves of energy that are more commonly referred to as a group with the term “light.” Plants use photons, when they’re in usable wavelengths, in order to first split the hydrogen from the oxygen in water and then combine the freed hydrogen with carbon dioxide to create the sugar glucose needed for growth. This process is known as photosynthesis.

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One common unit of measurement for light strength—or, intensity—is lux (lx). A lux is the amount of light given off by one candle at a distance of 1 m spread over a square with 1-m sides. Depending on location, direct outdoor sunlight is around 100,000 lx, and many full-sun garden plants need at least 25,000 to 50,000 lx to do well.


All other things being equal, a properly lit plant will perform better than an under lit plant will. One way to determine how much light is reaching your plants is to measure it. Inexpensive light meters can provide valuable information about a garden, especially indoor gardens. A light meter held at the tops of the plants can determine how much light they are receiving. If measurements are taken in exactly the same place each time, records can be kept to show how much the lamp is degrading over time, or how much difference a new bulb makes. For example, readings taken from a 400 W lamp with a dirty lens and an old bulb were 25.6 klx (kilolux) at 0.30 m away. By cleaning the lens, the reading improved to 30 klx; replacing the year-old bulb brought the lux up to 39.2 klx. That’s an overall improvement of 13.6 klx—a fair improvement that illustrates the importance of proper lighting maintenance. Now for the bad news: even though at 0.3 m the lamp now gives off 39.2 klx, at 0.6 m that falls to 16.4 klx. Distance is extremely important in indoor gardening because the amount of light that hits the plants drops off as an inverse square to the distance. At 0.6 m the lux is reduced to approximately one-quarter. (The averages of the actual readings I took were 41.4 klx at 0.3 m and 13.3 klx at 0.6 m, which is only 3 lx off from the 10.3 klx I expected from using the calculation—this was in part due to the light reflector.) Even worse, at 0.9 m is reduced to 1/9th. Again, the actual readings taken at 0.9 m (5.0 klx) were close to the theoretical (4.6 klx). Compare the results taken from both a 400 W lamp and a 1,000 W lamp (in klx):

0.3 m

0.6 m.

0.9 m

400 W

39.2

16.4

5.3

1,000 W

100

31.5

15.6

“All other things being equal, a properly lit plant will perform better than an under lit plant will.”

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Notice that a 400 W light at 0.3 m is comparable to a 1,000 W lamp at 0.6 m away (although for a smaller area). This is one reason why air-cooled and vented hoods that allow for the fixture to be placed closer to the plants can make a large difference. Naked bulb fixtures generally have to be placed further away from the plants because of the heat they emit, and plants, therefore, suffer more from the distance drawback. However, if a 1,000 W light runs cool enough to be within a 0.3 m or so of the plant, the tops of the plants will be exposed to near outdoor levels. Light moves in a straight line unless acted upon by an outside force. Gravity can bend it, but gardeners are more interested with light’s ability to bounce (reflect). Indoor gardeners often use reflective materials on garden walls to reflect escaping light back to the garden. Lamp hoods are constructed to reflect light from the tops and sides of the bulb into the garden, hopefully without adding too much distance to the path. Indoor light that is reflected travels a further distance than light that strikes directly, and, as discussed earlier, distance diminishes intensity. Still, reflectivity is helpful as it helps to recover light that otherwise would be lost or would have to travel even further to be reflected. This exponential falling of light with distance is one of the most important differences between indoor and outdoor light. Outside, the intensity of the light at ground level and the light a few metres higher is negligible due to the intensities and distances involved with natural sunlight—for example, meter readings showed 100.6 klx at both ground level and at 0.9 m above. The cheap, plentiful light radiated by the sun is the most cost-effective light source (remember, greenhouses can extend the growing season for many areas).

Solar-Cooked Cupcakes Speaking of light, hoods and reflectivity, you can take a lamp hood out into the sun and run it “backward” to make a tasty, solar-powered treat. Here’s how: Gather up a glass lens light hood, a cardboard box big enough for the hood to fit in, some aluminium foil, wide tape, cardboard, an oven thermometer, a few aluminium cookie sheets, cupcake tins (preferably dark coloured) and cupcake batter. To prepare the hood, remove the bulb and socket. Use foil to seal the vent openings. Place it lens-side up into the cardboard box, and pack cardboard around the space between the hood and the box as insulation. Attach the cookie sheets to the sides like the petals to a flower, at an angle of about 15.56 to 19.44ºC. Point the box directly at the midmorning sun, tipping as needed, and blocking it into place. Use the thermometer to track the internal temperature. Aiming and adjusting the “oven” takes a bit of practice, and must be done every hour or so. However, with good sun, the internal temperature should rise to 93.33ºC or better (under ideal conditions, temperatures can reach 148.89ºC, so make sure all materials exposed to heat are safe at those temperatures). Put the batter in the cupcake tins, and place it into the hood. Depending on conditions and the size of the cupcakes (smaller is better), there should be solar-cooked cupcakes ready to eat in an hour or two (just don’t forget to adjust the box to keep it pointed at the sun). Many foods can be cooked in this fashion, which is similar to a slow cooker, and can be cooked for as long as the sun heats the box. Noon to early afternoon are the best cooking times. For food safety, monitor to ensure the temperature does not drop and stay below 71.11ºC while cooking. The principle is simple and similar to that behind a greenhouse. UV radiation passes through the glass to the space inside, where it becomes shifted and partially trapped as infrared (heat). As long as energy from the sun is put into the box faster than it escapes (which is the function of the cardboard insulation), a net gain will result and the temperature of the interior of the box will rise.

“Naked bulb fixtures generally have to be placed further away from the plants because of the heat they emit, and plants therefore suffer more from the distance drawback.” Light meters can help illustrate the intensity of available light in various parts of the garden and can help with ensuring proper lighting levels. Nonetheless, it is in the best interest of indoor gardeners to understand at least some of the science behind lighting. Light is one of the most expensive requirements to fulfil in an indoor garden, so use it wisely and well. MY 62

Maximum Yield | July/August 2013


c i n a e g r A or PE

S E D ICI ST

s y a w al

? r e saf by Bill DeBoer

Organic is an often misunderstood term. Here’s Bill DeBoer to help clear a few things up.

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“I don’t use chemicals, I grow organically!” This is a reoccurring message continuously articulated by a certain sect of organic growers or consumers of organic products. It also shows that there is a preponderance of misinformation and a lack of understanding. Everything is a chemical, including those organics derived from natural origins. What these people are trying to say is that they choose a more natural choice when growing organically (as opposed to the negatively perceived synthetic counterpart). However, the point of this article is not to draw negative criticism toward organics, but rather address misconceptions in an effort to help you make sounder, more-informed decisions. So, whether you are grounded in either organics or synthetics, you need to internalise the following concepts. (Note: when I use the term organic in the article, I am referring to chemicals derived from natural origins.) Are organics always safer than synthetics? No. People have bought into the premise that anything natural is safer. The natural state of a chemical inherently does not dictate safety. For example, imagine organically growing the castor plant (Ricinus communis). From this you could exact a very powerful compound—ricin—which is highly toxic to mammals. While this example is meant to be impractical, the concept is not: natural chemicals can be just as deadly as synthetic ones. Have you ever looked at the chemical compounds found in, or the LD50 (lethal dose inducing mortality in 50% of test population) value of, organic pesticides? Remember, toxicity is a function of the exposure time as well as the dose/concentration. Simple chemicals that are regarded as harmless can be very toxic if the concentration is high or the exposure time is long—for example, water is toxic if consumption continuously exceeds 1.5 L per hour. Safety is at the forefront for organic growers and consumers of organic products, but have you ever looked at the signal word (i.e. caution, warning or danger) on the chemical label? By human nature, we will believe something without questioning the validity if enough people say it is true. There is a reason marketing people can receive hefty salaries: thanks to them, safety has become unanimous with organics. Funny, since federal regulation uses the same wording for organic pesticides as they do synthetics. It is important to note that organics generally have a significant advantage to synthetic counterparts. The half-life, or breakdown, of organic compounds tends to be on average quicker than synthetic chemicals, whose half-life can be long and breakdown is slow (thus the persistence in the environment is longer). However, while organic pesticides can breakdown quickly, their effect is often short lived and frequent applications are more necessary in comparison to synthetic pesticides. Thus, an individual must always understand the type of chemical, application, frequency, concentration and relative persistence. After all, at face value, what appears to be more toxic: compound A applied once or compound B applied six times in the same time span? Obviously, more information is needed.

