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HYDRO STYLE Growing in the U.S.A.> Indoor gardenING expo indoorgardeningexpo.com

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october 16-17

SAN FRancisco California, USA

july 24-25


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USA

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BIG YIELDS

HYDRO STYLE Growing in the U.S.A.> Indoor gardenING expo indoorgardeningexpo.com

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october 16-17

SAN FRancisco California, USA

july 24-25


FEATURES 48

CONTENTS July 2010

48

High Yields in Tight Spaces: Where a Little Can Mean a Lot

56

Root Zone Chilling: Handling the Heat

70

Is Germinated Brown Rice an Answer to Hunger?

80

LED Technology: Paving the Way for a Spectral Revolution

90

Whipping Up a Culinary Garden

94

Sea Energy in Agriculture - Part 2: Renewing the Soil with Sea Solids

by Aubree Gail Gagné by Dr. Lynette Morgan by Peggy Bradley by Brian Chiang and Josh Puckett by Lee McCall

by David Yarrow

136

102

Growing Guide: Lucky Bamboo

110

Defining Green: Learning the Language

116

Plant Nutrient Elements - Part 2

124

Root Pruning 101

130

Water as a Substrate: Aeroponics and Aero-Hydroponics

136

TDS and EC Meters for Hydroponics Explained

162

Indoor Gardening Techologies: The Last Couple of Decades

by Therese Cressman by Donald Lester

102

by Philip McIntosh by Gaby Bronzstein by Noucetta Kehdi by Rob Samborn by Erik Biksa

DEPARTMENTS 10 12 14 18 20 34

From the Editor Letters to the Editor MaximumYield.com Simon Says MAX Facts Product Spotlight

88 100 108 122 152 154

Growing for Health Beginner’s Corner Avant-Gardening Green Thumb Gardening Tips & Tricks

160 176 180 181 182

Talking Shop Max Mart Coming up in August Do You Know? Distributors

How It’s Made

MAXIMUM YIELD USA - July 2010

9


FROM THE editor

jessica raymond

Get ready for this month’s MONSTER issue of Maximum Yield USA - our biggest to date! Practically EXPLODING with close to 200 pages of content, tips, spotlights, products, news, contests and more, this issue is sure to be a collector’s edition. New products and exclusive promotions from our advertisers will make this issue a great indoor gardening reference for the upcoming 7th Annual San Francisco Indoor Gardening Expo (July 25-26). It’s definitely been a year of advanced technology: exacting light, ventilation, CO2 enrichment, new-age nutrients, environmental controllers, modern instrumentation and much more.Worldwide interest in growing your own food, growing organically and growing year round has spurred rapid growth in the industry. Read up on the latest tricks, tips and technology in the following pages and then pack your bags for San Francisco where 100+ companies from around the world will be showcasing and demonstrating the latest technologies to make your garden grow! Check out www.indoorgardenexpo.com for times, directions and more. We are proud to welcome Simon Hart this issue with the premiere of our new “Simon Says” column. Simon’s knowledge and love for gardening, both indoors and out, will be highlighted each month as he passionately

Jessica Raymond, Editor editor@maximumyield.com

answers your questions. Simon welcomes you to send your questions to simon@maximumyield.com and look for his response in an upcoming issue. Put your feet up and enjoy your read! See you at the end of the month at the San Francisco Expo. Be sure to stop by the Maximum Yield booth and say hello. Maximum Yield Now on Your Smartphone!

Connect to MaximumYield.com instantly from your Smartphone with our all-new Quick Response (QR) Code, found on the cover of every issue of Maximum Yield. Now you can access the best products, the most in-depth articles and information and the latest news at high speeds. Simply download your choice of QR software to your Smartphone, scan the QR Code and your phone’s browser will automatically launch, redirecting you to www.maximumyield.com. It’s that simple!

contributors Dr. Lynette Morgan holds a B. Hort.

Peggy Bradley is the executive director

Josh Puckett earned his bachelor’s degree in biology with an emphasis on plant biology from Sonoma State University. He currently works at the UC Davis Foundation Plant Services. He has years of experience in the horticulture and agriculture industries. He also serves as an advisor for the Kessil Research team.

Lee McCall graduated from Johnson and Wales University with a concentration in Culinary Arts. Culinary school opened the door to research and work with hydroponics and organic production. Currently, Lee attends business school in Denver and focuses on continuing advancements with Maximum Yield and indoor gardening technology.

Donald Lester is the plant products manager at JH Biotech, Inc., a California based agricultural technology company with 27 OMRI certified products. Donald has a master’s degree in agronomy with an emphasis in entomology. He is an agricultural scientist with over 10 years of research experience and 50 scientific publications to his credit.

Philip McIntosh is a science and

Brian Chiang has worked for DiCon

Noucetta Kehdi is the co-founder and administrator of General Hydroponics in Europe. Noucetta got involved in hydroponics in the early 1990’s and in 1996 she moved to the southwest of France where she took care of a greenhouse educating herself on all things hydroponics.

Rob Samborn is the director of

Tech. degree and a PhD in hydroponic greenhouse production from Massey University, New Zealand. Lynette is a partner with SUNTEC International Hydroponic Consultants and has authored five hydroponic technical books. Visit www.suntec.co.nz/ consultants.htm and www.suntec. co.nz/books.htm for more information.

Fiberoptics, Inc., an advanced technology company based in California, for the last 13 years. Brian received his bachelor’s degree in physics from UC Berkeley and master’s degree in physics from UC Davis. He is currently the managing director for Kessil Lighting, a DiCon business division.

for Carbon Question International. She has a master’s degree in civil engineering and works in the field of hydroponics, specializing in using the technology to help humans reduce their impact on the earth. She was nominated for the Japan Institute of Technology Environmental award and completed the Children’s Hydroponic Exhibit at the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry.

technology writer with a bachelor’s degree in botany and chemistry and a master’s degree in biological science. During his graduate research he used hydroponic techniques to grow axenic plants. He lives in Colorado Springs, CO. where he teaches mathematics at Challenger Middle School.

sales and marketing for HM Digital, a manufacturer of water testing instruments, including handheld testers, inline monitors and controllers for TDS, EC, pH, ORP, temperature and volume. He can be reached at rob@hmdigital.com

Erik Biksa holds a diploma in

agriculture with majors in fertilizer sciences and crop production. Erik has amassed over 18 years of indoor gardening experience and intensive research. Since first appearing in Maximum Yield in 1999, the “Ask Erik” column and numerous articles have reached growers throughout the world.

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MAXIMUM YIELD USA - July 2010

Become a Maximum Yield contributor and have your articles read by 250,000 readers throughout USA, Canada, UK and Australia. Maximum Yield is the largest free-to-consumer indoor gardening magazine in the world. Every issue is available on maximumyield.com, which has thousands of unique visitors monthly.


LETTERS TO the editor

Experimenting Indoors – High Yields the CEA Way I love the articles in Maximum Yield. I will be using Erik Biksa’s experimental CEA (Controlled Environment Agriculture) model detailed in the 2007 issues of Maximum Yield USA. This will be an ongoing process. I really like the idea of using the space outside the CEA room to act as a lung. Maximum Yield is doing great work. Your articles are educational and inspiring. I've learned a lot from your magazine. Keep up the great work. Hubert Young

Eastbound and Down Hello! I first want to thank you for your magazine. It has provided me with lots of information and creates a better understanding of the topic for the indoor grower. I have just moved from California to Colorado. I would pick up your magazine religiously out in Cali whenever I made a trip to the local store but I can’t find any stores in Colorado that carry them. What is going on? Stormey Cummings Denver, Colorado

Growing Green in Cali I am so excited to have won the Green Air HyperGrow hydroponic kit in your Win Big…Grow Big contest. I can’t wait to try out my new grow pot. Your magazine is great and you have very informative articles. I really look forward to reading your upcoming issues. I always learn something new. Keep up the good work and thanks for having this contest and giving out some great free stuff. Paul Garces Modesto, California

Blacking Out A few months ago, there was a great article titled "Are you Afraid of the Dark?" about growroom lighting or more specifically the dark period. Can you tell me where I could get it as an electronic file? Thanks, Russell Winnett The article you’re looking for is from Maximum Yield USA September 2009 by Jonathan Valdman. To view this article electronically, simply visit www.maximumyield.com and search for Jonathan in our author archive.You can also search by article and check out this month’s feature articles.

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MAXIMUM YIELD USA - July 2010

Every issue of Maximum Yield contains contact information and locations of indoor gardening retail stores across the US that distribute our magazine. Simply flip to the back of the magazine to locate a store in Colorado (currently 29), and hurry to the nearest location to pick up Maximum Yield for free! If your favorite grow shop doesn’t carry it, have them call us (1-250-729-2677) to start distributing today.

Impatient Patron I’ve been looking forward to the San Francisco Expo since the last show ended. You guys have not once disappointed me, so I expect great things. This will be my third year gardening indoors and I finally feel ready to really ramp up my system. I’ve taken in so much information throughout the past year, thanks in part to Maximum Yield, and I hope to supplement that information with hands-on product interaction at the show. Last year I spoke with a variety of nutrient guys and finally decided on a sweet line of liquid plant food. This year I will be checking out fans and controllers. I’m counting down the days. See you soon! Daniel Maharaj Detroit, Michigan

Maximum Yield reserves the right to edit for brevity.

We want to hear from you! Write us at: Maximum Yield Publications Inc. 2339A Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 or Email us at: editor@maximumyield.com


Coming up on the Web 2010 North American Expo Tour The countdown is on to the BIGGEST show of the year, the 7th Annual San Francisco Expo July 24-25. Whether you’ve just started gardening or are an aficionado, there will be something for everyone at this year’s expo. And don’t forget about our long-awaited 1st Annual Long Beach Expo Oct. 16-17. Make plans to stop at each one of these pre-eminent events. Visit www.indoorgardeningexpo.com for full details.

Click & Win Every time you visit maximumyield.com is just one more opportunity to be eligible to win. Make the most of your visit to your favorite website and check out our latest contests with new prizes added every second month all year long. Link directly at http://maximumyield.com/contests.php

G A R D E N I N G

VOLUME 11 – NUMBER 4 July 2010 Maximum Yield is published monthly by Maximum Yield Publications Inc. 2339A Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 Phone: 250.729.2677; Fax 250.729.2687 No part of this magazine may be reproduced without permission from the publisher. If undeliverable please return to the address above. The views expressed by columnists are a personal opinion and do not necessarily reflect those of Maximum Yield or the Editor. Publication Agreement Number 40739092 Printed In Canada.

PRESIDENT/PUBLISHER - Jim Jesson GENERAL MANAGER - Don Moores BUSINESS MANAGER - Linda Jesson SALES DIRECTOR - Lisa Lambersek EDITOR - Jessica Raymond jessica@maximumyield.com ADVERTISING SALES 250.729.2677 Linda Jesson - linda@maximumyield.com Lisa Lambersek - lisa@maximumyield.com Ilona Hawser - ilona@maximumyield.com Gaby Morin - gaby@maximumyield.com Ashley Heppell - ashley@maximumyield.com PRODUCTION & DESIGN ads@ads.maximumyield.com Alice Joe - alice@maximumyield.com Wes Cargill - wes@maximumyield.com Daniel Peters - daniel@maximumyield.com Nicole Tennison - nicole@maximumyield.com

Featured Articles

ACCOUNTING - Lee Anne Veres leeanne@maximumyield.com

Defining Green

USA DISTRIBUTION Aurora Innovations BWGS, BWGS West and BWGS East General Hydroponics Hydrofarm Hydro International National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply R&M Supply Tradewinds

Do you know the difference between “green” terms in the market? Organic, natural, sustainable and green are defined here.

Root Zone Chilling With hydroponics you can actually manipulate a plant’s physiology to boost yields and keep crops happy by controlling root zone temperature.

Looking Back Imagine what you can accomplish today that was impossible or unheard of just 15 to 20 years ago. Take a look back in time and see how far we’ve come. Have you signed up for Maximum Yield’s monthly E-Newsletter? If so, you know that every issue is overflowing with the latest local and global news, expert advice, website reviews, contest updates, sneak peeks, event details and so much more. If not, what are you waiting for? Sign up today at http://maximumyield.com/newsletter.php

Tell us what you think at editor@maximumyield.com. We’d love to hear from you. 14

I N D O O R

MAXIMUM YIELD USA - July 2010

CANADIAN DISTRIBUTION Brite-Lite Group Biofloral Eddis Wholesale Greenstar Plant Products Inc. Hydrotek MegaWatt Quality Wholesale UK DISTRIBUTION Growth Technology Hydrogarden Northern Hydroponic Wholesale Nutriculture UK AUSTRALIAN DISTRIBUTION Futchatec Growth Technology Hydraspher


SIMON says

Hi Simon, I’ve noticed references in several articles to bio-filters being used with hydroponic systems, and how they can provide stability for water cultures. I’m very much into DWC systems, and would love more information on this equipment. Could you point me in the right direction as far as reliable manufacturers and information? Also, how would these differ from a bio-filter for an aquarium? Faron

In a Deep Water Culture (DWC) system, a net pot rests inside a larger water-filled bucket. The plant’s roots are suspended in the nutrient-rich water, which is oxygenated with an air stone, for example. The void between the basket and the water surface increases oxygen to the roots. However, pathogens can spread rapidly between plants if a common reservoir is used. A (biologically active) bio-filter removes or introduces different organic compounds or organisms into a water based system. In an aquarium, bio-filters remove certain elemental compounds, such as nitrates and phosphates, with the use of specific bacteria. This important mechanism prevents algae blooms from accumulating in the tank, helps fish evade health problems and restores system balance. Aquaponic bio-filters are slightly different because in this case the hydroponic garden is used as the filtering system. The plants use organic compounds in the waste water as nutrients prior to being recirculating into the fish farming component of the system. Again the purpose is to decrease the accumulation of unwanted nutrients. Hydroponic bio-filters are quite different, controlling pathogenic organisms from proliferating and harming the plants, particularly in a recirculating DWC system. A more involved option would be developing a filter for the secretion of specific organic acids and growth regulating substances. The substrate used in the filter is the key to success. Initially bio-filters in hydroponics were based on sand (a physical filter). The use of micro-organisms increased the benefits but also changed the material used in the filter. The key property is usable surface area. Remember, as organic material or sediment passes over the material it can clog it. Passage diameter (open spaces) is very important. Material could include aquarium products like biological media. Porous materials such as rinsed lava rock, diatom chunks or lassenite provide a higher initial surface area. A pre-filter layer at the top of your bio-filter would be beneficial to clean out some particulate 18

MAXIMUM YIELD USA - July 2010

prior to moving through the bio-filter substrate. You must inoculate your filter with diverse biology. Include some powdered or liquid inoculants with different bacteria and fungi. Consider the use of a quality aerobic compost tea, which will be more microbiallydiverse than available inoculants. Sending your solution into a lab for analysis gives you a specific look at the microbial population, and demonstrate which products to reapply based on their success or failure to colonize the bio-filter system, saving you money in the long term. Remember that as microbes secrete organic acids and enzymes, pH fluctuation can occur and can stabilize at a different value than you are used to in a sterile water system. Don’t be scared of this drift as it should stabilize and is unlikely to affect nutrient availability. Applied biology must be kept alive with organic matter. Plant roots will slough off some organic material from the rhizosphere but additional components in your solution can help. Consider kelp extracts and humates. I would experiment with insoluble granular humates within the filter as a source of microbial feedstock. This would help you avoid some of the issue related to excessive organic compounds within the water system such as foaming and particulate build-up. Good luck in your garden. Simon Hart Do you have a question for Simon? Send it to simon@maximumyield.com with the words “Simon Says” in the subject line, and your answer will be printed in an upcoming edition.

MY


MAX

facts

hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Growers Can Boost Benefits of Broccoli and Tomatoes A University of Illinois study has demonstrated that agronomic practices can greatly increase the cancer-preventive phytochemicals in broccoli and tomatoes. The highest levels of detoxifying enzymes were found in rats that ate selenium-treated broccoli. The amount of one of the cancerfighting compounds in broccoli was six times higher in selenium-enriched broccoli than in standard broccoli powder. Selenium-treated broccoli was also most active in the liver, reaching a level of bioactivity that exceeded the other foods used in the experiment. Broccoli and other plants of the brassica family are unique in having a methylating enzyme that enables plants to store high concentrations of selenium. In a previous study, tomato and broccoli powders eaten together were found to be more effective in slowing prostate cancer in laboratory rats than either tomato or broccoli alone. In their current research, they are experimenting with ways to increase the bioactive components in these foods in order to test the efficacy of enriched broccoli and tomatoes in a new prostate cancer study. (Source: www.sciencedaily.com)

Eating Dirt: The Latest Culinary Trend Anyone who has grimaced as they bite down on sandy lettuce may find this one perplexing. But eating dirt is the latest thing in restaurants around the world. It seems some chefs are so keen on communing with the soil that they are putting it in their dishes deliberately. Some chefs are creating imitation dirt from ingredients like dehydrated beets, or crushed dried-mushrooms. But others are using high tech devices like the Rotavapor—more commonly used in the perfume industry—to distill soil, the essence of which is used to create an earthy foam. The trend isn’t just confined to chefs—installation artist Laura Parker asks gallery goers to sniff soil samples, and then taste vegetables that were grown in that soil. (Source: www.treehugger.com)

Volunteerism Farming Making a Comeback Conceived originally as a means for landless farmers to get farming, Crop Mob has grown and flourished in little over a year. Volunteers get together once a month and descend on a local farm or garden, and work together to get a big job done. No money exchanges hands. And everyone shares a meal at the end of the day. Crop Mob is really a return to a tradition that has been absolutely central to viable, sustainable farming in regions all across the Globe—and that tradition is community participation. There was a time when wheat thrashings, corn schuckings and barn raisings were common place in every farming community. Nobody back then questioned the viability of farming. In fact, it was taken as a given that many hands make light work— so why the heck wouldn’t you pitch in to help your neighbor? (Source: www.treehugger.com)

Edu-tainment at EarthFest Boulder In celebration of Earth Day’s 40th Anniversary, the Boulder Earth Day Festival, sponsored by Rocky Mountain Hydroponics and Organics in Golden, Colorado, brought the community together via education, music and environmental experience. Edutainment served as the festival’s key vision with a focus on sustainability. The crew from Rocky Mountain Hydroponics and Organics were on hand to discuss sustainable gardening techniques and offer advice on growing big, healthy yields with the General Organics nutrient line. According to the crew, the event was a fantastic success. (Source: www.generalhydroponics.com/blog, http://earthfestboulder.net)

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facts

hydroponic news, tips and trivia

New Retailer in Los Angeles – LAX Hydro Tired of having to go to two, three or even four different indoor garden stores to find everything you need? LAX Hydro is dedicated to providing our customers with the largest selection of inventory available in Los Angeles with unbeatable prices and excellent customer service. Our 3,600 square foot warehouse is well suited to handle the demands of large volume customers and small hobby farmers alike. Our expert staff can answer questions on lighting and environmental issues to nutrients, fertilizers and pest/disease control. Come into LAX Hydro, your indoor garden warehouse! Located at 10912 S. La Cienega Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90045; Tel: 1-310-337-6995; Fax: 1-310-337-6992; Web: www.laxhydro.com

Kerala Starts 10 Year Conversion to AllOrganic Farming The southern Indian state of Kerala has officially announced a new farming policy that aims to convert all agriculture in the state to organic methods over the next 10 years. In the first phase 30,000 hectares will be converted. There is need for ensuring organic farming approach in all the watershed development areas and extend support. Facilitating the transition, the policy highlights the need to provide interest-free loans to small and marginal farmers. The Kerala Agriculture University and other research institutions should develop suitable crop combinations and locally suitable technology through participatory research with the farmers. The policy calls for ensuring the availability of biomass in the organic farm itself, through programs such as crop rotation, tree crops, cover crops, leguminous crops and green manure. Separate and decentralized storage facilities for farm produce have to be established to protect their organic integrity and help the farmers in certification processes. A state-led insurance scheme for small and marginal farmers may also be introduced. (Source: www.thehindubusinessline.com)

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facts

Continued from page 22

hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Herbal Essence: Should You Buy Fresh or Dried Herbs?

