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The BaTTle of WaTer ManageMenT www.maximumyield.com

2011

indoor gardening expo

long beach | california, usa october 22-23

NEW: FolloW us oN TWiTTEr

indoorgardeningexpo.com


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Maximum Yield USA | October 2011


CONTENTS October 2011

FEATURES 46

Beginning Organics - Let’s Get Started by Lee McCall

54

46 82

The Scented Oasis

96

Hydroponics. Italian Style

104

Vertical Farms Rising

118

by Dr. Lynette Morgan

by Matt LeBannister

by Philip McIntosh

Garden Diaries Aren’t for Sissies! by Grubbycup

132

Attack of the Gargantuan Tomato – Growing Big by Dr. J. Benton Jones, Jr.

144

by Bentley Mills

68

Root Rot: The Water Management Battle

Do You Know What You’re Eating? Safely Consumed by Ed Harwood

54

82

Photosynthesis and Plant Nutrition 2 - Why it Matters

68

DEPARTMENTS From the Editor

130

Growing for Health

12

Letters to the Editor

162

Beginner’s Corner

14

MaximumYield.com

164

You Tell Us

20

Simon Says

168

Talking Shop

22

MAX Facts

172

Max Mart

30

Product Spotlight

177

Coming up in November

80

Green Thumb Gardening

178

Do You Know?

180

Distributors

114

Avant-Gardening

10

by Shane Hutto

154

Automated Systems for a Worry-free Garden by Peter Jordan

Maximum Yield USA | October 2011

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FROM THE EDITOR | JESSICa RaymOND

Wow, where has the summer gone? We’re now full speed into fall and coming up to the year’s biggest ever Indoor Gardening Expo in Long Beach, California (October 22 to 23, 2011). With over 250+ booths and over 125 unique exhibitors (over 15 companies are first time exhibitors at our show) the size of this expo exceeds that of the San Francisco Expo this past July. Check out the Long Beach floor plan and list of exhibitors in this issue, along with the many new products that will be showcased at the event. This expo will give you the latest tools to grow your best garden so make plans now to attend the Long Beach Expo 2011. In the mean time, you have in your hands an issue overflowing with the latest news and tips for bigger yields. We invite you to explore and discover

why photosynthesis matters; how to grow a gargantuan tomato; the benefits of automation; how the world’s leading architects are building impressive vertical farms; and more! Share this issue with your friends, chat with us

on Facebook and Twitter, and send us your questions and comments. We love to hear from you, and we love to be your favorite source for the best indoor gardening tips and trends. Enjoy this issue!

Jessica Raymond, editor editor@maximumyield.com

CONTRIBUTORS Dr. Lynette Morgan holds a B. Hort.

Lee McCall is an alumnus of Johnson &

Matt LeBannister developed a green thumb as a child, having been born into a family of experienced gardeners. During his career, he has managed a hydroponic retail store and represented leading companies at the Indoor Gardening Expos. Matt has been writing articles for Maximum Yield since 2007. His articles are published around the world.

Grubbycup has been an avid

indoor gardener for over 20 years. His articles were first published in the United Kingdom, and since then his gardening advice has been published in French, Spanish, Italian, Polish, Czechoslovakian and German. He is also considered one of the world’s leading authorities on crochet hydroponics.

Dr. J. Benton Jones Jr. has 50 years of experience growing plants hydroponically. He is an Emeritus Professor at the University of Georgia, Athens and has authored eight books and written articles for magazines that deal with hydroponic issues. He currently has his own consulting company, Grosystems, Inc. Dr. Jones currently lives in Anderson, SC, USA.

Dr. Ed Harwood is founder and chief

Bentley Mills owns Georgia-based

Philip McIntosh is a science and

Shane Hutto is a technical advisor

Tech. degree and a PhD in hydroponic greenhouse production from Massey University, New Zealand. Lynette is a partner with SUNTEC International Hydroponic Consultants and has authored five hydroponic technical books. Visit www.suntec.co.nz/ consultants.htm and www.suntec. co.nz/books.htm for more information.

FloraHydroponics. He operates a one acre commercial hydroponic greenhouse where he grows produce using deep pool floating raft technology. Bentley’s background in horticulture began while managing Micro Macro International (MMI). Bentley can be contacted at Bentley@ florahydroponics.com

Peter Jordan has a degree in chemical

engineering from the University of Waterloo. He began his career at Dupont Canada as a Management Scientist. Later, at Statistics Canada he designed the systems for processing Canada’s largest annual census. He founded Microstar Software Ltd., and upon selling the company in 1999, became involved with preserving groundwater resources.

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Maximum Yield USA | October 2011

Wales University. His extensive culinary background helped him gain experience in and knowledge of fine dining and food production, which developed into a career in the hydroponics and year-round gardening industry. Lee and his business partner use their Denver-based businesses to educate the public on sustainable gardening and high quality produce.

technology writer with a bachelor’s degree in botany and chemistry and a master’s degree in biological science. During his graduate research he used hydroponic techniques to grow axenic plants. He lives in Colorado Springs, CO. where he teaches mathematics at Challenger Middle School.

executive officer of AeroFarms. Ed previously served as associate director of Cornell Cooperative Extension for Agriculture. Prior to that, Ed served as CEO of Topline Waikato, Inc.

at Grodan Inc. He earned a bachelor’s degree in horticulture at Oklahoma State University and received a research assistantship for his master’s degree. During his graduate studies he researched production and extraction of surface waxes on horticultural commodities. His passion for growing is complimented by his experience in many types of controlled environment operations and design.

Become a Maximum Yield contributor and have your articles read by 250,000 readers throughout USA, Canada, UK, New Zealand and Australia. Maximum Yield is the largest free-to-consumer indoor gardening magazine in the world. Every issue is available on maximumyield.com, which has thousands of unique visitors monthly.


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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR

ammonia for plants – dangerous or Beneficial?

Homegrown Hydroponics

I love your magazine and online information, but cannot locate a search box, so I will just ask. I thought I read an article in your magazine regarding using ammonia in the garden. Do you recall what ammonia is used for? I bought a gallon of it, and cannot decide what to do with it. I don’t want to destroy my greenhouse plants. I put a little ammonia in a spray bottle, and lightly sprayed the dirt on two planters in the greenhouse, hoping any spiders would scram; and they did. I have been keeping an eye on those plants and so far they show no ill effects, except for one low leaf is turning yellow, which I removed. Thank you for replying to my little inquiry. I appreciate it.

Thanks to Maximum Yield and its contributors for the helpful information and great articles. I am new to hydroponics and gardening and I believe I have found a new passion and lifestyle to enjoy! Over the summer I harvested a variety of tomatoes. I’m looking forward to my jalapenos and anything else I may grow. The goal now is to never have to buy veggies. Thanks again Angel Bueno

Angel with his hybrid DWC tomato

run, don’t walk, to your nearest Hydroponic sHop

Thank you for such a well thought out and put together magazine. You guys and gals are doing a great job and yours is the only magazine I read from cover to cover each month; when I can get a hold of a hard copy, I keep it for reference. I’m so glad that your Long Beach Expo is not the same weekend as the Long Beach Marathon this year. I organize all the volunteers for the marathon and last year you were in the very next room at the Convention Center on Saturday and Sunday; it killed me that I couldn’t make it next door to spend some time walking around, learning and meeting everybody. I have been growing hydroponically for 25 years indoors and am thinking about doing some growing outdoors next year in hydro. Thanks again for all your hard work; it sure shows every month when I get to read the next issue. Thanks Bob Albright Long Beach, California

maximum yields in wasHington

I see great potential for an Indoor Gardening Expo in Seattle, Everett or in the surrounding area. The indoor gardening revolution is coming on strong in our area and we need more garden expo love on a large scale. Just something for you to dwell on. And Seattle is home to some of the wealthiest people in the world. I really appreciate the information your magazine offers. It has given me the ability to produce maximum yields. Thanks Randy Surdyk

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Thanks Sharon Calabrese Ammonia does have a place in the garden. Ammonia can be diluted and used as a fertilizer. A quarter cup of ammonia per gallon of water can be mixed, and the plants can be sprayed with this solution once per week. When ammonia breaks down it releases nitrates, a source of nitrogen. This should only be used on alkaline-loving plants such as sweet peas and asparagus because ammonia is very alkaline. It will actually damage acid-loving plants such as tomatoes. Many types of ammonia contain other ingredients intended only for cleaning and will not be safe for your plants. A safer alternative to using ammonia would be to use pine tree oil or kelp spray. These products can be applied safely to a wide range of plants. Ammonia can also be used to battle mildew growing on soil or on the plant itself. Use the same concentration as mentioned above and apply to the surface of the soil or on the leaves once per week until the mildew is gone. Ammonia is also often used to detour large pests from eating your crops. Outdoors it can be used to prevent raccoons, rabbits, skunks and other animals from getting at your crops. Indoors it can be used to keep your household pets, such as cats or dogs, from getting into your garden. For this purpose the plants do not need to be in direct contact with the ammonia, but it can be sprayed around the general garden area. The idea is that the ammonia will mimic the urine of predatory animals thus keeping the animals that will eat your plants at bay. Ammonia is a harsh chemical with powerful fumes that should not be inhaled. The mixing of ammonia should only be done outside or in a well ventilated room and should only be mixed with water and no other chemicals. If ammonia is mixed with bleach you would essentially make mustard gas, which is highly toxic when inhaled and can be lethal. Thanks for the inquiry, Sharon. Hope this answers your question. Matt LeBannister

We want to hear from you! Write us at: Maximum Yield Publications Inc. 2339 Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 or e-mail us at: editor@maximumyield.com


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Coming up on the Web upCoMing events

Countdown to Long Beach – Just 23 Days to Go

See, Learn, Discover and Grow at the 2011 Long Beach Indoor Gardening Expo Maximum Yield is excited to welcome you to the 2nd Annual Indoor Gardening Expo, October 23, 2011. See live demonstrations, learn at our information sessions, discover new techniques and delight in the uniquely diversified products that will help your garden grow. Visit www.indoorgardenexpo.com for full event details.

got Questions? get answers. Maximum Yield’s resident experts are available and ready to answer your modern gardening questions. E-mail editor@maximumyield.com or fill out the Ask the Experts question form on maximumyield.com

What will replace bumblebees for pollination if they are extinct? Is there such thing as positive child labor? What are the benefits, if any, to growing a forest on a rooftop? Find out the answers to these questions and more on www.maximumyield.com under Latest News.

Connect to MaximumYield.com instantly from your Smartphone with our Quick Response (QR) Code, found on the cover of every issue of Maximum Yield. Now you can access the best products, the most in-depth articles and information, and the latest news at high speeds. Simply download the QR Code Reader software compatible with your Smartphone, scan the QR Code and your phone’s browser will automatically launch, redirecting you to www.maximumyield.com. It’s that simple!

www.maximumyield.com www.facebook.com/MaximumYield www.indoorgardeningexpo.com twitter.com/max_yield

Tell us what you think at editor@maximumyield.com. We’d love to hear from you. 14

Maximum Yield USA | October 2011

Maximum Yield is published monthly by Maximum Yield Publications Inc. 2339A Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 Phone: 250.729.2677; Fax 250.729.2687 No part of this magazine may be reproduced without permission from the publisher. If undeliverable please return to the address above. The views expressed by columnists are a personal opinion and do not necessarily reflect those of Maximum Yield or the Editor. Publication Agreement Number 40739092 Printed In Canada.

PRESIDENT/PUBLISHER - Jim Jesson GENERAL MANAGER - Don Moores BUSINESS MANAGER - Linda Jesson EDITOR - Jessica Raymond jessica@maximumyield.com ADVERTISING SALES 250.729.2677 Linda Jesson - linda@maximumyield.com Lisa Lambersek - lisa@maximumyield.com Ilona Hawser - ilona@maximumyield.com Ashley Heppell - ashley@maximumyield.com Hayley Jesson - Hayley@maximumyield.com PRODUCTION & DESIGN ads@ads.maximumyield.com Tina Skujins - tina@maximumyield.com Mike Linden - mike@maximumyield.com Jennifer Duong - jennifer@maximumyield.com Alice Joe - alice@maximumyield.com ACCOUNTING - Tracy Greeno accounting@maximumyield.com

latest news

ConneCt with MaxiMuM Yield

VOLUME 12 – NUMBER 7 October 2011

USA DISTRIBUTION Aurora Innovations BWGS General Hydroponics Humbolt Wholesale Hydrofarm Hydro International National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply Nickel City Wholesale Garden Supply R&M Supply Tradewinds CANADIAN DISTRIBUTION Brite-Lite Group Biofloral Eddis Wholesale Greenstar Plant Products Inc. MegaWatt Quality Wholesale UK DISTRIBUTION Growth Technology Future Harvest Development Europe Nutriculture UK AUSTRALIAN DISTRIBUTION House N Garden Futchatec Growth Technology Hydraspher


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SIMON SAYS Hello Simon, I’m a new reader of Maximum Yield and need your input on a controversial question me and some of my fellow grower buddies have. Is it beneficial—in any way—to monitor one’s runoff water after drenching one’s soil with nutrients? Some say you can see the chemistry between your plant and its nutrients more efficiently, but I personally see it as totally unnecessary. I have never seen the need for it, basically because I always seem to get drastically false readings on my pH pen when testing the runoff, and my plants always look fine if I just stick to controlling the pH level of my nutes before applying them to the soil.

Thanks, Kyle S.

The subject of monitoring runoff water can definitely cause debate among growers. I will fan the flames by saying that wastewater testing is exceptionally interesting and can be important information for a grower. In a recirculating system, the runoff needs to be monitored to ensure an adequate level of nutrition and also that the nutrients in

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suspension are available to the plant (based on pH levels). In this case, it sounds like you are in a soil/soilless-based system, so I will try and tailor the answer to that style of gardening. For argument’s sake, I will also hazard a guess that you are growing in a peat-based medium.The first issue of growing in peat is the pH of


the material.With a pH range usually hovering between four and five, using peat for growing plants requires the use of a calcium supplement to boost the pH to a useful range. In most cases, the manufacturer will add lime of some sort to buffer the pH up. This is the first reason for you to check your runoff.The buffering effect of the lime only works for a certain amount of time, especially with frequent watering.After this point, the pH of your medium will drift lower and lower. Knowing when the pH starts to drop is an important management tool, especially if you are going long periods without transplanting. Runoff pH can also be affected by the plants themselves. Plants have an internal pH regulating system and they can also affect the localized pH around the rhizosphere by releasing exudates to suit their needs. The interactions at the root zone can affect the pH of runoff. The last major reason that your runoff pH can fluctuate is the presence of biology in your medium. Microbes tend to affect their environment. If you have ruled out fertilizer, medium and plant interactions as causes of pH drift it could be the microbiology. In a bacterial-based system, the pH will generally drift up. In a fungalbased system, which is more beneficial but far more difficult to manage, the pH will drift down. I would think that your point of inaccurate readings of the runoff water you have tested relates to one of the issues above. It is entirely possible for the pH of water leaving the medium to be much different than the solution you are top feeding to your plants. Remember to keep your testing equipment clean and calibrated to be on the safe side of accuracy. Given the way people like to over-apply fertilizer, another very important reason to test runoff is to see how much of your money is being wasted, and also if your plants are close to a nutrient absorption issue. Peat has a cation exchange rate, meaning essentially it can retain certain types of nutrients. Once these exchange sites are saturated, the nutrients in solution can reach levels that can harm your plants. Assessing the runoff concentration can, in this case, help you stop overfertilization and avoid damage to plants. It will also show you if high levels of soluble nutrient are draining through your medium and away from plant roots. The problem in assessing the salt level is that you do not know the specific elements that are causing the reading. In commercial operations, the readings are broken down into elements from either solution or tissue samples taken throughout the crop lifecycle.Through this, the grower can adjust nearly every aspect of their operation, from medium to fertilizer input. For the average home grower, these tests sometimes cost more than they are worth. In your case, when you look at your plants and they look healthy, that is the best observation possible. Experimenting is a great thing but a healthy crop is just as important.

Do you have a question for one of our resident experts? Send it to editor@maximumyield.com or fill out the form on maximumyield.com and your answer might be printed in an upcoming issue.

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MAX FaCTS

hyDROpONIC NEwS, TIpS aND TRIvIa

Slow Food’S 1,000 SuStainable GardenS For aFrica One thousand gardens are blooming across Africa, where the international organization Slow Food is helping schools, villages and other communities grow fruits, vegetables and herbs using sustainable water management, pest repellent and fertilizing techniques. In Uganda, most of the food that makes up the daily diet is imported. The country’s soil is rapidly losing fertility, local varieties are disappearing, young people are abandoning the countryside and contempt for farming work is widespread (schoolchildren are often sent to work in the fields as punishment for bad behavior). In this context, a project was launched in 17 schools, with a total of 620 students. Scholarships have enabled some young people from Africa to study at the University of Gastronomic Sciences in Italy and then return home to help their communities strengthen their economies and protect their cultural identities. (Source: www.treehugger.com)

MAXFACTS hyDROpONIC NEwS, TIpS aND TRIvIa

bumblebeeS: to FiGht or taKe FliGht

Due to disease problems in the late 1990s and declining bumblebee species, many greenhouse growers now use commercially produced Bombus impatiens, a generalist pollinator native to the Midwest and Eastern United States and Canada, to pollinate their crops like peppers and tomatoes. But scientists are concerned about using a bee outside its native range, and some western states restrict the import and use of non-native bees. If B. impatiens were to escape and form wild colonies in the western United States, they could compete with native bees for food and resources and expose native bumblebees to pathogens they are ill equipped to combat. (Source: www.ars.usda.gov)

VerSatile compound examined in cropS

teStinG FumiGant FilmS that Keep the air clean

Scientists are “spiking” laboratory diets fed to corn earworms and fall armyworms with saponins from soybeans, switchgrass, yerba mate and other sources to determine their effectiveness in protecting plants from insect attacks.

Researchers have found a way to help growers minimize emissions of fumigants used as soil treatments, as part of a special project to find the best alternatives to methyl bromide—which is being phased out as a fumigant because of its harmful effects on the Earth’s protective ozone layer.

(Source: www.ars.usda.gov)

(Source: www.ars.usda.gov)

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MAX FaCTS

hyDROpONIC NEwS, TIpS aND TRIvIa

SteadyGrowpro horticulture SpecialiStS teach children how to Grow plantS without SeedS at the children’S muSeum oF indianapoliS This summer horticulture specialists from steadyGROWpro presented five sessions titled Grow Plants Without Seeds. The interactive sessions were held in the Biotechnology Learning Center at The Children’s Museum of Indianapolis. Attendees learned how to clone a dappled willow in steadyGROWpro media, donated by steadyGROWpro, and learned how to care for their new plant at home. Presenters from steadyGROWpro included Dr. Pawan Srivastava (Dr. P). With a Ph.D. in post-harvest horticulture, Dr. P oversees all research and development for steadyGROWpro. In addition, Todd Trobaugh, a former educator in Kokomo Center Township Schools, was also a presenter. “We were pleased with this opportunity to partner with The Children’s Museum of Indianapolis to introduce plant propagation to local children,” says Kelvin Frye, steadyGROWpro’s national sales manager. “The children who participated were attentive and really enjoyed learning how to grow plants in a soilless media.”

Dr. P teaching children about horticulture.

india taKeS monSanto to court Agri-giants Monsanto, developers of India’s first genetically modified food crop—a variety of eggplant known as Bt brinjal—are being accused of biopiracy (biological theft) by the National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) of India. NBA says the developers of Bt brinjal used local varieties of eggplant in developing the GM crop “without prior approval of the competent authorities.” (GM Watch) (Sources: www.treehugger.com, www.gmwatch.org)

Flower power Scientists in Illinois are investigating the pest-fighting potential of anthocyanins, healthful chemical compounds in the form of plant pigments that give blueberries, plums, grapes and flowers such as petunias their blue and purple color. Studies of anthocyanins could give rise to new crop varieties that boast dual-use phytochemicals—fighting pests and benefiting human health. (Source: www.ars.usda.gov)

rhode iSland School receiVeS $200,000 naSa Grant For hydroponicS Farm Rhode Island farmer Mark Phillips built a 10 by five foot steel hydroponics installation inside teacher Deb Barone’s sixth grade classroom at Lawn Avenue School. The children have planted more than 200 plants. The hydroponics farm cost about $5,000 and was all paid for as part of a $200,000 NASA grant the schools received through the Jamestown Education Foundation. (Sources: www.jamestownpress.com)

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MAX FaCTS

hyDROpONIC NEwS, TIpS aND TRIvIa

reSearcherS tap yeaStS aS Source oF “Green” SurFactantS Surfactants, which are wetting agents that lower a liquid’s surface tension, have a long list of uses, including in pesticides. Most surfactants are petroleum-based, but an Illinois team of scientists and microbiologists has focused their-attention on sophorolipids, surfactant-like molecules produced by naturally-occurring yeasts. Only a few Candida yeast species had previously been shown to make the sophorolipids—most notably, C. bombicola and C. apicola, which boast the highest sophorolipid yields. The team’s research analysis turned up three other high-producing yeasts, including a new Candida species. The findings add to a short list of candidate yeasts with potential use in fermentation-based methods of mass-producing the “green” sophorolipids. (Source: www.ars.usda.gov)

youth employment and empowerment One group of Oregon youth is learning valuable agricultural and business skills, and they’re getting paid to do so at the Food Works youth training and empowerment program. This initiative is about much more than just teaching gardening. Many graduates of the program go on to receive college scholarships through the Janus Youth Program that founded Food Works. Stars of The Perennial Plate, Daniel Klein and Mirra Fine, spent time with the kids at Food Works and highlighted some of their good work in one of their latest episodes: Kids at a Farm. (Source: www.ars.usda.gov)

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MAX FACTS

hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Indoor Growing Made Easy Hydro-Organics is pleased to announce the launch of their first YouTube grow videos. The World’s Largest Hydroponic Ficus and Organic Natural Cloning of Indoor and Outdoor Plants videos are presented by Earth Juice and Hydro-Organics specialist Jason. Jason’s indoor gardening and organics knowledge is obvious and his basic presentation style makes the videos easy to understand for beginners. Simply visit youtube.com, search for the video titles and start learning to grow.

Planting a Rooftop Forest Garden The Reading International Solidarity Center (RISC) in Reading, Berkshire’s rooftop forest garden was created in 2002 as a means to grow food for its cafe, provide composting facilities, establish a meeting space and offer educational opportunities about food growing. You can find everything from Japanese mountain banana, Musa basjoo, to globe artichokes, Cynara scolymus, and forage for produce as you walk round. Nine years since its creation, RISC is now hosting a day-long event on forest gardening and its role in transforming our food systems. You can learn more about the whole project at www.risc.org.uk (Sources: www.treehugger.com)

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PRODUCT SpOTLIGhT

yOUR GUIDE TO ThIS mONTh’S

HOTTEST ITEMS ask for them at your local indoor gardening store.

dyna-mite leaf Sheen

Grow big with the Grotek mega pack

AmHydro has partnered up with Crop Protection Technology, Pte Ltd. to introduce Dyna-Mite Leaf Sheen. Regular use of Dyna-Mite Leaf Sheen removes accumulated debris. Dyna-Mite Leaf Sheen is an extremely concentrated non-toxic plant spray made of a unique blend of plant extracts and oils. It leaves practically no residue, no hardening of plant tissues and no harsh taste on edibles and herbs. The natural plant oils in Dyna-Mite Leaf Sheen bond with leaf surfaces to form a protective layer, locking in moisture and nutrients. Contact your local gardening shop for more information.

Grotek is proud to introduce the new limited edition Grotek Mega Pack, only available in the United States. The Mega Pack provides all of Grotek’s top formulas: Solo-Tek™ Bloom/Grow, Bloom Fuel™, Blossom Blaster™, Monster Bloom™, Heavy Bloom™, Vitamax Plus™ and Vegetative Growth Booster™. Also included is our award winning Grotek feed chart dial, now featuring one side for grow and one side for bloom. All of these amazing products are conveniently packaged in a limited edition Grotek cooler bag. Place your order today at your nearest indoor gardening retail shop.

introducing ntroducing SolarStorm™ olarStorm™ SolarStorm™ is the latest breakthrough in LED grow light technology. It combines a ginormous 800 watt LED panel with UVB fluorescent bulbs to deliver maximum potency. Separate controls for veg and bloom bring the right mix of blue and red light for each stage of plant development while UVB increases resin production and boosts potency in the final stage. Visit an indoor gardening shop near you for more information.

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evolution-ro1000 evolves with 1:1 ratio Hydro-Logic Purification Systems now offers customers the choice to conserve more water. The Evolution-RO1000 now includes the option to reduce your wastewater and achieve a true 1:1 ratio. Other systems require higher than standard household pressure to give true 1,000 GPD flow rates, cost nearly twice as much and do not give the option to choose your own ratio. Hydro-Logic is the clear choice for quality, customer support, cutting edge technologies and price. Contact your favorite retail distributor for more information on this exciting new update to the EvolutionRO1000. Pure water’s not magic. It’s logic.


Maximum Yield USA | October 2011

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PRODUCT SpOTLIGhT

SuperFood plants tabs – a breakthrough in bio-organic plant nutrition After over a year of development and testing, Organic Bountea, in partnership with Wonder Soil, has launched the all-new SuperFood Plant Tabs. SuperFood Tabs are a unique blend of Alaska Humisoil, nutrients, minerals and beneficial microbes. Manufactured using Wonder Soil’s patented system, the compact tabs quickly disperse in water to form a microbial and mineral rich suspension with all the benefits of premium compost tea. SuperFood Plant Tabs can be used to nourish all plants—indoors and outdoors. Boxes of 25 tabs are available through Organic Bountea authorized retailers.

ideal-airtm 24,000 and 36,000 btu 13 Seer mini Split air conditioners Announcing the release of the 24,000 and 36,000 BTU 13 SEER Mini Split Air Conditioners from Ideal-AirTM. Most mini split air conditioners require a service technician for installation. The Ideal-AirTM Mini Split Air Conditioners stand above the rest. Perfect for the grower with the do-it-yourself mentality, Ideal-AirTM mini splits offer quick connect fittings and pre-charged line sets to make installation a breeze. Ideal-AirTM has gone to great lengths to make installation of the mini-split a simple task for any skill level. Visit an indoor gardening shop near you for more information. 32

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Maximum Yield USA | October 2011

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PRODUCT SpOTLIGhT

ideal-airtm 50 pint dehumidifier Announcing the release of the 50 Pint Dehumidifier from Ideal-AirTM. If too much moisture in your grow area is an issue, Ideal-AirTM has you covered. This portable dehumidifier offers an easy-to-use digital display panel with humidity readings, a two gallon reservoir and a removable, washable filter. The built-in defrost system is designed for operation down to 45°F. A versatile machine, this dehumidifier has an automatic shut-off when the reservoir tank is full or it can be plumbed for permanent drainage. Designed with a heavy-duty compressor and three speed fan motor. Visit an indoor gardening retail store today for more information.

introducing botanicare’s new redesigned power cloner line Botanicare® Power Cloners™ have been modified and improved. Redeveloped with Botanicare’s low profile reservoir, these systems decrease propagation time and now include an array of new features and benefits: • Unique Botanicare Cord Guide designed to block sprayed solution and improve cord management • Drainage grid with a recessed pump • An internally seated tray • Humidome™ options* • Customizable points for installation of spouts and fittings • Botanicare Ceramic Airstones with Air Pump • Water volume indicator •

Dense neoprenes

These highly affordable second generation Power Cloners™—45, 77 and 180—are now available in black* (100 per cent recycled ABS plastic) and white (70 per cent recycled ABS). *Black Power Cloners do not include a Humidome. The Humidome can be purchased separately. Visit your favorite hydroponics shop for more information.

new mini Sunburst reflector The Mini Sunburst Reflector is lighter, more compact and a great value. These units are plug-and-play and come with a cord and lamp to get you started. Available in both 150 HPS and 175 watt MH versions, these reflectors have highly reflective interior specular surfaces. They are easy to hang, and will fit just about anywhere. Each unit includes instructions, hangers and lighting recommendations. For more information visit an authorized Hydrofarm retailer near you.

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introducing ntroducing Vineline™ ine™ The newest product in plant support is VineLine™. This durable polyethylene netting has a six inch by six inch mesh design and works great for guiding and supporting all types of climbing plants and flowers. This versatile product can be used in vertical or horizontal growing applications and will resist tangling. It’s reusable, which will save you time and money, and available in five by 15 feet and five by 30 feet quantities. For larger jobs, four by 3,300 feet industrial size rolls are also available. Visit a DL Wholesale authorized retailer for more information.


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PRODUCT SpOTLIGhT

titan Controls® orion 1™ 220/240 volt power supply Sunlight Supply®, Inc. is pleased to announce the release of the Orion 1™ 220/240 volt power supply from Titan Controls®. This innovative, solid-state device combines two different 110/120 volt circuits into 220/240 volt power. This allows a user to operate a device without the expense of having an electrician install a specific volt outlet in their grow space. The Orion 1™ features a patented safety circuit feature that automatically locks out power until all connections and voltages are correct. Safely use all the power you need and grow with peace of mind. Rated to 12 amps, ETL listed and manufactured in the USA. Visit an indoor gardening shop near you for more information.