The natural

state of a chemical inherently does not dictate safety.”

Maximum Yield | July/August 2013

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are organic pesticides always safer?

Another critical consideration is dismissing linear thought processes. Just because a compound is organic and targets one type of pests, doesn’t mean it will not cause alternative problems. For instance rotenone, a very effective organic pesticide for certain beetles and caterpillars is also highly toxic to aquatic life. Therefore, you must avoid spraying around any body of water. Another example is nicotine, which causes paralysis to pest insects and is readily absorbed by the skin of mammals—and it is quite toxic! Lastly, pyrethrins are highly effective at eradicating a wide range of pests, but they are also toxic to helpful pollinators like honeybees. As growers and gardeners, we cannot think our actions are singular or linear. When using both synthetic and organic chemicals, our actions have direct and sometimes irreversible consequences. Always research the active ingredient prior to use, as well as proper protective equipment, relative toxicity and susceptible population (which can range from helpful insects to people). A study published in 2006 proposed an interesting hypothesis that microbial (bacterial and fungal) contamination, not pesticide residue, is of larger concern to public health. It begs the question: are organically raised fruits and vegetables less likely or more likely to have microbial growth due to pesticide practices? I don’t have the answer, but it is an intriguing point nonetheless. Another important component to this review was the difference in detection of synthetic and organic pesticide residue. A 10-year trend line by Baker et al. showed a significant increase in the detection of synthetic pesticide residue relative to that of organic pesticide. One of the main points was organically treated fruits and vegetables still had detectable pesticide (albeit organic) residue. Ultimately, there is not enough

information to make definitive statements on overall safety, which is compounded by the fact that sampling methods are not always accurate. However, it does show we cannot think of most organic produce as “chemical-free.” In conclusion, practices involving chemicals that have a low environmental persistence are effective toward the target pest and have a low risk factor towards the consumer should be our future goal. If human and environmental health is the chief concern for organic growers, then knowledge is the strongest ally. I have been and will always be an advocate for the safest and healthiest option of growing produce. This article should not be viewed as anti-organic, but rather as pro-education. Consumers should have all the facts so they can make an informed decision. Do your research and find more information on a mode of action and relative toxicity of organic pesticides. If you remember nothing of this article, retain these points to ponder: • Everything is a chemical and everything can be toxic if the right dose or exposure time is met. • Read the label, and ask questions when you are unsure. • Organic does not equate to safe just as synthetic doesn’t represent unsafe. • Actions have consequences and application of pesticides, even organic ones, can have a negative impact on organisms from fish to bees to humans. • There are pros and cons that an individual must weigh when selecting a pesticide, organic or synthetic (i.e. cost, effectiveness, relative toxicity, etc).

The half-life,

or breakdown, of organic compounds tends to be on average quicker than synthetic chemicals, whose half-life can be long and breakdown is slow (thus the persistence in the environment is longer).”

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an individual

must always understand the type of chemical, application, frequency, concentration and relative persistence.”

Literature cited: Baker, P.B., Benbrook, C.M., Groth, E., 3rd, and Benbrook, K. L. (2002). Pesticide Residue in Conventional, Integrated Pest Management (IPM-Grown and Organic Foods: Insights from Three US Data Sets. Food Addit. Contam., 19, 427-446. Grubinger, V. Pesticides for Organic Growers. Integrated Pest Management. Retrieved from http://www.hort.uconn.edu/ipm/ general/htms/orgpest.htm Oregon State Master Gardener Program. (Unknown date). Least Toxic and Organic Pesticides for Gardeners. Retrieved from http://extension.oregonstate.edu/lincoln/sites/default/files/ Least_Toxic_Pesticiddes_for_Gardeners.pdf MacMillan, Annie. (Unknown date). Do Organic Pesticides Pose Any Hazards to Growers? [PDF Presentation] Retrieved from http://extension.unh.edu/Agric/AGPMP/documents/macmillan2.pdf Magkos, F., Arvaniti, F., and Zampelas, A. (2006). Organic Food: More Safety or Just Peace of Mind? A Crical Review of the Literature. Critical Review in Food Science and Nutrition, 46, 23-56. http://spot.colorado.edu/~carpenh/Magkos.pdf

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Once thought to be a finicky and tricky plant to grow at home, many people are discovering that some kinds of orchids are very easy to grow and care for. This might be true, but many people still wonder how to make an orchid bloom. Without the flower, the orchid is missing the element that makes these plants so desirable. If you are wondering how to make your orchid bloom, keep reading for some tips.

Light

How to Make an

For most houseplant orchids, the lack of light is the number-one reason the orchid won’t flower. Orchids are deceptive because the leaves of the plant can look healthy and green, while the orchid is getting too little light to truly thrive. If you are trying to make an orchid rebloom, the first thing to try is moving the plant to a brighter location. The best place to put an orchid is in a south- or east-facing window. Also, make sure the leaves are free of dust and dirt. Even a thin layer of dust can block the light. The same goes for the windows. Frequently clean the windows that provide light to your orchids. When you move your orchid to a brighter location, you might notice that the leaves become a lighter green. This is normal. Orchids that are getting enough light will have light or medium green leaves. While all orchids need light, most cannot tolerate direct sunlight. Place them near windows so they can get as much light as possible, but do not place them in the direct line of the sun’s rays.

Orchid

Bloom

by Heather Rhoades

Temperature Different kinds of orchids have different temperature needs. In order for an orchid to rebloom, it must be in the correct temperature range for its variety. Most houseplant orchids are Cattleya, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum or Phalaenopsi. Their temperature requirements are as follows: Cattleya – Cattleya orchids need daytime temperatures of 21 to 29°C during the day and 13 to 18°C at night in order to rebloom. Oncidium – Oncidium orchids will rebloom if the temperatures during the day are 27 to 32°C and the nighttime temperatures are 13 to 16°C. Paphiopedilum – In order to flower, Paphiopedilum orchids typically need temperatures of 21 to 27°C during the day and 10 to 16°C at night. These kinds of orchids that have variegated leaves will prefer that these temperatures be about two to three degrees warmer. Phalaenopsis – Phalaenopsis orchids prefer temperatures of 21 to 29°C during the day and 16 to 21°C at night in order to produce flowers.

Additional tips While light and temperature are crucial to making an orchid rebloom, it is also essential that your orchid gets the appropriate general care for its variety. Humidity, water and fertiliser are all important. MY (Source: gardeningknowhow.com)

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DO YOU KNOW?

1.

To plant a good container, the compost has to be free draining yet able to hold on to moisture and nutrients. The compost also should have an air filled porosity of 20%.

Aloe is 99% water, and within the remaining 1% are polysaccharides (which help skin grow) and glycoproteins (which suppress pain and inflammation, and kick-start the healing process).

3.

While wells generally don’t contain any chlorine or chloramines, they do contain higher levels of calcium and magnesium, as well as contaminants like cadmium, arsenic, boron, manganese, hydrogen sulphide (for that just-peeled egg aroma) and iron.

4.

6.

2.

Don’t worry about breaking off pieces of aloe; stem wounds and broken roots heal themselves (most successfully under shady conditions).

Damage to your RO membrane can happen in one of two ways: it can become either fouled, which dramatically decreases flow rate due to blockage, or corroded, which increases flow rate because the holes in the membrane are enlarged.

8.