SharedEarth.com: Linking Gardeners with Gardens

In a perfect world, we would all have beautiful, healthy herb gardens. But for those that aren’t growing their own herbs at home, or hobby indoor gardeners that just can’t grow enough the alternative is to buy. If we buy dried herbs, we lose out on flavor. If we buy fresh herbs, they can go bad before we’ve had a chance to use them all. So is it better to buy fresh or dried? The answer lies in knowing which herbs are worth buying fresh, which dried herbs you can use to cut corners and what do with all those bunches and bottles to maximize their effectiveness once you’ve brought them home. Best when fresh: basil, cilantro/ coriander, dill, parsley, mint, chervil and tarragon. Fine when dried: oregano, rosemary, thyme, sage and bay leaf.

In urban and suburban jungles around the country many people are eager to garden but have nowhere to indulge their green thumbs. And plenty of homeowners have gardens in need of tending. SharedEarth.com took the Craigslist model to gardening, matching up prospective gardeners to those with gardens, for free. Consider less wasted land, lower greenhouse gases, more local, homegrown food, stronger community bonds and perhaps the chance to make some extra cash. The site has already shared almost 26 million square feet of land. The site launched on Earth Day of 2009 in Austin, Texas and interest grew from there. Sharecropping was a model that fell into favor during economic upheavals, the last time during the Great Depression. The concept of sharecropping has been around for centuries. It is evident in Islam, French and Italian societies since the beginning of recorded history. If the amount of hours spent on the popular Internet game FarmVille were spent on actual farming, imagine what we could achieve.

(Source: www.divinecaroline.com)

Factory Fish Farming in Hawaii Expected to Expand According to the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization, 75 per cent of the world’s fisheries are now either overexploited, fully exploited, significantly depleted or recovering from overexploitation. Twenty years ago Hawaii became the nation’s testing ground for factory fish farming and though documented environmental repercussions are coming to light, the industry plans to expand 900 per cent by 2013, according to Food and Water Watch. A recent report outlines how expansion of more sustainable fish farms could successfully fill necessary quotas in a sustainable manner. The alternatives include Loko ‘ia, traditional fishponds and land-based recirculating aquaculture systems. Loko ‘ia, traditional fishponds are semi-circular walls made from lava boulders and coral that keep the fish inside while allowing the sea water to ebb in and out. Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) are a series of culture tanks and filters where water is continuously recycled. This is much better than traditional factory farming where the fish become damaged because they are packed so closely that their fins rub against each other. Also, factory fisheries often add dyes and antibiotics to the fish that can be harmful to the end product. (Source: www.treehugger.com)

(Source: www.treehugger.com)

Seed Bomb Vending Machines Beloved by guerrilla gardeners everywhere, these little balls made from clay, compost and seeds are the secret weapons to transforming barren and neglected urban corners into colorful spaces of living greenery. A Los Angeles-based design duo has created Greenaid, a quarter-operated, fire-engine red candy machine that dispenses custom-made seed bombs tailored for your local neighborhood’s ecology. This public awareness campaign also serves as a lucrative fundraising tool. Schools, businesses and individuals can purchase any number of Greenaid machines and Common Studio will develop a “strategic neighborhood intervention plan” specifically adapted for your area and they will continue to supply the seed bombs. Greenaid machines are already a hit in parts of Los Angeles. It’s an original way of repackaging guerrilla gardening for the masses so that even kids can get in on the game. (Source: http://thecommonstudio.com)

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MAX

facts

hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Sun Gro Horticulture, Inc. Grows Soil and Fertilizer Donations As victory gardens continue to rise in popularity and food banks all over the country are running low on items, especially fresh produce, Sun Gro Horticulture, manufacturers of Black GoldŽ potting soils, amendments and fertilizers, has been hard at work. Multiple pallets of product have already gone to small non-profit organizations and world-class hospitals, all with the same mission—to help those in need. Recently Sun Gro Horticulture donated four pallets of product including Black Gold Natural and Organic potting soil to the Portland, Oregon based non-profit, Growing Gardens. Sun Gro Horticulture continues to donate much needed product to benefit those in need.

Fertilizer Use Not Always Helpful in Revegetation Efforts Companies and communities trying to restore vegetation on damaged northern landscapes should think twice about using fertilizer to stimulate growth according to new research. Ecology researchers found that a top dressing of organic fertilizer had virtually no impact on the plants while mineral fertilizer showed mixed results. Dune grass performed well to the addition of fertilizer, the reaction of spike trisetum was mixed, while the beach pea was impacted negatively. Based on the results, researcher do not recommend beach pea be used in revegetation efforts in areas with similar soil. Dune grass is a much better choice. Not only does it respond well to regrowth efforts, its roots can extent to a few feet, which helps to keep sandy substrate in place. (Source: www.sciencedaily.com)

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facts

Cityscape Farms On Top of the World Cityscape Farms’ mission is to grow food where it is going to be eaten. The idea is to capitalize on unused urban roofs. The produce would be grown hydroponically and the absence of soil means the quality and taste will be drastically improved. Taste is largely a function of ripeness, and hydroponic produce is picked at its ripest. Most produce in this country is transported thousands of miles from farm to fork. So in order to ensure shelf life and transportability, that produce is picked long before it’s ripe. It is later blasted with ethylene hormone to give it the appearance of ripeness—this is why tomatoes can often be red and tasteless. Localized farming bolsters food security and creates jobs, and provides the freshest food possible to a community. It drastically reduces the carbon footprint associated with food production and helps make cities cleaner, greener places to live. Interest is pouring in from residential and commercial landlords and even city governments. Cityscape Farms will launch in San Francisco. (Source: www.good.is)

Corporate Pressure Trumps Science on Methyl Iodide Despite significant cancer and reproductive health risks, the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR) proposed the use of a new and highly toxic pesticide, methyl iodide, for widespread agricultural use in California. If registered, methyl iodide will be used primarily to gas and sterilize the state's strawberry fields, although the pesticide will also be used in nurseries and nut tree production. A formal review of the chemical was conducted in 20092010 that concluded any agricultural use "would have a significant adverse impact on the public health." Opposition from Californians has measured in the thousands. Alternatives to fumigants exist and are in use in California. These methods include solarization, anaerobic soil disinfestation, crop rotation, biological controls, selective breeding, soil steaming, hydroponics and steam treatment for containerized plants. DPR is accepting comments on the proposed use of methyl iodide for 45 days, ending June 14, 2010. MY (Source: www.lavidalocavore.org)

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PRODUCT spotlight

See it. Want it. Find it at your local indoor gardening store. Green Growing Solutions The Ultimate Plant Cage™ (UPC) from Global Garden Friends, Inc. is an American made, green certified innovation, made from EcoPure. EcoPure is a 100 per cent organic, nondestructive, biodegradable plastic. UPC opens up the plant allowing light to penetrate all the way to the base so fruit grows large and healthy from the top of the plant to the bottom. The UPC reduces mold, fungi and pests and increases airflow to the entire plant. To learn more about the Ultimate Plant Cage™, visit Global Garden Friends at the San Francisco Indoor Gardening Expo July 24-25 or ask for it at your favorite indoor gardening shop.

Protect Your MotherPlant MotherPlant two-part nutrient formulas provide balanced nutrition for stock and motherplants. Exacting N-P-K ratios are calibrated to meet the nutritional requirements of the motherplant without excess nitrates. Rich bio-organics are added to improve the uptake of nutrients and strengthen the plant’s natural immunity to environmental stress. MotherPlant uses the highest quality minerals combined with bio-organics and provides high carbohydrate-to-nitrogen ratios in shoots. An increase in calcium produces stronger cell walls. You can expect faster rooting and sustained root growth. MotherPlant produces stress-tolerant daughter plants. To learn more visit an indoor gardening shop near you.

White Flood Table Covers Fit Like a Glove Hydrofarm’s Active Aqua white tray covers fit Hydrofarm’s flood tables like a glove. These white lids are designed to reflect light to minimize heat build up. Made of sturdy ABS plastic, these covers are made to withstand the rigors of many seasons of growing. Available in multiple sizes: two by four feet, three by three feet and four by four feet. Ask for Hydrofarm White Flood Table Covers at an authorized Hydrofarm retailer near you.

Grow Naturally - Vital Earth’s Liquid Grow Vital Earth’s® Liquid Grow fertilizer is a special formula extracted from seabird guano, fish solubles and potassium sulfate. This unique blend is designed to give your plants nitrogen and other essential nutrients for vegetative growth. Enzymatically processed to achieve the most absorbable nutrients for your plants. This all-natural liquid organic fertilizer contains no additives, no fillers and is 100 per cent organic. Liquid Grow may promote vigorous vegetative growth and is excellent for vegetables, herbs and shrubs. Use in conjunction with Vital Earth’s® 2-5-0 liquid fertilizer and complete line of Vital Earth’s® soil building products. Available in one quart, one gallon, 2.5 gallons and five gallons. Visit an indoor gardening shop for more information. 34

MAXIMUM YIELD USA - July 2010


PRODUCT spotlight

See it. Want it. Find it at your favorite indoor gardening store.

Grow Naturally - Vital Earth’s Liquid Bloom Liquid Bloom is a special formula extracted from seabird guano and fish bone meal to supply phosphorous and other essential nutrients to your fruiting and flowering plants. Enzymatically processed to achieve the most absorbable nutrients for your plants. This all-natural liquid organic fertilizer contains no additives, no fillers and is 100 per cent organic. It may improve flavor in vegetables and fruits and may promote intense fruiting, flowering and blooming. Use in conjunction with Vital Earth’s® 4-3-4 liquid fertilizer and complete line of Vital Earth’s® soil building products. Available in one quart, one gallon, 2.5 gallons and five gallons. Visit your nearest indoor gardening shop for more information on Liquid Bloom.

Nutrifield® pH Up and Down pH Up and pH Down are tank controllers that will adjust your solution to the desired pH (the measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution). The pH scale ranges from 1.0 to 14.0. pH 7.0 is considered neutral and is based on pure water. Solutions with a pH less than 7.0 are considered acidic, while those above 7.0 are considered basic (alkaline). pH affects nutrient uptake for most plants. The optimum pH range for plants is from 5.8 to 6.5. pH Up and Down comes in both concentrated and ready to use (RTU) forms. Available in concentrated sizes: 8.5 ounces, one quart and one gallon. Available in ready-to-use: 17 ounces, one quart and one gallon. For more information about pH Up and Down please visit your local indoor gardening store.

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PRODUCT spotlight

See it. Want it. Find it at your favorite indoor gardening store.

Mobility and Strength – Active Aqua Tray Stands with Light Hanging Bar Active Aqua Tray Stands offer strength and mobility for all scenarios involving use of specific propagation flood tables. The reinforced steel structure with casters is easy to assemble, features an attached light hanging cross bar and supports flood tables for even tray balance, equal water distribution and proper drainage. The low profile design ensures trays are positioned directly over reservoirs so more vertical space is available for plant growth. Tray stands are 75.5 inches tall from the floor to the top of the light hanging cross bar. They perfectly hold the Active Aqua flood tables. Flood tables sold separately. Available in multiple sizes: two by four feet, four by four feet and four by eight feet. Ask for them now at an authorized Hydrofarm retailer near you.

Zip-Zag Re-sealable Bags Keep Freshness and Flavor In Formerly known as BC Bags, Zip-Zag Bags have taken the term re-sealable to a whole new level. Zip Zag has been working on preventing leakage at a molecular level and has achieved amazing results. When you’re losing aroma, you’re losing flavor and that isn’t all that’s going wrong. Oxygen is getting in and oxidizing sensitive oils. The oxygen transfer rate of Zip Zag Bags is up to 450 times less than that of the leading zipper locking bag making them completely odor and leak proof! Zip-Zag Bags are great for herbs, opened pesticides, herbicides, fungicides and other chemicals. Zip-Zag Bags are manufactured in Canada and are made of high quality, North American food-grade plastics. Their proprietary method of manufacturing and a patented zipper make these bags second to none. Zip-Zag Bags are available in boxes of 10 and 50 bags. Visit your local hydro shop for information on these and more great products.

Premium Beneficials for Maximum Growth Potential GreenGro Ultra-Fine Mycorrhizae is a new, highly soluble endomycorrhizae. Since most vegetables and garden plants use endomycorrhizae exclusively, there is no need for other forms to take up space in this premium mix. This blend provides four potent, hand-selected strains that have been proven in the agricultural industry. GreenGro Mycorrhizae contains the highest proportion of viable mycorrhizae per gram on the market today while maintaining a high degree of solubility! The number of viable whole spores in a mycorrhizal product is crucial for ensuring proper host plant inoculation. It works well in hydroponics and indoor/outdoor soil. Four strains of beneficial microbes have been selected to help aid in more robust and flavorful fruits and flowers. Additionally, we have added a powerful seaweed extract combined with rare earth humates to finish off this elegantly crafted blend. GreenGro, Breathe Life Into Your Soil. GreenGro Mycorrhizae is now available at indoor gardening stores across the country.

Grow Naturally with Ancient Forest from General Organics Ancient Forest from General Organics is a natural soil amendment consisting of 100 per cent pure forest humus. Derived from thousands of years of naturally decomposed forest litter, it contains a wide spectrum of organic compounds. It contains a high diversity of micro-organisms, including more than 35,000 species of bacteria and over 5,000 species of fungi. It aids in the retention of water and nutrients, creating stable, long lasting soil. Ancient Forest’s immense biological activity also makes it the ideal inoculum for actively aerated compost teas. Ask for Ancient Forest from General Organics at your favorite indoor gardening store.

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PRODUCT

Continued from page 38

spotlight

Being Two Faced Isn’t Necessarily Bad C.A.P. Two Faced Poly is a waterproof film that is black on one side and white on the other. The white side is very reflective (over 90 per cent) and can be used on the walls and floor of your growing area to reflect light back to plants. The black side provides a lightproof layer. Two Faced Poly is available in 10 by 10 foot sheets and 10 by 100 foot rolls. For more information contact your nearest retailer.

Ventilate to the Max with Active Aqua Flood Table Domes The Active Aqua humidity domes fit perfectly with the Active Aqua flood tables. They feature three way ventilation for superior temperature and humidity control with vents on the top and on the side. These tall (8.5 inches high), heavy duty domes accommodate larger plants for increased growing volume. Available in three sizes: two by two feet, three by three feet and two by four feet. Ask for Active Aqua Flood Table Domes at an authorized Hydrofarm retailer near you.

F2000TSM-CO2 for Ultimate Control

Tongdy Control Technology and Intellisenc introduce the F2000TSM-CO2 Carbon Dioxide Controller designed specifically for greenhouse applications. This unit has six easy to read LEDs indicating CO2 level. It is accurate and features a self-calibrating zero to 2,000 ppm range NDIR CO2 sensor, an on/off control output and LED set points preset from the factory. The set points may be ordered to your specifications or user adjustable with optional RS-485 communications. A touch-button controls the on/off output. 24VDC/VAC powered. Power supply and analog outputs are available. Ask for the F2000TSM-CO2 Greenhouse Controller at your local indoor gardening retail store.

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bluelab full


PRODUCT spotlight

The Ultimate in Instrumentation is Here The Ultrameter II still delivers the most accurate dissolved solids measurements of any instrumentation and the greatest degree of accuracy available for pH, ORP and temperature measurements, but has been redesigned to include an LSI/hardness calculator, free chlorine measurements and Bluetooth® data transfer. The hardness calculator is an analyzer that generates a Langelier Saturation Index value useful in determining how to modify hardness, pH or alkalinity to achieve balanced water. The user can accept inferred LSI calculations or input known values for pH, hardness or alkalinity to allow the calculator to determine the LSI value precisely. The user can also select from grains and ppm hardness units within the calculator. ORP readings can be displayed as mV or ppm free chlorine. This new feature allows the Ultrameter II to measure a dynamic range of sanitizer concentrations wider than that of a colorimetric test kit. Ask for the new Ultrameter II at your local hydroponics shop.

Scientific Expertise in Every Ounce of Sunshine® Advanced Sunshine® Advanced is formulated with earth-friendly ingredients to retain moisture, provide improved root aeration and drainage and develop strong, healthy root systems for maximum stem, flower and foliage. The peat moss and coconut fiber retain water and nutrients, and increased perlite provides excellent drainage. The organic nutrient package found in Sunshine® Advanced provides a supplemental charge after three to four weeks and the endomycorrhizal blend enhances the plant’s ability to access the nutrients in the root zone. A full list of features can be found at www.sunshineadvanced.com Contact your favorite indoor gardening shop to learn more.