Great new tools now available for indoor Gardeners Look to Barbed Reducers, available in three different sizes, for your next project. The reducers are double barbed for increased retention, and their sharp edges create a leak-proof seal. With increased strength and UV stabilization for long life, these are sure to hold up to even the toughest projects. They’re also heat, chemical and wear resistant. And the new standard mesh bottom tray fits snugly inside and outside of standard flats, perfect for suspending young plants or cuttings in nutrients. Ask for these great new tools from your authorized BWGS retailer today.

introducing ntroducing compost ompost tea t in a boxx

Safe brand products now available Safer® Brand offers the broadest and most successful line of organic gardening, organic insecticide and organic pest control products including: Insect Killing Soap, Rose and Flower Insect Killer, Tomato and Vegetable Insect Killer, Moss and Algae Killer, Bioneem Insecticide, Ringer Compost Plus, Diatomaceous Earth Insect Killer and Houseplant Sticky Stakes. Organic gardeners need organic insect killers to eliminate common garden pests without leaving behind harmful residuals. These OMRI® listed products will give gardeners peace of mind knowing the product they are spraying in their organic garden is certified organic. For more information visit an authorized Hydrofarm retail shop near you.

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Compost Tea in a Box brings the benefits of compost tea to the home/hobby gardener. It is designed to be used with a simple five gallon bucket set-up with an air pump and diffuser. It comes in three convenient sizes with detailed instructions and Earth Compound, Earth Tonic, Earth Syrup and Earth Kelp inputs calibrated to our proven recipe—20, 40 and 80 gallons. Compost tea can and should be used in every gardening situation. Visit an authorized Progress Earth retailer for more information and get started today.


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PRODUCT SpOTLIGhT

Sunleaves liquid Guano is a refreshing choice

maverick Sun’s new ducting and clamps

Gardeners looking for easy-to-apply and extremely effective fertilizer will love Sunleaves Liquid Guanos. Derived from bats, the Liquid Mexican Guano (0.8-0.5-0) encourages robust vegetative development and can be applied as either a foliar spray or directly onto soil. For bigger blossoms and juicier fruits, try Sunleaves Liquid Peruvian Seabird Guano (0-2.5-0), which can also be applied as either a foliar spray or directly onto soil. Both have the active ingredient of kelp extract, which will provide organic matter as food for soil microbes. It’s also the only liquid guano with a fresh spearmint scent. Now available from your local hydro retailer.

Maverick Sun’s ducting comes in convenient lengths for large or small grows. Their professional ducting is economical but made of premium quality no-tear material, and their lightproof ducting features a black rubber coating. Available in the traditional six and eight inch sizes and in smaller and larger sizes to accommodate ducting reducers. Maverick Sun’s clamps were designed to accompany any ducting or reflector in the market. Made from high quality durable steel, these clamps are easy to use and were built to last. Available clamp sizes in inches are: four, six, eight, 10 and 12. For more information visit an indoor gardening shop near you.

crop King™ and eZ lume™ magnetic ballasts Our brand new 1,000 watt magnetic ballasts are UL certified and use Aerovox capacitors. They are multi-voltage capable (120/240 volts) and feature two universal sockets. Their constant wattage output means no lamp flickering and with the flip of a switch they can be converted from MH to HPS ballasts. Both models have rubber feet to reduce noise and vibration. The EZ Lume™ ballast is made from white powder-coated aluminum housing and features heatdispersing fins on all four sides. The Crop King™ ballast sports two-toned blue and white steel housing. Both ballasts come with a five year warranty. Visit your local indoor gardening shop for more information.

Grower’s Secret Grow big 521 now available Changing the world starts in your own backyard. Finally there’s an all-natural fertilizer that is easyto-use, smells great and gives you results you can brag about. The formula combines nutrient-rich organic fish emulsion with patented Grower’s Secret Pro and lavender oil. Your plants will drink up the water-soluble nitrogen and other nutrients that help them thrive. Your plants will love the nutrients and you’ll love the results. For more information visit an authorized Hydrofarm retailer near you.

Continued on page 42

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PRODUCT SpOTLIGhT Continued from page 38

bountea Garden tea brew Kit – newly designed and more affordable Organic Bountea has transformed their older model Bountea Brew Kit to make brewing high quality Bountea compost tea simpler and more affordable. The Garden Tea brewer has a larger volume air pump and a newly designed, extra-efficient aeration system. The new rigid aeration unit includes a high-tech plastic air diffuser that increases water oxygenation and agitation, is easy to clean and practically unbreakable. The Garden Tea Brew Kit includes the same premium ingredients as the older model: three bags of Alaska Humisoil, and one pound of Bioactivator and M3. Root Web is now sold separately. Ask your favorite gardening retailer to carry Bountea products today.

introducing earth Syrup From progress earth Earth Syrup is a premium-crafted dry blend of natural, organic nutrients and beneficial materials. All materials are micronized to 500 micron or below for maximum solubility and availability. Earth Syrup is a carbon-based product that ignites the metabolic activities of soils and plants. The materials found within stimulate the growth of beneficial microorganisms and help plants in the vegetative and flowering cycle, as well as encourage higher yields and the production of flavonoids, essential oils and other primary co-factors that make plants smell and taste better. Earth Syrup can serve as a direct plant food and as an additive to improve a custom soil or fertilizer mix, or for creating compost tea in the Vortex Brewer™ system. Visit a biodynamic-friendly indoor gardening or hydroponic retailer near you for more information.

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one bad mother The Mother was designed using the latest in computer-aided technology providing optimum performance and efficiency. This T5 comes well ventilated to provide a long ballast life. On top of the fixture resides a hatch that opens into the ballast compartment for easy ballast replacement or repairs. The Maverick Sun high shine spectral reflector delivers more light to your plants, and installed veg lamps in the hood make it easy to open, plug in and get growing. The eight lamp fixture features two on/off switches enabling the user to run their choice of four or eight lamps at a time. Visit an indoor gardening retailer for more information.

introducing extreme propagation trays Tired of thin, flimsy trays that crack and warp? Then check out DL Wholesale’s brand new 10 by 20 inch Extreme Propagation Trays. These trays are three times thicker than any other tray on the market and feature wide ridges and continuous channels to evenly distribute water and offer better support for your grow mediums. Extreme Propagation Trays will last longer than standard trays due to their extreme thickness and will eliminate the need to constantly replace your trays, saving you precious time and money. Visit an indoor/outdoor gardening shop near you for more details.


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by Lee MccaLL

GrowinG orGanics—

Let’s Get

started eMbrace orGanics. iMprove your Garden. iMprove your Life.

High-quality food should not be a trend, nor should it be exclusively available only to those who can afford it. Although organic produce can be pretty expensive when purchased from the supermarket, there is one great way to reduce the cost— grow it yourself! It’ll take some time to get up to speed and it’s likely you’ll experience some challenges, but whatever effort you put into growing healthy, organic produce will eventually come back to you in lessons learned and beautiful produce grown for you and your family to enjoy. And you’ll be in control: growing your own food will allow you the freedom to be self-sustainable to the extent you desire. How much work or effort you are willing to put in will influence the outcome in terms of taste, aroma and final fresh weight of produce, but a little patience, some hard work and a bit of reading will have your organic garden up and running. The beauty of growing 46

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plants year-round is that anyone can do it—beginners, advanced horticulturalists and everyone in between are capable of producing excellent results. Over the years, organic gardening has developed into a pretty aggressive global trend. It can be applied indoors or out yearround using virtually the same materials for both hydroponic and soil-based systems. Some may think organic farming is messy and requires a lot of mucking about with muddy, soupy or


growing organics

“Growing your own food will allow you the freedom to be selfsustainable to the extent you desire.”

dusty ingredients—while this is true to a certain extent, there are a variety of clean products and techniques that can help the grower achieve superb organic results on a small- or largescale, all while staying relatively clean and dry. The techniques required are simple: with water-soluble tablets, place one in a gallon of water, shake and feed generously into the root zone; with refined liquid concentrates, apply at the rate of one tablespoon per gallon of clean water; with hose-end applicator systems, just attach, turn on the water source and apply to lawns, flower beds, vegetable gardens or trees; and with dry granular mixtures and powders apply one tablespoon per gallon of grow medium as a top dressing, pre-mixed into the soil or diluted into clean water. It seems that the refining technology implemented in fertilizer manufacturing has vastly improved across the industry in recent years, allowing growers to enjoy higher-quality results, whether in hydroponics, soil–based or soilless systems. One-part organic nutrient systems are great for those beginners, novice and even advanced growers who want to grow premium-quality organic produce without too much complexity in their fertilizer regime. Two bottles are all that is required: one comprised of a blend to promote vegetative growth and another containing a formula to stimulate flowering and fruiting production, if necessary. All-purpose one part systems also exist that consist of a single bottle that is used for all stages of growth and bloom. These types contain a fairly balanced N-P-K ratio, with adequate trace elements and micronutrients.

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Required dilution ratios may increase or decrease throughout the various growth stages, but only one bottle is needed for the entire lifecycle of a plant. These all-purpose one part systems are obviously the simplest method for the novice grower to handle, as there is only one bottle used instead of two. These solutions can actually be a very clean and simple way to provide your crop with an array of organic nutrition derived from botanical or other natural by-products such as kelp, worm castings, seabird and bat guanos, humus, blood meal, compost, molasses, fish emulsions, hydrolysates and more. Newer proprietary formulas even boast perfuming agents such as lavender, citrus or grape to further enhance the user-friendly appeal and

to mask the harsher smells from organic ingredients. When possible, mix with a de-chlorinated water source to encourage microbial activity in the solution. The de-chlorination and sediment removal systems available from most indoor gardening retail centers are far superior in performance and cost-efficiency of water production in comparison to standard kitchen sink faucet filters, providing much higher filtered water flow rates


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growing organics

“newer proprietary formulas even boast perfuming agents such as lavender, citrus or grape to further enhance the userfriendly appeal and to mask the harsher smells from organic ingredients.�

and removing much higher levels of contaminants from the water supply. For those growers wanting to take it up a notch from the all-purpose or one part nutrient systems, try implementing a granular or dry organic fertilizer mix as a top dressing to established or newly planted seedlings and cuttings, in conjunction with your chosen liquid nutrient solution. These mixes, which are pretty much idiot-proof when applied as directed, are relatively inexpensive compared to some liquid organic systems and provide a slow, time-released effect that allows the plants to absorb what they need as they need it. One part nutrient systems or dry organic fertilizer mixes used alone or in combination should produce lush growth and thick fruit sets with absolutely no need for cheap box-brand chemical fertilizers. Gardening on a windowsill, near a sunny window or in a sunroom are all great ways to grow healthy crops organically without the added expense and energy usage of indoor lights. Organic soil, coco and other soilless mixes all work effectively in wicking/capillary systems, one of my preferred methods for sun-kissed plants. These systems use a reservoir underneath the growing container portion of the system and allow the desired grow medium to transfer water from the reservoir up to the main portion of the root mass with no wicks required. The reservoir may have molded slots protruding from the base upwards that are filled with small amounts of the desired growing 50

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growing organics

media—organic soil, coco, peat or whatever you have chosen to employ. The main growing container holding all of the media and the root system has cutouts that connect the soil-filled slots in the reservoir to the soil mass in the main container. Capillary action occurs as a result and ensures that consistent moisture and air ratios are maintained in the root system, ensuring root health and reducing the probability of infectious disease.

Container

Reservoir

Plants are still plants at the end of the day, meaning the artificial environments we construct to raise them indoors can never be completely fail proof. The finest equipment, lighting and grow formulations are only ever as good as the operator in control of production. It is still not rocket science, though—water, air, nutrition and light provided in the correct proportions and increments will lead to plant growth. Organic gardening, when done properly, will renew and revitalize soil rather than deplete it, conserve water as opposed to polluting or wasting it and preserve heirloom genetics instead of diminishing them. As an avid follower of hydroponic and indoor gardening-related technologies, I highly recommend starting an organic gardening project for yourself—you’ll be delighted to discover how simple it can be to keep your footprint small and still produce quality, organic, homegrown grown produce. MY 52

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&

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

2 Why it Matters PLANT NUTRITION +

= P L A N T S U R V I VA L BY BENTLEY MILLS

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Photosynthesis and Plant nutrition 2

WE LEFT OFF AT “THE LIGHT IGHT REACTION”

includes cytochromes, ferrodoxin, ironTheree are two separate photosystems over sulfur proteins and plastocyanin. Again, which the light reaction takes place: the importance of plant nutrients photosystem I and photosystem II. One is evident by the presence of iron of the main differences between the (Fe) in ferrodoxin, copper (Cu) in two photosystems is that antenna pigplastocyanin and sulfur (S) in the ments of photosystem I absorb light iron-sulfur proteins. predominately of a wavelength of Once the electrons have reached 700 nanometers while the pigments this protein complex, they are of photosystem II absorb light mostly moved along the chain from one from the 680 nanometer wavelength. protein to another down an energy The two photosystems are joined by an gradient. As the electrons move down electron transport chain made of a numthis transport chain, the energy that ber of proteins, many of which contain they lose is used to add an extra phos phosinorganic nutrients within them. phate to ADP in order to make ATP. This When light energy is absorbed by the process is termed photophosphorylation. antenna pigments of the leaf it is funneled to As the electrons make their way down the the reaction centers of the two photosystems. protein transport chain they will eventually Once the absorbed light energy reaches the come to photosystem I. Once the electrons reaction center of photosystem II a water molhave made it to photosystem I, a process oc ocecule is split in the Hill Reaction. When the curs that very closely mirrors what happened at water molecule is split O2 evolves and electrons photosystem II.Various antenna pigments absorb light energy of a wavelength are bumped to a higher energy of 700 nanometers and that level. Two inorganic nutrients, “ WHEN LIGHT ENERGY IS ABSORBED BY energy is funneled to the manganese and chlorine, are THE ANTENNA PIGMENTS OF THE LEAF IT reaction center. Once the necessary for the Hill Reaction energy reaches the reaction to occur. Without them water I S F U N N E L E D TO T H E R E A C T I O N C E N T E R S center it is used to again molecules will not split and O F T H E T W O P H OTO S Y S T E M S .” elevate the two electrons to photosynthesis will not proceed. a higher energy level. After Zinc (Zn) has also been linked reaching a higher energy state the electrons again move to the Hill Reaction and deficiencies in zinc have been shown to result in impaired Hill Reaction activity. down an electron transport system much like they did after photosystem II. The big difference here is that the electrons THE HILL REAC TION: are not used to manufacture ATP, but instead they are used to 2 H 2O - - - > 4 E - + 4 H + + O 2 ( M N + C L ) reduce NADP to NADPH2. The NADPH2 is later used in the Calvin Cycle in the manufacturing It is from this reaction that oxyof carbohydrates from carbon dioxgen is evolved in photosynthesis. It ide—non-cyclic photosynthesis. was once believed that the oxygen As stated earlier, photophosreleased from photosynthesis came phorylation is the process by from the breakdown of carbon which ATP is created in the light dioxide, but that has been shown reaction. This is a very important not to be the case. After being process for it is the only time that sent to a higher energy state by ATP is created during photosynthe absorption of light energy in thesis. And just like nearly every photosystem II, the electrons from other event that occurs in photothe water molecule are trapped synthesis, photophosphorylation by a protein complex. This prois greatly affected by inorganic tein complex strongly resembles nutrients. Photophosphorylation an electron transport chain. It takes place in the protein chain

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Photosynthesis and Plant nutrition 2

that is located between photosystem II and photosystem I; more specifically, it occurs at the thylakoid membrane. Initially, in photosystem II, a water molecule is split up (the Hill Reaction) into an oxygen molecule, two electrons and four protons (H+). As discussed earlier, the two electrons are sent to a state of elevated energy due to the absorbance of light energy by chlorophyll molecules as well as some other pigments. Then these electrons proceed to move to photosystem I via a protein

“ I T I S E V I D E N T T H AT I N O R G A N I C N U T R I E N T S H AV E A M A J O R I M PA C T ON THE LIGHT REAC TIONS OF P H OTO S Y N T H E S I S .� chain, in the process losing much of the energy that they had gained. This energy is not just lost though. It is used to pump the protons that were released from the splitting of water across the thylakoid membrane from the stroma region of the chloroplast into the thylakoid. Pumping all of these protons across the thylakoid membrane sets up an electrochemical gradient, which drives the synthesis of ATP. Protons naturally will try to flow down the electrochemical gradient, from high potential to low potential. In this case the protons will try to move back into the stroma from the 58

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Photosynthesis and Plant nutrition 2

thylakoid. The protons move back across the thylakoid membrane into the stroma through an enzyme called ATP-synthase. When they move through this enzyme, into the stroma they are moving to an area of lower potential. The protons then must lose some energy along the way, right? Well they do, and this energy is used to put an inorganic phosphate ion, denoted Pi, to ADP, thus creating ATP. Inorganic nutrients are very crucial to the functioning of this process. Iron, sulfur and copper are all parts of proteins that are critical in the movement of electrons from photosystem II to photosystem I. Calcium is also very important in this process because it maintains membrane integrity. Obviously, this is very important when considering the flow of protons and electrons across the thylakoid membrane. Phosphorous too, plays an important role. Not only is phosphorous added to ADP to form ATP, it, like calcium, is important in maintaining membrane integrity. Toxicities, not just deficiencies, can have a detrimental effect on photophosphorylation. One well documented toxicity that can have adverse effects on the production of ATP is ammonia toxicity. When ammonia reaches toxic levels in the plant, one of the many problems that can occur is the uncoupling of photosynthetic phosphorylation. The production of ATP becomes uncoupled due to the detrimental effects of ammonia on the thylakoid membranes. As mentioned earlier, the functioning of the thylakoid membrane is integral in the production of ATP. When the membrane becomes distorted in any way, ATP production will inevitably fall, and the plant will suffer. Thus, it is important to not only know if you are deficient in an inorganic nutrient 60

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but to know when nutrients may be at toxic levels as well. This is why tissue testing should be done on a regular basis. It is evident that inorganic nutrients have a major impact on the light reactions of photosynthesis. Nitrogen is in every amino acid in a plant; thus, it must also be part of every single protein in a plant as well as being a major component of the chlorophyll molecule. Nitrogen is involved in nearly every aspect of the light reactions as well as photosynthesis as a whole. Phosphorous also plays a big role in the light reactions of photosynthesis. It is phosphorous that is added to the ADP to form ATP that will be used elsewhere in the plant for energy. Phosphorous is also part of NADP, which is reduced to the NADPH2 that goes on to the Calvin Cycle. Magnesium is the central component of the chlorophyll molecule and therefore is vital to the functioning of the light reactions of photosynthesis. Research has shown that up to 10 per cent of the magmag nesium in the plant is held in chlorophyll. Manganese, chlorine and possibly zinc are essential for the Hill Reaction to function. Iron, sulfur and copper are all parts of proteins that help move electrons between the two photosystems.

“ THE DARK REAC TION OF P H OTO S Y N T H E S I S B E G I N S W I T H T H E D I F F U S I O N O F C A R B O N D I OX I D E I N TO T H E L E A F V I A T H E S TO M ATA , W H I L E OX YG E N — C R E AT E D I N T H E L I G H T R E A C T I O N — D I F F U S E S .”

4. T R A N S P O R T O F P H OTO S Y N T H AT E S TO P H LO E M A N D T H E N TO OT H E R R E G I O N S O F T H E P L A N T. THE DARK REAC TION/ CALVIN CYCLE The Calvin Cycle is often referred to as the dark reaction of photosynthesis, which can be misleading as the Calvin Cycle can occur both during day and night. However, light is not Maximum Yield USA | October 2011

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Photosynthesis and Plant nutrition 2

“ R U B I S CO I S I M P O R TA N T B E C AU S E I T I S T H O U G H T TO B E T H E S I N G L E M O S T CO M M O N P R OT E I N O N T H E P L A N E T E A R T H .�

required for this reaction to proceed; hence the name. In the most general terms, the dark reaction of photosynthesis involves the evolution of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere into the plant where it is used to manufacture carbohydrates. The actual cycle is much more in-depth than that, however. Once again, inorganic nutrients play an important role in the many facets of the dark reaction of photosynthesis. As in the light reaction, inorganic nutrients have both direct and indirect effects on the dark reaction.

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The dark reaction of photosynthesis begins with the diffusion of carbon dioxide into the leaf via the stomata, while oxygen— created in the light reaction—diffuses. One plant nutrient that plays an essential role in the movement of carbon dioxide into the leaf is potassium (K). Carbon dioxide moves into the leaf through the stomata. The stomata, which are located mostly on the underside of the leaf, can be opened and closed by a plant as needed. The opening and closing of the stomata is regulated by guard cells that are located on either side of the stomata. The movement of potassium into the guard cells will determine whether they allow the stomata to remain open or closed. With potassium deficiencies, there will be problems in the movement of carbon dioxide into the leaves, as well as movement of oxygen out. Without much needed carbon from carbon dioxide, the plant may have to resort to mining carbon from inside the plant itself in order to manufacture much needed carbohydrates that will be used in respiration. In addition, oxygen has an inhibitory effect on photosynthesis, and when levels of oxygen inside a plant get too high, photosynthesis rates may drop. Once carbon dioxide has diffused into the intercellular spaces of the leaves, it then moves into plant cells where it is transported into the chloroplast so that it can be integrated into a carbon skeleton via the Calvin Cycle to form the precursors of starches, sugars, proteins and fatty acids. The Calvin Cycle begins with one molecule of carbon dioxide entering the cycle and combining with ribulose 1,5 bisphosphate, a five-carbon sugar to form a series of three-carbon compounds. This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme rubisco. Rubisco is important because it is thought to be the single most common protein on

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Photosynthesis and Plant nutrition 2

the planet Earth. In addition, magnesium and perhaps manganese are essential for the functioning of this enzyme. Without the presence of at least one of these elements this enzyme will not function, carbon dioxide will not be fixed by ribulose 1,5 bisphosphate and the Calvin Cycle will not proceed. After going through a reduction stage a molecule of glyceraldehyde three-phosphate, a three-carbon compound is produced. Glyceraldehyde three-phosphate is then used in the synthesis of sugars, starches, fatty acids and proteins. Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate is then regenerated and sent to combine with another molecule of carbon dioxide. A question could then be posed: How is glyceraldehyde three-phosphate, a three-carbon compound produced and ribulose 1,5 bisphosphate, a five-carbon compound, regenerated while only adding one molecule of carbon dioxide? The answer is that the cycle must turn three times, thus adding three carbon dioxide molecules in order to produce one molecule of glyceraldehyde three-phosphate. Most of the glyceraldehyde three-phosphate that is produced, moves into the cytosol of the cell where it is used in a variety of reactions. Most of the glyceraldehyde three-phosphate that remains in the chloroplast is converted into starch and stored temporarily as starch granules that are later exported to the rest of the plant for use.

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“ W H E N O R G A N S S U C H A S F LO W E R S A R E F O R M I N G , T H E R E I S A G R E AT N E E D F O R P OTA S S I U M I N A P L A N T.�


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Photosynthesis and Plant nutrition 2

TRANSPORT OF PHOTOSYNTHATE After the products of photosynthesis—sugars, starches, fatty acids and proteins—are formed they must be moved from their point of origin or source, to a location where they are needed—a sink. Photosynthates are moved around the plant via the phloem tissue. Two elements in particular are crucial for the movement of photosynthate from source to sink. Potassium, in addition to its many other roles in the plant, serves to transport the products of photosynthesis around the plant. When organs such as flowers are forming, there is a great need for potassium in a plant. When deficiencies in potassium occur, there is often decreased flower set or a decrease in flower size and quality. The importance of potassium during times of high metabolic demand cannot be understated.

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Calcium is also important in the movement of photosynthate around a plant. Calcium has been found to be important in the loading of the phloem with the products of photosynthesis. If calcium were deficient, there would be problems with getting photosynthate into the phloem tissue and thus it would not be available to sink areas on the plant. I N O R G A N I C N U T R I E N T S H AV E B OT H D I R E C T A N D I N D I R E C T E F F E C T S O N P H OTO S Y N T H E S I S : DIRECT EFFECTS Usually reversible, such as rapid recovery of rate of net photosynthesis when a deficient element is reintroduced at the proper level (manganese in chloroplasts, for example). INDIRECT EFFECTS Ions involved in synthesis of enzymes and pigments, those involved in transport, etc. Potassium has an indirect effect via control of stomatal opening and closing. This concludes our discussion of photosynthesis and plant nutrition. For further reading on the topic, visit http://florahydroponics.com MY


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do you

Know

What You’re Eating? SafEly ConSumEd by Ed Harwood

Food safety should not be a consumer concern; they have enough to worry about. Food safety needs to start with the grower. When food is grown hydroponically, there are added challenges. Read on to find out what those are and how to overcome them.

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do you know what you’re eating?

What is Food saFety? One of the concepts that needs to be in included in the definition of sustainability is that of food safety. Let’s face it, if you can’t provide a safe product, your business is not likely to be sustained, nor will you have the resources to be sustainable! The Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA)—passed in January of 2011—does not apply to businesses that produce less than $500,000 in sales annually and the FDA is still determining what other factors will require a facility to register. This does not mean, however, that the steps bigger producers are taking can’t inform smaller operations about safety considerations and processes. In fact, your customers may insist that you follow some of these practices. To begin, let’s imagine what might be behind the need for a food recall. If contaminated food makes it through the distribution process to the recall stage, it had to have been contaminated somehow, it had to make someone sick or caused death and it now must be traced back to the grower or handler, who will suffer consequences. On top of the inevitable brand damage, the real damage will occur if the producer can’t quickly and efficiently trace the source of the contamination (in order to stop it) and the product affected (to get all of the contaminated product out of the food chain).

“The Food SaFeTy ModernizaTion acT (FSMa)—paSSed in January oF 2011—doeS noT apply To buSineSSeS ThaT produce leSS Than $500,000 in SaleS annually.”

This is deadly serious business—if you can’t find the source of the contamination, then you risk another recall and the certain demise of your business.You can imagine what a recall will do to your customer relations and how difficult it will be to face the press and answer questions about the product affected.

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do you know what you’re eating?

“you MuST learn The rudiMenTS oF Food SaFeTy even iF you give Food away. prevenTion oF conTaMinaTion iS your priMary Tool in keeping Food SaFe. ”

Food safety is a serious topic. In the annual report for 2010 the 229 primary industry and regulatory Reportable Food Registry (RFR) entries that would be of most concern were: Listeria monocytogenes at 14.4 per cent; E. coli O157:H7 at 2.6 per cent; ‘other’ at seven per cent; foreign objects at 1.3 per cent; and Salmonella at 37.6 per cent.

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Although some of these entries are from foreign products and few are from things grown hydroponically, it helps to identify what we need to watch for and prevent from getting into our food. It is reasonable to believe that we can avoid many of these risks by growing in a protected environment, but it is true that we cannot avoid all of them. Nothing about hydroponics is inherently completely safe, although as a growing method it may be potentially safer than outdoor farming. You should note that a recall is not something that the size of your annual sales or the type of farm you operate will necessarily always help you to get out of. The FDA, via FSMA, has the duty to order recalls based on presumed contamination and the rules will be


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do you know what you’re eating?

“The beST place To STarT wiTh Food SaFeTy iS beFore iT leaveS your conTrol. conTaMinaTed producT ThaT haS noT leFT your FaciliTy iS noT required To be reporTed becauSe iT doeS noT yeT poSe a ThreaT.” science-based, while remaining flexible with regard to a number of factors, including size and type of farm.The emphasis will be on prevention and traceability.

your role and responsibility The industry refers to the programs and processes leading to safe food as quality control.You can think of quality control as a

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collection of related steps that reduce the risk of contamination, although no process or program can guarantee safe food—there will always be some risk involved. The FDA maintains a website that details easy steps for compliance and it should be obvious that utilizing the resources of the government in this fashion demonstrates appropriate concern for people’s wellbeing, even if you might initially see it as meddling or heavy-handed. The FDA will require you to have records that will allow you to retrieve purchaser information easily and rapidly.You are also obligated to keep records that will allow you to identify the source of all products and related processes. You must learn the rudiments of food safety even if you give food away. Prevention of contamination is your primary tool in keeping food safe. Assuming that you only use fertilizer and no other chemical inputs, then your main concern will be microbial contamination. All microorganisms require water, food and appropriate temperatures to thrive and the removal of any of these conditions for life will create safer food by reducing the reproduction of harmful organisms or promoting their death. Although microbes don’t do well when dried out, this happens often in their world so they have coping mechanisms and can return quickly when exposed to moisture again. Microbes like food as well, but most of the time we can remove their favorite foods by using care in sanitizing our processes and tools. Washing hands and wearing gloves, only handling food when we are well and keeping our tools clean are important rules that must always be observed.You should also remember that sanitizers are not generally effective unless used on a cleaned surface. The rule that is most important to remember as it relates to food production is temperature control.With few exceptions, produce has a longer shelf life when it is kept cool.A harvested plant begins to deteriorate as soon as it is cut and the faster we cool it, the less deterioration occurs. As soon as we allow the harvested food to warm up again, the deterioration begins anew. Interestingly, most refrigerators are not cool enough. Do you have a thermometer in yours? When I sold product, I used an


do you know what you’re eating?