9.

Amino acids are organic compounds with an amino (-NH2) and a carboxylic acid group (-COOH).

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Maximum Yield | July/August 2013

5.

The half-life, or breakdown, of organic compounds tends to be on average quicker than synthetic chemicals.

7.

Distance is extremely important in indoor gardening because the amount of light that hits the plants drops off as an inverse square to the distance.

Light moves in a straight line unless acted upon by an outside force. Gravity can bend it, but gardeners are more interested with light’s ability to reflect.

10.

Amino acids are directly linked to vital plant functions, including the synthesis of structural proteins, contributing to the formation of phytohormones and the regulation of water balance (particularly in times of stress).


IndustrY’s Latest 10th Annual San Francisco Indoor Gardening Expo Just Weeks Away

In just a few short weeks, Maximum Yield will be hosting the 10th Annual San Francisco Indoor Gardening Expo—the biggest expo in our 2013 Grow Like a Pro tour. This highly anticipated expo, planned for July 27 to 28, 2013, will feature over 400 booths showcasing the newest products hitting the market. We’ve also got some great information sessions planned and there will be great opportunities to network with industry experts at this event with over 13 hours of trade show time. Exhibitors are flying in from around the world to showcase and highlight the latest products and technologies available in the indoor gardening market. Everyone is invited to attend and keep your eye on indoorgardenexpo.com for a free VIP ticket to the show and a full list of exhibitors who will be in attendance. Have additional questions? Simply call us at 1-250-729-2677.

Dutchpro Heads Overseas Since Dutchpro went commercial, its awardwinning products are successfully being sold in Europe while the production, international marketing and sales are still operated directly out of Amsterdam. Last year, Dutchpro opened a new factory for the international market and due to the explosive and highly increased demand of its user-friendly product line, it is doubling the production capacity again. Explode and Take Root are best-selling products rapidly replacing competitors’ products (topshooters/bloomstims and rootstims) in being very price competitive and highly concentrated (dilution rate 1:1000). Early in 2012, the company incorporated Dutchpro UK Ltd. to keep a high level of customer service and support for its partner shops and it now dispatches its products in Europe straight from its own warehouses in The Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. Earlier in 2013, Dutchpro made its first appearance in the United States market. Its products are exclusively available through Texas Hydroponics and Organics in the state of Texas, with the other states being approached shortly.

IONIC PK Boost Goes from Strength to Strength Launched during 2012, Ionic PK Boost has grown to be one of the most popular boost products on the market. The unique 14:15 ratio delivers an elemental ratio of one phosphorus to two potassium, ensuring the quality of the final crop is of peak quality. This supplement when used with Ionic Bloom formulation or any other well-formulated bloom nutrient will supply the flowering, fruiting plants with accurate levels of these essential elements. IONIC PK Boost is available in five sizes from 300 ml up to 20 L. For more information, visit growthtechnology.com

CleanLight The new CleanLight is the chemical-free way of dealing with problems of fungi, bacteria and viruses on your plants. The CleanLight is a hand-held ultraviolet light designed specifically to eliminate these potential disasters for the grower. The unit is easy to use and highly effective. Simply hold the unit for up to five seconds maximum on one spot at a distance of 10 cm and the ultraviolet rays do the rest. As the CleanLight works using UV, there is no chemical residue left on the plants, improving crop quality. It is also a great advantage that the pathogens concerned cannot develop a resistance to UV as they do with many chemical treatments. The unit comes complete with instructions, gloves and safety glasses, and gives you the opportunity to protect your much-loved plants. To learn more, visit growthtechnology.com

Nanolux Digital Ballast The sleek new Nanolux Ballast is now available in the United Kingdom from Growth Technology. Available in both 400-W and 600-W versions, Nanolux sets a new standard of design for digital ballasts. For ease of use the ballasts have the option of three power settings (100% and dimmable settings of 75 and 50%). Switching between the settings is controlled by a unique soft start protection feature, which adjusts to a different setting over a 15 minute period, preventing damage to your lamp. The units have built-in protection circuits that will prevent damage caused by short circuit, circuit overheating or lamp failure. The protective nature of the product means it will thermally cut out at 105°C and restart when the unit has cooled to 55°C. When several Nanolux ballasts are used, each start is separated by a 15-second safety window, lowering the initial amperage draw at the start of the lighting cycle. For more information, visit growthtechnology.com

Maximum Yield | July/August 2013

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You Tell Us

Jonathan Edwards

William Hill

Tell us a little about how your company started. Global Hydro Limited and the original BudBox growroom launched in 2003 as a result of trying to balance limited space and unsuitable climates for growing high dependency and climate fragile plants. The answer, which seems so obvious now, was to negate potential adverse exterior climate conditions and to utilise unused interior space where the plant’s environmental requirements—light, dark, heat and nutrients—could be synthesised and managed in just about every aspect. Who are the people behind Global Hydro? Myself and William Hill are the owners and directors of Global Hydro

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Global Hydro has been manufacturing the BudBox range of hydroponic equipment since 2003 with the simple belief that environment is everything. Jonathan Edwards, Global Hydro managing director and CEO, discusses how the company has reached such great heights over the last 10 years.

Limited and were solely instrumental in BudBox’s inception and launch. The team behind us ensures that Global Hydro and BudBox continues to develop and grow in a managed and sustainable way. William, originally from an IT and design background, owned and ran several successful companies before becoming involved in the hydroponics industry. He now lives in China looking after our manufacturing, managing the factories and making sure that our quality control team is always on their toes, as well as being an integral part of the product development team. Myself, I have a horticultural background, working in commercial glass houses before going on to study horticulture at college for seven years. After spending 18 years

suited and booted, working in the pharmaceuticals industry throughout Europe, I decided enough was enough and went back to my roots to get involved in the hydroponics industry. After three years with my own retail business, myself and William got together and the BudBox was born. What is your company’s philosophy? To constantly exceed customer expectation in terms of performance, innovation, service and value for money! Your BudBox growrooms are really sturdy. What are they made of and how long do they hold up? Raw materials have been meticulously selected and rigorously tested to ensure they deliver optimal performance and


What advice can you give the beginner gardener just starting out? If you want to ensure a quality end product, don’t compromise on your choice of growroom, and above all, enjoy the whole experience from start to finish. Hydroponics is a rewarding and exciting hobby full of mind-blowing rewards. Opening your BudBox every morning to see the amazing growth and potential is nothing short of incredible; we love it.

durability in terms of every conceivable requirement, most notably from a plantlife perspective. Heavyweight, lightproof canvasses along with anti-corrosive, rust resistant powder-coated steel poles held in situe by super strong, virtually indestructible corner connectors ensure BudBox growrooms are more than fit for purpose. Our confidence in those factors mean we are able to offer a “no-quibble” 12-month guarantee on all BudBox components. The longevity of a BudBox growroom depends largely on how it is looked after. If looked after correctly, a BudBox will last indefinitely. As an example, we have an original BudBox, circa 2003, still working its magic in the office! What type of growers benefit the most from using your hydroponic grow rooms? Do they come in a range of sizes? BudBox is manufactured in two interior finishes, Pro-white and standard Mylar/Silver, and are available in a very comprehensive size range to suit every

conceivable interior grower, irrespective of their level of expertise and space requirements. From the smallest of the hobby units (75 cm x 75 cm x 100 cm) for the keen amateur, to the mighty TITAN3 (300 cm x 300 cm x 200 cm) for the seriously minded horticulturist, there’s a BudBox for every eventuality. Your Air Socks look intriguing. How do they work? BudBox AIRSOCK is an open-mesh fabric engineered with millions of micro-pores measuring less than six microns in diameter. The sock is simply fastened directly onto the inlet fan, thereby regulating air circulation and disturbance whilst at the same time offering superb protection against unwanted bugs, mites and other airborne pathogens. AIRSOCK is fully machine washable so it can be used over and over again to protect your valuable vegetation.