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High Yields

in Tight Spaces

Where a

Little Can Mean a Lot

In urban centers across the United States, space is tight for everyone. With over 300,000,000 people populating just more than 3.5 million square miles, it is difficult to visualize using space for anything but the essentials. With the majority of the population living in houses, condos and townhomes that lack even an inch of additional space, luxuries such as an indoor garden seem impractical and unattainable. Do not give up just yet, though. Within the small space that you occupy is a bevy of opportunities for indoor growing that you may not have even considered possible. Not only are these options inexpensive, they will not have you painted into a corner with no room to move about.

by Aubree Gail GagnĂŠ

Untapped Urban Space Ever wish you could better utilize that overcrowded attic, messy basement or disorganized closet? These spaces are ideal, offering just enough room for a petite indoor garden. Because closets and basements usually lack a window to allow some natural sunlight to pour in, you will need to use a portion of your budget on an indoor specific light set-up.You are in luck though, as the options for indoor growing lights are limitless with a variety of options for the grower on a tight budget and those of you who have extra cash to spend. Attics will usually have the benefit over a closet or basement, as they tend to have a small window to let some natural light in. On the downside they may be lacking an electrical outlet.

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High Yields in Tight Spaces

Advantages: What

was once the cause of a headache can be transformed into a serene, fresh space with clean air making for an all around feel good setting. How to do it: Your grow space will need access to electrical outlets and vents. Shelves placed within the room can be used to maximize the space. Make sure to use the best growing medium you can get your hands on with good draining properties and avoid highly acidic mediums. Discuss the best lighting options with a professional at your local hydroponic retail store as well as any other tools or equipment you may need to be successful. Innovative Ideas Ever consider container or vertical gardening? Container gardening is an intriguing option for anyone living in tight quarters, as they are compact and easy to move around. Indoor container gardening is a natural extension of an outdoor garden. Any size home is a great space that will accommodate all kinds of plants.

Container garden with shallots, lettuce, and spinach.

A relatively new method of growing, vertical gardening takes up less floor space making it ideal for small areas. Currently, very few companies have contributed products to the vertical gardening phenomenon but they do exist. And because there are so few, it makes for an easy choice. Container or vertical gardening is an attractive option. Consider a small display organized to your liking in beautifully decorated pots or a wall of green in your living room. What could be more tranquil? How to do it: Container gardening can be as simple as taking unused pots, pails and planters around the house and filling them with your fruit or vegetable of choice. Place them near a window or under a light and water and feed as needed. Advantages:

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High Yields in Tight Spaces

For a vertical garden purchase your system of choice and start growing immediately. There has also been a wave of vertical garden builders or green architects who will come into your home and build you the perfect vertical garden for your needs and within your space constraints. Consider Compact A variety of compact plant options exist that can be grown indoors in tight spaces. These include baby watermelon, cherry tomatoes, small potatoes, carrots, onions, chives, garlic, herbs and spices, kale and broccoli to name a few. Cantaloupes and strawberries make great options that do well in confined spaces. Look for high yielding plants that will make the most of your tiny garden. One indoor gardening trend is to use miniature and dwarf plant varieties, as they are perfectly suited to small spaces. Advantages: A

variety of compact plants exist that are not only beautiful, but also refreshing and functional as a tea time menu option. It is possible to design a garden layout that contains all of the fresh produce that you need while not losing too much living space. How to do it: As with any growing venture, you will need good growing medium, plenty of light and a reliable water source. As mentioned above, it is a good idea to design a layout that includes all of the produce you would like to eat this year and place them wherever you have space or desire a hint of greenery. No matter where you live, fruit and vegetable gardening can be accomplished. Above all, do what you can with the space that you have. The options are limitless.  MY

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Root Zone

Chilling Handling the Heat by Dr. Lynette Morgan

H

Heat loading in indoor hydroponic gardens is a common problem. The combination of “...we know a cooler nutrient solution holds more high intensity lighting, small enclosed spaces, dissolved oxygen for root uptake, so that oxygen limited air exchange and sweltering summers all take their toll on plants. Small volumes of starvation is likely to be far less of a problem recirculating nutrient and restricted growing than it would be with a warm nutrient.” containers also make a contribution to heat build-up in the root zone, often to the point where roots can cook without the grower even being aware of the problem. the roots, temperature in the root zone becomes A hot environment is hard to handle, an extremely important factor to be keeping an often rather expensive to keep cool, and if eye on. combined with high humidity, the tropical conditions have some nasty consequences Ignorance is not bliss for plant growth and development. Many of us have probably seen the effects However, hydroponic systems can offer some of high air temperatures of crops— significant advantages when it comes to a wilting, reductions in growth, tip burn, little manipulation of a plant’s physiology to premature bolting, loss of chlorophyll boost yields and keep crops happy. Root zone (leaves going pale and yellow), flower temperature strongly affects shoot growth. In and fruit let drop, overall losses in fact root zone temperatures play more of a role yield and increases in root disease in growth and development than that of the air pathogens such as pythium that surrounding the plant. This is because the root prey on stressed root tissue. At tissue sends numerous `non hydraulic’ messages high temperatures, plant tissue to the shoot, which influence the way the shoot has a rapidly increased rate responds to the environment. So with many plant of respiration that burns up functions under the control of what goes on down in sugars produced during 56

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photosynthesis, leaving much less for growth and development. While most growers keep a regular check on the air temperature surrounding their plants and aim to keep this within an ideal range for the species being grown, few realize the potential of root zone temperature control. Nutrient temperature build-up can be surprisingly fast and become excessive under hot lights and in systems with very limited root zones, so regular root zone temperature checks are a good idea. Research has shown that even a short duration, less than 30 minutes of root zone heat build-up, can have a very negative effect on many crops, which can not be compensated by having a low daily temperature average. Just a few minutes a day of root zone temperatures over 86°F have been shown to retard the growth of some heat sensitive crops such as lettuce and parsley. Root zone temperature physiology It seems that chilling in the root zone via the nutrient solution affects the plant’s physiology in a number of different ways, which allows the aerial portion of the plant to withstand higher than optimal temperatures. Firstly, we know a cooler nutrient solution holds more dissolved oxygen for root uptake, so that oxygen starvation is likely to be far less of a problem than it would be with a warm nutrient. Secondly cooling of the roots to well below ambient air temperatures seems to allow higher assimilation rates by reducing both photo inhibition and stomatal closure that typically occur once the plant becomes temperature stressed. What is even more interesting is that the MAXIMUM YIELD USA - July 2010

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Root Zone Chilling: Handling

the

Heat

Lettuce being grown in a deep flow system with chilled nutrient solution under tropical conditions. (Inset) Showing the impressive root structure of aeroponic production.

positive effects of nutrient chilling seem to be largely the result of changes in the production of plant growth hormones abcissic acid (ABA) and cytokinins that control a range of plant responses. Cytokinins are mainly synthesized in roots and any environmental stress in this tissue such as high temperature, results in a shortage of this hormone being sent up to the shoots.Very low cytokinin concentrations in the roots of even warm season crops have been found after only five days at 90 to 100째F suggesting that the response of cyctokinin deficiency to high temperatures is very rapid. Cytokinins are important as they stimulate cell division, cell enlargement, chloroplast formation, synthesis of chlorophylls and proteins and in general, drive plant growth and development. The small leaf area, stunted growth and leaf yellowing often seen in heat stressed plants may be at least particularly attributable to a reduction in cytokinin synthesis in the roots. ABA is known as a stress hormone and has been found to increase in leaves when roots are exposed to high temperatures. ABA is inhibitory to growth and results in stomatal closure and the reduction in photosynthesis that results as the plant starts to shut down. Tricking plants into handling the heat Apart from keeping a close check on root zone temperatures to make sure they are not over heating and cooking the roots, there is a well proven technique that can be used to fool the physiology of many plants into handling higher then optimal air temperatures. Root zone chilling of the hydroponic 58

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nutrient solution is a technique being used commercially by many growers in warm or tropical climates, most often with cool season crops such as butter head lettuce, herbs and other vegetables. In Singapore NFT, aeroponic and deep flow culture systems are utilized with extensive nutrient chilling to grow butter head and Romaine lettuce, crops that otherwise do not grow or yield well at ambient air temperatures. Chilling the nutrient solution down to as low as 61 to 64째F, allows the cool season vegetables to crop well at ambient air temperatures that are often well above optimal for these crops (82 to 97째F). Without nutrient chilling, the root zone usually warms to the level of the air and this give numerous growth problems including slow growth, lack of heart formation, bolting, tip burn and low marketable yields. Other researchers have reported that nutrient chilling of lettuce also reduces the occurrence of the fungal root disease Pythium aphanidermatum. Chilling the nutrient tricks the physiology of the plant into growing in air temperatures that would otherwise not be economic. However, trials have shown that while root zone chilling via nutrient cooling can have these effects, the root zone cooling MAXIMUM YIELD USA - July 2010

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Root Zone Chilling: Handling

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Heat

Tropical lettuce production using DFT and chilled nutrients.

must be applied soon after early crop establishment and maintained for the life of the crop for maximum effect. While this technique of root zone chilling is perhaps more economically viable with high value crops in tropical climates such as cool season lettuce, herbs and other vegetables, it has also proven to be beneficial for other species. Warm season plants such as capsicum and cucumber have also been shown in research trials to respond in a similar way to root zone chilling when ambient air temperatures are higher than optimal for their growth and development. Cucumber is a warm season plant whose optimal root zone temperature lies around 77°F; once root temperatures increase to 95°F, severe reductions in shoot growth can begin to occur. Cucumbers grown at high air temperatures (100°F) have been found to have a larger leaf area and higher yield when the root zone was cooled to below 77°F. Capsicum (sweet pepper), another warm season crop has been found to respond to nutrient chilling when grown under warm aerial conditions in tropical Singapore. It was found that capsicum plants grown at a root temperature of 68°F had more leaves, greater leaf area and dry weight than plants grown at ambient root zone temperatures of 77 to 104°F even though both were under the same ambient tropical conditions of high temperature and light intensities. Under normal growing conditions for capsicum (71 to 79°F), having a nutrient solution temperature of 68°F would result in growth reductions, however, under the high temperature tropical conditions, root zone chilling to 68°F had significant benefits to crop growth and development via altering the physiology of the plant to handle the temperature stress. Continues on page 64

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“Root zone chilling of the hydroponic nutrient solution is a technique...with cool season crops such as butter head lettuce, herbs and other vegetables.”

Even some warm season crops such as capscium have been shown to produce well under high heat and humidty with a certain degree of root zone chilling.


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Continued from page 60

“Capsicum (sweet pepper), another warm season crop, has been found to respond to nutrient chilling when grown under warm aerial conditions.”

Red basil plants, while normally considered to be a fairly warm season crop, have been found to have increased vegetative growth, more intensive development of purple anthocycanin pigment as well as increased development of aromatic compounds in the leaves when grown in a chilled nutrient at 77 to 79°F under tropical conditions. Cool season vs. warm season crops and nutrient chilling Obviously for the technique of root zone chilling via the nutrient solution to work effectively the correct temperature needs to be constantly maintained and this optimal temperature is likely to not be the same for all species. Cool season crops such as lettuce may benefit from nutrient chilling to a cooler temperature than warm season crops and there is evidence to suggest that root zone chilling is only beneficial when ambient air temperatures are consistently higher than optimal. Furthermore, as with any technique or treatment, overdoing it can have some fairly drastic results—chilling the nutrient in a crop that is not under high air temperatures could potentially result in growth reductions or chilling damage, particularly with warm season plants. Such over chilling results in root tissue damage and decay, reduction in nutrient ion absorption and water uptake.

Chilled roots tend to be whiter, thicker and larger in mass than those grown at higher than optimal temperatures.

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Heat

Even some warm season crops such as capscium have been shown to produce well under high heat and humidty with a certain degree of root zone chilling.

Best systems for nutrient chilling Various studies on the effect of nutrient or root zone chilling for hydroponic crops under high heat conditions have shown that deep flow water culture gives the best results for many crops such as lettuce, herbs and other vegetables. Aeroponics and nutrient film techniques are also commonly utilized for root zone chilling; however, these seem less effective than deep flow methods. It is possible that the larger volume of chilled nutrient solution in deep flow systems maintains cooler temperatures for longer, while the thin (two to three millimeters deep) flow of NFT and fine mist of aeroponics tend to heat up more during application. Another possibility is that the more of the root system that is submerged in the chilled nutrient, the greater the effect on the physiology of the plant. In general, however, solution culture methods are the only effective way of providing consistent chilled nutrient solution and in insulated systems can MY be reasonably cost effective.

References He J, Lee SK and Dodd IC., 2001. Limitations to photosynthesis of lettuce growth under tropical conditions: alleviation by root zone cooling. Journal of Experimental Botany Vol 52(359): 1323-1330. Thompson HC, Langhans RW, Both AJ and Albright L D., 1998. Shoot and root temperature effects lettuce growth in a floating hydroponic system. Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science Vol.123(3) 361-364. Dodd IC, He J, Turnbull CGN, Lee SK and Critchley C., 2000. The influence of supra-optimal root zone temperatures on growth and stomatal conductance in Capsicum annuum L. Journal Of Experimental Botany Vol 51(343) 239-248.

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Is Germinated Brown Rice an

Answer to Hunger? by Peggy Bradley Rice is the most important food in many developing countries and is a staple food for nearly half of the world’s population. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimates the world rice crop production in 2007 to 2008 to be about 432 million tons. In 2005 the area used for harvesting rice was approximately 387 million acres. Research is now being conducted on raising grass hydroponically for livestock as is research on the value of hydroponicallygrown germinated brown rice, which is now a part of the food revolution. Pioneering work by Derek Cuddeford, author of “Hydroponic Grass” (1989) and others in the 1980s led to an understanding that sprouted and newly germinated grains have higher food value than dormant seeds. This led to the introduction of hydroponics to grow food for livestock and then further research into germinated food for humans. In 2004 at a United Nations Conference, a paper from Japan announced to the world a new food product called Germinated Brown Rice (GBR) or GABA rice (Shoichi & Yukihiro, 2004).

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Germinated Brown Rice an Answer to Hunger? Brown rice Brown rice is higher in nutrition than white rice. Brown rice has only the outer layer of the grain removed. White rice, no longer a viable seed, has been stripped resulting in the loss of vitamins, minerals, fiber and essential fatty acids. The process of milling brown rice to white rice results in a loss of about 10 per cent of the product. If the population started consuming brown rice instead of white, there could be 38.7 million acres removed from production or 43 million extra tons of food available. Globally, it is estimated that there are 850 million hungry people. Of this total, at least 550 million are in Asia. Asians consume on average about 300 pounds of rice a year. The extra rice available from the switch to brown rice could be an important step in solving hunger. Brown rice gained some popularity in the 70s with the macrobiotic diet, which advocated brown rice. The chief problems were that brown rice took much “The process of milling brown rice longer to cook and had a slightly to white rice results in a loss of disagreeable flavor. The popularity about 10 per cent of the product.� diminished and most rice sold worldwide was still white.

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Germinated Brown Rice an Answer to Hunger? Germinated Brown Rice The new brown rice from Japan is actually any brown rice that has been pre-germinated before cooking. The rice is kept at a temperature of about 100°F for eight to 24 hours to begin the sprouting process. Most studies into the nutritional benefits are made with rice that has just started to show a slight bit of bud (0.5 to 1.0 millimeters tall) from the kernel, also known as Germinated Brown Rice (GBR). Finer flavor GBR rice has been softened through processing and now can be cooked in less time. It is also easy to digest and has a wonderful nutty flavor. In Japan it has wide appeal and is establishing a market with “The highest amino acid food a few companies starting to values are obtained when the market GBR globally.

bud just starts to show.”

Growing protocol for GBR rice Some research on GBR now exists to help us understand the steps to provide the highest level of nutrition. The highest amino

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Germinated Brown Rice an Answer to Hunger? acid food values are obtained when the bud just starts to show. Germinating the rice longer reduces the food’s value. When testing different pH values (from 5.5 to 9.0) there was little difference in the nutritional food values. The temperature is important; cooler temperatures require longer times or may not allow germination at all. Short grain brown rice seems to have the highest increase of GABA. The science Saikusa, Horino and Mori (1994) found that Gamma-Amirobutyric acid (GABA) increased dramatically when brown rice was soaked in 104°F water for eight hours to 24 hours. The enzyme Glutamate decarboxylase turns Glutamic acid into Gamma-aminobutyric acid. Germination softens the outer layer of the rice, which makes it just as easy to cook and eat as polished rice.

The nutrition analysis of Germinated Brown Rice and White rice 100g /per dry weight Germinated brown rice Energy 345Kcal Protein 7.3g Total fat 2.9g Saturated fat 0.58g Cholesterol 0mg Carbohydrate 77g Dietary fiber 2.8g Sodium (Na) 2.1mg Calcium (Ca) 8.1mg Iron (Fe) 1.1mg Magnesium (Mg) 74mg Zinc (Zn) 2.1mg GABA 16.5mg Vitamin B1 0.3mg Vitamin E 1.7mg Inositol 452mg Source: AsiaRICE Biotech., Inc.

“Germinated Brown Rice has more fiber, three times the amount of lysine, an essential amino acid, and 10 times the amount of GABA.”

White rice 363Kcal 7.0g 0.9g 78g 0.4g 4mg 5mg 0.3mg 22mg 1.4mg 1.5mg 0.08mg 0.4mg 96mg

Nutritional benefits The germination process activates enzymes and allows the rice to develop higher levels of some amino acids, particularly Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA). GBR has more fiber, three times the amount of lysine, an essential amino acid, and 10 times the amount of GABA. Health benefits Okada et al. (2000) reported intake of GABA for eight weeks improved the most common mental symptoms during the menopausal and presenile period such as sleeplessness, somnipathy and depression. Jeon et al. (2003) found that GBR may be effective for suppressing liver damage. There is currently much research being done on the health benefits of GBR. It appears that eating GBR can lower blood pressure, lower cholesterol, restore kidney function, repair liver, reduce fatigue and anxiety and may prevent cancer.

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Germinated Brown Rice an Answer to Hunger? The scientific research on GBR shows that this simple change in our daily diet might help reduce chronic illnesses and improve quality of life. It’s clear that we may have caused a lot of our modern day chronic illnesses by allowing white rice to be produced and eaten.