“wiTh SpeciFic reFerence To hydroponicS, There are SoMe Technical paperS available ThaT deScribe ThoSe huMan and planT paThogenS SoMeTiMeS Found in nuTrienT SoluTionS.” IR thermometer to find the coolest spot in my customer’s walk-in: I placed my basket there, and thus ensured a good shelf life.

hoW do We achieve loW risk oF Food contamination? The best place to start with food safety is before it leaves your control. Contaminated product that has not left your facility is not required to be reported because it does not yet pose a threat. After products leave your facility, the threat is real and must be reported. So, let’s focus on what to look for and what to do. The industry uses HACCP (Hazard and Critical Control Points) to formulate prevention plans to avoid food contamination. There are third-party organizations (meaning neither you nor the government runs them) that will help construct these programs and certify that you meet the requirements. The HACCP system is a method to identify each hazard that could befall your product and show where it requires control. The steps supporting the method are fairly simple—first, assess the hazards; then determine the critical control points, the limits and monitoring procedures; and finally, establish corrective actions, verification procedures and a record-keeping system. As a grower doing your best to comply with these requirements, you will need to assess your preparedness: 1. Have you documented the required procedures for record keeping and maintaining food safety? And does everyone in your organization know their part? 2. Are your food safety needs included in your standard operating procedures? And do your SOPs for purchasing, receiving, packaging, inspection, clean-up and shipping include food safety protocols? 3. Are all your personnel adequately trained? And do they understand why food safety must be considered in every decision and practice? 4. Are you implementing all the procedures you are documenting? And are you auditing this periodically to prove your compliance? 5. Are there procedures in place to deal with the situation if a problem is identified by your organization or somewhere further down the food chain? Who will implement a recall if necessary, who will be your spokesperson and what will be said? 76

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do you know what you’re eating?

more to learn With specific reference to hydroponics, there are some technical papers available that describe those human and plant pathogens sometimes found in nutrient solutions and how to control them. There are many techniques described to combat plant pathogens, including UV sterilization, membrane filtration, a variety of chemicals and some biological curbs, although much less information is currently available about human pathogens—their existence, ability to survive, pathogenicity, entry into plants and prevention.This is a fertile (pun intended) area for exploration! MY

Further reading: GFSI - www.mygfsi.com The Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) is a collaboration between some of the world’s leading food safety experts from retailer, manufacturer and food service companies, as well as service providers associated with the food supply chain. It is coordinated by The Consumer Goods Forum, the only independent global network for consumer goods retailers and manufacturers worldwide. It serves the CEOs and senior management of nearly 400 members, in over 150 countries. LGMA - www.caleafygreens.ca.gov The California Leafy Greens Marketing Agreement (LGMA) is a model program that was created in 2007 to protect public health. Today, the LGMA is working to establish a culture of food safety on leafy greens farms. A proven collaboration between government and farming communities, the LGMA incorporates science-based food safety practices and mandatory government inspections in an effort to assure safe leafy green products. Continuous improvement of the LGMA is achieved through required corrective action and industry education. FSMA - www.fda.gov/food/foodsafety/fsma/default.htm Cornell University GAPS - www.gaps.cornell.edu An online course with everything you need to know. UC-Davis Post Harvest - http://postharvest.ucdavis.edu The best site to learn all about how “to reduce post-harvest losses and improve the quality, safety and marketability of fresh horticultural products.” 78

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GREEN THUMB GaRDENING

LET THE WORMS DO THE WORK

Composting with earthworms, or vermicomposting, is great for apartment dwellers who don’t have yard space, and for homeowners who don’t want to hike through snowdrifts to a backyard compost bin; and kids love keeping hundreds of wigglers for pets.

Covered Bin Your worms can live in a plastic bin or wooden box with plenty of air holes punched in the sides and top. Line the worm bin with nylon net to keep the small ones in. Holes in the bottom are needed for drainage, so you’ll want a tray under the bin.You may find it more convenient to have several smaller, more portable units rather than one large one.

Bedding Loam or black topsoil makes particularly good bedding material. Bedding can also be shredded newspapers, soaked to soften the edges (the worms will eat this too, so avoid colored inks and glossy paper) or a mixture of sawdust, peat, shredded leaves and soil. Fill the bin with about a foot of bedding, about as damp as a wrung-out sponge—not soggy and not dry.With a lid on the bin and regular feeding of the worms, maintaining the correct moisture level shouldn’t be difficult.

worms You’ll want the kind of worms that are sold for fishing bait—red wigglers or brandling worms. Redworms normally live in barnyard manure piles and feed on fresh organic material.Your valuable little redworms will live quietly in their dark box and multiply rapidly. Just bury your leftovers in their bedding after each meal. It is unlikely that you will have too much waste to compost (redworms will eat their own weight in kitchen scraps and bedding each day).The castings they produce are incredibly rich fertilizer and look like finetextured soil. For each cubic foot of worm bin, plan on using a half pound of red wigglers (about 500 depending on their size).

Food Coffee grounds, vegetables and fruit are the recommended food for worms. A varied diet is important. Avoid bones, dairy products,

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meats, garlic and potato peelings—what doesn’t cause odors or attract insects will simply take a very long time to breakdown. Eggshells are essential to keep the bedding from becoming too acidic for the worms. Dry them well, crush them and sprinkle the tiny pieces over the top of the bedding.

temperature Redworms will survive in temperatures from 41°F to 90°F but prefer it at or above room temperature. If you keep the worm bin outside in good weather, be ready to bring it in promptly when the temperature drops.

harvesting the Castings Removing the compost couldn’t be easier.You will notice that redworms hate the light; they’ll wriggle down into their bedding whenever you take the lid off the bin. Every few months—when the castings outweigh the bedding that remains—place the opened bin under a very bright light and give the worms 10 minutes to get well away from the surface. Then the coast is clear for scraping away the worm castings from the top layer. When you start to see the worms again, keep the light on them, give them another 10 minutes to go deeper still and remove the next layer of compost. Keep going in this way until the harvest is done. Then fill up the bin with fresh bedding and start again.

outdoors Some people build special worm pits to take advantage outdoors of the worms’ natural talents. To make a worm pit, all you have to do is dig a square hole a couple of feet deep and set a bottomless box over it. The compost materials and worms are tossed in here.You can keep adding organic waste as it accumulates. Keep the pile damp and dark and the worms will do the rest. Remember to harvest your compost carefully—in bright sunshine—to save the worms from an unpleasant fate. They won’t live long if they’re stranded in ordinary garden soil, dumped there with a forkful of compost. MY Article supplied by the New Brunswick Department of Environment (www.gnb.ca)


the scented Oasis Cultivate a perfumed paradise indoors by dr. lynette morgan Many of the hydroponic plants we grow are destined to become food or flavorings, some are planted purely for visual effect and then there are those that appeal to another important sense—smell. Aromatic plants have been an important part of horticultural history ever since humankind discovered the vast array of scents and essential oils that plants could produce. While it can take tons of plant material to produce decent quantities of scent extract, growing aromatic plants indoors can still be a pleasant and rewarding experience.

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The importance of aromatics

Aromatherapy, which has long been part of some medical traditions, is used by many people these days as a way of helping to deal with illness and daily stress and for relaxation and meditation. Medieval healers used to prescribe walks through scented gardens as a way of restoring health and spirits. Smell is one of the most powerful of our senses since it is linked to parts of the brain that deal with and process emotions. When the tiny volatile particles of aromatics in the air released by plant material are inhaled, they stimulate the olfactory receptor cells in a process termed olfaction. These impulses are then transmitted to the limbic system, which is connected to areas of the brain dealing with memory, breathing and blood circulation. How these systems are stimulated depends on the properties of the fragrance. Since smell directly stimulates the memory centers of the brain, certain scents can trigger memories and emotions. Many people also believe that certain plant aromatics can either energize, such as peppermint, or relax, such as lavender.

Hydroponics and scented plants

Hydroponics offers a unique opportunity to grow aromatic plants. Woody, hardy aromatic species such as thyme, sage, rosemary, lavender and scented geraniums will concentrate the aromatic oils that produce their characteristic aromas when grown

Peppermint scented geranium releases an incredible scent when the leaves are crushed or warmed.

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Some strains of dianthus can not only have brilliant color but a strong scent as well.

under slightly stressful conditions. Outdoors, this would mean high light levels, warm temperatures and moisture stress; however, we can replicate this effect in hydroponics by increasing the EC of our nutrient solution. Pushing EC in the root zone to much higher levels than we would normally use for leafy herbs reduces the amount of water taken up by the plant and held in the foliage, thus allowing the scented oils to become more concentrated. High EC levels combined with a free-draining medium and good lighting can intensify this effect to an even greater degree, and while less vigorous foliage growth will be recorded under these conditions the aromatics can be increased significantly to levels much higher than would normally occur under protected growing conditions. Hydroponic systems for scented plants can be as varied as the plant species themselves. Many of the Mediterranean aromatic plants such as rosemary, sage and thyme perform best in very free-draining media—such as coarse perlite—as they are intolerant of overwatering. Succulent plants such as mint and lemongrass prefer a more moisture-retentive growing medium and will produce well in NFT, aeroponics or other solution culture systems, although their growth rate can be rapid and they have a tendency to become invasive if not regularly pruned, divided, cut back and generally contained. Nutrient solutions for aromatic plants can be as simple as vegetative formulations for young plants, switching later to bloom mixes for those that produce flowers. A potassium supplement or booster is a good additive for many aromatic plants as they come to maturity combined with a gradual increase in EC as the plant develops. 86

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Visit us at booth 343 in long Beach

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Old fashioned petunias make a great display and will also perfume the air.

Indoor growing conditions may also be varied. In general, warm, humid conditions produce rapid and occasionally excessive foliage growth, which does not always correlate well with a high level of aromatics in the plant. Slower growth often concentrates the aromatic compounds in many species. Most aromatic plants are also just as prone to pests and diseases as other species, despite what is sometimes believed about aromatic compounds repelling insects. Whitefly in particular love basil plants and the aroma doesn’t appear to be any sort of deterrent. Aphids, thrips and mealy bugs are insect pests common to many herbs and other scented plants and need immediate control with soft sprays (such as those containing neem) so that the resulting plant material can be safely used for aromatherapy.

Scented plants for indoors spaces A scented garden is the simplest form of aromatherapy—some plants may directly waft their scent into the air, particularly when conditions are warm and volatile oils are being naturally released. Other plants may need their foliage gently crushed to release sufficient aromatics. Some natural plant scents can be very

Aromatic herbs such as basil, lemongrass, thyme and oregano contain volatile aromatic compounds that contribute to the flavor profile of the foliage.

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the scented oasis

The indoor scented garden can also look great as well as perfuming the air.

strong in a small enclosed area, while others provide delicate background notes of perfume. Most people assume that flowers are responsible for most of the scent in the plant world but this isn’t necessarily the case. There are many plants with scented foliage and even some fruits contribute olfactory delights—aromatic oils such as lemongrass, peppermint and eucalyptus come from plant foliage, while lime, lemon and orange scents can be extracted from citrus fruit peel. Scented foliage has the benefit of providing aromatics at all stages of growth—even young seedlings tend to have some characteristic scent—whereas flowering can be rather seasonal or short-lived in other plants. However, for the indoor gardener looking for a splash of color and some scent, some of the dwarf annuals such as snapdragons can provide both within a relatively short timespan.

sCented herbs

Most of us are familiar with at least some of the scented herb species since many also have culinary uses as well.The way we smell aromatics in plants is actually very closely linked to our sense of taste. Much of the flavor we associate with aromatic plants is actually due to the interaction of olfaction and taste that occurs when plant cells are broken down and volatile compounds released. Since we can only really distinguish five main elements of taste—salt, sweet, sour, bitter and umami—it’s the many thousands of volatile compounds we can detect through our sense of smell that contribute

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the scented oasis

most to the actual flavor we think we are tasting in our food.The most common scented herbs grown for aromatic uses are sage, rosemary, thyme, basil, lemongrass, bergamot, mint, lemon balm, oregano, marjoram and lavender. Many herbs such as basil and mint demonstrate a range of scent overtones within the same species; varieties of basil include lemon, cinnamon, clove scented and Thai, while mint can be found as spearmint, peppermint, apple mint, chocolate mint and a few rarer varieties, each possessing its own unique aroma.

sCented geraniums

Among fragrant plants well suited to indoor gardens are scented geraniums, tender perennials of the genus Pelargonium. These geraniums, which were widely grown in the Victorian era and had a range of uses from scented garden displays to perfumes, potpourris and cooking, are now coming back into fashion among gardeners. Scented geranium plants are widely available and most need to be propagated from cuttings to retain their aromatic characteristics. The range of scents available within this plant species is truly incredible and sometimes almost hard to believe—most have strong and distinct aromas and some can even be used in baking! Scented geraniums perform well in hydroponics—they do need regular trimming to be kept compact and perform best in media-based systems with a moderately high EC level. Good airflow is also essential to prevent fungal disease and the plants generally don’t tolerate overwatering or a saturated growing medium. Keeping the growing medium slightly dry not only increases the intensity of the scent but also helps prevent disease. Some of the most popular scented geraniums fall into categories like rose scented, citrus scented, fruit scented, mint scented, spice scented and pungent scented, with a wide range of specific cultivars within each scent category. Rose scented geraniums (Pelargonium graveolens) are grown commercially for the extraction of essential oils from their foliage, which is used in the perfume

Dwarf annual flowering plants make a quick, bright and aromatic display indoors.

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Snapdragons have long been a scented garden favorite, however they grow just as well in hydroponic systems.

industry. Common rose scented varieties include Attar of Roses and Grey Lady Plymouth, although there are many others among the rose scented types also worth growing. Of the citrus scented geraniums some of the more common are Citronella (lime, lemon or orange scented) and Rober’s Lemon Rose.The most distinct and easy to grow of the mint scented geraniums is Pelargonium tomentosum, which has highly aromatic peppermint scented foliage and the advantage of being able to be propagated by seed. Other mint types include camphor rose, peppermint lace and chocolate mint.The fruit-scented types include apple mint, apricot and peach scented. Spice scented types can present some of the strongest aromas, with nutmeg, cinnamon, ginger and Old Spice, while pungent scented varieties have been described as having

Mint comes in many forms from peppermint and spearmint to apple and chocolate mint.

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Thyme has a high concentration of aromatic oil contained in the foliage.

pine, cedar, balsam, woody, spicy and lavender scents.

Flowers

Flowering plants provide a fairly diverse range of scents, colors and plant forms, but for indoor gardens dwarf varieties are often the best suited as they don’t need to be staked or supported and they often flower much sooner than the taller types. Lavender is perhaps the best-known aromatic flowering plant and will grow indoors if sufficient light and space is provided. A dwarf strain such as lavender dwarf Munstead (Lavandula angustifolia)—which only grows to 12 inches high but produces that true olde English scent—is a good choice for indoor gardens. Of the dwarf annual or perennial flowers, those with the most pronounced scents are the flowering stock (night scented varieties in particular), which include certain strains of dianthus, lily, aquilegia, flowering tobacco (Nicotiana), sweet pea, old-fashioned petunia, wallflowers and violets. Many bulbs are also highly scented, and although the outdoor flowering season may be short for these species, they can be grown year-round with the use of artificial chilling (which involves refrigeration for several weeks) and warm indoor growing conditions. Favorite scented bulbs include freesia, hyacinths, tuberose, lily of the valley, jonquils, scented tulips, narcissi and scented lilies. In hydroponics, bulbs are best supported in either a freedraining medium or in specific bulb-production systems, which hold the bulk of the bulb above the flow of nutrient solution to prevent rot. Bulbs are an excellent short-term flowering crop for many indoor situations as they can be forced to bloom out of season, and they provide compact but bright and fragrant displays. Fragrant gardening is a somewhat novel approach to utilizing hydroponics in order to create relaxing and inviting indoor spaces where color and aromatherapy can combine. With some careful attention to the right blend of fragrances and foliage you can create spectacular ambiance in any indoor area. MY Maximum Yield USA | October 2011

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. s c i n o p o r d y H Italian Style.

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att by M

er ist n an LeB

The besT besT greens, herbs and TomaT omaToes essenT essenTial To an iTalian iT alian indoor garden.

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“the San Marzano toMato iS conSidered by MoSt chefS worldwide to be the abSolute beSt Sauce toMato and it MuSt therefore be included in any indoor italian garden.” Italy is a country that seems to hold a certain allure for most people. After all, it’s the birthplace of the Renaissance, the movement that brought about a revolution in art and science. It’s a land that lovers dream of, a place of culture and the source of many of the world’s finest wines. And what better to accompany some of the planet’s best wines than some of the tastiest cuisine on earth? Italy is so well known for its superb cuisine that it has inspired food trends across the globe. There are not many places in North America where you cannot find good Italian food and the same is becoming true almost anywhere you may travel. Authentic Italian cuisine really is one of the world’s most desirable tastes and this can be traced back directly to the quality of the produce that is being used. Although many ingredients that are typical in Italian kitchens today are not originally native to Italy, they’ve found a home there due to their importation during the age of exploration; and the introduction of beautiful components such as tomatoes and basil from other countries has influenced modern Italian cuisine profoundly. It is no wonder many gardeners are now trying to bring the Italian garden home and indoors when Italian food makes use of so many wonderful ingredients!

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hydroPonics. italian style.

In this installment of our International Edible Gardens series we will discuss a few of the vegetables, herbs and greens that are typically found in Italian cuisine. The tomato has become synonymous with Italian cuisine and is used in pasta sauces, pizza sauce, salads and bruschetta; it is cooked, eaten sundried or just enjoyed plain. It seems there are thousands of uses for tomatoes in Italian cuisine, but this has not always been the case. In fact, tomatoes originated in South America, most likely in what is now modern day Peru. It is argued that tomatoes were first brought back to Europe by the Italian explorer Christopher Columbus (working for the Spanish) or by the Spanish explorer Hernando Cortez. Apparently these first tomatoes were a far cry from the tomatoes of today, however—the Italian word for tomato is pomodoro, which translates to golden apple.Through generations of selective breeding the tomato has changed over the years and there are now countless varieties to enjoy, many with very different characteristics and their own distinct flavors. The classic Italian tomato is the Roma and of all the different Roma tomato varieties there is one that truly stands out— the San Marzano tomato is considered by most chefs worldwide to be the absolute best sauce tomato and it must therefore be included in any indoor Italian garden. It is also known to be the only tomato sauce to be allowed on true Neapolitan pizza. San Marzano tomatoes can be grown easily indoors in soil, hydroponics or any other available medium.They are a bright red vine/plum tomato similar to the common Roma tomato, but thinner and a little pointier. San Marzano tomatoes are rich in flavor with few seeds, making them ideal for sauces and canning. They reach about six feet high and usually require staking to avoid plant damage.This particular tomato is an indeterminate variety, meaning the fruit will develop gradually, and the plants will mature in 75 to 85 days.The ideal pH range for San Marzano tomatoes is between 5.8 to 6.8 in soil and 5.8 to 6.4 in hydroponics. For these tomatoes to thrive indoors they require lots of light and so should be grown under HID (high intensity discharge) bulbs. These light bulbs best imitate the conditions of a plant exposed to full sunlight, but they’re strong—so keep them far from the fragile seedlings and gradually bring them closer to the plants as they mature.When the plants are more mature you can keep the lights roughly a foot away from the plant tops. 98

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To keep San Marzano tomatoes in their vegetative phase requires 18 hours of uninterrupted light followed by six hours of uninterrupted darkness, while to have your tomatoes bloom indoors you’ll have to change the photoperiod to 12 hours of uninterrupted daylight followed by 12 hours of uninterrupted darkness. San Marzano tomatoes are open-air pollinated and are considered an heirloom strain.To pollinate them indoors you’ll have to be creative—by touching the end of a small paintbrush to each flower several times a day you can effectively spread pollen from flower to flower, pollinating the plants. Soon after this process the plants will begin to produce delicious San Marzano tomatoes, which can then be picked when ripe and enjoyed. There are a variety of different edibles typically grown in an Italian garden and greens must be included in any respectable plot, so we’ll have to discuss a few types of Italian greens that can be grown indoors easily. One of the seemingly endless varieties of Italian lettuces is the Mortarella Verde, an Italian romaine variety with long green leaves that form a tall, compact head. Mortarella Verde is considered very tasty and tender. Another great lattuga or lettuce is Lollo Bionda, a mediumgreen loose-leaf type with thick, ruffled leaves. A flavorful variety with a slightly bitter taste, Lollo Bionda is known to have an excellent shelf life, meaning it can survive several days in the fridge or in any cool space. Lollo Rossa, another loose-leaf variety, is Lollo Bionda’s red cousin, a tight rosette of blood red or violet ruffled leaves with a pale-green base. The Lollo Rossa is considered to be quite bold, with a slight bitterness and a subtle nutty flavor. Most Italian greens have good nutritional value. They can contain vitamins A and C, folate and iron, usually have a multitude of antioxidants and some even contain quercetin, a natural antihistamine. They are generally used in salads and as soup garnishes. Most varieties of Italian lettuce can be grown indoors quite easily, although they grow best outdoors with full sun and partial shade throughout the day. To meet these lighting requirements indoors you can grow your lettuce under an array of high-output T5 fluorescent light bulbs.

“one of the SeeMingly endleSS varietieS of italian lettuceS iS the Mortarella verde, an italian roMaine variety with long green leaveS that forM a tall, coMpact head.” Maximum Yield USA | October 2011

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You can also grow them under HID light bulbs as long as the bulbs are kept a fair distance away from the leaves, as lettuce tends to get leaf burn from the heat of the lights. Italian lettuce grown in soil or soilless mixes can tolerate a pH range of 5.6 to 7.5 but will do best in the pH six to 6.8 range. When grown in hydroponics, the ideal pH range is between six and 6.5. Harvesting the lettuce can be done a few leaves at a time or a whole plant at once, but by only taking a few leaves per plant you can allow your lettuce to continue growing and producing nutritious leaves. No Italian garden would be complete without at least one delicious herb. Although Genovese basil is one of the most commonly used herbs in Italian cuisine, like the tomato it was not native to Italy, but originated in India and was brought to Italy through the spice trade. Genovese basil—or sweet basil as it is more commonly known—is more aromatic than its Thai cousin and the oval leaves are broad, crinkled and green. Genovese basil is used in all kinds of Italian dishes as a seasoning, in pasta and pizza sauces and salad dressings, and it is the key ingredient in pesto sauce. Basil can be easily grown indoors and does well in soil or soilless mixes and various hydroponic media. It does well under an array of high-output T5 fluorescent light bulbs or under HID bulbs, and flourishes best when the pH range stays between 5.8 and 6.8 in soil or soilless mixes and between pH 5.8 and 6.6 in hydroponics. Genovese basil can be harvested fresh a few leaves at a time by pinching off the top of the branches and using the top leaves, causing the plant to become bushy and allowing more leaves to grow. Basil can also be harvested all at once and dried, preserving the leaves so that they can be used in recipes throughout the year. Hang the basil upside down in a dark dry place for several days—the leaves will retain their wonderful flavor best when dried in the dark. There are really too many great ingredients in Italian cuisine to mention more than a few in this short article. The examples we discussed are some of the most common, but there are so many other wonderful varieties that did not make the cut. Zucchini, beans, oregano, various tomato varieties and all sorts of other Italian vegetables, greens and herbs can all be grown indoors quite easily. Italian cuisine features a wealth of succulent and healthy ingredients, which makes starting an Italian garden a popular and rewarding choice for any home grower. MY Resources: www.sanmarzanotomatoes.org www.specialtyproduce.com www.heritageharvestseed.com

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Vertical

Farms Rising by

P h il i P

Mc into s h

Forget conventional soil gardens planted in the earth or even indoor gardens on four by eight foot grow tables; up in the air is where gardening is at. The word vertical usually invokes a sense of up—and when it comes to sustainable farming for the future, up is exactly where some people think we need to go. The concept of vertical farming embraces much of what we know about green roofs and green walls, but it also goes far beyond those relatively smallscale upward movements. A vertical farm is more than just a wall or a roof repurposed for the growth and maintenance of plants; it is an entire building—preferably purpose-built from the ground up—designed to facilitate food production in a sustainable, environmentally sensitive way. The ideal vertical farm is a selfcontained structure with integrated agricultural systems, environmental controls, shipping and handling facilities,

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laboratories and maybe even living quarters for the workers and a daycare center for their children.Vertical farms will not soon replace the traditional land-based farms that most of the world’s population currently depends on for its food supply, but they might have a lot to offer for the future. Much work needs to be done before vertical farming can become a viable option for mass food production in our cities—but if visionaries like Dickson Despommier have anything to say about it, another agricultural revolution might be happening sooner than anyone had previously thought possible. The viSion oF dickSon deSpoMMier Dickson D. Despommier is both a

microbiologist and what some might call a futurist. He has spent many years as a professor of environmental health sciences and as a professor of microbiology in the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York. He is also the world’s leading proponent of using vertical farming to address some of the planet’s most pressing problems: issues like world hunger, food security and the protection and healing of the environment. The vertical farming idea first came up in one of Dr. Despommier’s classes in 1999, during discussions about possible solutions to a wide range of environmental problems. Since then, he and 106 graduate students have continued to develop their ideas on how to


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Vertical Farms rising

bring vertical farming out of the conceptual stage and into physical and economic reality. Although the vertical farming concept floated around without much fanfare for over a decade, it finally received widespread attention after Despommier decided it was time to write a book about it. Published in 2010, Despommier’s The Vertical Farm, Feeding the World in the 21st Century lays out a bold vision for what could be possible through the coordinated efforts of architects, scientists, governments and private industry. Conceptually, there is nothing unrealistic about the design and construction of vertical farms. Many of the technologies involved—such as hydroponics and aeroponics and automated control systems—as well as the advanced materials and energy conversion methods needed to make one work are already either already well developed or now on the verge of commercial viability. A vertical farm is much more than a hydroponic greenhouse erected in the middle of an urban landscape or attached to the

“A vertical farm is much more than a hydroponic greenhouse erected in the middle of an urban landscape or attached to the side of a city grocery store.”

side of a city grocery store. Unlike a typical greenhouse, a vertical farm can be tall.Vertical farms offer many of the advantages of hydroponic greenhouses, such as reduced water use, year-round production and protection of crops from weather, but they can also make a major contribution to increasing the availability of locally grown food—with all its advantages— since they are designed to be located in areas of high population density. The Vertical Farm Website (www.verticalfarm.com) also lists many other potential benefits of vertical farming (VF), some of which include: • All VF food is grown organically: no herbicides, pesticides or fertilizers • VF virtually eliminates agricultural runoff by recycling black water • VF returns farmland to nature, restoring ecosystem functions and services • VF greatly reduces the incidence of many infectious diseases acquired at the agricultural interface • VF converts black and gray water into potable water by collecting evapo-transpiration • VF adds energy back to the grid via methane generation from composting non-edible parts of plants and animals 106

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“things are changing rapidly and as of mid-2011 a number of impressive projects have already been constructed or are in the planning stages.”

VF dramatically reduces fossil fuel use—no tractors, plows or shipping • VF converts abandoned urban properties into food production centers • VF creates sustainable environments for urban centers When The Vertical Farm appeared in late 2010, Dr. Despommier knew of no large-scale vertical farms in existence anywhere in the world, but some people had clearly already started down that path. Since then, Dr. Despommier’s book and the ideas it contains have apparently struck a chord in many places around the world. “You can see that some countries get it,” says Dr. Despommier, adding “the architects of the world are on board, believe me.” Things are changing rapidly and as of mid-2011 a number of impressive projects have already been constructed or are in the planning stages. Let’s take a look at some of them: nuvege, inc. Nuvege (www.nuvege.com) is a company dedicated to advanced methods of food production. Their proprietary growing systems feature hydroponics, special lighting and carbon dioxide enrichment and they produce high-quality lettuce in commercial volumes. A major focus of the company is to produce food that has a very low bacterial load in order to reduce or eliminate altogether the incidence of food-borne illness. Although Nuvege is not in the vertical farm construction business, their systems are specially designed to be integrated into vertical farms. The company operates a facility in Kyoto, Japan to test and demonstrate their technologies that Dr. Despommier describes as being “747 hangar-sized.” “You are going to see a lot more development in Japan because of the Fukushima incident and the desire to protect agriculture from radiation,” predicts Dr. Despommier. planTlab This Dutch operation (www.plantlab.nl) located in Den Bosch, The Netherlands, has been testing a prototype vertical farm for several years now and they are presently building a larger, completely enclosed (which means no natural light in the growing area) facility. Their approach is decidedly high-tech, incorporating custom-built growing environments, advanced automation and control and mathematical modeling of plant growth. The company claims that their use of specific wavelengths of red and 108

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blue LED lighting results in better plant growth than can be achieved using natural light—according to Despommier, PlantLab believes that certain frequencies of natural light are actually inhibitory to plant growth. And vertical farms don’t necessarily have to go up; vertical implies down as well, and Plantlab is extending their newest facility several stories underground. Suwan, SouTh korea This facility, funded and operated by the government of South Korea, has been in full-blown lettuce production since March of 2011 and implements many of the ideas that Dr. Despommier describes in The Vertical Farm. Such ideas include recycling of water, strict attention to cleanliness and anti-contamination procedures, organic growing methods and innovative lighting techniques. alpha FarM This Manchester, UK project is planned for an unused preexisting five story building and their projected crops include broccoli, tomatoes, onions, carrots, strawberries and mushrooms, all produced in time for the Manchester International Festival in 2013.

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“you are going to see a lot more development in Japan because of the Fukushima incident and the desire to protect agriculture from radiation.”