Is there anything happening at the research and development stage you’re at liberty to tell us about? We are currently working on some new and very exciting projects. I wouldn’t like to go into too much detail at this point in time, but I can say that as this fantastic industry moves onwards and upwards and expands, we will be there with it. New products to be added to the BudBox range are scheduled for launch in autumn. Global Hydro Limited has always manufactured extremely high quality products with the emphasis firmly on quality and performance, rather than being constrained by price related formatting. This strategy will not change! The new range of growroom equipment from BudBox will continue in this vein, offering the grower the best equipment and customer service at a competitive price.

Looking for more information on Global Hydro? Please visit global-hydro.net or call 44 (0) 1423 506 669

Maximum Yield | July/August 2013

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talking shop

From left to right, Lewis, Steve, Jamie and Shannon make up the Hi9 team.

Hi9 The Hydroponic Company in Cumbria officially opened up in 2009 and was initially ran by volunteers. Hi9 The Hydroponic Company quickly became a hit and hasn’t stopped growing since. Here’s more to this story...

Jamie, Hi9 director

Prior to opening Hi9 The Hydroponic Company Ltd., Steven Hood, shareholder, had previously worked as a computer programmer, a personnel manager and a chemist until an accident at work one day put a halt to all of that. “Growing, however, has always been in my blood. I remember as a young lad going with my grandpa to help him on his garden allotment,” Steve shares. “My parents were also very keen gardeners; I learned a lot from watching them and recall my fascination at studying seeds germinate in experiments at primary school,” he adds. 74

Maximum Yield | July/August 2013

Since those days, Steve has gained over 20 years of indoor growing experience. “I decided to invest in what I knew. The nearest hydroponic shop was at least 30 miles away, so there was clearly a gap in the market and it seemed appropriate to fill it,” he says about opening his own store. Before Hi9 opened, the search for appropriate premises began and once a location had been found, the team set to work spending many hours preparing the space. They had walls to sort out, counters to build, shelving to arrange and a large floor space to paint. Mean-

Shannon tending to her plants

while, they were also using their spare time to find suitable wholesalers and rummage through hydroponic catalogues to locate the quality stock they wanted. The doors to Hi9 finally opened in November 2009. As with any business, the start-up years were a struggle as the shop tried to build up a customer base and ascertain what products their customers required. The days before opening were particularly nerve-racking, as some of the pallet deliveries were late arriving. “It was rather stressful knowing the opening


At a Glance Company: Hi9 The

Hydroponic Company Ltd. Owner: Steven Hood Location: Unit 3, Rope Walk, Coach Rd., Whitehaven, Cumbria, CA28 7TE Phone: +44 (0) 7821 914646 Motto:“Grow Sensibly with Hi9 The Hydroponic Company.”

was imminent and yet a lot of the stock was yet to arrive,” shares shop director, Shannon. “It finally came the evening before opening and so we spent that night in a heightened state of activity to say the least!” she adds. “The team pulled together and with hard work and dedication we began to move forward providing an efficient, helpful and effective service to our customers, ensuring that we kept them informed of any new positive developments and products in the industry.” Within the first year of opening, the Hi9 team moved to premises better situated and more suitable for their business. The shop is now located on the west coast of Cumbria, about five miles from the beautiful Lake District. “What has made our company work so well is the commitment of our staff. We began with a purely volunteer ethic doing it for the love and the experience and using the opportunity to learn and work toward creating jobs,” Shannon points out. “We work well as an organised team to provide quality service, on-going support and helpful advice, which are all most important. This in turn has shown itself to be beneficial as our customer base has steadily increased.” Hi9 stocks a wide range of brands including, CANNA, Ionic, Vitalink, Biobizz, Atami, Dutch Pro, Guanokalong, H&G, Rhino Filters, Systemair, Nutriculture systems and IWS. “Here at Hi9 we have made it a company policy to constantly strive to provide the best products, the best advice and the best

service,” says shop director, Jamie. “We don’t want to sell anything but reliable products. Keeping the customer happy and satisfied … and growing, is what it is all about. We do like to gain feedback from our customers about the products we offer; it’s helpful for us and ensures we are providing quality. When you add Steve’s vast knowledge and experience of growing into the mix, the customers … and the staff are provided with valuable little gems of guidance and useful tips and tricks.” Today, Hi9 has welcomed another member of the team: Lewis, head of sales, who has brought along further retail experience and has proved himself an invaluable member of the shop staff. “Working here has been such a positive for me, increasing and building upon my retail experience and stock management,” Lewis says. “The work is enjoyable and there is always a happy atmosphere for staff and customers alike. We’ve had good help from our wholesalers and suppliers who have provided support and advice about their products.” Steve sums up by saying, “We’d like to thank our customers and our wholesalers for their support. On a personal level as shareholder I’d like to thank Shannon, Jamie and Lewis for their commitment, tenacity and work ethic. Hi9 is a team which consists of decades of growing experience, passionate enquiring minds, vitality and an initially volunteer commitment all combined with a desire to develop and learn. So, that is how Hi9 continues growing.”

Shannon hard at work

Inside Hi9

Lewis, Hi9 head of sales Maximum Yield | July/August 2013

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors 1st Hydroponics Unit 5 K-Line House, West Rd. Ipswich, Suffolk UK IP3 9FG Tel: +44 (0) 1473 279829 www.1st-hydroponics.co.uk

Aquaculture Unit 79 (A) Carlton Ind. Es. Barnsley, South Yorkshire UK S71 3HW Tel: +44 (0) 8456 445544 www.aquaculture-hydroponics.co.uk

21st Century Garden Unit A6., Bounds Green Ind. Es., Ringway London, Greater London UK N11 2UD Tel: +44 (0) 2083 614659 www.21stcenturygarden.co.uk

Aquaculture Unit 3, Asher Ln. Bus. Pk. Asher Ln. Ripley, Derbyshire UK DE5 3RE Tel: +44 (0) 8456 445544 www.aquaculture-hydroponics.co.uk Aquaculture Unit 3, Pkwy One, Pkwy Dr. Sheffield, South Yorkshire UK S9 4WU Tel: +44 (0) 8456 445544 www.aquaculture-hydroponics.co.uk

3 Counties Hydroponics Unit 52, Rober t Court Ind.E s. Britten Rd. Reading, Berkshire UK RG2 0AU Tel: +44 (0) 1189 874758 3 Counties Hydroponics The Lodge, 113 Invicta Rd. Dartford, Kent UK DA2 6AY Tel: +44 (0) 1322 273444 3 Counties Hydroponics Unit 13., Chiltern Bus. Ctr. Cowley, Oxford UK OX4 6NG Tel: +44 (0) 1865 771747 3 Counties Hydroponics Unit 11, Olds Close, Olds Approach Watford, Herts UK WD18 8RU Tel: +44 (0) 1923 774486 3 Countries Hydroponics Unit 12., Yew Tree Ind. Es., Mill Hall Aylesford, Maidstone UK ME20 7ET Tel: +44 (0) 1622 790456 3 Countries Hydroponics Unit 10., Woodley Yard Cherstsey Bridge Rd. Chertsey, Surrey UK KT16 8LF Tel: +44 (0) 1932 562174 3 Countries Hydroponics Unit 9., Galley Hill Yard Waltham Abbey, Essex UK EN9 2AG Tel: +44 (0) 1992 652301 A-Zee Hydro Ltd. Unit C4, Suttons Bus. Ctr.New Rd. Rainham, Essex UK RM13 8DE Tel: +44 (0) 1708 551199 ____________________________