“The scientific research on GBR shows that this simple change in our daily diet might help reduce chronic illnesses and improve quality of life.” Dominant enzymes within the rice that supply the nutrition for growth are activated when brown rice is germinated. This further activates enzymes and increases amino acids such as L-lysine (a necessary building block for all protein in the body) and ƒÁ-aminobutyric acid (GABA).Vitamins and antioxidants are increased, as is the amount of digestible fiber. New nutritional components not found in un-germinated rice are released during germination, particularly the protylendopetidase inhibitor, which has implications in the prevention and early treatment of dementia and Alzheimer’s. GBR germinated and cooked in green tea There is discussion on the Internet that germinating and cooking GBR rice in green tea enhances its nutritional quality even more. So far there appears to be no actual experiments or data to justify this claim. However, the green tea does not appear to harm the process and may improve the MY flavor. Watch for more information on this new idea.

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by Brian Chiang and Josh Puckett

LED Technology

Paving the Way for a Spectral Revolution Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are cause for excitement in the indoor gardening world. Growers are ecstatic about energy savings and big returns on electricity and air conditioning bills. They are elated by the longevity of LEDs and the prospect of never having to change light bulbs. However, most people don’t realize that with LEDs, reduced operating costs and extended lifetimes are just the beginning of a long list of advantages for the horticulture industry. LEDs possess the ability to shape spectrums, and thus, will fundamentally alter how grow lights are used, in the same way that fertilizers changed farming. Light and Nutrition Two of the most important factors that contribute to a plant’s well being are light and nutrition. Plants thrive in fertile soil and under bright light. Healthy farmlands are found in areas where both are in abundance. Over time, humans have accumulated knowledge on how to provide plants with better and more nutrients. The science behind nutritional additives for plants has become a huge and very specialized field, spanning the traditional approach of composting to creating complex chemical compounds that are injected. The advancements in nutrient development continue to provide better plant growth and higher yields. In contrast, progress in lighting has been very limited. Farmers still rely heavily on the sun in open spaces, which can be unreliable as weather is capricious. When gardens moved indoors, people applied their knowledge of how plants respond to light. For example, most growers know that plants are more responsive to red light in the flowering stages of growth, and blue light for the vegetative phases. However, artificial sunlight options for indoor growers are fairly restricted to high pressure sodium (HPS), metal halide (MH) and fluorescent lamps. These are all broadband sources, meaning they emit a full spectrum of light, from the usual red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet to more harmful rays, like UV and IR. Some lights, such as HPS, contain more red, while others, like MH emit more blue. These limited choices mean that growers have to be satisfied with the spectrum offered, because there are no means to obtain the desired wavelengths.

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LED Technology Spectrum Selection Advancements in lighting, particularly in LED technology, have proven that artificial sunlight is not restricted to standard broadband sources (HPS, MH, T5, etc.) anymore. With LEDs, better spectrums can be developed. LEDs have been around since the early ‘60s, used mostly in indicator lights, but only recently has the technology progressed to the point where it can be used as general illumination. LEDs are made with different semi-conductors, and when electricity is applied to the compound, they emit a particular color, depending on the chip. Already LEDs have permeated our everyday lives: LEDs are in traffic lights; LEDs are in cell phones; finally LEDs are lighting up our indoor gardens. The ability to produce particular wavelengths is the biggest advantage of LEDs. Because they can emit specific wavelengths, growers can now optimize lights for plant growth. By mixing various LED chips, a complex light spectrum can be created for different growth conditions. LEDs are opening up a brand new dimension for growers to accelerate or slow down growth, improve yields and morph the shape of their plants by offering blue light, red light or a combination of different colors. Less Heat, More Light LEDs actually allow more useful light to be projected onto plants. Broadband sources are generally larger and require bigger reflectors to make efficient use of the light. On the other hand, the light from LEDs is directional, so it only takes a simple reflector to direct the light to where you need it

Typical PAR action spectrum shown beside absorption spectra for chlorophyll-A, chlorophyll-B and carotenoids

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The tomatoes under the first blue light (B1) had rapid elongation and few leaves. The second blue light (B2) showed shorter stems and more leaves. Peak wave lengths = 15 nm

to go. Broadband sources, including the sun, also emit more than what is required for photosynthesis. Much of this light results in heat, which is crippling to plant performance if the temperature of the environment is elevated beyond what plants can tolerate. Another added nuisance to the indoor grower is that artificial sunlight sources create heat on their own, due to their inefficiency in converting energy from electricity to light. Although plants could benefit from having more light, the heat from these broadband sources has long limited the amount of light supplied to plants. Place them too close and the plants will burn, whether from convection or radiation. With LEDs, users can now pick out specific red and blue wavelengths ideal for photosynthesis, thereby eliminating the excess light that produces unwanted heat. This combined with cleverly designed optics allows growers to project more light onto plants than ever before, while still keeping the environment cool. Plants and Light The portion of the light spectrum utilized by plants falls within the range of 400 to 700 nanometers, referred to as Photosynthetically Active Radiation. Aside from chlorophyll and the photo pigments that drive photosynthesis, plants contain a variety of photoreceptors that sense and utilize light. These include crytochromes, phytochromes and phototropins. Each react to different wavelengths and the ratio of their active and inactive forms cause different reactions in plants. At various stages of plant development different light conditions are required for different lengths of time. By studying the effects of particular wavelengths and combinations of wavelengths on the various cycles of plant development we can combine them in such a way that we promote maximum vegetative growth and crop yield.


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LED Technology

Experiment 1: Single Color Spectrum Test Experiments were conducted with the effects of isolated red and blue wavelengths on plants, primarily tomatoes, using innovative high power LED grow lights with a custom spectrum formula as the source. Research in the field of artificial light for the promotion of plant growth and production has traditionally used tomatoes as an indicator of light performance because they are day neutral—meaning the length of photoperiod has little effect on their growth and development—and they reach the fruiting stage relatively quickly. Tomatoes also serve as an ideal candidate crop due to their indeterminate growth, which exaggerates, and facilitates the analysis of qualitative results. The tomatoes grew for four weeks from when they were small plants with few leaves. This initial experiment focused on the wavelengths associated with photosynthesis, one red light spectrum (625 to 650 nm), R1 and two different blue light spectrums (425 to 470 nm), B1 and B2, centering on vegetative growth, without which crop yield would be limited. A variety of tomatoes grew under isolated blue and red LED treatments and tracked light performance on the parameters of plant height, internode length, leaf number, leaf area/plant and days to flowering. Without disturbing the plants, daily measurements were taken from the date of transplant, at four to five leaves, to early fruit development.

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Under a red light (625 to 650 nm) the tomatoes produced few leaves and few flowers.

Red light promotes flowering in plants. It is commonly associated with the elongation of internodal lengths, a function driven by phytochromes. This elongation was dramatic in both the stems and the petioles of the tomatoes grown under the Red LED treatment. The tomatoes under this treatment produced fewer leaves, and as a result were less photosynthetically capable. Flowering was expedited under this light treatment, but the number of flowers produced by each tomato was relatively few. These results coincide with expectations for tomatoes grown under a primarily red light treatment. Blue light encourages vegetative growth in plants. It often increases leaf production and vegetative density. For this reason plants are grown under lights high in blue wavelengths during the initial stages of development. A high leaf number count and low internodal lengths are expected in plants grown under blue light treatments. This was not the case in the tomatoes under the first blue light, B1. Instead rapid stem elongation and a relatively low leaf number was observed. However, the second blue light, B2, with only a 15 nm difference in peak wavelengths as demonstrated in the spectrum graph, showed a shorter stem and higher leaf count. The slight variation in spectrum resulted in drastically different performances. The plant under B1 continued to stretch as though it was straining to find more light. B2 on the other hand, had a stronger vegetative growth. To the eye, the two blues looked the same, but the 15 nm difference caused a huge disparity between the performances of the two plants. Just like how two liquid fertilizer solutions may look identical, but their separate chemical contents will result in variations in plant performance, two LED lights with the same color may seem no different than the other, the actual “spectral content” of the LED will determine plant performance.


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LED Technology

Experiment 2: Red Blue Mix Test In response to the above experiment, two red-blue mixed spectrum lights, M1 and M2, were created and the performance of combinations of red and blue light were analyzed. M1 treatment contained a higher degree of blue light than M2.

B2 from the previous blue light experiment, plus M1 and M2, red/blue spectrums, clearly show the progression from blue to red spectrum.

The experiment tested the performance of M1 and M2 in promoting vegetative growth. Pictured are three plants grown under B2 (from the previous experiment), M1 and M2, from the left to right. As stated before, B2 demonstrated strong stems and closely set leaves. The tomatoes grown under M1 treatment also displayed a denser pattern of vegetative growth with higher leaf area and some stem and petiole elongation. With the added red spectrum, M1 had better growth overall when compared with B2. M2 demonstrated taller stems, but more scattered leaf development than the other two. The progression from blue to red spectrum is clearly observed in this side-by-side comparison. The Spectral Revolution With the ability to tune spectrums, a whole new dimension of possibilities has opened. Though there is still much knowledge to pursue, a huge lighting revolution for the growing industry is anticipated. Countless groups will search for the optimal spectrum recipe. Indoor gardening will quickly leap forward at lightning speeds with advancements that have never been seen before. It’s a MY spectral revolution! 86

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GROWING FOR HEALTH

HYDROPONICS

Systems for Citrus Farms by Charlotte Bradley

Starting the day without orange juice sounds unthinkable to many, but could become a reality. In the not-so-distant future, orange juice could become unaffordable due to challenges on citrus farms. In Florida, one of the largest citrus producing areas in the world, farmers are experimenting with hydroponics to help reduce problems with“greening,�an increasingly prevalent disease of citrus trees.

Citrus Greening Citrus greening is a disease carried by a tiny insect, the psyllid. Southern Florida has a huge population of these insects. The disease, once inside the plant, wreaks havoc on fruit production. Greening causes citrus fruits to grow in deformed shapes, have a salty, bitter taste and stay green. As housing developments and urban sprawl encroach on former citrus orchards, some farmers have abandoned farming because they can no longer afford

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property taxes on their land. One part of controlling the spread of greening is to remove old citrus groves that are not managed, as they provide safe havens for psyllids. Another method proving to control greening is the use of open hydroponics systems.

Open Hydroponics Systems (OHS) First implemented at citrus farms in South Africa, open hydroponics systems are different than traditional hydroponics


systems. Plants in these systems are planted in the ground with specialized drip irrigation systems. By providing a constant, non-limiting, specially measured stream of water and nutrients to plants, the trees can grow faster, healthier and closer together. Trees grown in OHS conditions also produce fruit at a younger age. Plants under stress succumb to pests and diseases more easily than healthy plants. Open Hydroponics Systems reduce plant stress by providing a constant source of water and nutrition. Pests are much less likely to attack plants growing in Open Hydroponics Systems.

Costs of Switching Systems Traditional citrus farms include rows of large trees that are mechanically pruned, sprayed and harvested. Establishing a traditional farm is relatively simple compared to establishing a farm with Open Hydroponics Systems. Citrus farms using OHS must be hand-pruned and maintained to gain the most fruit. The irrigation systems are also more expensive to install and maintain. Farmers will save costs in the long run, as they will spend less money on water and fertilizer. By delivering carefully measured portions of water and nutrients to the plants via OHS irrigation tubing, costs for water and fertilizers are dramatically reduced. Open Hydroponics Systems have also proven to reduce incidence of greening in citrus groves, and the ability to harvest full crops also helps recoup the initial investment. Farmers around the world discuss their ideas for using micro-irrigation systems like the Open Hydroponics System to reduce water use, prevent disease and improve crop yields. Hydroponics systems are the future of agriculture. MY

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Whipping Up

A Culinary Garden by Lee McCall

I

ndoor gardening is as much a hobby and passion for me as food exploration is for Anthony Bourdain, or fine dining is for Thomas Keller. It was culinary school, after all, that led me to discover this now booming industry. Food production is as important to the chef as it is to the cultivation artist (grower). Growing your own is a rewarding practice providing mental stimulation and usable quality crops. It can also be a sustainable hobby saving you dollars in the kitchen. This month I reveal my favorite techniques for enhancing your fare’s flavor, countertop style.

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A variety of greens—including lettuce, spinach, microgreens, arugula, Swiss chard, kale and wheatgrass—can be easily grown on a kitchen counter top using a simple fluorescent light. Having a fresh supply of your favorites year round means you will spend less at the grocery store. Plus when you grow your own you can control the flavor and nutrient profiles. A countertop garden for greens is inexpensive to set-up and maintain and requires minimal power. Organic soil, hydroponics or soilless media are all

“Leafy kitchen crops are easy to germinate, grow fast and regenerate quickly once established and harvested.” great options for countertop cultivation. Leafy kitchen crops are easy to germinate, grow fast and regenerate quickly once established and harvested. High intensity discharge light systems are also available in lower wattages of sodium and halide performance, to increase production in miniature fruit and flowers like strawberries, micro tomatoes and peppers and other exotic foliage that don’t exceed one foot in height. Several small one gallon planters filled with medium and placed directly under a two foot, two bulb T5 fluorescent light system is perfect for herbs, low light edible flowers, lettuce, micro-greens, radishes and other small leafy edibles. A time-released organic granular nutrient makes fertilization schedules easy if liquid nutrients are not desired. Self-watering planters are also available that deliver nutrient solution instantaneously to the plant as it is needed through capillary (wicking) action, and make the use of liquid fertilization autonomous regimens.

“A two foot, two bulb T5 fluorescent light system is perfect for herbs, low light edible flowers, lettuce, micro-greens, radishes and other small leafy edibles.

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Whipping Up a Culinary Garden Several versions of automated plug-n-play hydroponic kitchen gardens currently exist in the market and most come complete with seeds; enough nutrients to complete at least one crop cycle; a height adjustable, built-in compact fluorescent daylight spectrum light system; a reservoir with automated nutrient delivery system via submersible pump or sprayer/mister manifold; and a pre-molded lid for specific planting sites to allow for optimal light availability and crop uniformity. The hydroponic technology used in most of these systems usually is a cross between a deepwater culture and aeroponic system that keeps nutrients well emulsified, and encourages prolific oxygen concentrations to the root zone. Nutrients for these systems are available in tablets. These are added to the water source in the reservoir and dissolve like an Alka-Seltzer tablet. Liquid concentrate formulas also exist that easily dilute in water. Most hydroponic nutrients will work in these systems. These novelty gardens make excellent gifts and are attractive in the home, kitchen or office. These versatile systems are extremely user friendly so anyone who lacks a green thumb can operate them successfully. If well maintained, they will yield enough fresh produce to feed two people. To achieve the best results, monitor and adjust the pH values and nutrient solution concentrations before the reservoir is filled. Certain models will contain a self adjusting pH nutrient, but if a different brand of fertilizer is used, invest in a simple pH adjuster kit to attain the optimal level of approximately 6.0 for hydroponics and 7.0 for soil applications.

Individuals who are not restricted by countertop space or wish to embark on a larger version of an automated kitchen garden will benefit from setting up a customized hydroponic or organic soil system. A location near a sunny window or in a corner under a bank of T5 fluorescents or an HID light system will provide the necessary means for productivity. Depending on the size of the vegetative area, enough fresh produce could be grown to supply a single family on a daily basis. Encouraging the entire family to participate in maintaining the garden will encourage social awareness and educate them on the benefits of growing their own food. Those who use a desk light or table lamp in their office environment could easily adapt this space to support vegetation. Many plants—specifically flowers and herbs—will grow easily on an office desk, and provide a soothing visual and aromatic effect. Since most offices are climate controlled to suit the preferences of employees, the conditions are ideal for plants and all that is needed is a small grow light. A surplus of grow bulbs are available that will operate in any standard desk lamp socket or fixture. Compact fluorescent lamps exist that are energy efficient, long lasting and provide a suitable spectrum that promotes plant growth. If you are a reader who falls into this category, try germinating seeds in a small container with a high quality potting soil under your desk lamp and see what happens. These portable and attractive automated gardens are fun and easy to use and provide the growers with basic indoor gardening knowledge. Growers may start off small and progress into a larger and more productive indoor garden. Similar to cooking, all of the ingredients are available to customize the perfect recipe. Every scenario will slightly differ from the other, yet the same methods are used to achieve the end result: a bountiful harvest or the perfect tasty dish.

“The hydroponic technology used in [plug-n-play] systems usually is a cross between a deepwater culture and aeroponic system.”

“Compact fluorescent lamps exist that are energy efficient, long lasting and provide a suitable spectrum that promotes plant growth.” MY

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Sea Energy in Agriculture

2

RENEWING THE SOIL WITH SEA SOLIDS by David Yarrow

Part

Principle of Proportion “From the start,” Murray recorded, “my sea solids experiments produced excellent results. It conclusively proves the proportions of trace minerals and elements present in sea water are optimum for growth and health of both land and sea life.”

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Growers quickly criticize Murray, insisting that salt will kill plants as quick as any pesticide or poison. This is true of table salt, but Murray found that if sodium is blended with all of the other elements in the same ratios as in seawater, plants aren’t injured—instead, they thrive. Murray learned a key principle: each essential element must be present in certain precise proportions relative to the others. “Tomatoes serve as example of this need for balance,” he explained, “Tomato growers know potassium has a major function in plant growth. Potassium is added to soil in quantity by growers.Yet the tomato itself has only a minor amount of potassium. “My experiments proved conclusively a small amount of potassium, as in its proper balance in seawater, grows unusually healthy, outstanding tomatoes. It’s unnecessary to fertilize heavily with one element if an adequate balance of elements is available.” To evaluate qualitative effects, the total amount of minerals is less critical than the proper ratios among them. Individually, one mineral in excess can be toxic and make other elements seem to be in deficit. Blended in balance with all the elements in seawater, they enhance and enliven each other.

“Poisonous elements (e.g. arsenic) were beneficial if ingested in organic form, and in trace amounts.” Trace Elements: Least as Most In Murray’s time, knowledge of trace elements was minimal. Only 20 elements were known to have specific roles in human physiology. Several more were known to benefit plants and animals. Heavy metals were suspected of positive roles. Even poisonous elements (e.g. arsenic) were beneficial if ingested in organic form, and in trace amounts. Only nine trace elements were listed in “Recommended Dietary Allowances,” and few enzymes had their trace elements identified, yet thousands of enzymes were identified. Undoubtedly, many more enzyme and trace element functions remain to be described. So, while Murray could write little on trace elements, he grasped how the least can exert the most influence. An element needed in micrograms or less can have dramatic biologic effects by activating enzymes and hormones. Murray knew that we need all of the elements available, not a few in excess amounts.