Other projects to keep an eye on include the EDITT Tower in Singapore, a three story building project in Jackson, Wyoming and a proposed aeroponic project in Masdar City in the


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United Arab Emirates. Although no tangible results have been achieved in Canada yet, the governments of Surrey, Vancouver and Victoria in British Columbia have all released official statements in support of vertical farming. What about research and development? Certainly more needs to be done to improve existing designs, generate new design concepts and test and improve actual VF systems. Enter the University of Nottingham, UK. According to Dr. Despommier, a cadre of about 20 researchers, including professors and graduate students in the departments of biology and agriculture, have organized themselves into what might be called a ‘VF working group’. Their goal is to build a prototype VF and they are currently soliciting government funding for their proposed research. The vertical farm has a lot to offer and the concept has gained impressive traction since the appearance of The Vertical Farm, the posting of VF videos on YouTube and presentations by Dr. Despommier at prestigious venues around the world. Based on the rapid growth we are seeing today in the planning and construction of vertical farms, it probably won’t be long before tall buildings featuring futuristic designs—lush with greenery and bustling with activity—begin climbing into the world’s skies. MY

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acknowledgeMenTS The author wishes to thank Dickson Despommier for taking the time to discuss the most recent developments in vertical farming around the world. reFerenceS Anonymous, 2011, “Manchester should soon be eating fruit and veg from the UK’s very first vertical farm”, The Northerner Blog, The Guardian, http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/the-northerner/2011/jul/26/ vertical-farm-manchester-withenshawe-urbed-dickson-despommier-columbiauniversity, (accessed August 1, 2011) Despommier, D. D., 2010, The Vertical Farm, Feeding the world in the 21st Century, Thomas Dunne Books, St. Martin’s Press, New York, NY Despommier, D. D., 2011 “The Rise of the Vertical Farm”, verticalfarm.com, http://www.verticalfarm.com/blog?169, (accessed July 31, 2011) Alter, L., 2011, “Real Live Vertical Farm Built in South Korea, Churning Out Lettuce”, treehugger.com, http://www.treehugger.com/ files/2011/07/lettuce-look-at-a-working-vertical-farm-korea.php, (accessed August 1, 2011)


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AvAnt-GArdeninG

PUSHING by Isabelle lemay agr. and mélIssa léveIllé

CO2

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ In nature, the average CO2 proportion in the air comes close to 400 ppm (parts per million), and can largely vary depending on natural or manmade CO2 production. The air in the garden should be close to this concentration; below this limit, the photosynthesis and the growth considerably slow down and might even stop around 200 ppm or less. This situation might happen in an isolated indoor garden with no CO2 added. The plant will then consume the ambient CO2 until it’s all gone. The majority of plants will appreciate concentrations between 700 and 1,000 ppm during the daytime (light period) and around 400 ppm at nigh time (dark period). Why are these ideal conditions different from day to night? The photosynthesis process occurs only in the presence of light. The CO2 enrichment is then necessary only in 114

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the presence of light and therefore is useless, even harmful, in the dark period. In order to provide the plants with the optimal CO2 concentration for their growth, many gardeners turn toward CO2 enrichment. In addition to improving the yields, maintaining the recommended CO2 concentration in the air will also have the advantage of reducing the production time, accelerating flowering, improving the quality and the quantity of fruits and flowers, and may even diminish the incidence of some pathogenic fungus. Different species’optimal optimal CO co2 concentrations Different species’ concentrations

2

SPECIES

Recommended CO2 concentration during daytime (ppm)

Tomato

1000

Cucumber

1200

Lettuce

1000 - 1500

Rose

1000 - 1200

Poinsettia

600 - 800


co2 concentrations effects on plants

CO2 concentrations effects on plants Concentration (ppm)

“The majority of plants will appreciate concentrations between 700 and 1,000 ppm during the daytime (light period) and around 400 ppm at nigh time (dark period). “

Not enough CO2 is harmful, but too much is just as bad. Equal or superior concentrations to 1,500 ppm are generally less effective and less profitable and can even have a negative effect on some crops. One of the most serious impacts is an overflow of CO2, which reduces the plant’s stomas opening, resulting in a reduction of the CO2 absorption and a limitation of transpiration. The transpiration is a key process for vegetal species because the water and nutrient absorption depends on it. Far from serving the plant’s interest, an excess in CO2 slows down the growth and, in some cases, can even cause leaves necrosis and curling or again provokes flower malformations. Tomatoes and cucumbers are particularly sensitive to high CO2 concentrations.

Effects

200 and less

Avoid - photosynthesis and growth interruption

Near 400

Daytime minimal recommendation Nighttime recommended concentration

Between 700 & 1000

Average concentration recommended during daytime

1500 and more

Avoid - useless, non profitable and harmful to crops

When choosing to enrich the garden with CO2, adjusting the garden’s temperature will be necessary. In fact, the optimal temperature for the plant’s growth increases by a few degrees (as much as 8º) when the air is enriched with CO2. Consider that the plant’s metabolism works faster when it benefits from a CO2 supplement; CO2 allows plants to produce better, but to do so, they need to consume more. Every need, like water and nutrients for example, will be increased. To fully take advantage of CO2 enrichment, we have to pay attention and take care of our plants to provide them with everything they need. MY

CO2

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Garden

Diaries Aren’t for Sissies! When Pencil Pushing Pays Off by Grubbycup

harVest time in the garden is a sPecial time—the work and sweat inVested oVer the growing season Pays its return now, For better or worse…

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It is also the time to finish your notes for the season. Some people are blessed with superior memories and are able to recall each plant ever grown, back for years on end. For the rest of us though, detailed notes can be invaluable, especially when the time comes to plant next year’s garden. Gardening is an ongoing learning process. Over time, gardeners learn to refine techniques, select plants that do well in the available environment and estimate expected yields. Being able to quantify your results goes a long way toward determining if a given change is helping or hindering your quest for the maximum yield. One good way to figure out what to do when you’re planning what’s next for your garden is to take a look at what has worked—and what hasn’t—in past seasons. If careful notes are taken over a period of years, plants that perform well can be repeated. I’ve tried several different tomato varieties over the years, for instance, and two of my favorites are Black Crim and Big Rainbow. The first year that I grew them they were raised with several other different tomato cultivars, but by recording the names of the cultivars I tried that season I was able to avoid having to flip through pages and pages of seed catalogs looking for the right bluishmeated tomato and the right yellow one with red stripes the

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following year. Another reason to keep a garden diary is to help keep track of when activities should be done. If the planting date is recorded and it becomes apparent in your harvest inventory that a plant was started too early or too late, the following year’s planting can be adjusted without havhav ing to rely on memory. If you’re fertilizing according to a weekly regimen, nutrient changes can also be scheduled in advance. Record keeping isn’t difficult once you get into the habit. A good garden record keeping program should include both plant labeling and a garden notebook. From the moment of purchase, plants should never be without a label of some sort. From seed to seedling tray, through planting, growing and harvest—each plant should be clearly identified. If seeds are saved, they should be marked so the cycle can


continue next season. Plant labels should be as waterproof as is practical; permanent markers on plastic stakes are a popular choice. A less thrifty option for those of us with questionable handwriting is to make use of a handheld label printer, which makes a very legible plastic label. The name of the plant (and the particular plant, if breeding) on the label is all that is required, since the rest of the plant information will be in your garden diary. When the plants are first started, make an entry in the diary with information about them. For example, you might record: 5/10/2011: Started tomato Big Rainbow from F1 saved seed indoors. Indeterminate, bushy, 90 days. Said to have rich smoky flavor. Expected harvest starting 8/10/2011. Then you’d record an entry on 8/10/2011—90 days later: Big Rainbow tomatoes ripe and ready for harvest. Flavor is rich and fruit is large and meaty. Exactly what information is recorded is up to the individual gardener. The garden notebook doesn’t have to be anything fancy; it just needs to be something to write notes in: a calendar, a dated logbook, a computer spreadsheet or even index cards will do. Depending on the size of the garden and the attention to detail shown by the gardener, weekly diaries can be a nice choice, as can spiral-bound notebooks. If enough space is left between the entries the same notebook can be used for multiple years, which provides the added

“if careful notes are taken over a period of years, plants that perform well can be repeated.” benefit of being able to see what was happening in the garden on the same day last year. For the more gadget-minded gardener, notes can be taken with a computer pad or laptop. With a reasonably simple database all the information one could care to collect can be stored with these devices and referred back to for a lifetime. If you do choose to make use of an electronic device to take garden notes, though, special care should be taken to avoid contact with water, mud, fertilizers, sap, juice or any of the other myriad of potential hazards that lurk in the garden. Personally, I Maximum Yield USA | October 2011

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“list ist bug sightings, remedial measures, new equipment and seeds purchased. log temperatures—especially heat waves or cold snaps.”

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prefer a good oldfashioned pen and paper diary, because I can leave it permanently stationed with my tools in the garden and if it gets dirty or wet I may swear a little, but I won’t actually cry over it—and if I were to spray my laptop with a garden hose, this might not be the case! Keep some blank space in the front or the back of the diary for more general, less date-specific observations and records such as equipment purchase dates and nutrient schedules. Keep records of the equipment you are using in your garden: the make, model, cost, purchase date and so on. Make sure to keep any receipts or warranty information in a safe place. Give each piece of equipment an identifying code or number—knowing exactly how many years a piece of equipment lasted can help with replacement purchase decisions and your records will show if a more expensive piece of equipment lasted longer than an inexpensive one, for example. Recording start dates for items that wear out over time can help budget for replacements. Indoor gardens require periodic bulb replacements, for example. When a new bulb is installed the replacement date can be noted in the diary in advance as a reminder—the gardener doesn’t have to remember how old a bulb is, they’ll come across the entry at replacement time. Always record major events that occur in the garden. Recording the appearance of first flowers when you start a new crop will give you a pretty good idea of when to expect the plants to start flowering next year. For indoor gardens, note any adjustments you make in the light cycle for photoperiod-sensitive plants. List


bug sightings, remedial measures, new equipment and seeds purchased. Log temperatures—especially heat waves or cold snaps. Gardeners experimenting with different nutrient and additive recipes can keep detailed logs of the products they apply and use the empirical information they gather to decide which is best. Baffling bug infestations need only be agonized over once—the solutions, once discovered, can be entered in the diary and guesswork will be a thing of the past. Written data can be augmented with photographs (especially useful when taken from the same angle and level of magnification) every week. These photos will illustrate how the current year’s plants compare with those from the previous season and with failed or bumper crops from past years.

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As anyone who has ever overplanted zucchini can attest, knowing what sort of harvest to expect can influence how many of a particular plant to start. At harvest time, mark down which plants had a surplus and which ones came up short. To determine how efficiently you are growing your crops a simple formula can be used to determine the ounces gained per day. If Black Krim tomatoes were planted on 5/23/2011 and stopped producing on 9/23/2011, for instance, then the number of days between the two dates is 123. If 15 ounces of tomatoes were grown during this time, then the ounces grown per day

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“gardeners experimenting with different nutrient and additive recipes can keep detailed logs of the products they apply and use the empirical information they gather to decide which is best.�


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would be 0.12 ounces (or 15 divided by 123). Knowing this value can be handy when comparing seasons or the productivity of one cultivar with another. If all other factors are equal and using fertilizer brand ‘A’ results in growth of 0.10 ounces per day and using fertilizer brand ‘B’ results in .14 ounces per day, then serious consideration should be given to using brand ‘B’ on a regular basis. If one year a gardener uses soil pots and the next a hydroponic system, the data gathered in his diary can help him to choose which system he should use the followfollow ing year. One nice thing about keeping detailed records of this nature is that it will allow a gardener to compare plants started early with plants started late. Particularly in indoor gardens— where season length is artificially controlled—being able to compare seasons of differing lengths can be an asset in determining which conditions are the most productive. Your diary entries can be flowery and verbose or short and terse—even the most minimal entries can be learned from. If facts haven’t been recorded, though, once the particulars have faded from your memory they are gone forever. A good garden diary can bring a real sense of order and progress to your growing efforts.You won’t waste time trying things that didn’t work in the past and you’ll be able to easily access solutions that helped you with big problems in years gone by.Your garden diary isn’t just interesting reading material—it’s actual proof that you are becoming a better gardener with every passing year. MY

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GroWinG for hEaLTh

pREvENTING

Bolting WHY DOES CILANTRO BOLT AND HOW CAN IT BE STOPPED? Cilantro bolting is one of the most frustrating things about this popular herb. Many gardeners ask, “Why does cilantro bolt?” and, “How can I keep cilantro from flowering?” By paying attention to the environment your cilantro grows in, you can help lengthen the amount of time before cilantro will bolt and, therefore, increase the amount of time you can harvest leaves from your plants.

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WHAT TO DO WHEN CILANTRO BOLTS

When gardeners see the white cilantro flowers, they wonder if they can simply cut them off. Unfortunately, once cilantro bolts, the leaves rapidly lose their flavor. Cutting the cilantro flowers off will not bring the flavor back to the leaves. Instead, let the cilantro flow flowers go to seed.The seeds of the cilantro plant are the spice coriander and can be used in Asian, Indian, Mexican and many other ethnic recipes. WHY DOES CILANTRO BOLT

Cilantro grows best in cool, moist conditions and will bolt rapidly in hot weather or a hot room. This is a survival mechanism for the cilantro plant. The plant knows that it will die in hot weather and will try to produce seeds as quickly as possible to ensure that the next generation of cilantro will survive and grow. HOW TO KEEP CILANTRO FROM BOLTING

The first thing to understand is that there is no true way to keep cilantro from bolting. Plants are designed to do one thing and that is to reproduce.You are fighting nature. But, there are several things you can do to significantly lengthen the time before the cilantro plant produces flowers: 1. If you’re growing in a warm environment, you can buy slow bolt cilantro. This is cilantro that has been bred to withstand higher temperatures. 2. No matter what kind of cilantro you grow, you should practice

succession planting. This is where you plant new seeds every one to two weeks so that as one set of cilantro plantings start to bolt, the next set will be ready to harvest. 3. If growing outdoors, plant cilantro during cool weather. Early spring, late summer and early fall are the best times to plant cilantro. If you plant in late spring to mid summer, your cilantro will bolt quickly in the heat. 4. Harvest your cilantro leaves frequently. The more you harvest your cilantro, the more likely you are to nip immature flowering stalks, which will delay cilantro flowering. 5. Mulch cilantro and plant it tightly. It is not the heat of the air that causes cilantro to bolt, but rather the heat of the soil. Mulch will help keep the soil cool and retain moisture. Planting cilantro tightly will shade the ground it grows in, which also helps to keep the soil cooler. For more gardening tips and tricks visit www.gardeningknowhow.com or check out www.gardeningknowhow.com/questions

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AttAck of the GArGAntuAn tomAto GrowinG BiG

by Dr. J. Benton Jones, Jr.

A guide to the major four nutrient elements.

Tomato plants are considered heavy feeders, having a relatively high requirement for most of the essential plant nutrient elements. Based on this nutritional characteristic, tomatoes are frequently used as test plants for evaluating the nutritional quality and fertility status of growth media and for conducting plant nutrition studies. Not all growers are aware that the formulation of the Hoagland/Arnon nutrient solution was derived based on the elemental content found in the tomato plant. For the commercial production of tomato fruit, careful regulation of the essential plant nutrient elements—particularly the four major elements, nitrogen (N), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg)—is essential in order to obtain high yields of quality fruit. Even though tomatoes are being grown around the world under a wide range of soil and climatic conditions, the same basic fertilizer recommendations apply. For commercial field production of tomatoes for both processing and the fresh market, N and K fertilizer rates are critical in determining fruit yield and for ensuring that the quality required for market acceptance is achieved from the judicial use 132

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of these two fertilizer elements. In addition, the soil ratio among the elements K, Ca and Mg, known as the Hartz ratio (www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/tomato/hartzratiocalculator.htm) is frequently used to assess the probability for the occurrence of fruit color disorders in tomato fruit. For the hydroponic grower, including the home vegetable gardener growing in soil, let’s look at how these four major elements interact and affect tomato plant growth, as well as fruit yield and quality.

nitrogen (n) There exists a narrow range between deficiency and excess with this element, as N is required for vigorous vegetative plant growth, but in excess can promote vegetative instead of reproductive growth, reducing flower and fruit set as well as adversely affecting the quality of produced fruit. The tomato plant itself becomes more susceptible to disease and insect invasion as the N content of the plant increases. Supplying N to the plant as needed, in small aliquots sufficient


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“the tomato plant itself becomes more susceptible to disease and insect invasion as the n content of the plant increases.�

to sustain good overall plant growth without stimulating excessive vegetative growth, is one way to minimize this potential. The form of plant-available N will also affect plant growth and fruit quality. In general, N absorption by plant roots is enhanced when there exists some ammonium (NH4) in the rooting media, which assists in maintaining the cation/anion

balance within the plant and minimizes the potential for nitrate accumulation in conductive plant tissues. The ammonium cation (NH4+) is a strong competitive cation, however, and can interfere with the root absorption and function of both the Ca2+ and Mg2+ cations, with this interference being most evident with the occurrence of blossom end rot (BER) in tomato fruit. Therefore, some recommend that ammoniumnitrogen be made available to the tomato plant during its vegetative growth period, but not during fruit set and development. In soil environments, unless

ammonium-nitrogen is being applied in irrigation water, it is usually easily and quickly nitrified to nitrate-nitrogen. My hydroponic experience would suggest that a NH4/NO3 nutrient solution ratio not greater than 1:10 is sufficient to sustain vigorous vegetative growth that should not result in the potential occurrence of BER in fruit. When growing tomato plants hydroponically, nutrient solutions that contain high levels of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), will not only contribute to excessive vegetative growth but will also enhance the uptake of K in order to maintain the proper cation/anion balance within the plant. This can be illustrated using the standing-aerated hydroponic growing method by monitoring the change in the NO3 and K concentrations in solution when a vigorously growing tomato plant is placed into a minimum volume of a complete nutrient solution (one that contains all the essential elements). The concentration of both ions will decline in a relatively short period of time, while the other two essential major elements, Ca and Mg, will change little in that same time period.

potassium (K) This essential plant nutrient element correlates with fruit quality factors that affect flavor and acidity and is a factor that contributes to long-term keeping quality as well. The K+ ion is readily root-absorbed; therefore, its concentration in a nutrient solution can have a significant affect on the cation balance within the plant, interfering with the function of Ca and Mg. When K is in 134

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attack oF the gargantuan tomato

excess it can induce a deficiency of either Ca or Mg—Mg more likely—even when there is sufficient Mg in the nutrient solution. Depending on the growing conditions, K supplied in small aliquots as needed, as is frequently done with N, would avoid the possibility of any K excess and the potential for induced Mg and Ca plant deficiency.

“Calcium deficiency is associated with the fruit disorder known as blossom end rot.”

Calcium (Ca) Calcium deficiency is associated with the fruit disorder known as blossom end rot (BER). Calcium is required for maintaining cellular integrity and when there is a deficiency of this element in a developing tomato fruit the cells at the blossom end will lack stability and cellular decay will occur, manifesting as dark or black discoloration at the blossom end. Although BER is the result of a lack of sufficient Ca—needed to maintain cellular integrity—the triggering mechanism is plant stress, usually moisture stress. The Ca2+ cation is not readily root-absorbed and its movement within the plant is in the transpiration stream. If the plant is under water stress or evapo-transpiration from leaf surfaces is low, the uptake and movement of Ca within the plant will be impaired, thereby increasing the potential for the occurrence of BER. To avoid or minimize its occurrence some recommend the application of a solution containing Ca on the plant foliage

This 89 page, 7 chapter book, Hydroponic Handbook: How hydroponic growing systems work, is available on amazon.com for $19.95 and a Kindle version also available. The book describes how 6 different hydroponic growing systems work, the basis for the formulation and use of nutrient solutions, plus information on the basic principles of plant physiology that correlate with how plants can be grown hydroponically. The beginning development of this growing technique is discussed, bringing to current applications. A chapter on hydroponic diagnostics is included. A must book for all who want to know about hydroponic growing principles and applications, whether a seasoned grower or beginner.

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and the developing fruit. However, Ca is not easily absorbed through either the leaf or fruit cuticles—and even if absorbed, Ca will not easily move from the point of absorption since it primarily moves within the transpiration stream. Therefore, movement is up the plant, with little flow latterly or downward from one portion of the plant to another. To prevent or minimize the occurrence of BER, sufficient Ca must be available in the rooting medium as well as in proper balance among the major cations (K+ and Mg2+), including the ammonium cation (NH4+). It is also essential to ensure that those conditions that would result in plant stress—particularly moisture stress—be prevented.

Magnesium (Mg) This element is a component of the chlorophyll molecule and its plant physiology relates to those processes associated with photosynthesis, particularly energy-related functions. I classify tomato as an Mg-sensitive plant because its deficiency will affect fruit yield and quality in both soil and hydroponic growing systems. When Mg is deficient it can also be a factor in the development of BER in fruit since its deficiency creates stress within the plant, which then can become the trigger when insufficient amounts of Ca are present. The three cations K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ are competitive cations, with Mg being the least competitive of the three and therefore more likely to be deficient than the other two even when the rooting media or nutrient solution formulation is considered to be sufficient in Mg. For hydroponic tomatoes I have increased the Mg content in the Hoagland/Arnon’s nutrient solution formulation by 50 per cent.


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“to avoid or minimize [Ber] occurrence some recommend the application of a solution containing Ca on the plant foliage and the developing fruit.”

In my experience of observing greenhouse tomato enterprises, most tomato crops are deficient in Mg—even though plants may not be presenting any leaf symptoms. However, it is not unusual to observe such leaf symptoms on older leaves when the tomato plant is setting and maturing fruit. In order to prevent Mg deficiency, even when there are no visual leaf symptoms, the Mg content in

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the rooting medium or nutrient solution formulation must be adequate to ensure that the Mg2+ cation is in sufficient concentration to compete with the other cations.

Conclusion Since tomato fruit production occurs over a fairly long period of time, growers should be monitoring—by means of pe-

riodic plant leaf analysis—the elemental status of the tomato plant, with the critical time periods being just before flowering and initial fruit set, and then again when the first fruits begin to mature. Any insufficiencies uncovered by the assay results can be corrected if the plants are being grown hydroponically, while plants being grown in a rooting medium that is being


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periodically irrigated can be supplied through the irrigation water, with those elements in excess being withheld. Those situations where the assay results indicate an imbalance among the major elements can be difficult to correct if a supply already exists in the rooting medium, however. Some experts have suggested that beginning with minimum sufficiency levels in the rooting medium or nutrient solution will allow for relatively easy adjustment during plant growth and fruit set and maturity. There are various recommendations regarding what plant part to sample for analysis. My recommendation is to collect the end leaflet on a recently matured leaf, sampling at least 25 plants in order to obtain a representative sample. A whole leaf analysis can be difficult to interpret, since the whole leaf is a mix of stem, petiole and leaflet tissue—three tissue types that vary significantly in elemental content. And what about phosphorus (P), since it is also a major element and can significantly affect plant growth? Phosphorus deficiency is not common when growing tomatoes; in fact, its excess is far more common, since most fertilizer recommendations supply more than is needed and most nutrient solution formulations are also high in the element. High P will interfere with the plant function of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe), frequently presenting as a slight chlorosis of newly emerging leaves, but with maturity the chlorosis will normally disappear. Chlorosis occurrence and the rate of disappearance are good indicators of the degree of P excess. Tomato plants are actually fairly tolerant of P in excess unless they are under stress caused by inadequate moisture, high light intensity or high air temperatures. Phosphorus root absorption is also affected by root medium temperature and declines sharply when the rooting temperature is less than that of the ambient air. MY 140

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Root Rot:

The WaTer ManageMenT BaTTle b y

S h a n e

h u t t o

Manage MoisTure in The rooTs WiTh These key Tips Managing moisture levels is one of the most crucial factors to consider when it comes to getting the most out of your plants. Overwatering can cause a number of fungal and bacterial infections, which can lead to plant stress, stunted growth or even plant death. While some say that it’s not possible to overwater plants using hydroponic methods, this is not actually true—even in hydroponics plants are still susceptible to problems caused by too much water. 144

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Root rot is characterized by yellow leaves and plant wilting caused by waterlogged roots. While most issues related to overwatering occur in the root zone, problems can travel up to the crown and stems of plants, too. Prevention is key in these situations, because the healthier a plant is overall, the better able it is to resist infectious diseases of all kinds. The first rule in root rot prevention is exclusion, which means that the

pathogen (disease) organisms should be prevented from contacting your plants wherever possible. Pathogens often enter a grow room when plants are first brought into the environment from the outside. For this reason, purchasing clones from another grower who may have diseases or pests in his garden is often a risky practice—if root rot exists anywhere in his garden, spores could be present in the reservoir, which fed your


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root oo rot: the wa water w ater management battle ater a attle

These side-by-side alfalfa plants show healthy roots versus diseased roots. Photo courtesy of Dr. Stephen Marek, plant pathology, Oklahoma State University

plants right before you purchased them. Fungal spores may lie dormant in water, infecting a weak plant within 15 minutes of exposure without revealing any symptoms until a week later. Another major factor in preventing root rot is providing adequate drainage. Regardless of which hydroponic medium you choose, it should drain well. Evaluate how long the medium holds water, then devise a watering schedule to best accommodate your plants: you should allow the root zone to dry to around 50 per cent or less before another watering or feeding occurs. The amount of time it takes roots to dry adequately will vary considerably, depending on the grow medium, the environmental conditions, the plant species—and even from plant to plant within your garden. To be safe, avoid scheduling feedings near the end of the daily light cycle.

“Root rot is characterized by yellow leaves and plant wilting caused by waterlogged roots.”

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“Many growers are able to successfully remove only the affected parts, but it is better to play it safe and remove the entire plant before it can infect the whole garden.” Roots should be the healthiest part of your plants and you should make an effort to examine them throughout their life cycle. While it may be difficult to observe the color of your roots depending on the specific hydro system you have chosen to employ, healthy roots are very visibly white. Although some nutrient solutions may darken the roots to a small degree, the rule of thumb is that the browner the roots are, the higher the risk of problems. If you can’t see the roots, then pay attention to the growth rate of the plants—if the rate slows drastically, obviously something is wrong. An easy way to track the growth rate is to use the simple and effective wooden dowel method: 1. Use a waterproof marker to mark one inch increments on the dowel.

Control gerbera and phytophora gerbera

These two gerberas show the distinction between diseased roots and healthy, robust roots. Photos courtesy of Sophia Kamenidou, plant pathology, Oklahoma State University

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2.

Insert the dowel into the container with your pot and mark the plant height on the dowel rod. 3. At regular weekly intervals mark the plant height on the dowel. Now each week you should see a similar or greater increase in plant height until the plant begins to mature. Most growers will encounter the problem of root rot at some point. When it happens, there are a few things that can help control the outbreak. First and foremost, remove the infected plant! Many growers are able to successfully remove only the affected parts, but it is better to play it safe and remove the entire plant before it can infect the whole garden. Next, clean and disinfect walls, benches, floors and equipment with a mild bleach solution and let everything dry completely—fungal spores are transmitted through water and can survive in the smallest of water droplets. Finally, apply a fungicide to the remaining plants. There are many varieties of fungicides and some contain substantial amounts of heavy metals like copper or silver ions whether they possess the organic label or not, so be very cautious about applying them directly onto plants—particularly if any part of the plant is grown for consumption. Always read the entire label and follow the instructions exactly when using any pesticide, organic or not. When controlling root rot, any fungicide should be used as a drench (top watered) or run

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These healthy roots are literally exploding from the grow block just two weeks after transplant. Nice wrapping! Photo courtesy of Shane Hutto, technical advisor, Grodan Inc.


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through your irrigation system. Top watering is recommended for fungicides, as a bottom-feed system may not reach all areas where fungal spores exist. Now that you have done everything you can do, just wait and see if it works—sometimes infections are too far gone for you to be able to save the plants. In the meantime, learn what to do to prevent this problem recurring in the future. Reevaluate your watering schedule to determine if you could lower the frequency or duration of feedings without drying the plants out too much. Consider this: plants grow as the roots dry out. The process of using the water and nutrients they take up through the roots stimulates growth. Now think about your own body—it’s not the act of eating that grows muscles, but rather the exercise and burning of the calories in the food, which stimulates muscle growth. The idea here is that the more you allow plants to dry between feedings, the better they should grow. There is a point where too much dryness can cause unwanted stress or even kill the plant, so it is a bit of a balancing act, certainly. But it’s just a matter of figuring out how long your plants can go between waterings and still flourish. With just a little trial and error, you’ll soon see positive results. MY

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“the more you allow plants to dry between feedings, the better they should grow.”


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by Peter Jordan

Automated Systems for a Worry-free Garden Winter in North America can reach freezing temperatures. For avid gardeners, hydroponics provides a welcome respite from the winter cold, as does a short vacation in a warm climate. To be able to do both would be utopia and I thought with today’s technology, there must be a way. An additional bonus would be to supply a second hobby, cooking, with fresh vegetables and herbs.

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automated systems For a worry-Free garden

To achieve the degree of independence I wanted from day-to-day maintenance of my hydroponics system, I needed to: • • • • • •

Accommodate different nutrient mixes for different species at different stages of growth. Have flexible programmable timers for lights, pumps and fans. Have control over temperature and humidity. Use off-the-shelf hardware and plumbing components. Have comprehensive reports of system activities. Have e-mail notification of system activities, especially problem situations.

I decided to develop software for a control program, as there was none available with sufficient bells and whistles. The program evolved over a year or so and has now reached a stable state. Of course, enhancements are always being added. It’s the nature of engineering.

System Overview - The system has four building blocks: • • • • •

personal computer, software and USB enabled digital/ analog interface reservoir and nutrient pumping units lighting for seedlings and the main grow area fans, a humidifier and a heater grow units

Main: The main system status screen shows two of four active timers, the first of which is the HID light controlled by the stage of growth.

The SCP is the workhorse. It manages the nutrient mixing for up to four separate species groups and controls the grow room environment. The initial set-up included: tomatoes and peppers, chives, nasturtium and dill; basil and parsley, and sage; thyme and savory. This provided an opportunity to have the system take the tomatoes and peppers through growth, flower and final stages while maintaining the rest in growth only. The number of days for each growth stage was set and the nutrient mix calculated by the NOM was entered into the SCP. Timers are an integral part of a hydroponics system. Photoperiods for each stage of growth can be preset. HID lights are automatically synchronized to the preset period and can be turned on/off at specific times or be tied to sunrise/sunset. Seedlings are started in a small customized ebb and flow unit. A timer controls the T5 light period and a second controls the intermittent flood cycles. Choosing a growing medium and containers was a challenge. The first configuration consisted of four – 40 by nine by four inch trays. A cover for each tray was made with spaces for three

The tray contains three – 10 inch pots with 50/50 vermiculite/perlite. A delay can be set to provide air in roots to be refreshed.