Acorn Horticulture 65 Deep Ln. Sheffield, UK S5 0DU Tel: +44 (0) 1142 458581 www.acornhorticulture.co.uk ____________________________ Addloes Lighting & Hydroponics 16-A Maple Rd., Winton Bourmouth, Dorset UK BH9 2PN Tel: +44 (0) 1202 524525; www.addloes.com Allbright Unit 6., The Rise Edgware, Middlesex UK HA8 8NR Tel: +44 (0) 2089 582426 Amazing Garden Supplies (Bridgend) Unit 6 Eastlake Close., Litchard Ind. Es. Bridgend, South Wales UK CF31 2AL Tel: +44 (0) 1656 663030 Amazing Garden Supplies (Bristol) Unit 3 Moravian Bus.Pk., Moravian Rd. Kingswood, Bristol UK BS15 8NF Tel: +44 (0) 1179 605566 Anglia Hydroponics 62 A Straight Rd. Boxted, Colchester, Essex UK C04 5RD Tel: +44 (0) 1206 272677 www.angliahydroponics.co.uk

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Aquatech Horticultural Lighting Unit 3F, Spa Fields Ind. Es. New St. Slaithwait Huddersfield, West Yorkshire UK HD7 5BB Tel: +44 (0) 1484 842632 Ashton Hydroponics Ltd. Unit 3 Park Parade Ind. Es. Welbeck St. S. Ashton-Under-Lyna, Manchester UK O4L 67PP Tel: +44 (0) 1613 391673 www.ashton-hydroponics.co.uk ____________________________

Aztec Garden Unit 1A Roughan Ind.Es. Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk UK IP30 9ND Tel: +44 (0) 1359 271876 www.aztec-garden.co.uk _____________________________ Basement Lighting Ltd. Unit 3, The Old Maltings, George St. Newark, Nottinghamshire UK NG24 1LU Tel: +44 (0) 1636 650189 Big Stone River Garden Center Unit 1 East Gate Grimsby, Lincolnshire UK DN3 29BA Tel: +44 (0) 1472 241114 Bill & Ben’s Hydro World Unit D15 & D16 Erin Trade Centre Blumpers Way Chippenham, Wiltshire, UK SN14 6LH Tel: +44(0) 1249 447796 Blooming Borders Unit 3, Borders Bus Pk. Longtown Carlisle, Cumbria UK CA6 5TD Tel: +44 (0) 1228 792587 www.bloomingbordersltd.co.uk Bradford Hydroponics 9597 Manningham Ln. Bradford, West Yorkshire UK BD1 3BN Tel: +44 (0) 1274 729205 www.bradfordhydroponics.co.uk Branching Out Unit E, The Old Brewery, Durnford St. Ashton Gate, Bristol UK BS3 2AW Tel: +44 (0) 1179 666996 www.hydroponics-online.co.uk Bright Green UK Ltd. 42-44 Princess Rd., Hull, Yorkshire UK HU5 2RD Tel: +44 (0) 1482 341925 www.brightgreen-uk.co.uk ____________________________

Brit Crops Ltd Unit 9 OJ’s Ind. Pk.Claybank Rd. Portsmouth, Hampshire UK PO3 5SX Tel: +44 (0) 2392 669111 www.britcropshydroponics.co.uk ____________________________

Maximum Yield | July/August 2013

Listed alphabetically by shop name.

Britlite Hydroponics Unit 11 Roman Ind. Es. Croydon, UK CRO 2DT Tel: +44 (0) 2086 834424 www.britelite-hydroponics-uk.com

Great Stuff Hydroponics 24 Collingwood Ct. Riverside Park Ind. Es. Middlesbrough, UK TS2 1RP Tel: +44 (0) 1642 224544 www.hydroponics-hydroponics.com

Bub’s allotment The Rural Granary Business Centre Unit 4 North Street Hellingly, East Sussex UK BN27 4DU Tel: +44 (0) 7528 098103 Web: www.bubsallotment.co.uk

Great Stuff Hydroponics 30 C Ellemeres Ct. Leechmere Ind. Es. Sunderland, UK SR2 9UA Tel: +44 (0) 1914 474098 www.hydroponics-hydroponics.com

Chrissie’s Garden Unit 33 Portsmouth Enterprise Ctr. Quartermain Rd. Portsmouth, UK PO3 5QT Tel: +44 (0) 2392 667887 Clever Green 35 Ketley Bus. Pk. Waterloo Rd., Telford, Shropshire UK TF1 5JD Tel: +44 (0) 1952 257200 www.clevergreen.co.uk Crofters Bio Gardens Unit 2, Bloomsgrove Ind. Es.Ilkeston Rd. Radford, Nottingham UK NG7 3JB Tel: +44 (0) 1159 782345 www.croftersbiogardens.com Discount Hydroponics 1 Bus. Bldg. Waltergrave St. Hastings, East Sussex UK TN34 1SJ Tel: +44 (0) 1424 428186 Eastbourne Hydroponics 47 Upperton Rd. Eastbourne, East Sussex UK BN21 1LT Tel: +44 (0) 1323 732241 Eighteen Twelve Ltd. Unit 11 Whitehall Properties Towngate Wyke, Bradford UK BD12 9JQ Tel: +44 (0) 1274 694444 Elements Hydroponic Center 44 Auster Rd. Clifton Moor, York UK YO30 4XA Tel: +44 (0) 1904 479979 www.elementshydroponics.com

Greater Manchester Hydroponic Garden Unit 3, The Courtyard, 157 Bolton Old Road, Atherton, Manchester, M46 9RE Tel: +44 (0) 1942 884612 Green Daze Hydroponics Ashington Unit 9 Waterside Ct. North Seaton Bus. Pk. Ashington, Northumberland UK NE63 0YG Tel: +44 (0) 1670 818003 www.greendazehydroponics.co.uk Green Daze Hydroponics Gateshead 10 Wellington St. Gateshead, UK NE8 2AJ Tel: +44 (0) 1914 789107 www.greendazehydroponics.co.uk ____________________________

Green Fever 18 Hartsill Rd., Stoke-on-Trent Staffordshire, UK ST4 7QU Tel: +44 (0) 1782 414448 www.green-fever.co.uk ____________________________ Green Finger 190 Hessle Rd. Hull, East Yorkshire UK HU3 3BE Tel: +44 (0) 1482 222425 ___________________________

Enhanced Urban Gardening 152 London Rd. Workingham, Berkshire UK RG40 1SU Tel: +44 (0) 1189 890510 www.enhancedurbangardening.co.uk Esoteric Hydroponics Ltd. 8 Martyr Rd. Guildford, Surrey UK GU1 4LF Tel: +44 (0) 1483 596484 www.1-hydroponics.co.uk Future Garden (Chelmsford) 15 Rob Johns Rd., Widford Ind.Est., Essex, Chelmsford CM1 3AG +44 (0) 1245 265929 info@futuregarden.co.uk www.futuregarden.co.uk Future Garden (Ilford) Unit E., The Acorn Centre Roebuck Rd., Hainault Bus.Pk., Essex, Ilford IG6 3TU +44 (0) 0208 265929 info@futuregarden.co.uk www.futuregarden.co.uk Garden Secrets UK Ltd. Unit 3 Hollybush Est. Whitchurch, Cardiff UK CF14 7DS Tel: +44 (0) 2920 651792 www.gardensecretsuk.co.uk Garforth Hydroponics Back off 11a main street Leeds, UK lS25 1DS www.garforthhydroponics.co.uk

Greenfinger-Hydroponics Unit 3 Park Works, 16-18 Park Road, Kingston-Upon-Thames, Surrey, KT2 6BX Tel: +44(0) 208 546 3444 ____________________________

Greenfinger-Hydroponics Unit 59 T Marchant Estate, 42-72 Verney Road, South Bermondsey, SE16 3DH +44 (0) 207 394 0629 ____________________________

Greenfinger-Hydroponics Unit 38 Silicon Business Centre,28 Wadsworth Road, Perivale,UB6 7JZ Tel: +44 (0) 208 998 2034 ____________________________

Green Giant Hydroponics Glan Y Mor Rd. Llandudno Junction Conwy. Gwynedd North Wales, LL31 9RU UK Tel: +44 (0) 1492 583960 GreenKeeper Hydroponics 141 Brook St. Chester Cheshire, UK CH1 3DU Tel: +(44 (0) 1244 630501 ____________________________