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Seaponics beds received 112 pounds of sea solids to 5,000 gallons of water; Murray realized that farmland is a limited resource and came controls received conventional hydroponic solution. to believe that hydroponics was humanity’s best bet to expand Tobacco Mosaic Virus, lethal to tomatoes, was sprayed on food production. He began experiments with this method in all plants. Experimentals didn’t contract the disease, while all his cellar to supply his family the controls died. In trial after with year-round fresh produce. trial, sea solids seemed to confer “Adequate supplies of food can be Later, he collaborated in this greatly enhanced disease resisdeveloped if man recycles the sea.” research with commercial-scale tance—near immunity. growers. In 1958, he bought Murray asserted, “All essential a Florida farm and became a nutrients can be supplied in proper commercial grower, with 178 beds, each proportions by a single dilute solution of sea100 feet by four feet. water, plus nitrogen. Dissolving complete sea About 112 pounds of dried, natural sea solids in fresh water formed dilute solutions solids were dissolved in up to 10,000 galof 1,000 to 8,000 parts per million.” lons of water. The only fertilizer that experiEventually, he operated a successful five-acre mental crops received was this solution of sea hydroponic farm in south Florida, growing tomasolids (and sometimes nitrogen), which bathed toes, lettuce, cucumbers, celery and other produce their roots a few times each day. in intensive beds. Because he grew superior yieldIn a typical test, tomatoes were planted a foot apart ing crops of healthy, tasty, disease-free plants, market in three foot by 100 foot hydroponic beds. The beds were demand for his crops was high, and his farm very profitable. flooded with the nutrient solution, which was then drawn “My experiments proved adequate supplies of food can be out and returned to a tank three times a day. Experimental developed if man recycles the sea,” insisted Murray.

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Animal Testing Murray’s most remarkable tests were trials feeding animals with foods grown using sea solids. Cattle feeding behavior provoked his excitement. Corn grown on this fertilized soil was marked by wrapping tape around a stalk, which was then mixed with conventional cornstalks and dumped in a pasture. Astonished, Murray recalled, “As animals munched away, immediately they preferred sea-solid stalks. After once sampling an experimental stalk, animals would nuzzle and burrow the pile to find another, ignoring control stalks until they had no other choice.” In further proof that animal instinct knows best, Murray treated a 100 square foot section of clover with sea solids. When the clover was six inches tall, sheep were allowed to graze.They walked and grazed until they came to the treated spot, then ate until the clover within the treated area was nubbed to the ground. Results urged larger, elaborate studies of animal feeding. Murray designed a series of trials with various feed grains and types of animals.Working with several farmers, he devoted years to studying the benefits of sea solid-fertilized feeds.

“As animals munched away, immediately they preferred sea-solid stalks.” He reported, “In 1954, three staple feeds—corn, oats and soybeans—were grown, and subsequently fed to animals under controlled conditions: four parts corn, two oats, one soy. Not only were experimental crops superior, but effects on animal physiology and pathology were delightfully amazing.” Feeding experiments with cattle showed greater weight gain after eating less experimental feed. Chickens were particularly partial to sea solid-grown feeds; they grew more quickly, hens produced more and larger eggs sooner, and at slaughter, their meat was of better quality. Murray wrote, “Chickens, pigs and cattle fed sea solids produce reached maturity sooner than controls, and resisted diseases common to their species better. Experimental pigs carried benefits into a second generation; there were no runts in litters.”

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pill won’t resolve the real problem. Only addressing the root source can relieve disease. Murray correctly saw agriculture as the real root cause, and called for changes, not in medicine, but in farming and food processing. Sea Energy Agriculture In 1976, Murray published a small book titled “Sea Energy Agriculture”—a remarkable testimony to a natural approach to soil fertility, and a nutritional approach to medicine. Murray wrote hopefully, believing he had important news to report: “This is my lifelong search to open doors to a provocative new arena of science and technology called sea energy agriculture. Quite possibly this could lead to the end of disease and famine.” Murray’s one chapter on organic farming reveals weak insight into ecology—a prevalent shortcoming in his day. He believed Cancer: Nutrition or Genes? that plants feed directly on inorganic ions in watery soil soluMurray’s most astonishing tests were with lab mice: “A first tion—no matter whether a nutrient was natural (organic) or animal experiment was on C3H mice, which get spontaneous man-made (synthetic). cancer of the breast. We hoped sea solids grown food could The physician knew little of how bacteria, fungi and microbes build resistance to the virus or cancer. affect plant feeding—that roots and soil organisms form intimate “C3H mice were divided in two groups. Controls were fed communities, wedded together in tight symbiotic dependencies. regular cereal grain, while Actually, the medical doctor experimentals were fed saw microbes mostly as “A first animal experiment was on C3H cereal grain raised on sea unfriendly and dangerous. mice, which get spontaneous cancer of the solids-treated soil. Nonetheless, Murray’s “Instead of cancer in conclusion states: “Today’s breast. We hoped sea solids grown food 90 per cent of controls, organic farmers realize a giant could build resistance to cancer. ” experimental animals’ rate commercial farmer, specialdropped to 55 per cent. izing in one crop, using only Second generations born to parents fed sea solids food had chemical fertilizer, is destroying soil’s ability to produce food. If cancer in only two per cent of the population.” this continues, soil will be ruined and lost through erosion. To This single experiment caused Murray to reconsider the con- prevent this, and reclaim soil already destroyed, organic farming ventional causes attributed to this dreaded disease. He repeated must be used.” his experiment in variations. Each time, sea solid-fertilized Thus, Murray cast his lot with the tiny minority to challenge feed seemed to impart resistance, perhaps immunity, to cancer. the chemical orthodoxy of his times. Like every other small voice of reason, he was ignored in the petrochemical rush to Nutrition-deficiency Diseases pump up yield with synthetics. Murray faced facts compiled in experiment after experiment, and Murray’s conclusion also states, “Research reported is in the realized that nutrient deficiencies are a key element contributing nature of pilot projects. Tremendous further research needs to be to degenerative diseases: “My research clearly indicates Americans done to render conclusive the appealing results and provocative lack complete physiological chemistry because balanced, essential trends indicated to date.” elements of soil have eroded to the sea; consequently, crops are The book ends with Murray musing on the human implicanutritionally poor, and animals eating these plants are, therefore, tions of his findings. He cautioned against extrapolating his nutritionally poor. observations into human nutrition and health, yet recognized it “Minerals have departed from our soils due to continuous to be a key issue of our time—a key to renewing America’s soil, taking of crops and erosion. Most crops require 40 elements from food and health: the soil. In no case do fertilizers add more than 12, most add six.” “For man to continue to live on earth, he must make fundaUnlike technicians who see only their own small problem, mental changes. He must look to oceans as a source of needed Murray’s lifelong work with oceans, farmers, hydroponics and elements. These elements must be returned to soil so better medicine gave him a broad view. He recognized that a new quality, more healthful foods can be produced.

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“Man must stop destroying soil. This requires basic changes in our agricultural system. Large commercial farms probably must be broken up and small regional farms using organic methods take their place. “We have the means and ability to make these changes. We need now only the desire.” Yet, Murray’s voice fell on deaf ears. The narrow chemical mindset of his time couldn’t embrace views differing from dominant paradigms. His data on nutrition and disease, soil minerals and food quality, and trace elements and health were lost, his warning to renew all the minerals needed in topsoil, ignored.

“Man must stop destroying soil. This requires basic changes in our agricultural system.” Dr. Maynard Murray was fond of saying, “Nature can teach us so much, if we would only listen.” He died in 1984, not sure whether his message had been heard or understood. A quarter of a century has passed since “Sea Energy Agriculture” was published. Perhaps the time has arrived for the insights of this 20th century bioneer to be recognized and put to proper use. Certainly the need has never been greater. MY For more information about Dr. Maynard Murray, including excerpts from “Sea Energy Agriculture,” visit the website www.championtrees.org/topsoil/seaponics.htm

Reprinted with permission from Acres U.S.A., P.O. Box 91299, Austin, Texas 78709 1-512-892-4400, Subscriptions: $27/year. For a sample copy of Acres U.S.A. call 1-800-355-5313 or visit www.acresusa.com

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BEGINNER’S CORNER by Charlene Rennick

Cloning Your Favorite Plant Step 1. The ideal cutting is taken from the newest shoots.

What part of the plant can be cloned? The cutting should be three to five inches long and taken from the newest shoots. Cut the shoot just below the second set of leaves, counting the ones at the tip of the shoot. A clean, sharp blade should be used to reduce any possible trauma to the plant. Place the new shoot immediately into a room temperature solution that is a diluted mixture of nutrients and water. Sometimes, air bubbles get trapped in the stem and may prevent absorption of the nutrient solution. To avoid this, hold the cutting under the solution and make a slit at a 45 degree angle to the original cut. Remove from the solution and dip the cut end into a rooting compound. It is now ready to be placed in the rooting environment of your choice: a nutrient solution, a starter rooting cube or growing medium.

Step 2. Dip the cut end into rooting compound.

Step 3. Place cutting in your choice of rooting environment.

Clonex propagation sequence supplied by Growth Technology.

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You don’t have to be a scientist to make a clone. Cloning at home isn’t appropriate for humans, but it’s perfectly acceptable for plants. Cloning means that the new generation of plants has the same genetic fingerprint as the parent, as it was not the result of a new male/female combination of seeds.You don’t have to know this to perform the procedure, though. Cloning can be as easy as cutting a shoot from a plant that gave you the best harvest, the nicest color or the tastiest fruit. The shoot can be rooted in water or a growing medium. The air flow, temperature, light strength and humidity levels should be the same as they would be for germinating seeds. In addition, dipping the end of the cutting in a rooting hormone and mixing in a 25 per cent nutrient solution to 75 per cent water helps to speed up the growth rate. Good to know Shoots that have been rooted in water transplant easily into hydroponics systems; so do shoots that have been germinated in a moist growing medium. Plants that have been started in a water solution don’t frequently survive the move to a dryer environment.

This is because shoots that develop in a moist area have extra, tiny, hair-like fibers on the roots. These delicate tendrils get damaged in the transition to a dryer medium. Shoots that develop roots in a dryer compound don’t have these tiny fingers. What do you need to remember out of all this? Wet shoots transplant to wet growing mediums and dry-grown roots can handle the move to a dry environment. Mixing it up can damage the new roots. Roots should develop in one to three weeks. For optimum results, try making the move to the final growing place gradual. Cuttings that are used to a higher humidity level, softer light and more water need a transitional phase to avoid shock. Try a happy medium between the nursery and the environment where strong lights are the real deal. Advanced gardeners now have the option of utilizing clone machines to optimize root formation. MY

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by Therese Cressman, TipNut.com

Growing Guide:

Lucky

How would you like a thriving green plant in that dim and colorless office of yours or how about adding a touch of modernity to your home decor? There’s a popular indoor plant that even the most novice of green thumbs can make flourish, and it’s believed to bring good luck too! I was introduced to lucky bamboo by a family member and although it has been a very popular houseplant for a few years now, this plant was totally new to me, so of course I had to investigate. Here’s what I’ve learned about growing and caring for this elegant plant.

What is Lucky Bamboo?

Guess what? It’s not bamboo! Lucky bamboo is a member of the lily family (Dracaena sanderiana) and grows in rainforests in parts of Asia. It has become such a popular houseplant that you should have no trouble finding it in local department, grocery and hardware stores, and of course, garden nurseries and indoor garden retail shops. If you want a large, luxurious or shaped arrangement, you can order them through a local florist and even online. Lucky bamboo is a favored indoor plant because it grows easily and is easily cared for. No need for potting soil, these plants are happy to grow in water, hydroponically. If you have a Water Tip: You can use tap water instead of distilled but it’s important to let the water sit uncovered for at least 24 hours before allowing the stalks to sit in it. This will help remove the chlorine, fluoride and other minerals from the water, which can cause the plant to suffer. Container Tip: Clear glass containers are popular because you can see the stones or marbles and the fresh water. However, direct light encourages algae growth

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windowless office, this is one plant you should try. It thrives in both natural and artificial light.

How to Choose a Good Plant

This plant comes in the form of a stalk. When determining which one is healthy and good to purchase, here are a few tips: The water and the plant should smell fresh. If there’s a funky odor, don’t buy it. Look for a firm stem and healthy white roots; black or brown spots on the tips are not good. Choose a stalk with leaves that are bright green. You may notice wax on the cut end of the stalk; this is to prevent fungus from getting into the stalk and helps the plant thrive. If you want a plant that’s curly (some believe the luck is stronger), your best bet is to buy it already curled since it’s time consuming to train the plant to grow that way. These plants can get quite expensive the more elaborate the growth so you may opt to grow your own curled lucky bamboo. This can be done, but you’ll need to be patient since it’s very time consuming. Keep in mind that the height of the stalk you buy is as large as the stalk will get. The shoots that develop off the plant (sides) will grow taller, but not the stalk.

in water. If you choose a clear container, be diligent with changing water regularly. If you want to change the water less, choose a solid colored container.The disadvantage of this is that you won’t be able to see the rocks or monitor the water quality and amount as easily.

Soil Tip: You can grow lucky bamboo in soil, but you need a good draining mixture to help it stay healthy. Use a mix of sand, peat moss and soil (equal ratio) and keep the soil moist rather than sopping wet. Plant the stalk at least two inches deep. Make sure to have a few drainage holes in the pot as well as shards of pottery or rocks underneath the soil to ensure good drainage. Prevent root rot by allowing the top bit of the soil to dry out between watering.


How to Plant Lucky Bamboo • •

• • •

Take the stalk and rinse the stem and roots. Look for any signs of decay and snip those off. Pinch off any yellow leaves. Fill the container you wish to grow the plant in with rocks or marbles (or a mixture of both) at least two inches deep. The container can be anything from a tall glass, a dainty vase or a decorative jar. Place the stalk in the container and settle it into the rocks for support. Add room temperature distilled water about one inch deep. Do not place the plant in direct sunlight, direct heat or chill. You can plant several stalks together in one container if you wish.

How to Care for Lucky Bamboo Planted Lucky Bamboo with Stones The plant needs to have fresh, clean water on a regular basis to prevent bacteria growth. Change the water weekly, or bi-weekly. Keep an eye on the water; if it gets murky or cloudy or starts to smell, you know it’s definitely time for a change. When changing the water, inspect the roots of the plant and snip any that are starting to decay. Wash the container and the rocks well. Maintain the same level of water each time you fill the container, the water line is where the roots will form.

Give your lucky bamboo a treat by occasionally misting it with distilled water. This will help the leaves from getting too dry and will simulate its natural habitat. Keep the plant out of direct sunlight, direct heat and cool drafts. You can trim the plant to keep it neat and from getting top heavy, but don’t cut the stalk. When doing any trimming or cutting of the plant, make sure to use sterile scissors. You can wipe them clean with rubbing alcohol and once dry, use to snip. Trim shoot growth to about one inch from the main stalk. You can occasionally feed the plant with a mild fertilizer (every other month or so).

How to Propagate

This plant propagates very easily. Simply take a cutting that has at least one leaf node and place in a cup of distilled water. New roots should appear after a few weeks. While waiting,

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Growing Guide: Lucky Bamboo make sure to replace the water frequently to keep it clean. Once the roots have appeared and the cutting looks healthy, place it in the container with the other stalks or plant it on its own using the instructions. If you want the main plant to grow another shoot where you cut it, spray the cut daily with water. If you want to prevent growth, apply a bit of melted paraffin wax to seal the cut.

Cutting the Stalk

sun pulse half

In some cases, it may be necessary to cut the top healthy part of the plant from the sick or rotting bit at the bottom of the stalk. You can try rooting the top healthy stalk by the method above. Roots may appear after some time (no guarantee).

How to Make Lucky Bamboo Curl

This plant grows straight up. Getting it to curl is a test of patience and some skill. When you buy a plant with a curl, it’s been trained to do so by expert growers. The plant will naturally grow toward the light, so the trick is to expose the plant to light from one direction only (curling will only happen with new growth). If you’d like to give it a shot, here’s a common method: Curling Lucky Bamboo • Keep the plant in the container you have been growing it in. • Select a box that is large enough to cover the plant and give it some room for growth. • Cut out the bottom and one side of the box. • Place the box over the plant; this will cover the plant in darkness with the exception of the one side you cut out. • Position the opening of the box to face the light. After some time the plant will start growing towards the light (forming a bend). • Once you notice a bend, rotate the box an inch or so. The plant will adjust and grow with a deeper bend. • Continue until the desired curl has been achieved. It will take about a year to achieve one curl, sometimes longer (that’s why these plants with a curl can be so expensive).

Why is it Considered Lucky?

Lucky bamboo is associated with the practice of Feng Shui and because the plant is so hardy, it symbolizes good health. It’s considered luckiest when received as a gift. A curling plant is also believed to hold great luck.

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Growing Guide: Lucky Bamboo

Meanings for the Number of Stalks Feng Shui Lucky Bamboo Lucky bamboo grows in single stalks. Some believe that arranging a certain amount of stalks together in a container holds special meaning and levels of luck. I’ve come across many lists, some suggesting different things for each amount but they generally follow this guide: • • • •

• • • • • • •

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One Stalk: Simple Life Two Stalks: Love; Double Luck Three Stalks: Happiness; Good Luck; Longevity Four Stalks: Death (avoid). The word four sounds nearly the same as the word death in Chinese, that’s why it’s avoided. Five Stalks: Wealth; Health; Creativeness; Excitement Six Stalks: Health; Happiness; Harmony Seven Stalks: Health Eight Stalks: Growth; Wealth; Prosperity; Abundance; Prospering Business Nine Stalks: Good Fortune; Most Lucky 10 Stalks: Perfection; Complete 21 Stalks: Powerful Blessings

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Troubleshooting Tips •

• •

Leaves Turning Yellow: Remove leaves immediately before it spreads to the rest of the plant; Too much light, move the plant; If you are using tap water, change to distilled; too much fertilizer, stop feeding for awhile. Leaf Edges Are Brown: The air is too dry; occasionally mist the plant with distilled water; water is not filtered enough; too much fertilizer, stop feeding for awhile. Stalk turning yellow: Too much fertilizer, stop feeding for awhile; remove stalk from container if growing with other stalks and let it grow on it’s own for awhile, return if stalk regains health. This is to prevent affecting the other stalks in case the stalk is dying. Stalks Mushy Or Brown: The stalk is rotting, remove from container immediately and change container water if holding other stalks (prevents spreading to other stalks); you can try saving the top of the stalk by cutting it off and rooting. Algae Water: Too much light or fertilizer, move plant and stop feeding for awhile. Plant Is Thin And Spindly: Not enough light, move the plant to a brighter location. MY

Careful: This plant needs to be kept out of reach of children and pets—it is toxic when consumed.