I developed two programs. The first, a Nutrient Optimization Module (NOM), calculates an optimal nutrient mixing strategy for up to three stages of growth for a mix of species. Research suggested macro- and micronutrient strengths could vary considerably with species and growth stage. I gathered all the data I could on nutrient requirements for common species on the Internet. I then obtained nutrient constituent concentrations for various suppliers of one, two and three part formulas. A mathematical model in the NOM determines the optimal mixing strategy for the System Control Program (SCP) to administer. 156

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Option Nutrients, top: On this dialog, the nutrient manufacturer is selected, pump quantity and assignments are made and tank capacities are set. Timer, above: The timer dialog is used to set up start, stop and intermittent cycles. Here, the ebb and flow pump for seedlings will have 21 hour period with four evenly spaced on/off cycles.


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Elements, left: This dialog shows the mixes added to lettuce, the concentrate of which was calculated with an estimate of the pH and EC based on previous measurements in the options nutrient dialog. Graph, below: Graphs are available for a wide range of parameters. Temperature for a four day period is shown here. Schedule, bottom: Each channel can have up to three growth stages specified. For each stage, the nutrient strength is provided along with the associated photoperiod.

– 10 inch pots. The pots were fitted with root guard in the bottom and filled with 50/50 perlite/vermiculite. In the bottom of the pot, a circle of porous tubing allows air to be pumped into the root zone. When full, the pots sit in nutrient about 1.5 inches above the bottom. Maintaining nutrient levels and concentration is the function of the nutrient mixing unit. The amount of nutrient required to maintain 1.5 inches above the bottom of the pots is approximately two quarts. When the level drops below the pot bottom, a time can be preset to allow full drainage and aeration of the roots in the pot before refilling the tray. When this time has passed, the reservoir pump fills a mixing chamber with two quarts

of basic nutrient. The basic nutrient formula is the minimum amount of each of the three parts required for all four channels. The flora micro component was a constant for all channels. Once the mixing vessel signals full to the SCP, two peristaltic pumps add any required make-up of grow and bloom. A solenoid opens and allows the mix to flow to the appropriate channel by gravity. Since the first run, I have used other grow units and will, no doubt, try other types. Deep water culture for lettuce and other leafy

veggies works very well. Future tests will be made with aeroponics and Ein-Gedi, a derivative of aeroponics that recirculates nutrient in a misty spray. No system is complete without reports and data gathering for later analysis. Graphs of temperature, humidity and nutrient usage are available. A log of all events associated with mixing, timers, and pumping can be viewed. The main screen provides a summary of current float, pump and solenoid states; grow room environment; and nutrient tank levels. For each refill, the concentration of macro and micronutrient constituents is calculated.

Results The 10 days of warmth during my holiday away from the winter was very welcome and no e-mails were received. The holiday was most relaxing knowing my hydroponics system was self-maintaining. Mixing the nutrients in small batches representing about 50 per cent of the total volume in the trays virtually eliminated the need to constantly deal with pH and TDS issues. All plants grew admirably. MY 158

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Beginner’s corner

n a

C y a S ! ? O d e e S u Yo att by M

er nist n a LeB

Inside each seed is the magic of season’s past just waiting to be unleashed. Every time we preserve a seed, we preserve a little bit of that magic in the hope that it will show itself for years to come.

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cleaning ing and drying: weT proceSSing

This method is used for seeds that are embedded in the flesh of fruits and berries. Depending on the spe-

“high TeMperaTureS can render good SeedS uSeleSS; high huMidiTy can allow MicroorganiSMS To grow and ruin SeedS.”

cies, the seeds, juice and flesh of the fruit will need to go through a fermentation process where bacteria or yeast will destroy many seedborne diseases that could affect the next generation. Seeds should be washed to remove them from the encasing flesh. An easy way to do this is to place the seed, juice or flesh mixture into a large pail or bowl containing double the water as the volume of seed/pulp mixture. Stir well and keep pouring off the dirty water, adding clean water and repeating until only clean seeds remain. Once the seeds are clean, they can be placed to dry on a non-stick surface, such as a cookie sheet. Do not use paper or any surface that the seeds might stick to. Also do not dry seeds in the sun, because temperatures exceeding 95°F will almost certainly guarantee the impotence of a seed. dry proceSSing and winnowing:

This technique is for plants that produce seeds in pods or husks, such as peas and beans. Gardeners must allow the pods or husks to dry with the seeds still inside. Once seedpods are dry they can be threshed, a process that frees the seeds by breaking their covering. This is typically done by rubbing or beating the pods until

the seeds are released. Place all the seedpods into a sac or pillowcase and rub your hands together until all the pods release their contents. Be careful not to get too rough with the seeds, because they can be damaged when rubbed or beaten too hard. The seeds must now be separated from the debris of pods and husks through a process called winnow winnowing. If there is wind, one simply picks up a handful of seeds and pod debris and drops it. The seeds, being heavier than the pod debris, should fall to the floor while the pod debris is blown away with the wind. Winnowing is repeated until all that is left are clean seeds. Another approach to winnowing is to use different sized screens to separate seeds. To perform the screen technique, gardeners first use a screen with holes large enough for the seeds to pass through. Then a second screen smaller than the seeds is used to filter out the remaining debris. labeling and SToring

High temperatures can render good seeds useless; high humidity can allow microorganisms to grow and ruin seeds. To avoid high humidity, only store dried seeds to five to 10 per cent moisture. All seeds should be placed in containers that are airtight. The ideal solution is to place dried seeds in a labeled envelope or Zip-loc bag and then place it into a Mason jar. The Mason jar or other airtight container should be stored in a place out of the sun where temperatures are not likely to fluctuate. An ideal storage place is a cold-room or root cellar. Note: If seeds are stored in a cold cellar for any longer than two years, the seeds will barely germinate and leave few survivors. There is a way to ensure your seeds thrive for five years or more. The way to achieve this is to freeze your seeds. Note: If seeds are not thoroughly dried, excess moisture will expand when frozen and destroy the seeds.

This will happen to seeds with more than eight per cent moisture. A sure way to tell if a seed is dry is to seal it in a jar with double its volume in silica gel for seven days. Silica gel beads are used by manufacturers to remove excess moisture and can be reused indefinitely. Simply dry the silica gel in an oven at 93°F for eight hours. After being sealed for seven days with the silica gel, the seeds should have just the right amount of moisture to be frozen safely. Another option is to test the seeds before freezing them by hitting a seed with a hammer or something heavy. If the seed shatters, it is dry enough. If the seed mashes, then they need to dry longer. MY Maximum Yield USA | October 2011

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YOU TELL US MY: What is pyrethrum? Grigg: Pyrethrum is an extract from the oils found in the seeds of chrysanthemum flowers; once it is refined it makes pyrethrin.

Doktor Doom’s Grigg Kellock debunks some of the myths associated with pyrethrin-based products and details the benefits of this natural, earthfriendly product.

Grigg Kellock

Maximum Yield (MY): What products in the Doktor Doom line are you excited about right now? Grigg Kellock: The Doktor Doom one-two punch Spider Mite Knock Out elimination products. MY: What are your Spider Mite Knock Out products made of and used for? Grigg: Doktor Doom Spider Mite Knock Out is made with 0.20 per cent pyrethrin.This is a very strong concentration of pyrethrin. There is no Piperonyl butoxide in the product, which works as a synergist with pyrethrin.The pyrethrin knocks the bugs down and Piperonyl butoxide can be considered the knife in the back, while Doktor Doom’s Spider Mite Knock Out is the uppercut. Pyrethrin without the synergist Piperonyl butoxide is approved for organic gardening programs; refer to OMRI for the exact requirements. It is very important that people trying to eliminate spider mites use our one-two punch elimination program systematically, otherwise they will not get the results they are looking for and blame the products for not working when in fact it was misuse of the products that didn’t obtain the desired result. 164

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MY: How does pyrethrin work? Grigg: Pyrethrin excites the nervous system of insects and kills them on contact. Pyrethrin flushes out and drives insects to move as they know that if it contacts them they will die. Insects will lay eggs to procreate (when faced with certain death) so using the one-two punch elimination program does take time and effort to obtain maximum results. Pyrethrin does not kill larvae or eggs so repeated applications are extremely important. Refer to Doktor Doom Application Tips at www.doktordoom.com MY: Are pyrethrin products ecofriendly and safe to be used around humans and animals? Grigg: Pyrethrin-based products are very environmentally friendly and safe to use around humans and pets. As these products are designed to kill insects it is very important to follow label instructions. These instructions are provided to protect humans and animals from any excessive exposure to the products. Pyrethrin biologically dissipates into the environment in a matter of hours after being exposed to light, air and humidity, and has zero residual activity.


MY: What can Maximum Yield readers expect from Doktor Doom in the near future? Grigg: Doktor Doom will be introducing some organic fertilizers that we have been testing for a couple of years.We have been working closely with the government to substantiate any claims that may come with these products. Doktor Doom has built its reputation on high quality products that work so one thing is for sure, do not expect us to market products that don’t meet our standards!

MY: What other products do you offer in North America that growers will be excited about? Grigg: Doktor Doom is working on a couple of other insecticide products to help growers eliminate all sorts of other insects in addition to spider mites. Our existing products are also excellent for controlling thrips and other plant-eating insects found in gardens. MY: What are your Total Release Foggers product made of and used for? Grigg: Doktor Doom Total Release Foggers are made with .40 per cent pyrethrin and 2.0 per cent Piperonyl butoxide.The Doktor Doom Foggers are part two of the Doktor Doom onetwo punch elimination program.The foggers should be used after an application of Doktor Doom Spider Mite Knock Out has been applied to the underside of the plant canopy.This initial application of Spider Mite Knock Out will not only kill all the insects (not the eggs or larvae though) on the underside of the canopy, but will also make the insects move to the upper surfaces of the plant canopy; this is where the Total Release Fogger comes in as the overhead bomb and wipes out all the living insects that crawled away from the initial uppercut application of Spider Mite Knock Out. MY: What food crops can fogger be used on? Grigg: Doktor Doom Total Release Foggers are safe to use on all food crops up to three days before harvest. Doktor Doom Spider Mite Knockout can be used up to the day of harvest.

MY: How does Doktor Doom support local causes and community building? Grigg: Doktor Doom supports several non-profit charities locally in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada that feed, cloth and shelter children, the disabled and adults that are in need. We also support our local Cross Cancer Hospital as we have all been touched by this terrible disease. In addition to this, my wife Philippa and I also volunteer for another local non-profit charity that provides children in inner city schools with a hot breakfast and helps to provide formal wear to youth that would otherwise not attend their prom. We also volunteer for the Edmonton Folk Music Festival, which provides all sorts of people the ability to afford to go and see great music.

MY: What strategies has Doktor Doom implemented to lessen their environmental impact on our planet? Grigg: We started our company promoting and marketing environmentally friendly and earth safe insect control products. Since the inception of Doktor Doom several governments and countries have banned all sorts of harsh chemicals. This includes the EPA and Health Canada. Doktor Doom is going to continue to educate people on the pros of using pyrethrinbased products. We firmly believe that these are the most effective products with the least amount of environmental impact available to consumers today.

MY: Where can growers go for educational materials on using your products and to learn more about your company? Grigg: Our website www.doktordoom.com has application tip sheets on how to use our products. We refer people to these application tips daily; it is very important to read and practice what you have read to obtain maximum results from using our products. These product application tip sheets are also available from our wholesalers and should be available in most indoor garden centers. MY Maximum Yield USA | October 2011

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TALKING SHOP

Rio and Jeanette’s three-year-old son Wylde adds an element of fun and play to the store’s atmosphere as he frequently interacts with customers.

At A GLAnCe Company: roots Grow Supply Owners: Shawn Johnson and rio finds the feather Location: 1330 n. Hulbert #101 fresno, California Phone: 1-559-840-0122 Web: rootsgrowsupply.com

In the heart of one of the agricultural capitals of the world, Shawn Johnson and Rio Finds The Feather opened Roots Grow Supply. The intention was to provide Fresno, California and the Central Valley with a hydroponics and indoor gardening store with long hours, exceptional customer service and a fully stocked warehouse teaming with products. Since opening, Roots has had to move to a new location twice the size of the original 3,000 square foot space to accommodate the growing demand for indoor gardening supplies. A second warehouse was also opened in Oakhurst, California. Having to compete with well established nurseries, commercial farming supply stores, corporate hardware stores with gardening centers and a handful of established hydroponics stores in the area, Roots had to set themselves apart to gain an edge. “In this business being progressive is the name of the game,” Shawn explains. “This industry is perpetually advancing in technology and we want to do the same on the retail end both in our advertising and customer service.”

Motto: “for growers by growers.”

Roots Grow Supply is more than just a product supermarket. Extraordinary growth decorates the shop inside and out, serving as demonstration gardens for customers to learn from.

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An impressiv e sunflower display, which beauty, ador includes an 11 ns the shop’s foot frontage.

Gardeners of all experience levels come into Roots Grow Supply, from beginners to seasoned veterans and everything in between, with a myriad of questions ranging from the difference between organic and synthetic nutrients to how hydroponics work. Shawn and Rio are both experienced growers and have come up with a few ways to help their customers better understand the products they carry. Running side-by-side comparisons on tomato plants with different nutrients, the shop’s own blend of compost tea and a control of reverse osmosis water allows people to see first-hand how different nutrients perform. One of the more noticeable displays is the sunflowers in front of the shop. In one 45 gallon pot you see an 11 foot tall sunflower; in a seven gallon pot next to it much smaller sunflowers are growing.The shop also offers free cloning classes that walk customers through the process. “People are much more inclined to believe what they see,” Shawn says. “I can explain how something works for hours, but once a person sees what the product does they understand it immediately.” Roots has a working ebb and grow display with tomato plants, green beans and peppers growing in it.They also have a clear EZClone that shows how a cloning machine works from a mechanical standpoint as well as a Turbo Klone display that shows how the machine works on cuttings throughout the cloning process. With so much agriculture in California’s Central Valley, pests are in abundance; everything from white flies and root gnats, to caterpillars and spidermites. It’s not uncommon to hear customers asking for a wide variety of pesticides, some legal and others not. Many of our customers grow edible plant for human consumption and it can be difficult to explain the reasons for avoiding some of these pesticides while a customer’s crop is being ravaged by pests. However, Roots always recommends safe and natural alternatives. They carry 100 per cent vegetable-based pest solutions as well as beneficial insects such as spidermite predators, green lace wings, ladybugs and nematodes.

The staff at Roots likes to keep things fun and laid back. Joe, Mike and Casey-John make up the rest of the staff at Roots and are all musicians.The guys like to play all types of music; hip-hop, country, heavy metal, reggae, funk and mariachi that you can hear throughout the store and through the speakers in the front playing to the plants. It’s not uncommon to walk into the shop and see someone riding a skateboard from one side of the shop to the other to fill dead hours and take a few minutes to unwind. Once a year the shop celebrates its anniversary by putting on a free barbecue, with live entertainment and a bounce house for the kids. Rio’s family—that includes his girlfriend Jeanette, their one-year-old son Legend and three-year-old son Wylde—love these celebrations and Wylde can be seen weaving through the attendees on his tricycle. All of the staff is excited to learn new things. “It’s great to watch our customers grow over time. One day we’re explaining basics like transplanting, then a few months later they’re coming in telling us stuff they figured out and that we have to try,” says Shawn. Being in such an ag-minded community gives them a wealth of opportunities to gain knowledge from all types of growers raising vegetables, almond orchards, vineyards and so much more. They also look forward to attending the Maximum Yield Indoor Gardening Expos. After being open a little under two years Roots Grow Supply has taken off and Shawn and Rio‘s vision of an indoor gardening store with a massive inventory has come to fruition. “It definitely wasn’t easy being the new kid on the block,” says Shawn, “but now we have customers comparing us to other heavyweight indoor gardening stores in the San Francisco area and that is an awesome feeling.” As far as the future is concerned, Shawn and Rio believe that as the market grows so will Roots and they’ll continue to make the heart of California a little more green. Article written by Casey Burton for Shawn Johnson and Rio Finds The Feather. MY

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MAX-MART

LLC

Phone: 510.903.1808 Fax: 510.764.1246 13762 Doolittle Drive, San Leandro, CA 94577

www.hydrogardendelight.com

GRowco indoor Garden supply

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MAX-MART

Come Grow With Us on Facebook!

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COMING UP IN NOvEmBER

aloe ProPagaTIon for ProfIT aloe plants are known for their healing properties. They also make great profit crops when sold as babies. provide proper growing conditions and some tough love, and watch your aloe plants and profits grow.

lIghT basIcs proper lighting is one of the most important facets to a successful indoor garden, and indoor gardeners should understand at least the basics.

PlanTs for PeTs Did you know you can feed your furry, finned and feathered friends hydroponic snacks. They’re high quality, safe and spray-free.

healthy roots, sub-irrigation, winterizing the grow room, heirloom peppers and more.

www.maximumyield.com maximum yield USa November will be available November 1 for FREE at selected indoor gardening retail stores across the country and on maximumyield.com Subscriptions are available at maximumyield.com/subscriptions.php

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DO YOU KNOW?

1.

It was once believed that the oxygen released from photosynthesis came from the breakdown of carbon dioxide.

2.

3.

pushing EC in the root zone to much higher levels than we would normally use for leafy herbs reduces the amount of water taken up by the plant and held in the foliage, thus allowing their scented oils to become more concentrated.

The Center for Disease Control and prevention reports that 70 per cent of all food borne disease results from contact with contaminated individuals.

Fungal spores may lie dormant in water, infecting a weak plant within 15 minutes of exposure without revealing any symptoms until a week later.

8. 4.

Even though tomatoes are being grown around the world under a wide range of medium and climatic conditions, the same basic fertilizer recommendations apply.

5.

It is argued that tomatoes were first brought back to Europe by the Italian explorer Christopher Columbus (working for the Spanish) or by the Spanish explorer hernando Cortez.

6. 178

vertical farms don’t necessarily have to go up; vertical implies down as well, with garden facilities around the world extending several stories underground.

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Nitrogen is in every amino acid in a plant; thus, it must also be part of every single protein in a plant as well as being a major component of the chlorophyll molecule.

whiteflies love basil plants and the aroma doesn’t appear to deter them.

10.

7.

9.

a harvested plant begins to deteriorate as soon as it is cut. The faster we cool it, the less deterioration happens.

Nitrogen absorption by plant roots is enhanced when there exists some ammonium (Nh4) in the rooting media.

11.


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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

ALABAMA Alabama Organics 3348 Bethel Road, Hammondville, AL 35989 256-635-0802 ALASKA Brown’s Electrical Supply 365 Industrial Way, Anchorage, AK 99501 907-272-2259 Far North Garden Supply 2834 Boniface Parkway Anchorage, AK 99504 907-333-3141 Southside Garden Supply AK 12870 Old Seward Highway, Unit 114, Anchorage, AK 99515 907-339-9997 Holmtown Nursery Inc. 1301 - 30th Avenue, Fairbanks, AK 99701 907-451-8733 Ground Control Landscape ServicesHydroponic & Garden Supplies 1067 Ocean Dr. Homer ,Alaska 99603 907-235-1521 Northern Lights Greenhouse & Garden Supply Suite 105-9737 Mud Bay Road Ketchikan, Alaska 9901 907-225-GROW (4769) Anuway Hydroponics Suite #1 2711 W Walnut Rogers AK 72756 USA 479 631 0099 Peninsula Garden Supply AK 44224 Sterling Highway, Suite 4, Soldotna, AK 99669 907-420-0401 Far North Garden Supply 300 Centaur Street, Wasilla, AK 99654 907-376-7586 ARIZONA Sea of Green Flagstaff 204-C E. Route 66 Flagstaff, AZ 86001 928-774-SOGF(7643) The Hydro Closet 5826 West Olive Avenue #106 Glendale, Arizona 85302 602-361-2049 Homegrown Hydroponics 2525 West Glendale Ave Phoenix AZ 85051 602-368-4005

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Growfresh Organics & More 2600 S Zero St, Suite C Fort Smith, AR 72901 479.648.8885

Hydroponic Connection, The 2816 San Pablo Ave Berkeley, CA 94702 510 704-9376

Fermentables 3915 Crutcher Street, N. Little Rock, AR 72118 501-758-6261 Anuway Hydroponics 2711 W. Walnut Street, Rogers, Arkansas 72756 479-631-0099

Brentwood Hydroponics & Organics 560 Valdry Ct #85 Brentwood, CA 94513 925-634-6704

CALIFORNIA Greenleaf Hydroponics 1839 W Lincoln Avenue, Anaheim, CA 92801 714-254-0005 Grow It Yourself Gardens 401 Sunset Drive, Suite L, Antioch, CA 94509 925-755-GROW High Desert Hydroponics 13631 Pawnee Road, #7 Apple Valley, CA 92308 760-247-2090 American Hydroponics 286 South G Street, Arcata, CA 95521 800-458-6543 Humboldt Hydroponics 601 I Street, Arcata, CA 95521 707-822-3377 Let it Grow 160 Westwood Center, Arcata, CA 95521 707-822-8733 Northcoast Horticulture Supply 639 6th St. Arcata, CA 95521 707-826-9998 Sweet Harvest Hydroponics & Organics 1041 E. Grand Ave. Arroyo Grande,CA 93420 (805) 473-0004 Hole In The Wall Hydroponics 282 Broadway Ave. Atwater, CA 95301 209-358-3944 Auburn Organic 4035 Grass Valley Highway, Auburn, CA 95602 530-823-8900 High Street Hydro 180 Cleveland Avenue, Auburn, CA 95603 530-885-5888 Quail Mountain Ranch 230 Palm Ave Auburn, CA 95603 530-889-2390

Sea of Green West 2340 W. Bell Road, Suite 116, Phoenix, AZ 85023 602-504-8842

Tell 2 Friends Indoor Gardening 62 Sutherland Drive, Auburn, CA 95603 530-889-8171

ACI Hydroponics 1325 South Park Lane, Tempe, AZ 85282 800-633-2137

Bakersfield Hydroponics Bakersfield , CA 1 (661) 808-4640

Homegrown Hydroponics 601 East Broadway Road, Tempe, AZ 85282 480-377-9096 Sea of Green Hydroponics 1301 E. University Dr. Tempe AZ, 85281 800-266-4136 Gonzo Grow 10297 W Van Buren Street, Tolleson, AZ 85353 623-780-GROW Natural Pools & Gardens 2143 North Country Suite C, Tucson, AZ 85716 520-323-2627 Sea of Green Hydroponics 402 North 4th Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85705 520-622-6344 ARKANSAS Mickey’s Mercantile 1303 Highway 65 South, Clinton, AR 72031 501-412-0214 Old Soul Organics and More 1771 Crossover Road, Fayetteville, AR 72701 479-444-6955

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Stop N Grow 5455 Rosedale Hwy Bakersfield, CA 93308 (661) 859-1988 Green Leaf Hydroponics 3903 Patton Way #103 Bakersfield CA 93308 661-245-2616 Kern Hydroponics 2408 Brundage Lane, Suite B, Bakersfield, CA 93304 661-323-7333 The Hydro Shop 3980 Saco Road Bakersfield, CA 661-399-3336 Better Grow Hydro Los Angeles 5554 Bandini Boulevard, Bell, CA 91106 323-510-2700; 877 640 GROW

Good To Grow & Global Garden Supply 1350 Rollins Rd Burlingame, CA, 94010 (650) 733-4420 Advanced Garden Supply 3113 Alhambra Drive, Unit F, Cameron Park, CA 95682, 530-676-2100 Precision Hydroponics 132 Kennedy Avenue, Campbell, CA 95008 408-866-8176 Elite Horticulture Supply 22330 Sherman Way, C13, Canoga Park, CA 91303 818-347-5172 Hydro International 7935 Alabama Avenue Canoga Park, CA 91304 Advanced Hydroponics 17808 Sierra Highway, Canyon Country, CA 91351 Myron L Company 2450 Impala Drive, Carlsband, CA 9210-7226 760-438-2021 661-299-1603 San Diego Hydroponics North County Coastal 6352 Corte Del Abeto #J Carlsbad CA, 92011 760-420-8934 NorCal Creations PO Box 28, Cedar Ridge, CA 95924 Garden Connection, The 2145 Park Avenue, Unit 2 Chico, CA 95928 530-342-7762 Hydro King 2540 South Whitman Place, Chico, CA 959282 530-893-GROW (4769) Grow4Less garden Supply & Hydroponics 320 Trousdale Dr., Suite L Chula Visa CA 91910 619-425-GROW Citrus Heights Hydrogarden 8043 Greenback Lane Citrus Heights, CA 95610 916-728-4769 Conrad Hydroponics Inc. 14915 Unit E, Olympic Drive, Clearlake, CA 95422 707-994 3264 Under The Sun 12638 Foothill Boulevard, Clearlake Oaks, CA 95423 707-998-GROW (4769) Gro More Garden Supply 2937 Larkin Avenue, Clovis, CA 93021 559-348-1055 G & G Organics and Hydroponics 901 W. Victoria Street Unit D, Compton, CA 90220 310-632-0122 Concord Indoor Garden 2771 Clayton Road, Concord, CA 94519 925-671-2520 Hydroponics Plus 2250 Commerce Avenue, Suite C Concord, CA 94520 925-691-7615 Hydrostar Hydroponics & Organics 1307 W. Sixth Street, #211, Corona, CA 92882 951-479-8069 A+ Hydroponics & Organics 1604 Babcock Street, Costa Mesa, CA 92627 949-642-7776

Super Starts PO Box 732, Bellmont, CA 94002 650-346-8009

The Hydro Source 671 E. Edna Place Covina, CA 91723 877 HYDRO 82; 626-915-3128

Berkeley Indoor Garden 844 University Avenue Berkeley, CA 94710 510-549-2918

Let it Grow 1228 2nd Street, Crescent City, CA 95531 707-464-9086

Berkeley’s Secret Garden 921 University Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94710 510-486-0117

Northcoast Horticulture Supply 1070 Highway 101, Crescent City, CA 95531 707-464-1200


Seaside Hydrogarden 1070 Highway 101 North, Crescent City, CA 95531 707-465-3520

The Shop 6542 Front Street, Forestville, CA 95436 707-887-2280

Emerald Garden 13325 South Highway 101, Hopland, CA 95482 707-744-8300

Pacific Coast Hydroponics 4147 Sepulveda Boulevard, Culver City, CA 90230 310-313-1354

Dirt Cheap Hydroponics 17975 H Highway 1, Fort Bragg, CA 95437 707-964-4211

Surf City Hydroponics 7319 Warner Street, Suite B Huntington Beach, CA 92647 714-847-7900

Dr. Greenthumbs Hydroponic Garden Supplies 566 San Ramon Valley Blvd. Danville, CA 94526 925-314-9376

Hydrogarden Mendocino County 1240 North Main Street, Fort Bragg, CA 95437 707-962-9252

Dutch Garden Supplies Park Circle Suite 12 Irvine CA 92614 949-748-8777

Constantly Growing - Davis 123 D Street Davis, CA 95616 530-756-4774

A Fertile World (Fortuna) 610 7th Street, Fortuna, CA 95540 707-725-0700

West Coast Hydroponics, Inc. 27665 Forbes Road, Unit 10 Laguna Niguel, CA 92677 949-348-2424

Constantly Growing 6200 Enterprise Drive, Suite A Diamond Springs, CA 95619 530-642-9710

Western Auto 1156 Main Street, Fortuna, CA 95540 707-725-1189

La Habra Hydroponics 1301 S Beach Blvd, Suite O. La Habra, CA 90631 562-947-8383

Harvest Hydroponics 6650 Merchandise Way Suite B, Diamond Springs, CA 95619 530-622-5190

Northcoast Horticulture Supply 357 Main Street, Fortuna, CA 95540 707-725-5550

Grass Roots Hydroponics 31875 Corydon, Suite 130 Lake Elsinore, CA 92530 951-245-2390

Victory Garden Supply 1900 N Lincoln St #100 Dixon CA 95620 707 678 5800

Nature’s Secret Garden and Supply 41469 Albrae Street, Fremont, CA 94577 510-623-8393

South County Hydroponics 22511 Aspan Street, Suite E Lake Forest, CA 92630 949-837-8252

Watch It Grow Hydro 9453 Firestone Blvd. Downey, CA 90241 562-861-1982

Roots Grow Supply 1330 North Hulbert, #101 Fresno, CA 93728 559-840-0122

Clover Hydroponics & Garden Supply 43 Soda Bay Road, Lakeport, CA 95453 707-263-4000

Garden Warehouse 6355 Scarlet Court, #2, Dublin, CA 94568 925-556-3319

Tower Garden Supply & Organic Nursery 403 W. Olive Avenue, Fresno, CA 93728 559-495-1140

Grow A Lot Hydroponics, San Diego 1591 N. Cuyamaca Street, El Cajon, CA 93612 619-749-6777

Valley Hydroponics 207 E. Sierra Ave. Fresno, CA 93710 559-449-0426

San Diego Hydroponics East County 11649 Riverside Drive, Suite 141, Lakeside, CA 92040 619-562-3276

El Centro Hydro & Brew Supply Inc. 591 main Street, Suite N-2 El Centro, CA 92243 760-235-4985

Grow Wurks Hydroponics 765 S. State College Boulevard. Suite J Fullerton, CA 92831 714-253-Grow (4769)

Indoor Garden Solution Inc. 12424 Exline Street, El Monte CA 91732, 626-453-0443 Go Green Hydroponics 15721 Ventura Boulevard, Encino, CA 91436 818-990-1198 A Fertile World (Eureka) 65th Street, Eureka, CA 95501 707-444-0200 Bayside Garden Supply 4061 Highway 101 Ste 6 Eureka, CA 95503 1 (707) 826-7435 Humboldt Nutrients 65th Street, Eureka, CA 95501 888-420-7770 Humboldt Electronics 2547 California Street, Eureka, CA 95501 707-443-9408 Humboldt Hydroponics 1302 Union Street, Eureka, CA 95501 707-443-4304 Northcoast Horticulture Supply 60 West 4th Street, Eureka, CA 95501 707-444-9999