Green Spirit Hydroponics Ltd. Unit 6, Rockingham Business Park, Rockingham Row, Birdwell, UK S705TW Tel: +44 (0) 1226 399837 www.greenspirit-hydroponics.com ____________________________

Green Spirit Hydroponics Ltd. 8-10 Stanley St. Sheffield, UK S3 8HJ Tel: +44 (0) 1142 753353 www.greenspirit-hydroponics.com ____________________________ Green Stream 12-14 Vivian Rd. Harbourne, Birmingham UK B17 ODS Tel: +44 (0) 1214 262675 www.greenstream.co.uk Green World 1618 Market Vaults Scarborough, UK YO11 1EU Tel: +44 (0) 1723 370900 www.greenworld.ne.uk Greener than Life 575- 577 Holderness Rd. Hull, East Riding UK HU8 9AA Tel: +44 (0) 1482 374201 Greengrass Indoor Gardening Supplies Unit 5A Alexander Ct. Hazleford Way Newstead, Nottingham UK NG15 0DQ Tel: +44 (0) 1623 755055 ____________________________

Greenhouse Effect Unit 2 Eagle Farm Cranfield Rd. Wavendon, Milton Keynes UK MK17 8AU Tel: +44 (0) 1908 585283 ____________________________ Greenleaf Systems Unit 26, Millers Bridge Ind. Es., Seymour, Bootle, Liverpool UK L20 1EE Tel: +44 (0) 1519 331113 www.greenleafsystemsmerseyside.co.uk The Green Room (Indoor Gardens) Ltd. Unit 61 Riverside III, Sir Thomas Longley Road, MEdway City Estate Rochester, KENT ME2 4BH Tel: 01634 716764 www.thegreenroomvip.co.uk Greens Horticulture Unit F Totterdown Bridge Est, Albert Rd. St. Philips, Bristol, Somerset UK BS2 0XH Tel: +44 (0) 1179 713000 www. greenshorticulture.co.uk Greenstream Hydroponics 12-14 Vivian Rd. Birmingham, Harbourne UK B17 0DS Tel: +44 (0) 1214 262675 www.greenstream.co.uk


____________________________

Greensea Hydroponics Unit 1G. Gregory Rd. Mildenhall, Bury St. Edmonds, Suffolk UK IP28 7PP Tel: +44 (0) 1638 715350 www.greensea-hydroponics.co.uk ___________________________ Greenthings Hydroponics Unit 1, Adjewhella Chapel Barriper Camborne, Cornwall UK TR14 0QW Tel: +44 (0) 1209 611870 www.greenthings.co.uk Grotec Hydroponics 393 Manchester Rd., Rochdale, Greater Manchester UK OL11 3PG Tel: +44 (0) 1706 750293 www.grotec.co.uk Grotech Ltd. Unit 21. Saddlers Hall Farm, London Rd. Basildon, Essex UK SS13 2HD Tel: +44 (0) 1268 799828 www.grotechonline.co.uk Grow 4 Good Ltd. 22i Beehive Workshops Durham, UK DH1 2X1 Tel: +44 (0) 1913 757667 www.grow4good.net Grow Den 2 Horthfield Rd., Rainham, Kent UK ME8 8 BJ Tel: +44 (0) 1634 239333 Grow Green Ltd. 15-17 Green Ln., Castle Bromwich Birmingham, UK B36 0AY Tel: +44 (0) 121 241 6445 Grow Green Trade Ltd. Unit 4 Castle Trading Est. La Grange, Tamwarth, UK B79 7X0 Tel: +44 (0) 1827 62766 Grow Shaw 96-98 Shaw Heath Rd.,

GroWell Dudley Unit 52 Enterprise Trad. Es. off Pedmore Rd. Brierly Hill, Dudley UK DY5 1TX Tel: +44 (0) 8453 456991 www.growell.co.uk GroWell Fullham 1 Royal Parade 247 Dawes Rd. Fullham, London UK SW6 7RE Tel: +44 (0) 8453 445174 www.growell.co.uk GroWell Hockley Heath Ivy House Farm, Grange Rd. Hockley Heath, Solihull UK B94 6PR Tel: +44 (0) 8433 571640 www.growell.co.uk GroWell Mail Order Division PO Box 3255 Warwick, UK CV34 5GH Tel: +44 (0) 8453 455177 www.growell.co.uk GrowinGreen Unit 6, Queens drive industrial estate, Newhall, Swadlincote, DE11 0EG Tel: +44 (0) 1253 675722 www.growingreen.co.uk Growing Life #6 Newington Green Rd. London, UK N1 4RX Tel: +44 (0) 2070 339541 www.growing-life.com Groworks 94 Upper Wickham Lane Welling, Kent, UK DA16 3HQ Tel: +44 (0) 2088 545160 Groworks Unit F16 Northfleet Industrial Estate Lower Road, Gravesend, UK DA11 9SW Tel: +44 (0) 1273 624327

Unit 7, West Court, Crantock Street

www.growzoneuk.com GroSupplies Sovereign House, Ellen Terrace Sulgrave, Washington, Tyne & Wear NE37 3AS Tel: +44 (0) 1914 153345 sales@grosupplies.com www.grosupplies.com GroWell Coleshill Units 8-11 Coleshill Trade Park, Station Rd. Coleshill, Birmingham UK B46 1HT Tel: +44 (0) 8453 442333 www.growell.co.uk

Holland Hydroponics 17 Rondin Rd., Ardwick, Greater Manchester UK M12 6BF Tel: +44 (0) 8458 720570 www.hydroponics.co.uk

Hydropower 300 Holton Rd. Barry, Vale Of Glamorgan UK CF63 4HW Tel: +44 (0) 7725 551479 www.hydro-power.biz

Holland Hydroponics Express Unit 4 Leeds Rd. Trade Park. Leeds Rd., Huddersfield, UK HD2 1YR

Hydrosense 47 Scarrots Ln. Newport, Isle of Wright UK PO30 1JD Tel: +44 (0) 1983 522240

Holland Hydroponics Handbridge Mill 5 Parliament St. Burnley, Lancashire UK BB11 5HG Tel: +44 (0) 8458 720590 www.hydroponics.co.uk Home Grower Ltd. Unit 8, Oak Court, Crystal Dr. Smethwick, West Midlands UK B66 1QG Tel: +44 (0) 1215 411446 www.thehomegrower.com Huyton Hydroponics & Gardening Supplies Huyton, Mersey Side UK Tel: +44 (0) 1514 820101 www.huytonhydro.co.uk Hygrow II Hydroponics Units 3+4, 30 Oslo Road Suttonfields Industrial Estate HULL HU7 0YN, East Yorkshire Tel: +44 (0) 1482 833455 www.hygrow.co.uk

Hydro Hobby Unit 4 Brook Farm, Stoneleigh Rd. Gibbet Hill, Coventry UK CV4 7AB Tel: +44 (0) 2476 414161 www.hydrohobby.co.uk Hydro Station Ltd. Unit 10 Hillfoot Ind. Es. Hoyland Rd. Sheffield, South Yorkshire UK S38AB Tel: +44 (0) 1142 491636 www.hydrostationltd.co.uk

Grow Zone UK The Grow Home Hydroponics Unit 26 Bolney Grange Ind.Pk., Burgess Hill West Sussex RH17 5PB +44 (0) 1444 244414 thegrowhome@hotmail.co.uk ____________________________ Happy Gardens Ltd. Unit 9, Kelham Bank Ind Es., Kelham St. Doncaster, South Yorkshire UK DN1 3RE Tel: +44 (0) 1302 761386 Haverhill Hydroponics Centre Unit 14 Spring Rise Falconer Road Haverhill, Suffolk CB97XU +44 (0) 01440709474 www.haverhillhydro.co.uk