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by Matt LeBannister

Paphiopedilum venustum is another great windowsill orchid. This orchid produces single flowers of marbled green, orange, gray, tan, pink and dark purple. The flowers are quite unique with spots and hairs and can last up to a month. Paphiopedilium venustum can handle extremes well but grows best when light is kept in the 600 to 2,000 foot candle range. The humidity levels should remain between 40 to 60 per cent and temperature should be 60 to 80°F. The growing medium should be always kept moist and fertilized every third watering.

Originating in New Guinea, Dendrobium spectabile may be one of the most exotic looking orchids that can be grown easily at home. This orchid produces single blooms containing multiple green, brown and burgundy spots and stripes, and has petals that seem to twist and turn in every direction. Dendrobium spectabile resembles an alien life-form more than a flower from this world. To care for Dendrobium spectabile, light should be between 1,500 to 2,000 foot candles. This orchid can handle extreme temperatures but is best kept between 60 to 80°F and humidity should stay relatively around 50 to 70 per cent. This orchid would do well in a window that doesn’t get direct sunlight, and should have a humidifier running when necessary. Don’t drown this orchid but keep the growing medium always moist and fertilized infrequently.

Brassia verrucosa is a beautiful orchid often referred to as a spider orchid since its long, slender petals resemble spiderlegs. The thin flowers can actually measure more than 20 inches from the top of the dorsal sepals to the bottom of the hanging petals. This orchid can have 20 plus flowers on each spike. These extraordinary flowers are spotted in brown, green, cream and white. Brassia verrucosa orchids like warmer temperatures in the 70 to 90°F range. The humidity levels are best kept around 40 to 60 per cent. Like the previous two orchids, Brassia verrucosa needs the growing medium to remain always moist and only needs to be fertilized every third watering.

exotic orchids at home

AVANT-GARDENING


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Chapters Publishing Inc. 1992 2031 Shelbourne Rd, Shelbourne, Vermont 05482

Source: Orchids Simplified: An Indoor Gardening Guide. By Henry Jaworshi,

Orchids have a mysterious way of becoming an instant obsession. Gardeners throughout history have been enamored by their beauty, searching the ends of the world for more specimens. Gardeners may become intimidated with the many exotic varieties and the sometimes difficult care involved. Some orchids can be quite tough to care for outside of a greenhouse, but many can be grown in one’s home quite easily. Shown above are three types of orchids that can be grown at home and what you must do to care for them. Diverse and exotic, orchids can be intimidating. We can’t help but assume that these unique beauties require equally unique growing conditions. Hopefully this article has eased your anxieties and given you the courage to grow orchids at home. MY


Defining Green

by Donald Lester

LearningtheLanguage

ORGANIC

NATURAL

Recent news stories about global warming, pollution, recycling and renewable energy reflect the public’s increasing awareness of environmental issues. And all of this awareness has prompted businesses to generate a flurry of new marketing terms to capitalize on this interest. This influx of new terms into the market can be confusing. However, these terms fall into four main categories that have been around for decades: organic, natural, sustainable and green. Once you know the differences between these categories then you can better understand the new marketing terms coming into the marketplace. In most polls consumers don’t know the difference between these four terms. But to the groups that support these environmental causes there are significant differences. All of these terms relate to the environment in a general way but each has a different emphasis.

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SUSTAINABLE

GREEN

Organic Most people think the term organic refers to foods or products that do not have any synthetic pesticides or hormones. And they are correct. But there is much more to it. The term organic is regulated and its use on labels has legal implications. The term organic (and its uses) is overseen by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Organic Program (NOP). This program is the umbrella program administered by the U.S. government. All other organic certifying programs fall under this standard and must meet or exceed these standards. There are some 45 organic certification organizations in the U.S. and many have their own emblems or logos for manufacturers to use on their products to indicate compliance.


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Defining Green: Learning the Language The organic certification of a product involves several criteria. For example, organic products cannot contain any genetically modified organisms or genetically altered ingredients, no sewage sludge derived materials, no chemically synthesized ingredients and no chemical pesticides, plus many other criteria too numerous to mention here. For more information see the Organic Material Review Institute (OMRI) website: www.omri.org

“The term organic is regulated and its use on labels has legal implications.” As a rule organic materials command a higher price in the marketplace than their conventional counterparts mainly because a farmer needs to stop using conventional pesticides and chemicals for three years before he can grow an organic crop. It is because of this expense, and the non-regulated status of the term natural, that companies are switching to natural to command the same high price premium without all of the regulations and costs associated with using the term organic.

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Natural The term natural refers to the popular belief that synthesizing a food item results in a loss of its nutrients and beneficial health properties. Health conscious people tend to gravitate towards natural and organic labels. But, the term natural is not a regulated term. In fact, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has stated it has no plans to establish a formal definition of the term natural because it has other priorities for its limited resources. However, in terms of food the FDA established some broad guidelines in 1993 that still hold today: The product must not contain added color, artificial flavors or synthetic substances. And use of the term natural is not permitted in the ingredient list, with the exception of the phrase natural flavorings.

“People tend to gravitate towards natural and organic labels. But, the term natural is not a regulated term.” Several industries are trying to establish criteria for using the term natural. The personal care products industry has established national certification standards for use of the term. But, because


Defining Green: Learning the Language there is no regulation, an increasing number of manufacturers are using the term natural to capitalize on its popularity. For example, 23 per cent of all new products launched globally in 2008 featured the term natural according to the market research organization Mintel. The marketing term “100 per cent natural” scored the highest on a survey by EcoPulse as the most identifiable marketing term.

economy depends; make the most efficient use of nonrenewable resources and on-farm resources and integrate, where appropriate, natural biological cycles and controls; sustain the economic viability of farm operations; and enhance the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole.

Green The term green (also known as ecoSustainable friendly, nature friendly and environmentally The term sustainable relates to friendly) refers to the impact of the product production processes and practices that on the environment. In general, green can be maintained without harming the products are those products deemed to have environment or depleting natural resources. less of a direct negative impact on the environment, In the case of farming, some environmental or are less detrimental to human health than their conventional groups believe that the conventional use of equivalents. Green products might be manufactured from synthetic chemicals is not sustainable because the land recycled components, or be manufactured in a more energy becomes worn out and over time loses its ability to support conservative way, or be supplied to the market with less crops, micro-organisms, insects packaging or less shipping to reduce and other life. For farming and “Green products might be pollution. Green products might also reduce horticultural businesses, processes the production of waste products compared manufactured from recycled to their conventional counterparts. Using like composting, using cover components.” crops and water recycling are all the term green in marketing materials is considered sustainable processes also referred to as Environmental Marketing, and farms and nurseries that utilize these practices would be Ecological Marketing and Eco-Marketing. regarded as sustainable. In general, this term is not limited to Determining whether or not a product is green is not processes anymore; businesses in all sectors are now claiming always straightforward. For example, in the energy sector they are sustainable. nuclear power might be considered a green source of energy The term ‘’sustainable agriculture” is more broadly defined because it does not contribute to air pollution. But critics by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture as argue that the negative environmental impact of radioactive an integrated system of plant and animal production practices waste far outweighs any benefits gained from the reduction having a site-specific application that will over the long-term: in air pollution. satisfy human food and fiber needs; enhance environmental In a survey of 1,000 consumers EcoPulse found that 60 per quality and the natural resource base upon which the agriculture cent of Americans indicated they are looking for greener

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products. But green is another unregulated term. As you might expect, green industries claim they are easier on the environment than their competitors. Although the public wants green products there is some skepticism of green claims, mainly because a few unscrupulous companies have made green claims that were false. The practice of presenting a product or service as green when it isn’t is called greenwashing. If a company is found to be greenwashing, its reputation in the market is severely tarnished. Symbols, Emblems and Logos Most eco-labeling is voluntary and not mandatory by law (with the exception of organic claims). Because many eco-terms are not regulated by the government, several third-party entities have emerged to create their own guidelines. Each entity has its own emblem that a manufacturer can use to certify its compliance. There are literally dozens of emblems in the marketplace. A searchable database of these emblems is featured on the Consumer Reports website at www.greenerchoices.org MY

The market, the public, politicians and even the U.S. economy are all moving toward more environmentally safe products, practices and services. Now that you know a little about the differences in the eco-labeling terms used in the market today you can make better choices about which produces to purchase and which companies to support, such as those that employ environmental philosophies and adopt environmental practices.

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by Philip McIntosh

Plant Nutrient Elements Part 2 The Micronutrients Cl, Fe, Mn, B, Zn, Cu and Mo

This article is the second in a series about nutrient elements in elements. This is because researchers had to wait for improved plants. The first installment discussed the major nutrient eletechnologies and laboratory methods before the necessity (or ments nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), magnesium not) for such small amounts of matter could be established. (Mg), calcium (Ca) and sulfur (S). These elements are called Interestingly, chlorine, the most concentrated micronutrient in “major” because they are found in plant tissues in the highplant tissues, was the last to be declared essential in 1954. est concentrations. Although the so-called “micronutrients” do As was mentioned in the previous article, some plants require occur in much lower concentrations, they are just as important elements that most plants do not. However, it is possible that for the normal growth and development of plants. further refinement in plant growth and analytical techniques Some of the micronutrients are needed in very minute will yet prove the wider essential nature of the elements cobalt amounts; typically only at 1/10,000 the concentration of the (Co), nickel, (Ni), silicon (Si) and vanadium (V)—all of which major elements N, P and K. For are known to be essential in example, molybdenum makes up animals. Even though they may “By definition, an element is essential if it only about 0.00001 per cent of not be “essential” according to the is required for the growth and successful the dry weight of a healthy plant strictest application of the definicompletion of a plant’s lifecycle.” (compared to one to two per cent tion, it can do no harm to add for nitrogen). That’s not much, but these elements to a nutrient soluthe key word here is “healthy” plant. By definition, an element tion in miniscule amounts. Indeed these elements are sometimes is essential if it is required for the growth and successful comcalled “beneficial.” pletion of a plant’s lifecycle. If it’s needed, it’s needed, no matter Now, on with the details of the essential micronutrients: how small the required amount. chlorine (Cl), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), boron (B), zinc (Zn), As would be expected, proof of the essentiality of the microcopper (Cu) and molybdenum (Mo). nutrients came after the discovery of the essential major mineral

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Chlorine Deficiency.

Chlorine Role in Plants. Chlorine is used by plants in its anionic form Cl-. Chloride ion is important in regulating the opening and closing of stomata. When the electrical potential in stomate guard cells become sufficiently negative, K+ channels open causing an inrush of K+ cations, which causes the guard cells to flex in such a way as to open the stomate. Most plants use the Cl- ion to balance the K+ in the guard cells to maintain the negative potential needed to keep the stomate open. Chloride is also used during photosynthesis and, for reasons that are not well understood, it protects plants from fungal attack. Hydroponic Source. Chlorine is a normal additive in some form in many municipal water supplies and usually exists in small amounts as a contaminant in other reagents. For those reasons, it is usually unnecessary to ensure adequate chlorine in nutrient solutions by intentionally adding it. It may be included as KCl or CaCl2, but usually not for the specific addition of chlorine. If these reagents are used, care must be taken to prevent too high a chlorine concentration, resulting in inhibition of uptake of other negatively charged ions. Deficiency Symptoms. There is seldom a shortage of chloride either in soils or especially in hydroponics solutions, so true chlorine deficiency is rare. However, if it does occur, it will manifest as interveinal chlorosis and wilting of young leaves. Excess Symptoms. Most plant species likely to be found in hydroponic culture are tolerant of chlorine and will not show any ill effects from an excess. If it does occur it will show up as leaf burn and leaf drop. Iron Role in Plants. Iron (Fe) is very important in plants, and plays a role in both the Fe2+ and Fe3+ forms. It is involved in energy metabolism, electron transport during photosynthesis and it is required for chlorophyll synthesis. Hydroponic Source. Since Fe is not very soluble at neutral pH, iron is commonly added as a chelate. This means that Fe ions are surrounded by an organic molecule that keeps it in solution. Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) or diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) are in use for this purpose. Iron citrate and iron tartrate are organic compounds that can also be used as Fe sources. Iron salts of sulfate, chloride and ammonium MAXIMUM YIELD USA - July 2010

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Plant Nutrient Elements Part 2 sulfate were used before the chelates came into standard use, but are not recommended because of iron solubility concerns. According to one source (Jones, 2005), addition of iron filings to aggregate substrates (sand, gravel, etc) is effective. Deficiency Symptoms. Since iron is not mobile in plants, deficiency symptoms show up in the youngest leaves first as interveinal chlorosis. If the deficiency is severe or not corrected, the leaves will take on a whitish, bleached appearance, as chlorophyll synthesis is severely inhibited. In all but the most severe cases, iron deficiency is reversible by the addition of available iron. Iron is not soluble in alkaline conditions so it is important to keep the solution pH from rising to neutral, and a chelating agent should be used to sequester iron and keep it

Iron Deficiency.

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available. Deficiency symptoms should be confirmed by tissue analysis to avoid mistaking symptoms for lack of some other element (when in doubt this is true for any abnormality). Excess Symptoms. Too much iron, which can occur especially at low pH (around 5.0), results in brown spots on leaves, speckling of leaves with small necrotic or bronze-colored lesions, dark green or purple-tinted leaves and stunted growth. Even though Fe is required for photosynthesis, photosynthesis is depressed in some species in the presence of too much Fe. Manganese Role in Plants. Manganese (Mn) is used in the Mn2+ form, and like Fe, it is important in oxidation-reduction reactions and in electron transport during photosynthesis. It is an enzyme co-factor. Manganese and Mg are interchangeable in some plant functions. Hydroponic Source. Tetrahydrates of manganese sulfate (MnSO4•4H2O) or manganese chloride (MnCl2•4H2O) are used to formulate nutrient solutions. Deficiency Symptoms. Manganese deficiency symptoms are similar to those for Mg and Fe. Interveinal chlorosis of younger leaves is the first indication, and if the lack is severe, older leaves are affected as well and plant growth is inhibited. Leaves may take on a metallic or purple shine, and interveinal necrotic spots may form.


Excess Symptoms. Differentiating between Mn deficiency and toxicity can be tricky, since at first the symptoms are similar. Eventually brown spots on older leaves, accompanied by dark spots (called “measles”) on stems and fruit appear. Leaf tips become dry and bubble-like puckering may appear between veins. These symptoms are often accompanied by chlorosis

Manganese Deficiency.

indicating Fe deficiency, since Mn is also important in photosynthesis. Manganese uptake is facilitated by phosphorus (P), so Mn toxicity can be induced at high P concentration if Mn is readily available. Boron Role in Plants. Boron (B), unlike most other micronutrients is used by plants as a polyatomic ion BO3- and as the acid H3BO3. It is important for transport of sugars and starch, carbohydrate synthesis, pollen formation, cell division, respiration, cell wall formation and many other plant processes. Hydroponic Source. Boric acid (H3BO3) and borax (Na2B3O7•10H2O) are common boron sources. An agricultural preparation called Solubor® – disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (Na2B8O13•4H2O), which is offered as a spray on foliar source of boron, can also be used in solution. Deficiency Symptoms. Boron deficiency symptoms are highly species specific. Some of the general symptoms of B deficiency include slow growth, followed by stunting and distorted new growth. In severe cases the shoot and root tips die. Because of the need for B in cell wall formation, deficient plants will be brittle and easily broken. Fruit formation will be poor or cease altogether. Excess Symptoms. Leaf margins are the first place to look for B toxicity. Margins turn brown and necrotic eventually resulting in tissue death and leaf drop. Boron tolerance varies quite widely by species. Zinc Role in Plants. The main role of zinc (Zn) in plants is as an enzyme cofactor. Zinc is physiologically active in the Zn2+ form. It is important in many biochemical pathways including synthesis of chlorophyll, carbohydrates, auxin (a plant hormone) and in general protein synthesis.

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Plant Nutrient Elements Part 2 Hydroponic Source. Zinc sulfate heptahydrate (ZnSO4•7H2O) is the most common source of nutrient zinc. Deficiency Symptoms. Interveinal chlorosis of young leaves followed by stunted growth and leaf drop are symptoms of zinc deficiency. These symptoms are similar to those for deficiencies of Fe, Mn and Mg, so the only way to confirm the true problem is with tissue analysis. In many plants, leaves take on a miniaturized appearance and the internodal distance (distance

between branches) is notably shortened. Insufficient tissue Zn concentration reduces cold tolerance. Excess Symptoms. Most plants are tolerant of excess zinc and will exhibit no toxicity symptoms. For Zn-sensitive species, or in cases where the zinc concentration is exceedingly high, chlorosis and browned leaf tips, overall diminished growth and stunted root development have been reported. For Zn and Fe sensitive species, a high Zn concentration can induce Fe deficiency.

Copper Role in Plants. Copper, as Cu2+ cation, is important in photosynthesis, and is a co-factor needed for the proper function of some enzymes. Hydroponic Source. Copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4•5H2O) is the reagent of choice. If the feed system includes a significant portion of copper pipe, no addition of copper may be required. Deficiency Symptoms. Copper deficiency causes stunted root and shoot development, leaf curl, a light overall chlorosis in young leaves and net-like green veins in older leaves. Fruit may be deformed and stunted or have tip death. Excess Symptoms. Abnormally thickened, short and stubby roots will result if too much copper is present in the nutrient solution. Leaves may be darker green than normal. Molybdenum Role in Plants. Molybdenum (Mo), like boron, is found in plants in polyatomic ion form, in this case the molybdate anion MoO42-. Molybdenum is essential in phosphorus metabolism, and is important in nitrate reduction since it is a co-factor for the enzyme nitrate reductase. Plants that have access to ammonium (NH4+) as a nitrogen source have a reduced need for Mo.

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Zinc Deficiency.