SB Hydro 1109 W. 190th Street, Unit #F, Gardena, CA 90248 310-538-5788 Golden Gecko Garden Center, The 4665 Marshall Road, Garden Valley, CA 95633 530-333-2394 Probiotic Solutions 20889 Geyserville Avenue, Geyserville, CA 95441 707-354-4342 South Valley Hydroponics 320 Kishimura Drive, #3 Gilroy, CA 95020 1-866-848-GROW Zen Hydroponics 1801 Victory Blvd. Glendale, CA 91201 877 ZEN Grow 818 806 4500 Stop N Grow 340 Pine Avenue, Goleta, CA 93003 805-685-3000 All Seasons Hydroponics 17614 Chatsworth Street, Granada Hills, CA 91344 818-368-4388 AG Natural 403 Idaho Maryland Road, Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-274 0990

Total Hydroponics Center Inc 4820 Paramount Blvd Lakewood, CA 90712 562-984-GROW (4769) Weather Top Nursery 44901 Harmon Drive, Laytonville, CA 95454 707-984-6385 CNG Garden Supplies 22 Ricknbacker Circle, Livermore, CA 94551 925-454-9376 DL Wholesale 6764 Preston Ave. Suite D Livermore CA 94551 510 550 0018 National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply 6485 Brisa Street, Livermore, CA 94550 888-570-4678 (Southern CA) Garden Depot, The 203 Commerce Street, Suite 101 Lodi, CA 95240 209-339-9950 Valley Rock Landscape Supply 2222 N H Street Lompoc CA 93436 P: 805 736 0841 805 735 5921 Green Coast Hydroponics 2405 Mira Mar Avenue, Long Beach, CA 90815 562-627-5636 Grow Light Express 5318 East Second Street suite 164, Long Beach, CA 90803 888-318-GROW Long Beach Hydroponics & Organics 1772 Clark Avenue, Long Beach, CA 90815 562-498-9525

Everthing Green Hydroponics, Inc. 1201 Oliver Rd. Fairfield, CA 94534 707-432-0774

Grass Valley Hydrogarden 12506 Loma Rica Drive, Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-477-2996

Constantly Growing 4343 Hazel Avenue, Fair Oaks, CA 95628 916-962-0043

Vital Landscaping Inc. 12817 Loma Rica Drive, Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-273-3187

Fallbrook Hydro 208 E Mission Rd Ste B Fallbrook CA 92028 1 (760) 728-4769

West Coast Growers Hydroponics 13481 Colifax Highway, Grass Valley, CA 95945 888-924-4769

Tulare County Growers Supply 435 W. Noble Avenue, Unit A, Farmersville, CA 93223 559-732-8247

M.G.S. 22540 D Foothill Boulevard, Hayward, CA 94541 510-582-0900

Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - North 6241 Graham Hill Road, Felton, CA 95018 831-335-9990

Thrive Hydroponics 70 A West North Street, Healdsburg, CA 95446 707-433-4068

Hydroasis 2643 S. Fairfax Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90232 888-355-4769

Eel River Hydroponics & Soil Supply 164 Dinsmore Drive, Fortuna, CA 95540 707-726-0395

Bear Valley Hydroponics & Homebrewing 17455 Bear Valley RD. Hesperia CA 92345 760 949 3400

LAX Hydro 10912 S. La Cienaga Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90304 310-337-6995

Atwater Hydroponics 3350 Glendale Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90039 323-663-8881 Green Door Hydro and Solar 830 Traction Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90013 212-625-1323 Hardman Hydroponics 3511 Youree Dr., Shreveport Los Angeles 71105 318-865-0317 Hollywood Hydroponics and Organics 5109 1/2 Hollywood Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90027-6105 323-662-1908

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Nirvana Hydroponics 340 South San Pedro Los Angeles, CA 90013 310-795-2914

Wyatt Supply 4407 Solano Ave. Napa, CA 94558 707-251-3747

Igrow Hydro 2280 Veatch Street, Oroville, CA 95965 530-534-4476

Sunland Hydroponics 4136 Eagle Rock Blvd, Los Angeles, CA 90065 323-254-2800

Conejo Hydroponics 3481 Old Conejo Road #106 Newbury Park, CA 91320 805-480-9596

Orville Organic Gardens 5250 Olive Hwy Ste 1 Oroville, CA 95966 530-589-9950

Green Giant Hydroponics 7183 Hwy 49 Unit B Lotus CA 95651 530 622 4465

Stop N Grow 640 S. Frontage Road, Nipomo, CA 93444 805-619-5125

US Orchid & Hydroponic Supplies 1621 South Rose Avenue, Oxnard, CA 93033 805-247-0086

Valley Garden Solutions Inc. 15650 Nordhoff Avenue, Suite 104, North Hills, CA 91345 818-336-0041

Pacifica Hydroponics 90 Eureka Square Pacifica, CA 94044 (650) 355-5100

Foothill Hydroponics 10705 Burbank Boulevard, N. Hollywood, CA 91601 818-760-0688

America’s Best Hydroponics & Gardening Center 641 W. Palmdale Blvd. Unit D Palmdale, CA 93551 661-266-3906

California Green Hydroponics 16491 Road 26, Suite 101 Madera, California 93638 559-674-1400 Deep Roots Garden Center & Flower Shop 207 N. Sepulveda Blvd. Manhattan Beach, CA 90266 Telephone: 310-376-0567 B & S Gardening Supplies 592 Commerce Court, Manteca, CA 95336 209-239-8648 Monterey Bay Horticulture Supply 218 Reindollar Avenue Suite 7A, Marina, CA 93933 831-38-HYDRO Two Chix Garden Supply 1230 Yuba Street, Marysville, CA 95901 530-923-2536 Northcoast Horticulture Supply 1580 Nursery Way McKinleyville, CA 95519 707-839-9998 Thunders Hydroponic Center 1729 Yosemite Boulevard, Medesco, CA 95354 Mendocino Garden Shop PO Box 1301, 44720 Maint Street (at Hwy. 1), Mendocino, CA 95460 707-937-3459 Grow Zone 718 Willow Rd. Menlo Park CA 94025 650-326-4769 Hooked Up Hydroponics 1004 W. 15th St. Suite B & C, Merced, Ca 95340 209-723-1300 Merced Hydroponics 1809 East 21st Street, Merced, CA 95340 209-726-4769 The Urban Farmer Store 653 E. Blithedale Avenue, Mill Valley, CA 94941 415-380-3840 Mission Viejo Hydroponics 24002 Via Fabricante Suite 502 Mission Viejo, CA 92691 949-380-1894 Coca’s Central Valley Hydroponics 116 West Orangeburg Avenue, Modesto, CA 95350 209-567-0590 Growers Choice Hydroponics 1100 Carver Road, Modesto, CA 95350 209-522-2727 Year Round Garden Supply 11000 Carver Rd. #20 Modesto, CA 95350 Tel: 209 522 2727 Green Light Hydroponics 2615 Honolula Ave. Montrose, CA 91020 818-640-2623 Supersonic Hydroponic and Organic Garden Supply 850 Shasta Avenue, Suite B Morro Bay, CA 93442 805-772-5869

One Stop Hydroponics 12822 Victory Boulevard North Hollywood, CA 91606 818-980-5855 Lumatek Digital Ballasts 33 Commercial Boulevard, Suite B Novato, CA 94949 415-233-4273 Marin Hydroponics 55 Frosty Ln Novato, CA 94949 (415) 233-4104 Marin Hydroponics 1219 Grant Avenue, Novato, CA 94945 415-897-2197 Roots Grow Supply 40091 Enterprise Dr. Oakhurst CA 93644 559 683 6622 3rd Street Hydroponics 636 3rd Street Oakland, CA 94607 510-452-5521 Bloom Hydro 1602 53rd Ave. Oakland CA 94601 707 980 0456 Medicine Man Farms 1602 53rd Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601 707-980-0456 Plant-N-Grow 1602 53rd Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601 707-980-0456 Hydrobrew 1319 South Coast Highway, Oceanside, CA 92054 760-966-1885; 877-966-GROW Socal Hydroponics 1727-B Oceanside Boulevard, Oceanside, CA 92054 760-439-1084 Cultivate Ontario 2000 Grove Ave #a110 Ontario, CA 91761 909-781-6142 Flairform 1751 S Pointe Avenue, Ontario, CA 91761 213-596-8820 GreenCoast Ontario Unit 102-103 1920 South Rochester Avenue Ontario, CA 1 (909) 605-5777 National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply 1950 C South Grove Avenue, Ontario, CA 91761 888-888-3319 Palm Tree Hydroponics 2235 E 4th St,Suite G Ontario, CA 91764 909-941-9017 RH Distribution 1751 S. Pointe Avenue Ontario, CA 91761 888-545-8112

South Bay Hydroponics and Organics - Mtn. View 569 East Evelyn Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94041 650-968-4070

Green Coast Hydroponics 496 Meats Avenue Orange, CA 92865 714-974-4769

Redwood Garden Supply 55 Myers Avenue, Myers Flat, CA 95554 707-943-1515

Natural Pest Controls 8320 B Hazel Avenue, Orangevale, CA 95662 916-726-0855

Endless Green Hydroponics 25 Enterprise Court, Suite 3 Napa, CA 94558 707-254-0200

Advanced Soil & Garden Supply 350 Oro Dam Boulevard, Oroville, CA 95965 530-533-2747

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Hydroponics Unlimited 641 W. Palmdale Blvd. “D” Palmdale, CA 93550 661-266-3906 Palm Springs Hydroponics 4651 Ramon Road, Palm Springs, CA 92264 760-327-ROOT DNA Hydroponics Inc 19345 North Indian Canyon Drive, North Palm Springs, Suite 2-F CA 92258 760-671-5872 New Leaf Hydro 34150 123rd Street, Parablossom, CA 93553 661-944-2226 Alternative Hydro 3870 East, Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91107 888-50-HYDRO Better Grow Hydro Pasadena 1271 E. Colorado Boulevard, Pasedena, CA 91106 626 737 6612 365 Hydroponics 2062 Lincoln Ave Pasadena, CA 91103 1 (626) 345-9015 Supersonic Hydroponic and Organic Garden Supply 3850 Ramada Drive, Unit D2 Paso Robles, CA 93446 805-434-2333 Foothills Hydrogarden 3133 Penryn Road, Penryn, CA 95663 916-270-2413 Funny Farms Hydroponics 963 Transport Way, #12 Petaluma, CA 94954 707-775-3111 House of Hydro 224 Weller Street, #B, Petaluma, CA 94952 707-762-4769 Wyatt Supply 1016 Lakeville St. Petaluma, CA 94952 707-762-3747 JNJ Hydroponics 4774 Phelan Rd. Suite 2 Phelan CA 92371 760 868 0002 Turbo Grow 1889 San Pablo Avenue, Pinole, CA 94564 510-724-1291 Hillside Hydro & Garden 4570 Pleasant Valley Road Placerville CA 95662 530-644-1401 Best Yield Garden Supply 3503 West Temple Avenue, Unit A, Pomona, CA 91768 909-839-0505 Emerald Garden 8249 Archibald Avenue, Ranch Cucamanga, CA 91730 909-466-3796 GreenLeaf Hydroponics 2212 Artesia Boulevard, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 310-374-2585 Shadow Valley Aquatics 75 Kimick Way, Red Bluff, CA 96080 530-526-0479 Bear Roots Hydroponics 1615 East Cypress, #5 Redding, CA 96002 530-244-2215


Dazey’s Supply 3082 Redwood Drive, Redway, CA 95560 707-923-3002

Skywide Import & Export Ltd. 5900 Lemon Hill Avenue, Sacramento, CA 95824 916-383-2369

Extreme Hydroponics 11479 San Fernando Road C, San Fernando, CA 91340 818-898-0915

Humboldt Hydroponics 2010 Tunnel Road, Redway, CA 95560 707-923-1402

Tradewinds Wholesale Garden Supplies 1235 Striker Avenue #180, Sacramento, CA 95834 888-557-8896

Grow Your Own 3401 Traval Street, San Francisco, CA 94116 415-731-2115

Redway Feed Garden and Pet Supply 290 Briceland Road, Redway, CA 95560 707-923-2765

Green Joint Ventures 61 Tarp Circle, Salinas, CA 93901 831-998-8628

Hydroponic Connection Warehouse, The 1995 Evans Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94124 415-824-9376

Sylvandale Gardens 1151 Evergreen Road, Redway, CA 95560 707-923-3606

Reforestation Technologies International 1341 Daton Street, Units G&I Salinas, CA 93901 831-424-1494; 800-RTI-GROW

Nor Cal Hydroponics 4837 Geary Boulevard, San Francisco, CA 94118 415-933-8262

Humboldt Hydroponics 2174 Pine Street, Redding, CA 96001 530-241-7454

National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply 1900 Bendixsen Street , Bldg. 1, Samoa, CA 95564 800-683-1114 (Northern CA)

Hydro King 105 Hartnell Avenue, Suite C and D, Redding, CA 96002 888-822-8941

Greenmile Hydroponic Garden Supply 1480 South E. Street, Suite D, San Bernardino, CA 92408 909-885-5919

Orsa Organix 111 Willow Street, Redwood City, CA 94063 650-369-1269

Garden Shed, The 1136 El Camino Real San Carlos, CA 650-508-8600

Mendocino Greenhouse & Garden Supply 960 East School Way, Redwood Valley, CA 95470 707-485-0668

Pure Food Gardening/Microclone 830 H Bransten Rd. San Carlos,CA 94070-3338

EZ Green Hydroponics 7017 Reseda Boulevard, Reseda, CA 91335 818-776-9076

Green Gopher Garden Supply 679 Redwood Avenue, Suite A, Sand City, CA 93955 831-899-0203

Hydro Hills Hydroponics 19320 Vanowen St. Reseda CA 91335

Modern Gardens 26620 Valley Center Dr. Santa Clarita, CA 91351 661-513-4733

Box Of Rain Inc. Po Box 302, Rexford, CA 59930 406-755-7245 Hi-Tech Gardening 5327 Jacuzzi Street, #282, Richmond, CA 94804 510-524-4710 The Urban Farmer Store 2121 San Joaquin Street, Richmond, CA 94804 510-524-1604 Discount Hydroponics 4745 Hiers Avenue, Riverside, CA 92505 877-476-9487 All Ways Hydro 2220 Eastridge Ave. Suite C Riverside CA 92507 888-HYDRO98 Calwest Hydroponics 11620 Sterling Avenue, Suite A Riverside, CA 92503 800-301-9009 Hydro Depot 5665 Redwood Drive, #B, Rohnert Park, CA 94928 707-584-2384 Igrow Hydro 9000 Atkinson Street, Roseville, CA 95678 916-773-4476 Green Acres Hydroponics 1215 Striker Avenue, Suite 180, Sacramento, CA 95834 916-419-4394

Best Coast Growers 4417 Glacier Avenue Suite C, San Diego, CA 92120 800-827-1876

Plant It Earth 2279 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94114 415-626-5082 Urban Gardens Unlimited 704 Filbert Street, San Francisco, CA 94133 415-421-4769

UrbanGardens advanced hydroponics and gardening

704 Filbert Street, San Francisco, CA 94133

San Francisco Hydro 123 Tenth Street, San Francisco, CA 94103 The Urban Farmer Store 2833 Vicente Street, San Francisco, CA 94116 415-661-2204 US Garden 417 Agostinio Rd San Gabriel Ca 91776 626 285-5009 Inland Empire Hydrogarden 1301-C South State Street, San Jancinto, CA 92853 Hahn’s Lighting 260 E. VA Suite 1, San Jose, CA 95112 408-295-1755 Plant Life 32 Race Street, San Jose, CA 95126 408-283-9191

City Farmer’s Nursery 4832 Home Avenue, San Diego, CA 92105 619-284-6358

South Bay Hydroponics and Organics - San Jose 1185 South Bascom Avenue, San Jose, CA 95128 408-292-4040

Green Lady Hydroponics 4879 Newport Avenue, San Diego, CA 92107 619-222-5011

D&S Garden Supplies 17-130 Doolittle Drive San Leandro, CA 94577 510-430-8589

Home Brews & Gardens 3176 Thorn St San Diego, CA 92104 619 630 2739

Hydrogarden Delight 13762 Doolittle Drive, San Leandro, CA 94577 510-903-1808

Indoor Garden Depot 1848 Commercial St. San Diego CA 92113 619-255-3552

Central Coast Hydrogarden 1951 Santa Barbara Street, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 805-544-GROW

Innovative Growing Solutions (IGS) 5060 Santa Fe St. Ste.D San Diego, CA 92109 858-578-4477

Healthy Harvest Hydroponics and Organics 2958 S. Higuera St. San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 805.596.0430

Mighty Garden Supply 4780 Mission Gorge Pl. #A-1, San Diego, CA 92120 619-287-3238

San Diego Hydroponics North 802 N. Twin Oaks Valley Road #108 San Marcos, CA 92069 760-510-1444

Miramar Hydroponics & Organics 8952 Empire Street San Diego CA 92126 858-549-8649 Oracle Garden Supply 5755 Oberlin Drive, Suite 100 San Diego, CA 92121 858-558-6006

Greenfire Sacramento 3230 Auburn Boulevard, Sacramento, CA 95821 916-485-8023

Pacific Beach Hydroponics 1852 Garnet Avenue, San Diego, CA 92109 858-274-2559

Green Thumb Hydroponics 35 Quinta Court, Suite B, Sacramento, CA 95823 916-689-6464

San Diego Hydroponics Beach Cities 4122 Napier Street, San Diego, CA 92110 619-276-0657

KY Wholesale 8671 Elder creek Rd. #600 Sacramento, CA 95828 916 383 3366

Wai Kula Hydrogardens 5297 Linda Vista Road, San Diego, CA 92110 619-299-7299

Mystic Gardens 8484 Florin Road, #110, Sacramento, CA 95828 916-381-2464

Direct Hydroponics Wholesale 1034 W. Arrow Hwy#D San Dimas, CA 91773 888-924-9376

Sac Hydroponics 9529 Folson Boulevard, Suite C Sacramento, CA 95827 916-369-7968

Liquid Gardens 1034 West Arrow Hwy.#D San Dimas, CA 91773 888-924-9376

H20 Gardening 355 West 7th Street, San Pedro, CA 90731 310-514-1416 Marin Hydroponics 721 Francisco Blvd East San Rafael, CA 94901 415-482-8802 Pacific Garden Supply 128 H Carlos Drive, San Rafael, CA 94903 San Rafael Hydroponics 1417 Fourth Sreet San Rafael, CA 94901 415 455 9655 Green Coast Hydroponics 3560 State Street, Santa Barbara, CA 93105 805-898-9922 Nutes Int’l 204 N Quarantina Street, Santa Barbara, CA 93103 805-687-6699 Planet Earth Hydroponics 102 East Haley St. Santa Barbara, CA 93101 805 899 0033

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

Santa Clarita Valley Hydroponics 25835 Railroad Ave. #26 Santa Clarita CA 91350 661 255 3700 661 255 3701 California Hydroponics 310 Coral Street, Suite C Santa Cruz, CA 95060 831-423-4769 Hydro-Logic Purification Systems 370 Encinal St, Suite 150, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 888 H2O LOGIC

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Orange County Hydroponics 12797 Beach Boulevard, Stanton, CA 90680 714-893-9493

Everything Green 1650 Lewis Brown Dr. Vallejo, CA 94589 707 647 0774

HomeGrown Indoor Garden Supply 681 A Grider Way, Stockton, CA 95210 209-477-4447

Hydroponics Market 15816 Arminta St Van Nuys, CA 91406 818-305-6261 886-72-HYDRO

Golden Harvest Hydroponics & Garden Supply 8626 Lower Sacramento Road #48, Stockton, CA 95210 209-951-3550

Stop N Grow 4160 Market Street, Unit 11 Ventura, CA 93003 805-639-9489

Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - West Side 815 Almar Avenue, Unit K, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 831-466-9000

M&M Garden Supply 2509 West Lane, Suite B Stockton, CA 95205 209-939-0664

Full Sun Supply 3535 Industrial Drive, Unit B-3 Santa Rosa, CA 95403 877-FULL-SUN

Pacific Ave Indoor Garden Supply 4633 pacific Ave Stockton , CA 95207 209-955-0945

The Green Shop 66420 Mooney Boulevard, Suite 1 Visalia, CA 93277 559-688-4200

Gonzo Grow 2550 Guerneville Road,Suite C, Santa Rosa, CA 95401 707-546-1800

City Farm Hydroponics 8903 Laurel Canyon Boulevard, Sun Valley,, CA 91352 818-767-2076

Kaweah Grower Supply 1106 1/2 N. Ben Maddox Way, Visalia, CA 93293 559-625-4937

Sunland Hydroponics 8300 Foothill Boulevard, Sunland,, CA 91040 818-352-5300

Greentrees Hydroponics Inc. 2581 Pioneer Avenue, Unit D Vista, CA 92081 760-598-7551

Anthony’s Garden & Lighting Supply 30 Ridge Road, Suites 8 & 9 Sutter Creek, CA 95685 209-267-5416

Home Life Hydroponics and Organics 1745 East Vista Way, Vista, CA 92084 760-643-2150

Gottagrow Garden Supply 769 Wilson Street, Santa Rosa, CA 95404 707-544-7782 Green Logic Garden Supply 860 Piner Road, #38, Santa Rosa, CA 95403 707-843-3156 Organic Bountea 1919 Dennis Lane, Santa Rosa, CA 95403 800-798-0765 Pro Gardening Systems 3715 Santa Rosa Avenue #2, Santa Rosa, CA 95407 707-585-8633 Sun-In Hydroponics 1257A Cleveland Avenue, Santa Rosa, CA 95401 707-578-5747 Sweet Leaf Hydroponics 1611 Sebastobol Road, Santa Rosa, CA 95407 707-575-GROW (4237 Wyatt Supply 747 Yolanda Ave. Santa Rosa, CA 95404 707-578-3747) Santee Hydroponics 7949 Mission Gorge Road, Santee, CA 92071 619-270-8649

Tahoe Garden Supply 645 Westlake Boulevard, Suite 2, PO Box 487 Tahoe City, CA 96145 530-581-3200 The Otherside Hydroponics 19425 Ventura Blvd Tarzana CA 91356 818 881 hydro (4937) Hydroponics 4 Less 41669 Winchester Avenue, Temecula, CA 92590 800-A1-HYDRO Inland Empire Hydrogarden 28822 Old Town Front St. #206 Temecula, CA 92590 886-74-HYDRO 805 Hydroponics & Organics 1785 E. Thousand Oaks Boulevard Thousand Oaks, CA 91362 805-494-1785 Art of Hydro 2636 E. Thousand Oaks Blvd. Thousand Oaks, CA 91362 805-230-2227

Gardening Unlimited 60 Old El Pueblo Road, Scotts Valley, CA 95066 831-457-1236

Green Thumb Lighting & Garden 1647 W. Sepulveda Boulevard, Unit 5, Torrance, CA 90501 888-326-GROW

Pro Gardening Systems 765 Petaluma Avenue, Sebastopol, CA 95472 707-829-7252

Los Angeles Hydroponics and Organics 3007-3009 W. Artesia Blvd. Torrance, CA 90504 310-323-4937

Better Choice Hydroponics 610 S. Washington Street, Senora, CA 95370 209 533 2400

Anything Grows 10607 W. River Street, Building 3 Suite C, Truckee, CA 96161 530-582-0479

Go Big Hydroponics 4501 Van Nuys Boulevard, Sherman Oaks, CA 91403 818-789-3341

Hooked Up Hydroponics 339 S. Golden State Boulevard, Turlock, CA 95380 209-668-1300

Bloom Brothers Garden Supply, Inc. 3293 Industry Dr. Signal Hill, CA 90755 562 494-0060

Emerald Garden 307 East Perkins Street, Ukiah, CA 95482 707-463-2510

We Grow Hydroponics 3350 East Los Angeles Avenue, Simi Valley, CA 93063 805-624-4566 Abundant Hydroponics LLC 1611 Shop Street, #1-A, S. Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 530-54 HYDRO Advanced Garden Supply 2660 Lake Tahoe Boulevard, Building C, Unit 9, S. Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 530-541-4769

HydroPacific - Hydroponics & Garden Supplies 351 C Hastings Av., Ukiah, CA 95482 707-467-0400 Northcoast Hydrogardens 3450 North State Street, Ukiah, CA 95482 707-462-7214 Wyatt Supply 2200 N. State St. Ukiah, CA 95482 707-462-7473

BWGS-CA 7530 W. Sunnyview Avenue Visalia, CA 93291 888-316-1306

Specialty Garden Center 1970 East Vista Way, Suite 10, Vista, CA 92084 760-758-4769 Monterey Bay Hydroponics and Organics 81 Hangar Way, #1, Watsonville, CA 95076 831-761-9999 Evergreen Farm Feed and Garden 1131 Main Street Weaverville, CA 96093 1 (530) 623-2884 California Hydro Garden 1043 South Glendora Avenue, Suite A West Covina, CA 91790 626-813-0868 No Stress Hydroponics 7543 Santa Monica Boulevard, West Hollywood, CA 90046 323-845-9874 Hydronation 2491 Boatman Drive, Suite B West Sacramento, CA 95691 916-372-4444 Flower Hut Nursery 603 4th Street Wheatland, CA 95692 530-633-4526 Green Coast Hydroponics 11510 Whittier Boulevard Whittier, CA 90601 562-699-4201 GreenWay Hydroponics 11510 Whittier Boulevard, Whittier, CA 90601 Lazy Gardeners Hydroponics ‘N’ More 14626 East Whittier Boulevard, Whittier, CA 90605 562-945-0909 Garden Spout, The 260 Margie Dr Willits, CA 95490 707-456-0196 Sparetime Supply 208 E. San Francisco Avenue, Willits, CA 95490-4006 Hydromagic Supply 40 N. East St. Suite F Woodland,CA 95776 530-661-0117 Urban Gardens 22516 Ventura Boulevard, Woodland Hills, CA 91364 818-876-0222 Ultra Lo Hydro ultralohydro.com 937-252-8224 Garden Highway Garden Supply 598 Garden Highway #22 Yuba City, CA 95991 530-755-2877

Farm Hydroponics, The 1950 Lake Tahoe Boulevard #3, S. Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 530-541-3276

Atlantis Garden Supply 2851 A Whipple Road, Union City, CA 94587 510-487-8007

Valley Hydro and Organics 19230 Sonoma Hwy. Sonoma CA 95476 707 396 8734

Evergreen Hydroponics 923 N. Central Avenue, Suite B, Upland, CA 91786 909-946-7100

Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - East Side 4000 Cordelia Lane Soquel, CA 95073 831-475-9900

Southern Humbolt Garden Supplies 34919 Yucaipa Boulevard, Yucaipa, CA 92399 909-797-6888 707-459-6791

TNC Supply 9490 Main Street, P.O. Box 763 Upper Lake, CA 95485 707-275-9565

Yucca Valley Hydroponics 56825 Twentynine Palms Hwy. Yucca Valley, CA 92284 760 369 0300

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COLORADO South Park Hydroponics 42 E Buckskin Rd. Alma CO 80420 719 836 1533 National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply 3550 B Odessa Way, Aurora, CO 80011 866-877-4188 (Northeast) Nick’s Garden Center 2001 S. Chambers, Aurora, CO 80014 303-696-6657 Family Hydroponics-Boulder 2125 32nd Street Boulder, CO 80301 303-996-6100 Polar Ray 5171 Eldorado Springs Dr. Boulder, CO 80303 303 494 5773 Way To Grow 6395 Gunpark Drive, Boulder, CO 80301 303-473-4769 Deep Roots Garden Supply 1790 Airport Road, Unit 1 Breckenridge, CO 80424 970-453-1440 Mile High Hydroponics 37 Strong St. Brighton, CO 80601 303 637 0069 Brighton Hydroponics 839so.Kuner rd., Brighton Colorado 80601 303-655-1427 ACME Hydroponics 300 Nickel St Suite 3 Broomfield, CO 80020 720.524.7306 Colorado Grow 3400 Industrial Lane, Unit 10A Broomfield, CO 80020 (303) 465-GROW (4769) Hydrofarm CO 400 Burbank St Broomfield, CO 80020 800-634-9990 J&D Organic Growing Solutions 217 1/2 Clayton Street Brush, CO 80723 970-310-5408 BIG BloomZ 1011 Caprice Drive, Castle Rock, CO 80109 303-688-0599 Indoor Garden Warehouse 8100 S Akron St., Suite 322, Centennial, CO 80112 720-496-2110 Garden Tech 737 Garden of the Gods Road, Colorado Springs, CO 80907 719-278-9777 Greenhouse Tech 917 East Fillmore, Colorado Springs, CO 80907 719-634-0637 Hydro Grow Supply 644 Peterson Road, Colorado Springs, CO 80915 719-596-2600 Purple Mountain Hydroponics LLC 1530 S Nevada Avenue, Colorado Springs, CO 80906 719-635-5859 Room To Grow LLC 422 South 8th Street Colorado Springs CO 80905 719 633 8682 Roots and Rocks Hydroponic and Organic Garden Supply 1014 S. 21st Street Colorado Springs, CO 80904 719-634-1024

Your Grow Bud 6801 South Emporia St. Suite 106 Greenwood Village, CO 80112 Tel: 303-790-2211 BWGS-CO 11685 E. 55th Avenue Denver, CO 80239 888-316-1306 Chlorophyll 3801 Mariposa St. Denver CO 80211 303-433-1155 Denver Hydroponic & Organic Center 6810 North Broadway, Unit D Denver, CO 80221 303-650-0091 Rocky Mountain Lighting and Hydroponics 7100 N. Broadway, Suite 3D Denver, CO 80221 303-428-5020 The Grow Outlet 4272 Lowell Boulevard Denver, CO 80211 303-586-5543 Way To Grow 301 East 57th Ave. Denver, CO 80216 303-296-7900 All Seasons Gardening 434 Turner Drive, Suite 2B Durango, CO 81303 (970) 385-4769 Blue Sky Hydroponics 1301 Florida Road Unit C Durango, CO 81301 970-375-1238 Grow Store South, The 5050 S. Federal Boulevard, #37, Englewood, CO 80110 303-738-0202 Alpenglow Garden Supply 2712 South College Ave Fort Collins, CO 80525 970-266-8888 Bath Nursery & Garden Center 2000 E. Prospect, Fort Collins, CO 80525 970-484-5022

Ultra Lo Hydro ultralohydro.com 937-252-8224 Victory Hydro Gardening 1387 E. South Boulder Rd. Louisville, CO, 80027 Tel: 303-664-9376 Lyons Indoor Gardening 138 Main Street, Lyons, CO 80540 720-530-3828 Head Start Hydroponics & Organic Gardening Emporium 34500 US Highway 6, Unit B-9, North Edwards, CO 81632 970-569-313 Cultivate Hydroponics & Organics 7777 W. 38th Avenue, A120A, Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 303-954-9897 Salida Hydroponic Supply 1242 C Street Salida, CO 81201 (719) 539-4000 CONNECTICUT Grow Crazy 11 Berlin Rd. Unit 2 Cromwell CT 06416 203 660 8486 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 775 Silver Lane, East Hartford, CT 06118 860-568-4067 LiquidSun® CT 10C South Main Street, East Windsor, CT 06088 860-254-5757 Organix Hydroponics 749 Saybrook Road, (Tradewinds Plaza) Middletown, CT 06457 860-343-1923 DELAwARE Sunny Day Organics 1867 Coastal Hwy. Rehoboth Beach, Delaware MD 19917 302 703 2538 FLORIDA

Gold Coast Hydroponics West 8101 S.W. Frontage Road Suite 300 Fort Collins, Colorado 80528 970-232-3220

Urban Sunshine 1420 E. Altamonte Dr Altamonte Springs, FL 32701 407-830-4769

Indoor Paradise Hydroponics 309 S. Summit View, Unit 17, Fort Collins, CO 80524-1462 970-221-3751

Best Hydro 4920 Lena Road, Bradenton, FL 34211 941-756-1928

Way To Grow 3201 E. Mulberry Street, Fort Collins, CO 80524 970-484-4769

Palm Coast Hydroponics 4490 N Hwy US1 Ste. 108 Bunnell FL 32110 386 246 4119

Hydro Shack, The 220 Main Street, Suite E Frisco, CO 80443 970-668-0359

East Coast Hydroponics & Organics 461 Forrest Avenue, Suite 105 Coca, FL 32922 321-243-6800

GWS Hydroponics 7025 Highway 82 Building 4B, Glenwood Springs, CO 81601 970-384-2040

GreenTouch Hydroponics Inc. 5011 S State Road 7, Suite 104 Davie, FL 33314 954-316-8815

Hydro Planet 711 Washington Avenue, Golden, CO 80401 303-279-6090

Absolute Hydroponic Garden Center Inc 1607 Old Daytona Steet Deland, FL 32724 386-734-0696

Rocky Mountain Hydroponics and Organics 15985 S. Golden Road Golden, CO 80401 720-475-1725

Organic Grow Hut 2 780 Deltona Blvd. #107 Deltona, Florida 32725 1-888-574-grow 386-259-5777

Desert Bloom Hydroponics 445 Pitkin Avenue, Grand Junction, CO 81501 970-245-6427 Primo Gardens 1600 North Ave. Suite B Grand Junction, CO 81501 970-241-1209

.