Hydroponica Ltd. 130 Doncaster Rd. Wakefield, Yorkshire UK WF1 5JF Tel: +44 (0) 1924 362888 www.hydroponica.biz Hydroponics.com Unit 24, Port Talbot Business Units Addison Road Port Talbot, UK SA12 6HZ Tel: +44 (0) 1639 888891 www.hydroponicsdotcom.com

Happy Daze Hydroponics Unit 4 Craven Court Hedon Rd. Hull, UK HU9 1NQ Tel: +44 (0) 1482 224299 www.happydazehull.com ____________________________

www.growshaw.co.uk

Hydroponic Corporation Unit 20, Deeside Ind. Es., Zone 1 Deeside, Flintshire UK SH5 2LR Tel: +44 (0) 1244 289699 www.t-h-c.biz

High Street Hydroponics Unit 56 Hebden R., Berkley Ind.Es., Scunthorpe, North Lincolnshire DN15 8DT Tel: +44(0) 1724 857191

Hydro 1 Stop Unit 35 Deykin Pk. Ind. Es. Deykin Ave. Aston, Birmingham UK B67HN Tel: +44 (0) 1213 280876 www.hydro1stop.co.uk

Tel: +44 (0) 8452 725266

Tel: +44 (0) 1637 806115

Hi9THC Unit 3. Rope Walk,. Coach Rd. Whitehaven, Cumbria UK CA28 7TE Tel: +44 (0) 7821 914646 www.hi9thc.co.uk

Groworks Unit 4 Belltower Industrial Estate Roedean Road, Brighton, UK BN2 5RU Tel: +44 (0) 1322 838131

Stockport, Manchester UK SK3 8BP

Newquay, Cornwall UK TR7 1JL

HFM Pyrotechnics Ltd. 165A Londford Rd. Cannock, Staffordshire UK WS11 OLD Tel: +44 (0) 1543 500800 www.hfmgroup.com

Midnight Garden 6 Howlbeck Rd., Guisborough, UK TS14 6LE Tel: +44 (0) 79333 449661 Mile End Hydroponics 265 Wick Rd. London, UK E9 5DG Tel: +44 (0) 2085 330497 www.mile-end-hydroponic.co.uk Mousehold Garden Center 63 Mousehold Ln. Norwich, Norfolk UK NR7 8HP Tel: +44 (0) 1603 413272

Hylton Hydro Rockington Nursery Blackness Rd. Sunderland, UK SR4 7XT Tel: 01 9155 18453

Mr. Beam Hydro Rose Grove Selby Rd. Askern, Doncaster UK DN6 0ES Tel: +44 (0) 1302 708297 www.mr-beam-hydro.com

Hytec Horticulture Old Wales Wood Colliery, Mansfield Rd. Sheffield, UK S26 5PQ Tel: +44 (0) 1909 772872 www.hytechorticulture.co.uk

New Age Hydroponics Unit 1 Albert Pl., Albert Mill Lower Darwen, Lancashire UK BB3 OQE Tel: +44 (0) 1254 661177

Junction 10 Hydro Unit 55, Owen Road Industrial Estate Willenhall, WV13 2PX Tel: +44 (0) 1215 686850 www.j10hydro.com

New Leaf Hydroponics 1 Horsewater Wynd, Hawkhill, Dundee UK DD1 5DU Tel: +44 (0) 1382 202556 www.newleafhydroponics.co.uk

Kernow Grow Ltd. 11 D. Kernick Ind. Es. Penryn, Cornwall UK TR10 9EP Tel: +44 (0) 3300 104420 www.kernowgrow.co.uk King Of Green 18-24 Saint Helens Rd., Westcliff on Sea Westcliff, Essex UK SS0 7LB Tel: +44 (0) 1702 347536 www.kingofgreen.com Kitbag Hydroponic Warehouse 22 Pool Bank St. Nunaeton, Warwickshire UK CV11 5DB Tel: +44 (0) 2476 641033 ebaystores.co.uk/kitbagshop Lancaster Hydroponics Unit 18 Lansil Ind.Es., Caton Rd. Lancaster, Lancashire UK LA1 3PQ Tel: +44 (0) 7961 279279 www.lancasterhydroponics.co.uk Lothian Hydroponics 172 S Mid St. Bathgate, West Lothian UK EH48 1DY Tel: +44 (0) 1506 650501

Hydrodragon Ltd. 113-115 Alfred St. Roath Cardiff, South Glamorgan UK CF24 4UA Tel: +44 (0) 2920 490333 www.hydrodragon.co.uk

Makes Sense Grow Shop The Annex Rear of #20, Barden Rd. Tonbridge, Kent UK TN9 1TX Tel: +44 (0) 1732 507201 www.makessencesrowshop.co.uk

Hydroglo Ltd. The Top Store South Rd., Towerhamlets Dover, Kent UK CT17 OAH Tel: +44 (0) 1304 203199 Web: www.hydroglowltd.co.uk

Manchester Hydroponics Unit 1A, Reliance St. Newton Heath, Manchester UK M40 3AG Tel: +44 (0) 1616 887333 www.manchesterhydroponics.co.uk manchesterhydroponics@yahoo.co.uk

Hydrogrow Systems Ltd. Unit 7, Acton Bus. Pk., Fields Farm Rd. Longeaton, Nottingham UK NG10 3FZ Tel: +44 (0) 1159 730007 Web: www.hydrogrowsystems.co.uk

Matilda’s Planet 1 Green Pl. Kenfig, South Wales UK Tel: +44 (0) 7895 567843 dale.hudd@grg.com

Hydrolite UK Ltd. 215 Denman St., Radford, Nottingham UK NG7 3PS Tel: +44 (0) 1159 785556 www.hydrolite.co.uk

Midland Hydroponics Russells Garden Centre Baginton Coventry UK CV8 3AG Tel: +44 (0) 2476 639109 midhydroponic@aol.com www.maidland-hydroponics.com

Mellow Yellow Hydro Ltd. Unit B1A Towngate Works., Dark Ln. Mawdesley, Lancashire UK L40 2QU Tel: +44 (0) 1704 822609 www.mellowyellowhydro.co.uk

Norfolk Lights & Hydroponics Centre Ltd. Unit 2 Guardian Rd., Ind. Es. Norwich, Norfolk UK NR5 8PF Tel: +44 (0) 1603 666199 www.norfolklights.com North Devon Hydroponics Unit 4 , Abbey Rd. Barnstaple, Devon UK EX31 1JU Tel: +44 (0) 1271 314999 www.northdevonhydroponics.co.uk NuGreen Hydroponics Unit 4 Stirchley Trad. Es., Hazelwell Rd. Stirchley, Birmingham UK B3O 2PF Tel: +44 (0) 1216 855900 www.nugreenhydroponics.co.uk One Stop Grow Shop Unit 8, Fenton Ind. Es., Dewsbury Rd. Fenton, Stroke-On-Trent UK ST4 2TE Tel: +44 (0) 1782 212000 www.onestopgrowshop.co.uk Planet Hydro Unit 11 NorthBridge Works., Storey St. Leicester, Leics UK LE3 5GR Tel: +44 (0) 1162 510800 Plant Life Unit 11, Riverside Wy., Ravensthorpe Ind Es. Dewsbury, West Yorkshire UK WF13 3LG Tel: +44 (0) 1924 492298 www.plantlife.me.uk Plantasia Brill View Farm Ludgershall Rd. Bicester, Oxfordshire UK OX25 1PU Tel: +44 (0) 8707 555225 www.plantasia.co.uk

Maximum Yield | July/August 2013

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors Progrow 5 Westwood Units, Alphinbrook Rd. Marsh Barton Trad. Es. Exeter, Devon UK EX2 8QF Tel: +44 (0) 1392 276998 www.progrow.co.uk Rootzone Hydroponics Ltd. Unit 2 & 3., The Green Bus.Ctr., The Causeway Staines, Middlesex UK TW18 3AL Tel: +44 (0) 1784 490370 www.hydrowebshop.com Sale Hydro 71 Dane Rd., Sale Manchester, Lancashire UK M33 7BP Tel: +44 (0) 1619 739899 Email: care@salehydroponics.co.uk Sea of Green UK 25 Eastcott Hill Swindon, Wiltshire UK SN1 3JG Tel: +44 (0) 1793 617046 www.seaofgreen.co.uk ____________________________