Hydroponic Source. Ammonium molybdate tetrahydrate [(NH4)6Mo7O24•4H20] is the commonly used source of Mo. Deficiency Symptoms. Yellowing of leaves, easily mistaken for N deficiency, is one symptom of Mo deficiency. In fact, if nitrate is the principle N source, lack of Mo may actually result in N deficiency. Sometimes the leaves will give little indication of insufficient Mo, but some combination of overall chlorosis, upward leaf cupping and mottled regions, leaf distortion and poor fruit set will be indicative. Excess Symptoms. Confoundingly, yellowing of leaves and leaf drop are symptoms of Mo toxicity, accompanied perhaps by browning of leaf margins. At high concentrations, leaves may turn a distinctive orange color.

References Anonymous. “The Spectrum Analytic series of library articles on plants, fertilizers, and mineral nutrition.” http://www. spectrumanalytic.com/support/library/articles/ (accessed January 10, 2010). Barack, Phillip. Essential Elements for Plant Growth (1999). http:// www.soils.wisc.edu/~barak/soilscience326/essentl.htm (accessed January 10, 2010).Barry, Wade. “Symptoms of Deficiency in Essential Minerals, in a Companion to Plant Physiology.” 4 (2006). Lincoln Taiz and Eduardo Zeiger, Sinaur Associates, Sunderland, MA. http://4e.plantphys.net/ article.php?ch=3&id=289 (accessed January 10, 2010) Eyster, Clyde. “Requirements and Functions of Micronutrients by Green Plants with Respect to Photosynthesis.” (1962). Charles F. Kettering Research Laboratory, Antioch College, Yellow Springs, OH. Jones, J. Benton “Hydroponics: A Practical Guide for the Soilless Grower.” (2005). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

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GREEN THUMB GARDENING

Introduction to

Bokashi Composting by Michael Bloch

F

ood being dumped in landfills is such a terrible waste. Instead of throwing our scraps out, we should be composting them or adding them to a worm farm. Of course, having a compost heap or worm farm in the backyard isn’t for everybody. If you live in particularly cold conditions, in an apartment or simply don’t have a backyard, composting may seem challenging.

“The compost will provide the plants with nourishment while also enriching the medium with beneficial micro-organisms.”

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Enter Bokashi composting. The Japanese word “Bokashi” translates as fermented, organic matter or shading off, gradation. Bokashi composting occurs in an airtight container, so the process can be carried out inside the home. It’s a pretty simple process—a layer of kitchen scraps is placed into a special bucket and then a carrier medium such as bran, which has been fortified with suitable micro-organisms, is sprinkled on top. The micro-organisms are usually lactic acid bacteria, yeast or phototrophic bacteria. The bucket is then sealed with an air-tight lid and the composting process is carried out in an anaerobic environment (meaning without oxygen).


The layering process is repeated until the bucket is full, after which, the contents are allowed to ferment for a further 10 to 14 days. Given the fermentation time, two buckets are often used so there’s always a batch on the go. The buckets used in Bokashi composting also have a tap to drain off the Bokashi juice. Like the leachate from a worm farm, this juice makes a great liquid fertilizer. Once fermentation is complete, the food retains some of its original appearance, but will have a pickled look, and unlike the earthy smell of traditional compost, will have a cider vinegar type of odor.

The Bokashi compost can then be dug into garden beds or planter boxes. It will be acidic for about a week and will totally break down within a couple of weeks, after which planting can begin. The compost will provide the plants with nourishment while also enriching the medium with beneficial micro-organisms. A wide range of scraps can be used in a Bokashi composting system, including fruit and vegetables, meat, dairy products (excluding milk), eggs, bread, coffee grinds and tea bags. Bokashi composting has been rapidly gaining popularity in recent years, so it’s quite likely you’ll find Bokashi buckets and the EM (effective micro-organism) starter material at indoor gardening shops, larger hardware stores and garden outlets. Bokashi composting kits may also be available. So even if you have no backyard, live in a small apartment or reside in a cool climate, you too can save your food from the landfill and compost it.

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Root Pruning by Gaby Bronzstein

Plant roots are out of sight and for many indoor growers this means they are also out of mind. This is quite unfortunate as optimal root health is critical if plants are to achieve their genetic potential. The following are the most common methods of root pruning: Clippers If done properly, root pruning with clippers can be effective. However, it is not practical for obvious reasons, primarily the shock to the plant, which results in delayed growth. Cutting roots leaves an open wound that can serve as a pathway for pathogens. Chemicals Sprayed copper containers have been used successfully to prune roots. When the root tips reach the copper-lined pots the roots are forced to branch as the copper can burn the root tip. While this method is quite effective at pruning roots and preventing circling, copper toxicity can be a problem. Root constriction This method of root pruning uses material that allows the root tip to grow through the material yet it constricts the plant from 124

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1 10

growing larger. Branching occurs as a result of the constriction. This system of root pruning has been used for years in tree farms. The benefit of using this system is that not only do you create a fibrous root system in the container but the roots grow into the ground making it easier to feed and water the plants while not having them blow over. Plants are moved by simply lifting the container from the ground, stripping away any roots growing through the container and then removing the in-ground container. This creates minimal stress as most of the roots are still in the container and those removed are small. Air root pruning Air pruning of roots is accomplished with the use of containers that direct the root towards air where the root tip is dehydrated, facilitating branching. Next, the roots are directed to an opening where they are pruned. The first attempts at air pruning containers involved putting holes or slices into normal containers. While increased growth rates were seen, roots were still wrapping and no root pruning was evident. Increased growth was attributed to more O2 in the root zone. What was learned from this was that the roots needed to be directed to the air holes. The first effective air pruning containers where bottomless milk cartons on a wire bench. The first trials were conducted


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Root Pruning 101 with seedlings. The tap root grew down to the bottom of the container, through the wire bench and was exposed to air. Branching would occur back along this root for about four inches—known as the four inch rule. The newest versions of air pruning containers offer unparalleled performance and create extremely fibrous roots. One option is shaped in such a way that when the roots hit the side wall they get directed downward into

an air hole. This is where the air pruning takes place. This process is repeated again and again with the branching roots creating extremely fibrous root systems. Other air pruning containers have many more holes all around the container at the end of downward facing protrusions. This design allows the roots to find the air holes immediately when reaching toward the container wall. The downward protrusions direct the roots so that when they reached the air hole it is virtually

impossible for the tip to escape being pruned. The angled protrusions on the containers also provide shade for the entire container keeping them much cooler than standard containers. These containers may dry out a little faster indoors, but they actually conserve water.

This plant is experiencing severe circling roots, a condition which can cause serious damage and even death.

Root tip-trapping In situations where water conservation is critical, root trapping bags are a great option for root pruning. Root trapping bags work by trapping the root in the fabric and forcing it to branch. 126

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Root Pruning 101

Dr. Whitcomb Ph.D. is an expert on plant root systems. He is the author of four books, including "Know It and Grow It" and "Plant Production in Containers.” He has been researching the benefits and methods of root pruning for over 40 years. One of his main goals was to research ways to prevent root wrapping. Root wrapping in container-grown plants causes a decrease in productivity. In some cases wrapped roots can actually kill plants. For this reason it is necessary to cut the circling roots before transplanting. If you don't cut the roots, they will continue to wrap even after transplanting into a larger container. When roots are properly pruned, the root system branches and becomes fibrous. This is similar to what occurs when you prune some plants from the top. The secondary roots can also be pruned. When this process is repeated frequently an extremely fibrous root system forms. The fibrous root systems created are much more productive due to the increased number of root tips. Studies show the increased surface area of root tips equals an increase in nutrient and water uptake.

“Fibrous roots create faster growing plants that have less transplant shock and greater yields.” — Dr. Whitcomb

Over 100 root tips can be pruned in just one square inch of fabric! Some root trapping bags are lined in white on the outside of the bag making it more durable and reflecting heat in the form of solar energy. These containers can also be used with media like hydroton or perlite. Above: Three days after germination this cucumber is showing healthy white roots. This is because generTop: A modern air pruning container keeps ally these systems get this Japanese Maple cool and thriving. irrigated too often to allow hydration of the root tip in order to prune the roots. Root tip-trapping is also shown to be extremely effective when placed under propagation media. Numerous experiments with a number of media and containers have shown that simply placing the root trapping material under rockwool or even a standard cell pack, for instance, will prune the roots that hit it forcing massive side branching of roots. Proper root pruning is an extremely valuable tool for growers that grow at home. It has taken over 40 years to fully understand the best way to care for roots and today the options are virtually limitless. MY 128

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by Noucetta Kehdi

Water as a Substrate: Aeroponics and Aero-hydroponics When choosing a hydroponic system, one of the important factors to consider is the substrate. A variety of options exist for the soilless gardener; among the most common are rockwool, clay pebbles, coconut fiber, several peat mixes, lava rock, perlite and vermiculite. It is important to choose the best option for your growing method. But do you really need a substrate? What does the substrate do? What is its action? There remains a misconception among growers that the substrate alone handles the relations of air and

water within plants’ root systems. In reality the substrate’s role in plant growth is about 15 per cent, the other 85 per cent being in the hands of the grower. A substrate is the medium in which a plant grows. It can be one material, or a combination of materials, that provide support, aeration, plus water retention and distribute moisture to the plant. Basically, as far as the plant is concerned, the substrate must hold water, oxygen and nutrients, drain correctly and stay neutral so that it does not interfere with the plant’s development.

“The role of the substrate is about 15 per cent in the plant’s growth, the other 85 per cent being in the hands of the grower.”

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Water as a Substrate: Aeroponics and Aero-hydroponics The substrate must also “Substrate must respond to hold water, oxygen several other and nutrient supply, factors: it drain correctly and needs to be stay neutral so that dependable, it does not interfere economical and light. It with the plant’s must be easy to development.” handle and easy to dispose of. Ideally it should be non-polluting and biodegradable. And if you grow green, you will want something that is all-natural. Some find all these parameters too tedious to sort through. So the next question is how necessary is the substrate? Can you do without it or can you at least reduce it your dependence on it to a minimum amount? This is where aeroponics and aerohydroponics come into the picture. These technologies respond exactly to these issues, and require little or no substrate. No more carrying bags up the stairs; no more dumping loads of used material to the rubbish; no more substrate-related pests and diseases.

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What is aeroponics and what is aero-hydroponics? Have you ever seen growing systems that mist the solution at the root level in a fog? These are aeroponic systems, a technique where water is delivered to the roots as a high-pressure fog. This technique is not often used in its pure form. Although some companies like to call their systems “aeroponic” systems, you will generally find them only in research laboratories and universities. Aeroponics has its advantages and inconveniences. It saturates the nutritive solution with oxygen, which gives the plant’s roots the healthiest of environments. Its most interesting application is plant propagation. But if you want to keep the crop all the way to maturity, you will notice that the root zone will develop too fast and too much, at the expense of the aerial portion of the plant. This is not what we are generally looking for except in the case of root crops. Even then, it is not always practical because the roots often stay soft from being immersed in water, and won’t offer the firm characteristics needed, like in the case of licorice root.

“EGS” (Ein Gedi System)

Aero-hydroponics is an adaptation of aeroponics. It really started in the mid 80s in California, where Lawrence Brooke of General Hydroponics decided to bring aero-hydroponics into the mainstream market. He started with the “EGS” (Ein Gedi System), a unit invented at the University of Davis in California, which was used essentially to study the content of oxygen in water, and transformed it into one of the best propagation systems around. This unit will spew out mist to the roots, not in the form of a fog system, but rather as a “vortex” spray. Today there are loads of aero-hydroponic growing systems on the market, some very efficient, some less, depending on the experience and the know-how of the manufacturer.You can even build your own with a little help from the many magazines and books found in hydro shops.


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Water as a Substrate: Aeroponics and Aero-hydroponics

In aero-hydroponics water fills with oxygen through different methods: spray, injection and cascade. It relies on a pump that pushes water through different sprayers and irrigation tubing, and falls back down into the reservoir. A well-conceived aero hydroponic system must offer a good balance among its different components, and proper ratios between the different flows of water and the shapes of its different components (tubes, reservoirs, sprayers and irrigation devices). Both aeroponics and aero-hydroponics need little or no substrate. They use only plant supports in the shape of coconut

pots, plastic net-pots or just neoprene rings, leaving water as the only substrate. With aeroponics and aero-hydroponics you have eliminated the most gruesome problems of substrates, but you may wonder if you have switched to others that are just as difficult to address? No, not really. To safely eliminate the traditional substrates, you must ensure water is available to the plant. You must also ensure there is good aeration, and a neutral environment. In aeroponics and aero-hydroponics these are the basics. Well oxygenated water is presented to the roots and drainage is ideal. Once this is said and done, the rest is in the hands of the grower. He or she must ensure a well-balanced and comprehensive nutritive solution, a correct level of EC and pH, good ventilation, temperature, humidity and cleanliness, as you would generally do for any plant, and with any other growing technique. The advantage of the substrate is its buffering capacity, which means that contrary to water where parts of your roots hang bare in the air, the substrate surrounds the root zone completely, and thus protects it from environmental variations like temperature, humidity and accidents.This is why it is often recommended that a beginner start with substrate systems and switch to aerohydroponic systems once they have acquired a little more experience. Some manufacturers will offer “dual” growing units, with special kits that allow you to switch from one substrate machine to a machine that doesn’t require substrate, as soon as you feel more confident. And they will guarantee fast and free technical advice and follow up with their customers. You can even choose aero-hydroponics as a beginner, if you wish. Just follow the instructions that come with your growing unit, and you’ll see how simple it is. And don’t forget that, whichever technique you choose, it is not the system nor the fertilizer alone, but the gardener who ensures the plant of a healthy development. A few weeks ago in Berlin, I had the good fortune, and the pleasure, to meet Melchior, from High Five in Holland. As most Dutch growers, he used the traditional rockwool and drip system, and was quite happy with it. Last year, an Australian friend of his left him with a small aero-hydroponic system. Melchior played with it for a few months and was definitely persuaded. His plants looked perfect, uniform and harmonized. His harvest was great—much better than any other he had in years. His greatest accomplishments are the excellent yields he achieved, and the fact that he was ridden from substrate and all the hassles related to it. Let’s see what we can accomplish with aeroponics and aero-hydroponics. MY

Find Noucetta Kehdi’s articles at www.maximumyield.com under our author archive.

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TDS and EC Meters

for Hydroponics Explained

by Rob Samborn

As technology advances, questions inevitably follow. Due to the rapid growth of the hydroponics and indoor gardening industry, it is important for growers to be familiar with the technology, in this case instrumentation. There is a myriad of nutrients and fertilizers available to help you cultivate the best possible plant yields, but what is consistent among all of them is they need to be measured to ensure proper dosage. Equally important is the measurement of water to know what you’ll be mixing with, and there is no better way to measure nutrient solution or water than with a digital TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) or EC (Electrical Conductivity) meter. There are times when the instructions for a nutrient don’t correspond with the instructions for a meter. This can certainly be frustrating, but refrain from pulling out your hair just yet. This article will help you navigate the challenges.

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TDS and EC Meters for Hydroponics Explained These meters can be found under the following an expensive instrument, take the time names: nutrient meters, “ppm” meters, TDS meters or to learn the basics of the science. It’s easy conductivity meters. and will help you get the most out of Let’s get to the facts. These meters are either TDS meters your meter. or conductivity meters, with the majority being TDS A parameter is the characteristic of a meters. There is no such thing as a “ppm meter,” so strike substance that is being measured. For the it from your lexicon immediately. PPM is an acronym for purpose of this article, it’s either TDS “parts per million,” a scale used for parameters, including (Total Dissolved Solids) or EC (Electrical TDS, chlorine, carbon dioxide, etc. We’ll address scales Conductivity). Other parameters you and parameters in a could be testing for are moment. pH, temperature, light These meters “Our industry lacks standerdization, and humidity. measure your A scale is a particular the fault resting on the nutrients, but range applied to the instrument manufacturers and the they are really measurement of that nutrient companies.” measuring parameter. For example, substances in temperature is a parameter. water, whether a beneficial nutrient or a harmful Fahrenheit or Celsius is a scale. metal. Other industries aside from hydroponics TDS is most commonly measured in use these products as well for fish, pools, industrial ppm (parts per million), PPT (parts per processes and perhaps most importantly, your thousand) or mg/l (milligrams per liter). drinking water. So instead of referring to the EC is most commonly measured in µS meters as nutrient meters, most instrument (micro-Siemens) or mS (milli-Siemens). companies will often refer to the meters by their If your nutrient mix is calling for 1.0 true names: TDS or conductivity meters. EC, this is an incorrect determination, and you may find this confusing when Parameters and Scales using a meter. What this is most likely Water testing is scientific. The majority of us referring to is an EC reading of 1.0 mS; would rather be harvesting our bountiful crops 1.0 mS equals 1000 µS. than remembering our high school science, but if you’re spending your hard-earned cash on Why are there so many ways to

measure nutrients?

Our industry lacks standardization, the fault resting on the instrument manufacturers and the nutrient companies. Rest assured there is a movement to standardize everything, but until a standard exists, the best way to look at it is as a cooking recipe. Open any cookbook and you’ll find that some ingredients call for teaspoons, others call for ounces and others call for cups. Each requires a different measurement tool.Your nutrient mixture is a recipe, so it’s important to use the right measuring tool.

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TDS and EC Meters for Hydroponics Explained

What’s the deal with EC and TDS? What are they and is there a difference?

floating in water. (These are known as suspended solids). Conductivity, or electrical conductivity TDS and EC, while related, are two (EC), is the ability of a substance to different parameters. conduct electricity. While you may not TDS stands for Total Dissolved Solids, typically equate water with electricity and in layman’s terms, is essentially (unless you’re at the Hoover Dam), most any inorganic, elements other dissolved than hydrogen substance in “Total Dissolved Solids is essentially and oxygen water, other than any inorganic, dissolved substance in will conduct the pure H2O. electricity water, other than pure H2O” TDS includes to a certain salts, minerals or degree, no metals dissolved in water. As mentioned matter how minute that conductance above, TDS is most commonly measured might be. Therefore, since water is two in ppm on an ascending scale. The higher parts hydrogen and one part oxygen, measuring conductivity is an easy and the ppm, the more TDS there are in the quick method of determining the purity water, with pure water being 0.0 ppm. Pure water can be obtained through level of water. Now that we understand TDS and filtration, purification, distillation or conductivity, that brings us to the next collecting raindrops on your tongue. TDS does not include particles that are burning question:

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TDS and EC Meters for Hydroponics Explained

How is TDS measured? TDS is measured as weight (mg/L) or quantity (ppm). As discussed above, ppm stands for parts per million, so if you add 2,000 ppm of nutrients to pure water, that “Due to the abundance of salt, means that out seawater will be far more conductive of 1,000,000 than fresh water.” parts of water, 2,000 of those parts are the nutrients. Or for the What are TDS meters and how do they work? mathematically inclined, that’s 0.2 per A TDS meter works by measuring the electrical conductivity cent. The only true method of measuring of the water. As mentioned earlier, most elements, other than TDS is to weigh a water sample, the hydrogen and oxygen, will conduct electricity to a certain degree. A TDS meter will measure the EC and convert that evaporate the water and then weigh the remains. Not only is this very difficult to electrical charge to an estimated TDS level, thereby telling you the nutrient quantity. do, evaporation would defeat the purpose EC is measured by determining the amount of electrical of measuring nutrients in a solution. charge between two sensors. The greater the charge, the higher Therefore, companies have developed the EC (and the higher the TDS level). TDS meters that determine the nutrient content and display that amount on a What’s a conversion factor and why are there digital screen for ease-of-use.

so many of them?