Gold Coast Hydroponics 1539 SW 21st Avenue, Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33312 1-800-780-7371 Biofloral 6250 NW 27th Way, Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33309 877 735 6725

High Tech Garden Supply 5275 Quebec St. Commerce City, CO 80022 720-222-0772

Greeley Nutrients 700 11th Street Unit 101 Greeley CO 80631 970 673 8302

Green Thumb Hydroponics Supplies 13482 North Cleveland Avenue, Fort Meyers, FL 33903 239-997-4769

r-n-b horticultural supply 25797 Conifer Rd #a-8 Conifer, Co 80433 303-838-5520

GroWize 3225 S. Wadsworth Boulevard, Lakewood, CO 80227 303-986-2706

Gardener’s Edge Gainesville 5000 NW 34th Street, Suite 13, Gainesville, FL 32605 352-375-2769

Roll-N-Green Farms Horticultural Supply 25797 Conifer Rd #A-8 Conifer, CO 80433 303-838-5520

Grow Store, The 8644 W. Colfax Avenue, Lakewood, CO 80215 888-510-0350

Florida Garden Supplies 2692 W 79 Street, Hialeah, FL 33016 1-800-931-5215

Global Organics & Hydroponics 11 N Broadway Cortez CO 81321 970 564 8100

Ever Green Hydroponics Inc. 1131 Francis Street, Suite A, Longmont, CO 80501 303-682-6435

Hydro Terra Corp. 924 North Federal Highway, Hollywood, FL 33020 954-920-0889

Maximum Yield USA | October 2011

185


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Simply Hydroponics & Organics (North) 3642 South Suncoast Boulevard, Homosassa, FL 34448 352-628-2655

Hydroponic Depot II 2395 S Tamiami Trail #19 Port Charlotte FL 33952 941 255 3999t

Ohana Greenhouse & Garden Supply 300 Hukilike Street, #2M, Kahalui, HI 96732 808-871-6393

Hydroponics International Inc. 7029-10 Commonwealth Avenue, Jacksonville, FL 32220 904-693-6554

EZ Grow Green 604 S.W. Bayshore Blvd. Port St. Lucie, Fl 34983 772-807-7755

Aiyah’s Garden 4558 kukui st. kapa’a, Hi. 96746

Grower’s Choice & Hydroponics 11855 North Main Street, Jackonsonville, FL 32218 904-683-4517

Esposito Garden Center 2743 Capital Circle NE, Tallahassee, FL 32308 850-386-2114

Urban Organics & Hydroponics 5325 Fairmont Street, Jacksonville, FL 32207 904-398-8012

Evershine Hydroponics 1519 Capital Circle NE Unit #35 Tallahassee FL 32308 850-765-0040

Simply Hydroponics & Organics 7949 Ulmerton Road, Largo, FL 33773 727-531-5355

Grace’s Hydro-Organic Garden Center 8877 North 56th Street Tampa, FL 33617 813-514-9376

GrowSmart Indoor Garden Centers 14587 Southern Boulevard, Loxahatchee, FL 33470 561-429-3527 Palm Beach Discount Hydroponics – West 14703 Southern Blvd. Loxahatchee, FL 33470 561 296 8555 Atlantic Hydroponics 430 Count Street, Melbourne, FL 32901 321-821-1535 High Tech Garden Supply 2975 West New Haven Avenue, Melbourne, FL 32901 321-821-0853 Advanced Hydro Gardens 4960 NW 165 Street, Suite B-4, Miami, FL 33014 866-97-HYDRO Blossoms Experience, The 7207 NW 54th Street, Miami, FL 33166 866-452-4769 Florida Garden Supplies 9545 Sunset Drive, Miami, FL 33173 800-931-5215 Future Farms Inc., The 14291 SW 120th Street, Suite 105 Miami, FL 33186 305-382-2757 Gold Coast Hydroponics 4241 SW 71st Avenue, Miami, FL 33155 1-800-780-6805 Growing Garden Inc., The 12811 SW 42nd Street, Miami, FL 33175 305-559-0309 VitaOrganix 7921 NW 67th St Miami, FL 33166 786 845 8633 3D Hydroponics and Organics 7139 US Highway #19, New Port Richey, FL 34652 727-847-3491 Florida Garden Supplies 8442 Tradeport Drive, Unit 200, Orlando, FL 32827 Urban Sunshine 6100 Hanging Moss Rd ste 50 Orlando, FL 32807 407-647-4769 Urban Sunshine 6142 S. Orange Ave Orlando, FL 32809 407-859-7728 Green Winters Inc. 147 Tomoka Avenue, Ormond Beach, FL 32174 386-235-8730 800-931-5215

Harvest Time Hydroponics 14414 N. Florida Avenue, Tampa, FL 33613 813-264-7101 Hydroponics of Tampa 120 W. Bougain Villea, Tampa, FL 33612 813-333-6828 Stoney Hydro @ Schiro’s Barn n Garden Supplies 7812 Causeway Boulevard, Tampa, FL 33619 813-626-0902 Worm’s Way Florida 4412 North 56th Street, Tampa, FL 33610 800-283-9676; 813-621-1792

Aiyah’s Garden 3-3122 Kuhio Hwy. unit B-2 Lihue, Hi. 96766 808 245 2627 Pahoa Feed & Fertilizer 15-2754 Old Government Road, Pahoa, HI 96778 808-965-9955 IDAHO Boise Hydroponics 614 North Orchard Street, Boise, ID 83706 208-344-3053 Greenthumb Greenhouses 5895 Ensign Avenue, Boise, ID 83714 ILLINOIS Aerostar Global 824 South Kay Avenue, Addison, IL 60101 Brew and Grow 181 Crossroads Parkway, Bolingbrook, IL 60194 847-885-8282

Monkey Hydroponics 940 West Oakland Ave. Unit A1 407 574 8495

Let it Grow - Carbondale West Main Street, Carbondale, IL 62908 573-450-5401

Winter Garden FL 34787 13054 W Colonial Drive Winter Garden, FL 34787 407-656-GROW(4769)

Alternative Garden Supply 615 Industrial Drive, Unit A Cary, IL 60013 800-444-2837

Cultivating Eden Hydroponic Supplies 946 18th Avenue SW, Vero Beach, FL 32962 772-564-8880

Brew and Grow 3625 N. Kedzi Avenue, Chicago, IL 60618 773-463-7430

Florida Garden Supplies 8020 Belvedere Road,Unit 4, West Palm Beach,FL 33411 800-931-5215

Fertile Ground 463 West MacArthur Drive, Cottage Hills, IL 62018 618-259-5500

Palm Beach Discount Hydroponics – East 968 North Congress Ave. West Palm Beach, FL 33409 561 296 6161

Brew and Grow- Crystal Lake 176 W. Terra Cotta Ave. Crystal Lake, IL 60014 1 (815) 301-4950

GEORGIA

Midwest Hydroganics 20647 Renwick Road, Crest Hill, IL 60403 815-838-0100

Atlantis Hydroponics 1422 Woodmont Lane, #4, Atlanta, GA 30318 404-367-0052 Flora Hydroponics, Inc. 1239 Fowler St. NW Atlanta, GA 30318 Flora Hydroponics Inc. 2475 Jefferson Road, Suite 600 Athens, GA 30607 866-404-0551 Flora Hydroponics, Inc. 195 Paradise Blvd. Athens, GA 30607 Atlantis Hydroponics 2561 West Point Avenue, College Park, GA 30337 678-510-0032 Alpha Hydroponics and Garden Supply Inc. 3904 N Druid Hills Rd. Suite 247 Decatur GA 30033 404 590 4769 Savannah Hydroponics & Organics 4107 Eighth Street, Suite C Garden City, GA 31408 912-349-4030

Goldman’s Grow Shop 910 Greenwood Road, Glenview, IL 60025 847-657-7250 Grow Masters 4641 Old Grand Ave. Gurnee, Il. 60031 (224) 399-9877 Big Grow Hydroponics 9225 Trinity Drive, Lake In The Hills, IL 60156 847-854-4450 Grow Big Hydroponics 7817 B North 2nd Street, Manchesney Park, IL 61115 815-637-4769 Gardinside 618 S. Rt. 59 suite 104 Naperville, IL 60540 630-276-9885 Green Fields 8137 N. Milwaukee, Niles, IL 60714 847-965-5056

The Healthy Harvest Ste. 126 21113 Johnson St. Pembroke Pines, FL. 33029 Tel: 954-538-1511

Atlantis Hydroponics 5182-B Brook Hollow Parkway, Norcross, GA 30071 770.558.1346

Autumn Bloom Alternative Indoor Gardening 1020 Derby Street Pekin, Illinois 61554 309-642-6943

Eden Garden Supply 5044 N. Palafox Street, Pensacola, FL 32505 850-439-1299

HAwAII

Prairie House Garden Center 15151 South Harlem Avenue, Orland, IL 60462 708-687-3131

Healthy Gardens and Supply of Florida, Inc. 196 East Nine Mile Road, Suite F, Pensacola, FL 32534 850-912-4545 National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply 455 S. Andrews Avenue, Pompano Beach, FL 33069 877-649-3567 (Southeast)

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Maximum Yield USA | October 2011

Eco-Island Supply 810 Haiku Road, #394 Haiku, HI 96708 808-575-9171 Aqua Plant Hawaii / Kahala Hydroponics 4224 Wailae, Suite 1A, Honolulu, HI 96816 808-735-8665 Green Hands of Aloha 1713 Mary Street, Honolulu, HI 96819 808-847-4263

Brew and Grow 3224 South Alpine Road, Rockford, IL 61109 815-874-5700 Brew and Grow 359 W. Irving Park Road Unit E, Roselle, IL 60172 630-894-4885

Inc.


Organic Garden Center 9223 Skokie Blvd. Skokie, IL 60077 (847) 675-2722 Kreation’s Indoor Gardening Center 3427 Old Chatman Road, Springfield, IL 62704 217-341-0821 Water Works Indoor Gardening 1900 South Dirksen Parkway, Springfield, IL 62703 217-553-6929 Midwest Hydroganics 949 W Irving Park Rd. Streamwood IL 60107 630 483 1600 INDIANA

MAINE The Urban Garden Center 600 Wilson St. Brewer, ME 04412 1-207-989-2020 LiquidSun of Maine 51West Gray Rd. Gray, ME 04039 207-657-8033 Natures Palate Indoor Garden Store 1321 Mercer Rd ( rte2) Mercer, Maine 04957 877-587-4150 207-587-4150 Evergreen Garden Center 301 Forest Avenue Portland, ME 04101 207-761-2800

BWGS-IN 7854 North State Road 37, Bloomington, IN 47404 800-316-1306

High Tech Garden Supply Maine178 Rand Rd. Portland, ME 04102 Phone 207-899-4387

Sunleaves Garden Products 7854 North State Road 37, Bloomington, IN 47404 888-464-9676

The Urban Garden Center 659 Warren Ave Portland, ME 04103 1-207-347-2350

Worm’s Way Indiana 7850 North State Road 37, Bloomington, IN 47404 800-598-8158

Green Thumb Indoor Gardening 19 Stage Road, St. Albans, ME 04971 207-938-5909

Worm’s Way Mail Order 7850 North State Road 37 Bloomington, IN 47404 800-274-9676

Urban Garden Center 235 Lewiston Road, Topsham, ME 04086 207-373-0990

Frogs Lilly Pad, The 706 Citation Road, Carmel, IN 46032 317-846-4610

Greenlife Garden Supply 611 US Rt. 1 York, ME 03909 207-363-0844

Hops & Harvest 4616 E. DuPont Road, Suite Q, Fort Wayne, IN 46825 260-918-3035

MARYLAND

Harvest Moon Hydroponics 1336 East Washington St. Indianapolis, IN 4620 317-780-8070 Magic Bulb Garden Center 6229 Allisonville Road, Indianapolis, IN 46220 317-202-2852 Maximum Grow Gardening 6117 E Washington St Indianapolis, IN 46219 Five Point Gardens 56555 Oak Road, South Bend, IN 46619 574-287-9232

East Coast Organics 2800 Sisson Street, Baltimore, MD 21211 Healthy Gardens and Supply 5001-F Harford Road, Baltimore, MD 21214 443-708-5144 Maryland Hydroponics Inc. 10051 North 2nd Street, Laurel, MD 20723 301-490-9236 Meadowview Feed & Garden Center 1202 Meadowview Road, Pasadena, MD 21122 443-817-0018

KANSAS

Maryland Hydroponics Inc. 12130 Nebel Street, Rockville, MD 20852 240-551-4625

Green Circle Hydroponics 6890 W. 105th Street, Overland Park, KS 66212 913-642-3888

Purple Mountain Organics 100-7010 Westmoreland Avenue, Takoma Park, MD 20912 877-538-9901

KENTUCKY

MASSACHUSETTS

Garden Grove Organics 29 East 7th Street, Covington, (Cincinnati Metro), KY 41011 859-360-1843

Greenlife Garden Supply 481 Boston Road, Unit 4, Billerica, MA 01821 978-262-9966

Worm’s Way Kentucky 1360 Donaldson Hwy. Suite A, Erlanger, KY 41018 800-669-2088

GYOstuff – Grow Your Own 2400 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02140 617-945-1654

Grow Shop, The of Lexington 2320 Palumbo Drive, Suite 130, Lexington, KY 40509 859-268-0779

Harvest Moon Hydroponics 29 Washington Street, Route 1 Foxboro, MA 02035 800-660-6977

Louisville Hydroponics 3471 Taylor Boulevard, Louisville, KY 40215 502-366-4000

LiquidSun® MA 8 Lynwood Avenue, Holyoke, MA 01040 413-539-6875

New Earth Garden Center 9810 Taylorsville Road, Louisville, KY 40299 800-462-5953

Green Path Garden Supply 276 West Main Street, Northborough, MA 01532 508-393-4181 High Tech Garden Supply 560 Boston Turnpike (Rt.9) Shrewsbury, MA 01545 508-845-4477

LOUISIANA Geaux Hydroponics! 2126 O’Neal Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70816 225-751-4769 Laughing Buddha Nursery 4516 Clearview Parkway, Metairie, LA 70006 504-887-4336 Urban Organics 285 St. Claude Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70117 504-352-4709 Ourcrazydeals Hydroponics 201 Angus Drive, Yungsville, LA 70592 337-303-6146

Hydro Grow Room 15201 N. Holly Road, Unit B Holly, MI 48442 248-369-8333 Aric’s Indoor Garden Supply 611 Main st. Norway, Michigan 49870 (906)563-1518 Cultivation Station of Michigan Inc., The 6540 Allen Road, Allen Park, MI 48101 313-383-1766 Gro Blue Indoor Gardening Supplies 270 W. Liberty Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48104 734-913-2750 Grow Show, The 4095 Stone School Rd. Ann Arbor, MI 48108 (734)-677-0009 (734)-677-0509 HotHydro® 5245 Jackson Road, Suite F Ann Arbor, MI 48103 734-761-5040; 877-893-0716 Homelight Gardens 3471 S. Huron Road, Bay City, MI 48706 989-922-0088 J&L Growco 206 S. Michigan Avenue, Big Rapids, MI 49307 231-796-1528 Greenway Gardens 916 W 13th St Cadillac, Mi,49601 231-775-7075 Cultivation Station 3 Inc. 46912 Gratiot, Chesterfield, MI 48051 586-949-7453 H2O Grow Supply 3364 Arent Ct Coloma, MI 49038 269-468-3890 Van Hydro 7480 N State, Davison, MI 48423 810-653-8267 Hydro Giant 14455 Ford Rd, Dearborn, MI Cultivation Station – Eastern Market, The 2518 Market Street, Detroit, MI 48207 313-394-0441 Hydro Giant 21651 W. 8 Mile Rd. Detroit, MI (8Mile & Lahser) 313-387-7700 313-216-8888 Hydro Heaven 73647 W 8th Mile Road, Detroit, MI 48235 313-861-0333; 877-823-2076 Ultra Lo Hydro ultralohydro.com 937-252-8224 Urban Gardening Center, The 2520 22nd Street, Detroit, MI 48216 313-898-0200 Superior Growers Supply 4870 Dawn Avenue, East Lansing, MI 48823 517-332-2663 Sunnyside Hydroponics 24930 Gratiot Avenue, Eastpoint, MI 48021 586-777-2528 Synthetic Sun Hydroponics, LLC 799 S. Wisconsin Avenue Gaylord, MI 49735 989 731 8800 Growco Garden Supply 1042 Michigan Street, NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 877-939-6900

New England Hydroponics 15 D College Hwy. (Rt. 10), Southampton, MA 01073 888-529-9025

Home Grown Hydroponix 5333 Plainfield Suite C, Grand Rapids Michigan 49525, 616-361-2924

Worm’s Way Massachusetts 121 Worc-Providence Turnpike, Sutton, MA 01590 800-284-9676

Horizen Hydroponics 1614 Leonard Street, NW, Grand Rapids, MI 49504 866-791-1664

MICHIGAN Growers Outlet 7720 Clyde Park SW Byron Center, MI 49513 616-878-4444

Hydro Grow Room 15201 N Holly Rd Unit B Holly MI, 48430 248-369-8333

Maximum Yield USA | October 2011

187


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Flower Factory, The 2223 East Highland Road Highland, MI 48356 248-714-9292

Wild Child 7740 M 72 East, Traverse City, MI 49690 866-711-GROW

Let It Grow - Girardeau 879 S. Kings Highway, Cape Girardeau, MO 63703 573-803-0628

Hydro Vision 2858 E Highland rd Highland, MI 48356

Hydro Vision 1910 West rd Trenton, MI 48183

Heartland Hydrogardens 705 Vandiver Drive, Suite G Columbia, MO 65202 573-474-4769

Holland Hydroponic Outlet 587-40 East 8th Street Holland, MI 49423 616-298-7395 Synthetic Sun Hydroponics, LLC 705 S., Loxley Houghton Lake, MI 48629 989-422-2800 Hydro Vision 1247 e Grand River Howell, MI 48843 Green Forest Indoor Garden Supply, LLC. 2555 N. State(M-66) Rd. Ionia, MI 48846 616-523-6111 Horizen Hydroponics 4646 W. Main Street, Kalamazoo, MI 49006 269-567-3333 Kalamazoo Indoor Garden 450 W. Maple, Kalamazoo, MI 49001 269-344-2550

Hydroharrys.com 24500 Dequindre, Warren, MI 48091 800-461-8819 Indoor Garden Superstore 2570 Dixie Highway, Waterford Twp., MI 48328 248-673-2200; 877 22 HYDRO

Hydrospot 34236 Michigan Avenue, Wayne, MI 48184 734-722-1285

U-Grow 1724 North, 13th Street, St. Louis, MO 63106 314-452-6368

Indoor Eden 11090 Hi Tech Dr. Whitmore lake MI 48189 810-355-1465

Worm’s Way Missouri 1225 North Warson Road, St. Louis, MO 63132 800-285-9676

Horizen Hydroponics 5425 W. Saginaw Highway Lansing, MI 48917 517-323-ROOT

G.C. II Whitehall, MI 49461 231-893-2400

Superior Growers Supply 19582 Middlebelt Road, Livonia, MI 48152 248-473-0450

G.C. II 1006 E. Colby St. Suite A Whitehall, MI 49417 231-893-2400

Northern Lights Hydroponic and Garden Supply 29090 Campbell rd. Madison Heights, MI 48071 248-439-6269

AAA Hydroponics LLC 22 50th Street Wyoming, MI 49504 616-249-8338

BIg Creek Hydroponics 555 Old Little Lake Road, Marquette, MI 49855 906-249-5297

Cultivation Station – Grand Rapids, The 4907 S. Division Ave., Wyoming, MI 49548 616-855-4440

Sunshine Supply Co. 5800 East Pickard Street, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48858 989-775-3700 Flo-N-Grow. 214 N. 2nd Street, Niles, MI 49120 269-683-1877 Super Grow 288 W. MONTCALM PONTIAC, MI 48342 248-24SUPER (78737)

Stealth Hydro 15 E. Cross Street, Ypsilanti, MI 48198 866-998-1916 MINNESOTA Duluth Hydroponics 26 W 1st Street Duluth, MN 55802 218-341-7253 Indoor Gardening 10 NE 3rd Street, Faribault, MN 55021 507-209-1546

Green Earth Hydroponics 8127 Portage Rd. Portage, MI 49002 269-342-4190

Brew and Grow 8302 Highway 65 NE., Minneapolis, MN 55432 763-780-8191

Hydroponics Highway Inc. 2708 14th Ave. Port Huron MI, 48060 810-982-4769

Interior Gardens 115 -1620 Central Avenue NE, Minneapolis, MN 55413 800-498-4178; 612-870-9077

Green Thumb Hydroponics and Organic Indoor Supply 8460 Algoma Suite G Rockford MI 49341 USA 616 884 5500

Midwest Hydroponics 5825 Excelsior Blvd., St. Louis Park,MN 55416 888-449-2739

Home Grown Hydroponics 8075 Gratiot Road, Unit C, Saginaw MI 48609 989-781-1930

Eden Indoor Organic Gardens 831 Highway 75 North Moorhead, MN 56560 218-477-EDEN (3336)

Hydro Giant 19363 Eureka Rd, Southgate, MI 734.281.8888

American Garden Supply 601-6th Avenue, North, Princeton, MN 55371 763-631-0543Q

Cultivation Station of Michigan Inc., The 23529 Little Mack Avenue, St. Clair, MI 48080 586-775-9485

Still-H2O Inc. 14375 North 60th Street, Stillwater, MN 55082 651-351-2822

High Tech Garden Supply 7889 Telegraph Road. Taylor, MI 48180 313-908-7554

Eco Garden Supply 800 Transfer Door 25 in rear St. Paul, MN 55114 651-647-1896

Hydro Grow, The 8210 Telegraph Road, Taylor, MI 48180 313-633-0641

MISSISSIPPI

Grow Store, The 90 N U.S. Highway 31 South , Traverse City, MI 49685-7923 231-421-5191

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Grow Your Own Hydroponics 3617 Saint John Avenue, Kansas City, MO 64123 816-241-2122 Let It Grow - Springfield 2519 E. Kearney Street, Springfield, MO 65803 417-862-GROW

Synthetic Sun Hydroponics, LLC 3218 W. Houghton Avenue West Branch, MI 48661 989-345-8800

Growing Consultant 2260 Apple Avenue, Muskegon, MI 49442 231-773-5600

Green Circle Hydroponics 12 East Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64106 816-421-1840

Light Green Water 3661 Highland Road, Waterford, MI 48329 248-681-0001

HTG Supply-Lansing Michigan 2815 East Grand River Ave.Lansing, MI 48912 (517) 580-0555

Indoor Garden Shop LLC 1310 Bienville Boulevard, Ocean Springs, MS 39564 228-875-3725 MISSOURI

HYDROGARDENS

Green Thumb Organics 249 Mid Rivers Mall Drive, St. Peters, MO 63376 636-397-4769 (GROW) MONTANA Heightened Harvests 2018 Main Street #4, Billings, MT 59105 406-252-4311 Magic City Organic & Hydroponic Supply 812 Central Billings, MT 59102 (406)-245-LEAF(5323) One World – Life Products 906 Broadwater Billings MT 59101 406 839 9969 Heightened Harvests 3103 Harrison Avenue, Suite B Butte, MT 59701 Alpengrow Nursery Supplies 238 Highway 93 S., Eureka, MT 59917 406-882-4496 Butteopia 127 Main Street, Butte, Montana 59701 1-406-782-8476 Big Sky Garden Supply 528 West Idaho, Kallispell, MT 59901 406-755-1465 Box of Rain Indoor Garden Center 860 N. Meridian Road B-19, Kalispell, MT 59901 406-755-RAIN (7246) Cornucopia Grow Your Own 127 Stoner Creek Road Lakeside, MT 59922 406-709-1076 Dr. Green Thumbs 1106 West Park, Livingston, MO 59047 406-222-7440 Bizzy Beez LLP 5875 Highway 93 S, Whitefish, MT 59937 406-863-9937 NEBRASKA Patio-Ponics 3255 Cornhusker Highway, Suite 4 Lincoln, NE 68504 402-466-9218 Advanced Hydro-Ponics 10711 Mockingbird Drive, Omaha, NE 68127 (108th and L-Q) 402-991-6630 Paradigm Gardens 8949 J Street, Suite 5, Omaha, NE 68127 402-339-4949 NEVADA Carson Valley Hydroponics 2520 Empire Ranch Road, Carson City, NV 89701 775-884-4769 Lorraine Ink 290 Spear Court, Fernley, NV 89408 775-575-7757


The Grape Vine 4020 Hempstead Turnpike Bethpage,NY,11714 516-731-1100 Bronx Hydro & Garden 39 Bruckner Boulevard, Bronx, NY 10454 718-993-3787 Bklyn Hydro & Garden 316 McGuiness Blvd Brooklyn NY 11222 718-383-0095 Brooklyn Farms 51Hicks Street St. Brooklyn, NY 11231 347-725-3491 Indoor Outdoor Gardener 8223 5th Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11209 718-836-2402 Hydroponics of Buffalo 1497 Hertel Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14216 716-838-3545 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 340 West at 59, Central Nyack, NY 10960 California Hydroponics 27 Corporate Circle, East Syracuse, NY 13057 315-432-9387 Upstate Hydroponics 2026 Lake Rd unit B Elmira, NY 14903 607 483 9199 FutureGarden Inc. 59 Central Avenue, Farmingdale, NY 11735 516-420-0884

Harvest Moon Hydroponics 147 Fourth Street, Troy, NY 10960

Fifth Season Gardening Company 1616 D-3 Battleground Avenue, Greensboro, NC 27408 336-271-3373

The Grow Room 32-32 49th Street Astoria, NY 11103 718-218-GROW (4769)

East Coast Hydroponics 14649 Horace Harding Exp, Flushing, NY 11367 718-762-8880 Healthy Harvest Organics and Hydro 163 Broadway, Fort Edwart, NY 12828 518-480-4698 Greentree Nursery 308 Elmira Road, Ithaca, NY 14850 607-272-3666 Crossroads Hydroponics & Organics 181 S. Plank Rd. Newburgh, NY 12550 845-561-GROW Hudson Valley Hydroponics 217 Route 32 North, New Paltz, NY 12561 845-255-3633 Sunlight Solutions Hydroponics 2045 Niagara Falls Boulevard, Suite 13, Niagara Falls, NY 14304 888-GROWBOX The Grow Room 8 Bridge Street, Nyack, NY 10960 800-449-9630 Revolution Hydroponics 309 West State St. Olean NY 14760 716.373.Grow (4769) Mor Gro Hydroponics 5680 State Route 104 E Oswego , NY 13126 315-877-8725 Environmental Gardens 8 John Walsh Boulevard, Suite 310 Peekskills, NY 10566 800-254-0507; 914-736-6676 Harvest Moon Hydroponics Henrietta Townline Plaza, 3047 West Henrietta Road, Rochester, NY 14623 716-865-7353 Hydro Garden Center 1069B Lyell Avenue, Rochester, NY 14606 1-800-277-1322 Sunset Hydroponics & Home Brewing 1590 West Ridge Road, Rochester, NY 14615 866-395-9204 KG Garden Supply 1327 Floyd Avenue, Rome, NY 13440 1-877-KG-HYDRO LiquidSun of New York 1702 Fiero ave Rotterdam, NY 12150 518-952-4654 Hydroponics Shops of America 2606 Erie Boulevard, Syracuse, NY 13224 315-251-2516

Saratoga Organics & Hydroponic Supply 19 Front Street, Ballston Spa, NY 12020 518-885-2005; 800-850-4769

Green Zone Hydroponics 2148 Niagara Falls Blvd. Tonawanda, NY. 14150 716-693-9663

Herb-N-Garden Center 14901 Puritas Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44135 216-252-2001

Hydro Store, The 1014 W. Sunset Road, Henderson, NV 89014 702-434-7365 AAA Indoor Organic Garden SuperCenter 2101 S. Decatur Boulevard, #21, Las Vegas, NV 89102 702-450-4769 Advanced Gardens Hydroponics 3111 South Valley View, (on Desert Inn West of Valley View) Suite V103 Las Vegas, NV 89102 702-257-4769 Advanced Gardens Hydroponics 7850 Dean Martin Dr. Suite 506 Las Vegas,NV 89139 702-247-4769 All American Hydroponics 2675 East Patrick Lane, Unit 8, Las Vegas, NV 89120 702-894-9888 Best Hydroponic Supply 6818 W Cheyenne, Las Vegas, NV 89108 702-750-9300 Hydro Store, The 7145 W. Ann Road, Las Vegas, NV 89130 702-434-9376 Nevada Hydroponics 4700 B Maryland, Suite 1, Las Vegas, NV 89119 702-798-2852 Anything Grows 190 West Moana Lane, Reno, NV 89509 775-828-1460 Everything Green Hydroponics P.O Box 34869 Reno, Nevada 89533 NEw HAMPSHIRE Hydro World 17 White Birch Lane, Lincoln, NH 03251 603-745-3030 NEw JERSEY Garden State Hydroponics 511 Avenel Street, Avenel, NJ 07001 888-300-8711 Bergen County Hydroponics 70 Essex Street, Hackensack, NJ 07601 201-342-2001 Green Touch 2 Hydroponics Inc. 888 Route 33, Unit 1, Hamilton, NJ 08619 609-570-8829

greentouch2 HYDROP ONICS

East Coast Horticultural Supply 1652 Hurffville Road, Sewell, NJ 08080 856-228-5290 77HYDRO 37 Fairfield Place, West Caldwell, NJ 07006 877-774-9376 Claraqua 4 Redwood Court, West Windsor, NJ 08550 NEw MEXICO AHL Year Round Garden Supply 1051 San Mateo Blvd. SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108 505-255-3677 All Seasons Gardening 3600 Osuna Road, Suite 406 Alburquerque, NM 87109 505-508-4292 Common Shaman 1319 San Mateo N.E., Albuquerque, NM 87110 505-255-6463 All Seasons Gardening 1228 Parkway, Suite E Sante Fe, NM 87507 505-438-GROW Santa Fe Hydroponics 821 W. San Mateo Road, Suite 4, Santa Fe, NM 87505 505-467-8454 NEw YORK

INC.