Somerset Hydro Unit4 Technine, Guard Avenue Houndstone Business Park Yeovil Somerset BA22 8YE Tel: +44 (0) 1935 420720 www.somhydro.co.uk ____________________________ South Coast Hydroponics Unit 8., Enterprise Ind. Es., Enterprise Rd. Horndean, Portsmouth UK PO8 0BB Tel: +44 (0) 2392 598853 www.southcoasthydroponics.com Southern Hydro Centre 9 Mamesbury Rd. Southampton, Hampshire UK S01 SFT Tel: +44 (0) 2380 704080 www.southernhydro.co.uk

Southern Lights #1 25 Fratton Rd. Hampshire, UK PO1 5AB Tel: +44 (0) 1705 811822 Southern Lights #2 19A Grace Hill. Folkestone, Kent UK CT20 1HQ Tel: +44 (0) 1303 210003; Tel: +44 (0) 1303 252561 St Albans Hydroponics Unit 5 London Rd., Bus.Pk., 222 London Rd. St Albans, UK AL1 1PN Tel: +44 (0) 1727 848595 www.stalbanshydroponics.moonfruit.com Starlite Systems 226 Albert Rd., Plymouth, Devon UK PL2 1AW Tel: +44 (0) 1752 551233 www.starlitesystems.co.uk Sub-Garden Supplies 45-J Leyton Industrial Village, Argall Ave., Leyton, London UK E10 7QP Tel: +44 (0) 2085 399563 Sunrise Hydroponics 127 Newcastle St., Burslem. Stoke on Trent, Staffshire UK ST6 3QJ Tel: +44 (0) 1782 813814 www.sunrisehydro.co.uk The Green Machine Ltd. Unit 1A., Felin Puleston Ind.Es., Ruabon Rd. Wrexham, UK L13 7RF Tel: +44 (0) 1978 265090 www.thegreenmachineonline.com The Grow Den 2 Hothfield Rd. Rainham, Kent UK ME8 8BJ Tel: +44 (0) 1634 239333 The Grow Den Ltd. Unit 13., Eaves Ct., Eurolink Com.Pk., Bohan Dr. Sittingbourne, Kent UK ME10 3RY Tel: +44 (0) 1795 426264 The Head Gardener Unit 11, Barton Bus. Pk. Eccles, Manchester UK M3O OQR Tel: +44 (0) 1617 079860 www.theheadgardner.net

Listed alphabetically by shop name.

The Home Grower Unit 8., Oak Ct. Odbury, West Midlands UK B66 1QG Tel: +44 (0) 1215 411446 www.thehomegrower.com The Hydroponic Warehouse Unit 15., Bay Airport Ind.Es., Kingston Pk. Newcastle, Tyne and Wear UK NE3 2EF Tel: +44 (0) 1912 862045 www.thehydroponicwharhouse.co.uk The Inner Garden Ltd. Unit 14., Cornish Wy., West, Galmington Taunton, Somerset UK TA1 5NA Tel: +44 (0) 1823 274791 The Persy Grow Shop 4 Kings Mews. Brighton, East Sussex UK BN3 2PA Tel: +44 (0) 1273 777335 www.persygrowbox.co.uk The Plant Pot 69 Ratcliffe Gate, Mansfield, Nottinghamshire UK NG18 2JB Tel: +44 (0) 1623 422711 www.theplantpot.co.uk Thetford Urban Gardens Ltd. 25 Brunel Way, Thetford, Norfolk, UK IP24 1HP Tel: +44 (0) 7780 232169 thetford.urbangardens@hotmail.co.uk www.thetford-urban-gardens.com Toddington Hydroponics Center Griffin Farm Unit 9., Toddington Dunstable, Bedford UK LU5 6BT Tel: +44 (0) 1582 664765 www.toddingtonhydroponics.co.uk Triangle Hydroponics Unit 6 Bornemouth Central business park. South Cote Rd. Bornemouth BH1 3SJ Tel: +44 (0) 1202 556661 www.trianglehydroponics.co.uk

Glasgrow 15 Parnie St. Glasgow, Scotland G15RJ Tel: +44 (0) 1415 527522 www.glasgrowhydroponics.co.uk

U Grow London Studio12, Imperial Studios, 3-11 Imperial Rd. London, UK SW6 2AG, Tel: +44 (0) 2073 843388 www.ugrow.com Warehouse Hydroponics Bank Quay Trading Est., Slutchers Ln. Warrington, Cheshire UK WA1 1PJ Tel: +44 (0) 1925 637837 www.warehousehydroponics.co.uk

ireland Northern Lights 9 Dunluce St. Larne Antrim, Northern Ireland BT40 1JG Tel: +44 (0) 2828 278485 www.northernlightsni.com The Grow Shop 14 Brews Hill , Nauan, Co. M Fath Ireland OLI Tel: +44 (0) 1772 204455 www.thc.ie

EZ Grow Perth 77 Scott St. Perth, Scotland PH2 8JR Tel: +44 (0) 7521 597308 U-Grow Organic Unit 11 North Canal Bank St., Port Dundas, Glasgow Scotland G4 9XP +44 (0) 1413 413352 info@u-grow.com www.u-grow.com

hungary BABYLON grow Csurgói street 15., Budapest, Pest megye Hungary Tel: +36 (0) 20 381 2802 babylon@babylon-grow.eu www.babylon-grow.eu

scotland Progrow Scotland Unit 6., Nasmyth Square Houston Ind.Es. Livingston, West Lothian Scotland EH5 45GG Tel: +44 (0) 1506 430830 www.progrowscotland.co.uk Abergreen Horticulture Ltd Arch 8 Palmerston Rd. Aberdeen, Granpian Scotland AB11 5RE Tel: +44 (0) 1224 574737 www.abergreen.co.uk Kingdom Hydroponics Unit #12 Carbery Pl., Mitchelson Ind. Es. Kirkcaldy, Fife Scotland KY1 3NE Tel: +44 (0) 1592 655611 Hydra Hydroponics 41 Tower St., Edinburgh, Scotland EH6 7BN Tel: +44 (0) 1315 611332 www.hydraonline.co.uk

Gomoa Trade Kft. Lágymányosi street 5., Budapest, Pest megye, Hungary 1111 Tel: +36 (0) 20 566 1186 gomoa.net@gmail.com www.gomoa.net Gomoa Trade Kft. ˝ avenue 50. Petofi Szeged, Csongrád megye, Hungary 6725 Tel: +36 (0) 20 406 2182 gomoa.net@gmail.com www.gomoa.net Gomoa Trade Kft. Kazinczy street 3. Pécs, Baranya megye, Hungary 7621 Tel: +36 (0) 20 351 4294 gomoa.net@gmail.com www.gomoa.net

COMING UP IN September/October 2013 Aquaponics: The Key to a More Sustainable Future?

It’s becoming increasingly evident that we’re going to run out of sustainable fish stocks in the years ahead—Matt LeBannister discusses if aquaponics is really a viable solution.

Basic Plant Genetics

Gardeners have been breeding plants for specific traits for thousands of years. While you can genetically modify plant strains without understanding any of the science behind it, the basic principles can be demonstrated with a simple pack of playing cards.

Physiological Disorders of Indoor Gardens

Indoor gardening offers to plants conditions that are fully under the gardener’s control. So, when physiological disorders strike, they can seem strange, mysterious and even sinister… However, a little knowledge can make dealing with them a lot easier. 82

Maximum Yield | July/August 2013

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Maximum Yield UK July/Aug 2013