NORTH CAROLINA Advanced Hydroponic Garden 55 Shiloh Road #6 Asheville, NC 28803 1 (828) 277-3488 Fifth Season Gardening Company 21 B Westside Dr. Asheville NC 28806 828-225-5007 Fifth Season Gardening Company 45 Banks Avenue, Asheville, NC 28801 828-253-4112 Fifth Season Gardening Company 106 South Greensboro Street, Carrboro, NC 27510 919-932-7600 Be Well Hydroponics & Urban Gardening 4732 Monroe Road, Charlotte, NC 28205 704-344-8010 BWGS-NC 4045 Perimeter West Drive,Suite 400, Charlotte, NC 28214 800-316-1306 High Tech Garden Supply 2712 B Freedom Drive Charlotte, NC 28208 704-697-0911 Flow & Grow Hydroponics & Organic Garden Center 4521 Cumberland Road, Fayetteville, NC 28306 910-423-FLOW (3569)

Good Harvest Garden Center 629 Oakridge Farm Hwy. Mooresville NC 28115 704-658-9136 Fifth Season Gardening Company 5619-A Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, NC 27606 919-852-4747 New Age Gardens 2236A US Highway 70, Swannanoa, NC 28778 828-299-9989 All Season Hydroponics 890 South Kerr Avenue, Wilmington, NC 28410 Progressive Gardens 6005 Oleander Drive, Wilmington, NC 28403 910-395-1156 OHIO Akron Garden Center 434 W Wilbeth Road, Akron, OH 44314 330-724-2700 Summit Hydroponics 1030 Kenmore Boulevard Akron, OH 44314-2114 330-753-5222 Campbells Indoor Gardening Supplies 1721 Greenville Road Bristolville, OH 44402 330-889-0049 Magic Home Gardens 209 Cemetery Road, Canal Winchester, OH 43110 614-837-2440 Dayton Hydroponics 4920 Provident Drive Cincinnati, Ohio 45246 513-942-7111 Eastside Hydroponics 550 Ohio Pike Cincinnati, OH 45255 513-528-GROW Kissed by the Sun Hydroponic 10740 Reading Road, Cincinnati, OH 45241 513-769-0159 Cleveland Garden Center Inc. 727 East 185th Street, Cleveland, OH 44119 216-481-7868 Grow Wizard, The 5700 Denison Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44102 216-961-2500

Maximum Yield USA | October 2011

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Garden Indoors of Ohio 4720 Indianola Avenue, Columbus, OH 43214 800-833-6868

Rogue Silicates Inc. POB 21, Azalea, OR 97410 541-837-8590

H2organic LCC 620 NE 3rd Street, McMinnville, OR 97128 503-434-6107

Magic Home Garden 4538 Indianola Avenue, Columbus, OH 43214 614-263-2440

B.I.G.S. 155 SW Century Drive, Suite 401, Bend, OR 97702 541-385-5222

Wizard’s Garden, LLC 621 Spruce Street, Unit C, Myrtle Point, OR 97458 541-572-2333

Garden Connections 3341 Centerpoint Dr. Grove City OH 43123 614 871 0707

Herb N’ Jungle Hydroponics 930 SE Textron Drive, Bend, OR 97702 541-382-4010

Advanced Hydrorganics Indoor Garden Center 5204 Darrow Road, Hudson, OH 44236 234-380-1287

Northern Light and Garden Beaverton 9290 SW Beaverton-Hillsdale Highway, Beaverton, OR 97005 503-297-7331

Green Zone Garden Center & Hydroponic Supplies 454 S.W. Coast Hwy Newport OR 97365 USA P: 541-265-8252

Sweet Greens 5540 Brecksville Road Independence, OH 44131 800-421-7084

Westcoast Organic and Hydroponic Supply 12410 SE 282nd Avenue, Unit C Boring, OR 97009 503-766-4106

Hydro Gardens and Lights 1144 N Memorial Drive Lancaster, OH 43130 705-65 Hydro

The Good Earth Organics 30088 Redwood Highway, Cave Junction, OR 97523 541-592-4496

Carefree Garden Center 134 West Drive, Lodi, OH 44254 330-302-4203

Anthony’s Garden & Light Supply 93779 B Troy Lane, Coos Bay, OR 97420 541-266-8822

CropKing 134 West Drive, Lodi, OH 44254 330-302-4203

Corvallis Hydroponics & Organics 5490 SW Philomath Boulevard, Corvallis, OR 97333 541-738-2820

The Grow Shop 165 Davids St. Marion OH 43302 740 223 7467

Aqua Serene 2836 W. 11th Avenue, Eugene, OR 97402 541-302-9073

Urban Gardens 671 E. Center Street Marion, OH 43302 740-375-2800

Aurora Innovations PO Box 22041, Eugene, OR 97402 866-376-8578

Top Garden Products 8600 East Avenue Suite C. Mentor, OH 44060 440-290-8773

SunInside Gardening Co. 665 Conger, Unit F, Eugene, OR 97402 541-686-9966

Indoor Gardens 1222 Hill Road, North, Pickerington, OH 43147 614-866-6065

Advanced Indoor Gardens 17831 se 82nd drive Gladstone, OR 97027 503 305 6341

Trinity Hydro Organics 465 Woodman Drive Riverside, OH 45431 937-252-GROW Toledo Hydroponics Ltd. 855 S. Holland-Sylvania Road, Suite 2 Toledo, OH 43615 1-877-893-0716 Greenleaf Hydroponics 1805 Elm Road, Warren, OH 44483 330-372-1039 Dayton Hydroponics 3856 Miamisburg-Centerville Road, West Carrolton, OH 45449 937-859-3999 Harvest Moon 9215 Market Street, Youngstown (North Lima), OH 44452 800-776-8399 Indoor Garden Worx 906 Blue Avenue, Zanesville, OH 43701 866-900-9679 OKLAHOMA Tulsa County Hydro-Organics 1928 W. Albany, Broken Arrow, OK 74012 918-259-HYDRO AAAAHA! Hydroponics Unlimited P.O. Box 74, Oakhurst, OK 74050 Organics OKC Garden Supply 3620 N Pennsylvania Avenue, Oklahoma City, OK 73118 405-528-GROW The OKC Urban Gardener 3711 N. Western Ave. Oklahoma City, OK 73118 405-521-9300 Urban Garden 3141 E. 15th Street, Tulsa, OK 74104 918-289-0018

Northern Light and Garden Grants Pass 1203 Rogue River Highway, Grants Pass, OR 97527 541-474-1700 Paradise Supply LLC 560 NE. “F” Street, Unit C, Grand Pass, OR 97526 541-955-7293 Vital Organix 932-B SE “M” Street Grants Pass, OR 97526 541-226-9283 Oregon Rainforest Co. 19949 E. Burnside Street, Gresham, OR 97233503-465-9909 In & Out Gardens 93484 Hwy 99 South Junctin City OR 97448 541-234-2342 Basin Indoor Gardening 1221 Main Street, Klamath Falls, OR 97601 541-273-2023 Green Zone Garden Center & Hydroponic Supplies 1845 S W Hwy. 101 Ste. 3 Lincoln OR 97367 USA 541 994 7070 H2organic LCC 620 NE 3rd Street, McMinnville, OR 97128 503-434-6107 Green Thumb Hydrogarden and Organic Supply 2021 West Main Street, Medford, OR 97501 541-779-8600 Growing Crazy (Hooked On Hydroponics) 817 W. 2nd Street, Medford, OR 97501 In & Out Gardens 1574 Skypark Drive Medford, OR 97501 541-858-3333

OREGON

Ladybug Indoor Gardens 3960 W. Main Street, Medford, OR 97501 541-618-4459

Aqua Serene 465 Applegate Way, Ashland, OR 97520 541-482-7600

Advanced Organics & Garden Supply 290- B Merlin Avenue Merlin, Oregon 97532 541-659-1466

Astoria Indoor Garden Supply 1343 Duane St. Unit C Astoria OR 97103 503 468 0606

Indoor Garden Depot 15828 SE McGloughlin Boulevard, Milwaukie, OR 97267 503-786-2445

190

Maximum Yield USA | October 2011

Gorilla Garden Supply 1810 Virginia Avenue, North Bend, OR 97459 541-756-5005

Garden Supplies

American Agriculture 9220 Southeast Stark Street, Portland, OR 97216 800-433-6805 Bloom Garden Supply 518 NE 20th Ave. Portland, OR 97232 (971)255-1336 Everybody’s Garden Center 2701 SE 14th Avenue, Portland, OR 97202 800-669-5483 Garden Spout, The 4532 South East 63rd Avenue, Portland, OR 97206 503-788-4769 Homegrown Garden Supply 7112 NE Gilsan Street, Portland, OR 97213 877-EZ2-GROW Island Flowers & Indoor Garden Center 909 N. Tomahawk Island Drive, Suite 103, Portland, OR 97217 503-546-3185 Lights Distributing 9843 SW 55th Avenue, Portland, OR 97219 Rain or Shine 13126 NE Airport Way, Portland, OR 97230 503-255-1981 Roots Garden Supply 5426 North Gay Avenue, Portland, OR 97217 503-285-4768 Urban Flora 2865 South East, Portland, OR 97214 503-236-3344 BIGS Warehouse 2606 SW 4th Street, Unit B Redmond, OR 97756 541-504-8886 Indoor Garden Supply 536 SW 6th Street (rear alley), Redmond, OR 97756 541-504-7750 DC Hydroponics & Organics 7275 Green Siding Rd. Roseburg, OR 97471 541-679-3700 Roseburg Hydroponics 853 SE Stephens Street, Roseburg, OR 97470 541-229-1420 Indoor Garden Center 1697 SE 25th Street, Salem, OR 97302 503-566-7888 Northern Light and Garden Salem 1915 Lancester Drive, Salem, OR 97305 503-364-4769 Cascade Horticulture 39570 Pioneer Boulevard, Sandy, OR 97055 503-668-8242 Moonshine Park Farm 135 South East 62nd, Unit F South Beach, OR 97366 541-444-2298 J-N-B Hydro 2 Go 155 West Central Avenue, Sutherlin, OR 97479 541-459-9211 Samurai Greenhouse Supply 32067 Old Hwy. 34 Tanget, OR 97389 541-928-3431 Grow America Garden Supply LLC 11511 SW Pacific Highway, Tigard, OR 97223 503-841-6868 PENNSYLVANIA


Pocono Hydroponic Solutions 25 Route 611 Bartonsville, PA 18321 Tel: 570-730-4544 Green Solutions Hydroponics 1700 Orange Street Berwick, PA 18603 570-752-1530 Garden Indoors of Pennsylvania 208 Route 13, Bristol, PA 19007 800-227-4567 422 GROW 1775 North Main Street Extension Butler, PA 16001-1327 724-561-3777 High Tech Garden Supply 20232 Route 19, Unit 6, Cranberry Twp., PA 16066 724-473-1113 New Moon Indoor Garden Supply 20550 Route 19 Perry Highway, Cranberry Twp., PA 16066 724-591-8086 Easton Hydroponcis 437 N. Hampton St. Easton, PA 18042 484-373-3232 Home Hydroponics of Pittsburgh 830 Route 119, Greensburg, PA 15601 724-836-1118 Buds to Blooms Garden and Supply Co., LLC 509 Orchard Avenue Kennett Square, PA 19348 484-860-8056 Flairform POB 1417, Lansdale, PA 19446 215-395-6353 RH Distribution POB 1417 Lansdale, PA 19446 888-545-8112 Hydro Ponics of Harrisburg 310 South 10th Street, Lemoyne, PA 17043 877-684-3808 Always Green Garden Supply 4400 Old William Penn Hwy Ste. 106 Monroeville PA 15146 412 646 1243 New Stanton Hydro 150 Post Ave. New Stanton, PA. 15672 724-635-0297 Full Bloom Hydroponics 84 South 24th Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 888-872-3602 Home Hydroponics of Pittsburgh 2008 Smallman Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15222 412-232-7030 Healthy Gardens and Supply 1012 Lincoln Avenue, Prospect Park, PA 19076 866-32-HYDRO

Hydro-Earth 1243 Mineral Springs Avenue, North Providence, RI 02904 401-305-5520 South County Hydroponics 51 Old Tower Hill Road, Wakefield, RI 02879 401-783-1733 Mother Nature Hydroponics 1268 Post Rd. Warwick RI 02888 401 780 0600 LiquidSun® RI 1179 Central Avenue, Pawtucket, MA 02861 401-722-2724 Good To Grow 34 Nooseneck Hill Road West Greenwich, RI 02817 401-392-3100 Growin’ Crazy 93 Kingston Road Wyoming, Rhode Island 02898 401-284-0810 SOUTH CAROLINA GreenSpirit Hydrogarden 1864 Meeting Street, Charleston, SC 29405 843-225-1GRO; 247 Garden Supply 535 D Clemson Road, Columbia, SC 29229 803-788-4445 All Good Hydroponics & Gardening 6729 Two Notch Road, Columbia, SC 29223 803-708-4819 All Season Hydroponics 6729 Two North Road, 10B Columbia, SC 29223 803-708-4819 The Urban Garden Hydroponics 9557 Two Notch Rd. Ste. E Columbia, SC 29223 803-788-9313 All Season Hydroponics 1350 Hwy. 501 Business, Store 3&4 Conway, SC 29526 843-347-9266 Green Thumb Unique Gardening & More 1230 Rutherford Road, Greenville, SC 29609 864-271-8830 Greenspirit Hydrogardens 3600 Unite 1 Hwy.17 S. North Myrtle Beach, SC 29582 843-361-7777 SOUTH DAKOTA Green Earth Products Inc. 5700 Highway 79 S.,Unit 1, Rapid City, SD 57702 605-342-1307 TENNESSEE

Home Hydroponics of Pittsburgh 9 North Main St. Washington, PA 15301 724-222-0200

Atlantis Hydroponics 1800 Rossville Avenue, #3, Chattanooga, TN 37408 423-752-5400

Western Pennsylvania Innovative Gardening 1177 Pittsburgh Road, Suite 103 Valencia, PA 16059 724 - 903 - 0800

Advanced Hydroponic Garden 783 French Mill Road, Dandridge, TN 37725 800-521-1643

Organic Garden Center 800 Washington Blvd. Williamsport, PA 17701 570-322-3120

Perpetual Harvest 75 Riverport Drive, Jackson, TN 38301 877-422-3391

National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply 450 Grim Lane, York,PA 17406 877-779-7111(Northeast)

Advanced Hydroponic Garden 6912 Clinton Highway, Knoxville, TN 37921 866-938-3318

PA Hydroponics & Home Gardening Supply 20 Quaker Church Road, York Springs, PA 17372 717-528-4175

Sun City Hydroponics 2235 Whitten Road, Suite 104, Memphis, TN 38133 901-372-8100

RHODE ISLAND

National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply 126 Belinda Parkway, Mt. Juliet, TN 37122 888-265-9005

Oakworld Garden Center 39 West Street, Barrington, RI 02806 401-245-5705 Solar Seed Hydroponics, Inc. 2406 Putman Pike, Chepachet, RI 02814 401-710-9010 Organically Grown 768 Atwood Ave Cranston, RI 02920 401-944-0549

All Seasons Gardening and Brewing Supply Co. 924 8th Avenue, South, Nashville, TN 37203 800-790-2188 Worm’s Way Tennessee 901 Main Street, Nashville, TN 37072 800-397-4153 TEXAS

,

Abundant Harvest Hydroponics & Organics 3101 Avenue E East, Marshall, TX 76011 817-649-0100 Brite Ideas Hydroponics & Organics 4360 S.Congress Avenue, #310, Austin, TX 78745 512-444-2100 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Central Austin) 5126 Burnet Road, Austin, TX 78756 512-459-4769 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (South Austin) 2125-A Goodrich Avenue, Austin, TX 78704 512-440-4769 Happy Harvest Hydroponics & Organic 1500 C rescent Drive, Suite 202 Carrollton, TX 75006 972-466-1300 GroGreen Hydroponics 4015 Main Street, Dallas, TX 75226 214-370-9984 Jolly Green Hydroponics (Greenhouse Horticultural Supplies) 13628 Neutron Road, Dallas, TX 75244 (866) WE-JOLLY; 469-341-5555 Lone Star Hydroponics and Organics 1302 Motor Circle, Dallas, TX 75207 214-634-9376 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Dallas) 3400 Elm Street, Dallas, TX 75226 214-744-4769 Organic Garden & Feed 3801 N Interstate Hwy 35,Suite126, Denton Texas 76207 940-381-9890 Earth Organics 1360 Lee Trevino Drive,Suite 105 El Paso, TX 79936 915-591-9500 Airline Hydroponics P.O. Box 980904, Trader’s Village #363, Houston, TX 77098 713-942-0484 Botani Garden 15120 Bellaire Blvd Houston, TX 77083 281-575-1999 Houston Discount Hydroponics 9384 Richmond Avenue, Houston, TX 77063 713-464-9406 Hydroponic Nation 9700 Almeda Genoa Road, Suite 108, Houston, TX 77075 281-501-9636 In-N-Out Garden Supply 11011 S Wilcrest Drive Ste K Houston, TX 77099 1 (281) 568-5265 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Houston) 7730 A Park Place Boulevard, Houston, TX 77087 713-641-4769 Ultimate Hydroponic Garden Supply 6125 West Sam Houston Parkway, North Suite 206 Houston, TX 77041 713-856-8425 Texas Growers Supply 5990 N. Sam Houston Pkwy. E. #602, Humble, TX 77396 281-441-3739 Field of Dreams Indoor Growing Supplies 5302 Slide Road Unit B,Lubbock, TX 79414 806-793-2901 Hydro Mart 3841 Main Street, Rowlett, TX 75088 972-475-6114 Sol Organics & Hydroponics 1634 Babcock Road, San Antonio, TX 78229 210-366-9082 GreenMaker Nursery 3030 Northwest Loop, Stephenville, TX 76401 254-965-7273 Innergrow Hydroponics 24451 Interstate Highway 20, Wills Point, TX 75169 866-475-4769 UTAH Wasatch Hydroponics 4050 South Howick, Suite 11E, Salt Lake City, Utah 84107 801-716-4133 Salt Lake Plant & Hydro60 West 3300 S. #6 ,South Salt Lake, UT 84115 801-488-3200 VERMONT

Maximum Yield USA | October 2011

191


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Greenthumb - Vermont 394 Route 15, Jericho, VT 05465 802-899-4323

Grow Center, The 615 South Fir DeerPark WA 99006 509-276-GROW

Sodo Hydro 1727 1st Ave. South, Seattle, WA 98134 206-682-9377 888-90HYDRO (904-9376)

Peak Hydroponic Garden Supplies 20 School Street, Plainfield, VT 05667 802-454-8000

Healthy Grow Indoor Garden Supplies 10 SE Everett Mall Way Suite B Everett WA 98208 425-374-2227

LiquidSun® VT 1 Bellows Falls Road, (Route 5 North) Putney, VT 05158 802-387-1100

Indoor Garden Depot 1401 S. 324th Street, Federal Way, WA 98003 253-874-1112

Northwest Horticulture Supply 161 Hooker Road, #1, Sequim, WA 98057 360-582-0702

Green Thumb Gardening P.O. Box 235, Route 15, Underhill, VT 5489 800-564-9376

North West Hydro Supply 1355Pacific Pl Unit 117 Ferndale WA 98248-7824 360-778-3254

VIRGINIA

Good 2 Gro 3507 W Clearwater Ave. Kennewick WA 99336 509 737 1313

Fifth Season Gardening Company 900 Preston Ave. Charlottesville VA 22903 434-293-2332 Clean & Green Technologies 196 Corning Drive, Christiansburg, VA 24073 866-694-1628 I Love Hydroponics 612 N. Sheppard Street, Richmond, VA 23221 804-377-3020 Lucky Roots 612 North Sheppard St. Richmond, VA 23221 804-377-3020 Blue Ridge Hydroponics & Home Brewing Company The Williamson Road Plaza, 5327 D Williamson Road Roanoke, VA 24012 540-265-2483 Inside-Out Garden Supply 6517 Backlick Road, Springfield, VA 22150 703-451-3259 I Love Hydroponics 368 Newtown Road, #105, Virginia Beach, VA 23462 757-490-5425 Hydroponics & Growlights 13400 Occoquan Road, Woodbridge, VA 22191 703-490-0700 wEST VIRGINIA Panhandle Hydroculture 800 East Moler Ave. Martinsburg, WV 25401 304-240-7587

Indoor Garden & Lighting 714 South Central Avenue, Kent, WA 98032 253-373-9060 Kent Garden Supplies Ltd. 18817 East Valley Highway, Kent, WA 98032 425-251-9299 Grogro Hydro 12403 NE. 124th Street, Kirkland, WA 98034 888-7-GROGRO 425-820-6200 KP Indoor Garden Store 8912 Key Peninsula HWY N Lakebay, WA 98349 253-884-SURE (7873) InDoor Gardening 1158 Commerce Longview WA, 98632 360-353-3851 Indoor Garden & Lighting 20505 Highway 99,, Lynnwood, WA 98036 425-673-2755 Go-N-Green Hydroponics 1241 State Ave Suite #102 Marysville, WA 98270 (360)386-8230 Green Acres Indoor Garden & Lighting 514 State Ave Suite #102 Marysville, WA 98270 360-658-GROW (4769)

509 Grow 2718 N Division Spokane, WA 99207 509-327-GROW(4769) Grow Center, The 2808 W Sprague Spokane WA 99202 509-456-GROW River City Hydroponics 1514 East Francis Avenue, Spokane, WA 99208 509-464-0246 Spokane Organic and Hydroponic Supply 4823 East Sprague Avenue E., Spokane Valley, WA 99212 509-534-4055 Green Tree Hydroponics and Garden 12316 Pacific Ave South Tacoma, WA 98444 253-536-1791 Indoor Garden & Lighting 3839 6th Avenue, Tacoma, WA 98406 253-761-7478 Solar Shop 306 West 4th Street, Tonasket, WA 98855 509-486-4508 Indoor Garden Depot 6400 NE Highway 99, Suite H, Vancouver, WA 98665 360-993-7779 National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply 4525 NW Fruit Valley Road, Vancouver, WA 98660 888-478-6544 (Northwest) National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply 5408 NE 88th Street, Building A, Vancouver, WA 98665 888-478-6544 VM Indoor Garden Supply 2903 NE 109th Ave Ste. D Vancouver, WA 98682 P: (360) 256-2933

wASHINGTON

Island Hydroponic & Supplies 1515 5th Street #B, Marysville, WA 98271 425-299-5855

Island Horticulture Supply 8608 S March Point Rd. Anacortes WA 98221 360 293 0000

Mike’s Indoor Garden Supply 1204 East Wheeler Road, Moses Lake, WA 98837 (509)766-5856

Mike’s Indoor Garden Supply 6121 172nd Street NE #A, Arlington, WA 98223 (360) 474-1900

M & R Lighting 17238 Memorial Drive, Mt. Vernon, WA 98273 360-848-1080

Aric’s Indoor Garden Supply 1104 West Wisconsin Avenue, Appleton,, WI 54914 920-574-3258

Belfair Garden & Lighting 24090 NE State Route 3 #F Belfair,WA 98528 360-275-2130

Northern Lights Gardening 1524 Riverside Dr #2 Mt. Vernon, WA 98273 360-982-2217

Grow BIG Hydroponics 954 S. Westland, Appleton, WI 54914 920-749-4769

Green Gardens Distributing 12738 Bel-Red Road, Bellevue, WA 98005 425-454-5731

Indoor Garden & Lighting 8606 Preston Fall City Rd. SE Preston WA 98050 425 222 9661

Brew and Grow 285 N. Janacek Road, Brookfield, WI 53045 262-789-0555

Northern Lights Gardening 4159 Hannegan Road, Bellingham, WA 98225 360-715-8585

Linda’s Gardening & Hydroponics 11522 Canyon Road East, Puyallup, WA 98373 253-531-9641

Garden Supply Guys 752 Memorial Drive - Suite A Green Bay, WI 54303 920-857-9493

Liquid Sunshine Hydroponics 5087 Lincoln Road, Blaine, WA 98230

Renton Indoor Garden Center 207 Sunset Blvd. N, Building A, Renton, WA 98055 425-917-9000

Brew and Grow 3317 Agriculture Drive, Madison, WI 53716 608-226-8910

Kitsap Garden & Lighting 2130 6th Street, Bremerton, WA 98312 360-377-1277 M & R Lighting Unit C 22914 Highway 410, Buckley, WA 98390 253-891-4190 Indoor Tropics 5930 Sunburst Lane #B Cashmere, WA 98815 509-470-7782 Garden Smart 500 Bond Drive, Castlerock, WA 98611 360-274-7960

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Eco Enterprises 1240 NE 175th Street, #B Shoreline, WA 98155 800-426-6937 Aqua Serene 3839 Stone Way North, Seattle, WA 98103 206-547-GROW (4769) Grogro Hydro 12316 32nd AVE NE #103 Seattle, WA 98125 Hydro-Tech 2121 Aurora Avenue, North, Seattle, WA 98103 206-547-2202

Indoor Garden Supply LLC 1250 Atlantic Ave, Woodland, WA 98674 360-841-8055 wISCONSIN

Paradigm Gardens 4539 Helgesen Drive, Madison, WI 53718 608-241-3800 Brew and Grow 2246 Bluemound Road Ste. B Waukesha, WI 53186 1 (262) 717-0666 PUERTO RICO Tecno-Hydro Ave Campo Rico GJ17, PO Box 1450 Carolina, PR 00982 787-752-8252


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Maximum Yield USA October 2011