Since TDS meters work by first measuring the EC level, that EC level needs to be converted to a TDS level (hence a conversion factor). A conversion factor will allow the meter to make the best possible estimate of the true TDS level. Since there are different types of water in the world that are more or less conductive than others, it’s necessary to use different conversion factors for different water. For example, due to the abundance of salt, seawater will be far more conductive than fresh water.

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TDS and EC Meters for Hydroponics Explained

So then should I use a TDS meter or an EC meter? Technically, when measuring nutrients, it’s better to measure the TDS level, but don’t forget that the true method of measuring TDS is very difficult and TDS meters are actually measuring the EC and then converting that EC to TDS. Confusing? Perhaps. The answer to this question is: use the

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meter (and conversion factor) that is recommended by the nutrient company. If your preferred brand of nutrients recommends you measure the nutrients using EC, then buy an EC meter.You’ll have much more accurate results than if you purchase a TDS meter and attempt to do the math. If you don’t know which meter you should use, give your nutrient company a call and ask.


TDS and EC Meters for Hydroponics Explained

The lowdown

Tips & tricks

Nutrient solutions are best measured with TDS or EC meters. TDS meters will give you an accurate nutrient level in water, expressed in ppm (parts per million). Ideally, a grower should filter his or her water down to a pure or near-pure level, prior to adding the nutrients. Pure water will be 0.0 ppm. Therefore, you will know what you’re starting with when adding the nutrients and have the perfect solution. If you do not have access to a water filtration or purification system, you can use tap water, but you will need to add the appropriate TDS level of the nutrients to the TDS level of the tap water. For example, if your blooming stage

nutrient calls for adding 1,500 ppm of nutrients and your tap water is 250 ppm, you should be looking for a nutrient solution level of 1,750 ppm.

Common Misperceptions 1. Confusing a parameter with a scale. 2. Calling a TDS meter a “ppm meter.” 3. Quantifying a nutrient by EC. As mentioned above, EC is the parameter Electrical Conductivity. Therefore, if a nutrient recipe calls for water with 2.0 EC, this is an incorrect determination. Most likely, the application is calling for an EC level of 2.0 mS; 2.0 mS = 2000 µS.

1. Read the user’s guide! 2. For the most accurate nutrient level reading, always start with 0 ppm water (or close), such as distilled, reverse osmosis (RO) or deionized water (DI). 3. If you don’t have access to a filtration system, always measure your tap water prior to adding the nutrients. Add the tap water TDS/EC level to the recommended nutrient level. 4. Always lightly swirl a TDS/EC meter in the solution to remove any air bubbles. 5. Give a meter about 10 seconds to stabilize for the best reading. 6. Temperature greatly affects TDS and EC. Therefore, always use a TDS/EC meter that includes Automatic Temperature Compensation (ATC). The ATC program will automatically adjust for temperature discrepancies, so you don’t have to. 7. Not all meters are waterproof! Always check before fully immersing your meter in water. 8. Most meters are factory calibrated, but may require recalibration depending upon usage. Always follow your specific meter’s instructions for calibration.

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DefInitions

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TDS = Total Dissolved Solids EC = Electrical Conductivity PPM = Parts Per Million PPT = Parts Per Thousand µS (or µS/cm) = micro-Siemens mS (or mS/cm) = milli-Siemens NaCl = Sodium Chloride (EC-to-TDS conversion factor that is an average of 0.5) KCl = Potassium Chloride (EC-to-TDS conversion factor that is an average of 0.55) 442 = 442 Natural Water™ (EC-to-TDS conversion factor that is an average of 0.7) (442 is a registered trademark of the Myron L Company, developed by them to simulate the properties of naturally occurring fresh water. It’s the abbreviation for 40 per cent sodium sulfate, 40 per cent sodium bicarbonate, 20 per cent sodium chloride).

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Converting between different scales PPM  PPT: Divide by 1,000 (1,000 ppm = one ppt) PPT  PPM: Multiply by 1,000 (one ppt = 1,000 ppm) µS  mS: Divide by 1,000 (1,000 µS = one mS) mS  µS: Divide by 1,000 (1,000 µS = one mS) PPM  µS: This depends on the conversion factor of your TDS meter (see above). The easiest method is to acquire a meter that reads in the parameter and scale of your preference (or both). µS  PPM: This depends on the conversion factor you wish to use (see above). The easiest method is to acquire a meter that reads in the parameter and scale of your preference (or both). MY


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TIPS & TRICKS

RAISED BED GARDENING - An Alternative Approach

by Clair A. Schwan Most of us are familiar with the advantages of raised bed gardening. A raised bed not only defines the growing space, but makes it more comfortable for working. Most importantly, a raised bed warms up the medium faster, promoting healthy root growth and plant vitality. One of the disadvantages of raised beds is they can limit the layout and potential use of your garden. Relocating a raised bed or changing its orientation can be a burden if it’s made of bulky material. In addition, many of the materials for creating raised beds are either vulnerable to deterioration or they are rather expensive.

Trellis

Bok Choy

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Enter the steel barrel, also known as a 55 gallon drum. Steel barrels make excellent raised beds. I’ve been using steel barrels cut in half as raised beds in my outdoor gardens and in my greenhouses for many years. Let’s look at the advantages of steel barrels and how they can be used to create unique raised beds. Steel barrels can be obtained as scrap material from various sources.That means they are only as expensive as the cost of hauling them. I get mine from a local shop that has its water-based paint shipped to them in the barrels.The two disadvantage of using scrap steel barrels are they need to be cut and cleaned out. I make short work of them by cutting out the bottoms with a plasma torch and then burning them out with a wood fire. I then cut them in half with a plasma torch so I have two short barrels about 18 inches tall, both with no top and no bottom. Chard Another advantage of steel barrels is they are portable. If you don’t like where they are one year, simply lift them off of the ground and relocate them. Steel barrels offer a rather small gardening space, so working inside of them isn’t convenient.Yet, they’re easy to till using a potato fork or small shovel.The strong steel sides allow you to pry against them without fear of damaging the material. The biggest advantage of using steel drums as raised beds is that they have a tremendous amount of surface area for the amount of medium they contain. And, nearly all of this surface area is exposed to warm air that helps warm up the roots. In addition, steel is a wonderful conductor of heat, so the medium inside warms up quickly. If you want to see a model of the surface area-to-volume relationship associated with steel drums, simply place six canned goods of identical size together in a tight double line configuration. Look down from the top and you’ll see spaces in between the sides of the cans where warm air will promote quick heating of the medium.This warm and moist medium also allows them to serve as greenhouse “thermal batteries” wherein the moist medium can release heat through the steel walls to help keep the indoors warm during the night. Lastly, if you use 55 gallon steel drums without cutting them in half, you’ll have beds that are three feet tall and can be worked without bending over at all. And, just think of the thermal capacity that all of the moist medium will have! Placing them on the north

side of the greenhouse will create a wall of thermal storage drums out of which you can grow more vegetables. Using steel drums as a raised bed for gardening isn’t for everyone, but I certainly appreciate the advantages offered.As scrap material that is easily moved around and strong enough to last for many years, I’m sold on the idea.Whether you use them indoors or out, they have all the advantages of a more traditional raised bed, and then some. About the Author: Clair Schwan is an avid vegetable gardener who grows more than 100 varieties of fruits and vegetables in homemade greenhouses of his own design and construction. See his homemade greenhouses at www.frugal-living-freedom.com and learn more about his approach to growing and harvesting produce year round at www.vegetable-gardening-and-greenhouses.com MY

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HOW IT’S MADE

Sunshine Advanced

#4 Growing Mix Beginning with carefully selected ingredients and formulated by a team of professional horticulturists, the Sunshine Advanced #4 Growing Mix is made from high quality raw materials and provides an ideal growing mix for your indoor and outdoor growing needs.

Sunshine Advanced Mix #4 after all the components have been added and mixed, in preparation for packaging.

1. A Strong Foundation The foundation of the growing mix is Canadian Sphagnum peat moss, sustainably harvested from carefully managed bogs in rural Canada. The peat moss is screened to remove large clumps and sticks and is blended with horticultural grade perlite and coir (a by-product of the coconut industry). Peat moss reduces the leaching of nutrients from the growing mix allowing them to release slowly over time. Perlite keeps air spaces open while coir combined with peat allows for good water retention. This provides a balance of air and water that results in optimal root growth and the foundation for strong stem and flower growth. Dolomitic lime, a starter organic fertilizer, mycorrhizae and an organic wetting agent are added to complete the mix. Lime adjusts the pH for optimum fertilizer availability; the starter organic fertilizer helps transplants establish; mycorrhizae assists in fertilizer uptake and the organic wetting agent helps peat moss absorb water better.

2. Progression The mix is created using state-of-the-art production equipment. Peat is moved into the production plant with large front end loaders. Perlite ore is ‘popped’ at 1600oF at many of our sites and compressed coir is expanded or ‘fluffed’ by adding water on site. All of the raw materials are placed into dosing hoppers and, via computer control, are dispensed onto a conveyor belt per the specified formulation. The conveyor belt loads 154

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Peat moss is harvested at a bog and transported to the mix plant via a bulk truck.

the mix into an angled blending drum and then out onto another conveyor belt, which moves the finished product to the packaging area. Using automatic packaging equipment, the mix is loaded into bags and compressed at an approximate 2:1 ratio. The bags are then placed on a pallet and stretch wrapped. Compressed mixes are popular since they are an efficient use of volume while still retaining all the beneficial attributes of the growing mix. Sunshine Advanced Mix #4 is available in one cubic foot, 2.2 cubic feet and 3.0 cubic feet packages.

Sun Gro Horticulture uses a computer controlled continuous mixing line to manufacture our growing mixes.

growing mix. The science of growing good plants requires that the plants are grown in a mix that has the correct pH, EC as well as good air and water capacities. Once Sunshine #4 Advanced is packaged, it is shipped to a store near you. Sun Gro takes pride in the entire development process of our products, and this ensures that our mixes will work well for you. In fact, if you purchase Sunshine Advanced and you are not completely satisfied, we will refund your money.

4. Grow Eco Sustainability is considered during all phases of the production process to ensure raw materials are used wisely and will remain available for future generations. For more information on Sun Gro’s commitment to sustainably, go to www.sungro.com

As part of their industry leading quality processes, Sun Gro has on-site labs for quality assurance testing.

3. Quality Control Quality control is an important part of what allows growers to achieve success with Sunshine Advanced #4. We check each raw material prior to use and we also examine the finished MAXIMUM YIELD USA - July 2010

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PRODUCT spotlight

Continued from page 44

See it. Want it. Find it at your favorite indoor gardening store.

Simple and Effective – Nutriculture Gro Tanks In a Nutriculture NFT Gro Tank the nutrient solution is contained. Your plants sit on a tray above the tank and nutrient solution flows over the roots of your plants. Unused nutrient solution drains back into the tank to be re-used. With Nutriculture Gro Tanks, you can expect faster growth rates and four times the yields achieved with traditional soil methods. No complicated delivery systems, no feeding schedules to calculate, very little maintenance involved. Harvest sooner and get more crops per year. No waste runoff in recirculating hydroponic systems. No chance of over or underwatering. Clean and minimum waste produce – no heavy bags of medium to carry around. Reduced chance of disease and reduced use of pesticides. Ask your local retailer to order Nutriculture Gro Tanks for their store today.

Deliver Intense and Efficient Light with the Max-Light Reflector and Philips Ecotone CFL The Max-Light has been designed specifically to deliver maximum light to where it’s needed most. The fully enclosed hammertone shade ensures the highest reflectivity, while the deep enclosed shade design creates intense penetrating light, ideal for smaller areas. Philips has released their new Ecotone High Output 80 watt CFL. This lamp is super power efficient and delivers more lumens than 130 watt and even 250 watt CFLs. The coiled design ensures that light can escape from all areas of the lamp. The Philips Ecotone also has a built-in air pump for longer, brighter lamp life. The Max Light reflector/Philips Ecotone is the perfect combo for any grower looking to use lower wattage lamps and brightly illuminate small areas with little heat. This kit requires no extra ballast or adapter and plugs straight into your standard 240 volt wall socket. Visit your favorite hydro shop for information on these and more great products.

Full Flowering with Intense Penetration Hydro Grow has fixed all of the conventional problems our competitors are still experiencing with LEDs. The spectral outputs from our Penetrator LED Grow Lights match all four chlorophyll absorption peaks required for photosynthesis, guaranteeing the highest possible conversion rate from electrical energy to plant energy, with little to no energy wasted. Our products deliver this light more efficiently to your plants vs. any of our competitors, by using a unique 60° lens. Our lens distributes light at four times the intensity of their 120° lens, which enables full penetration comparable to HID. Independent grow tests have proven our LED Grow Lights to be at least 60 per cent more efficient when compared with HIDs, and up to 70 per cent more efficient than our competitors’ LEDs. Experience for yourself the world’s most efficient horticultural grow light! Visit your favorite hydroponics retailer for more information.

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TALKING SHOP

AT A GLANCE Company: 805 Hydroponics and Organics Owners: 805 Holdings LLC Location and Phone: 1785 E. Thousand Oaks Blvd. Thousand Oaks, California (805) 494-1758 Email: sales@805hydro.com Web: www.805hydro.com

When Nick Lemmo, owner of 805 Hydroponics and Organics, first developed the retail concept for his hydro store, he determined customer service would set his store apart from the crowd. Providing superior and personalized customer service has always been his number one goal. Everything stems from the customer’s pointof-view; every product ordered, service provided, decision made is a result of the customer’s wants and needs. Exclusive offers, exceptional products, value pricing, professional support and free delivery make 805 Hydro the best choice for all your gardening needs. In addition to carrying a wide selection of the best products in hydroponics, 805 Hydro encourages sustainable growing by offering organic, non-GMO seeds, organic nutrients and organic growing mediums. Nick’s team of professionals constantly reviews the latest in cutting edge indoor gardening technology. With over 50 years of collective growing experience the team offers unparalleled advice to beginner hobbyists; helps commercial experts push the limits of growing indoors; and assists any level of indoor gardening enthusiast in between. If you ever find yourself displeased with a purchased product, 805 Hydro offers an industry first, over-the-counter exchange on every product they carry. They also provide a comprehensive low price guarantee: not only will they beat any price, but they also accept competitor and manufacturer coupons!

From left: Paco Riviera, Dylan Walters and Steve Sanders.

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Pricing is only one component of the customer service experience they offer. Their product selection is updated daily, capturing the industry’s best. They anticipate the needs of their customers and react to their feedback accordingly. The staff recognizes that every situation requires a solution as unique as the garden and grower. At 805 Hydroponics and Organics you’re experience will be second-to-none.You can expect a well stocked showroom, professional sales counselors and design advice and consultation from experts in CAD (computer-aided design). Customers can enjoy an online relationship with 805 Hydroponics and Organics. Simply visit www.805hydro.com for direct access to the entire catalog of 6,000+ products.You’ll also find a wealth of valuable knowledge including: grower to grower feedback, calculators and tips and tricks from some of California’s best and biggest product manufacturers from Humboldt to San Diego. They cater to all types of growers from a one light hobbyist to a 50 light commercial expert. Our 805 Hydro lowest price guarantee is extended to online customers!

Once you register at www.805hydro.com you’ll have access to monthly online newsletters and exclusive coupons and special offers. At 805 Hydro customer service and value are taken to the next level. Free delivery in Los Angeles and Ventura County is available on qualifying orders. They are the first shop in Southern California to offer this service. The friendly delivery staff is incredibly knowledgeable and happy to help customers get the most out of their purchases. Imagine shopping at a gardening store that will actually carry your products to your car. 805 Hydro also offers professional, nationwide grow room and greenhouse installations backed by a CAD-trained design team. If you can dream it, they can build it at an affordable price. Open Monday through Saturday – 10 a.m. to 8 p.m. and Sunday – 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. At 805 Hydroponics and Organics, unparalleled customer service, a virtually limitless product selection, the industry’s best pricing and a hard working, professional team will ensure you have an exceptional experience.

Their product selection is updated daily, capturing the industry’s best.

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Indoor Gardening Technologies: The Last Couple of Decades

Sometimes in order to move forward, you need to glance back to see where you came from. It has been incredible watching the hydroponics scene evolve into a blooming industry. At one time only a handful of dedicated product manufacturers and grower support services existed. As growers, we now have lots of available choices. Not 10 years ago a grower had to be part engineer, electrician, builder, plumber and a whiz at sourcing hard-to-find items in order to set up an indoor garden.Today we can visit any number of dedicated hydroponics retailers in our area and browse through a myriad of plug-and-play, purpose built, high-tech indoor gardening supplies and equipment.

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Indoor Gardening Technologies

While skilled and seasoned growers of decades ago were able to pull off some pretty respectable yields given the gear they had to work with, it was a steep learning curve. If you couldn’t shadow an experienced grower who was willing to teach, you often had to take the plunge on your own. This meant piecing together information from a variety of books, magazines and other growers to figure out where to begin on such an endeavor. After that came the tedious task of trying to source the gear that you could only hope would serve the purpose you had in mind. It was often expensive too, and worst of all it was not purpose built; early growers often had to adapt industrial technologies to make them suitable for growing indoors. More often than not, new growers faced mini-disasters and financial set-backs finding out what worked and what didn’t.

“Taking advantage of the many informative resources—books, magazines, Internet chat forums, etc.—means it’s much easier to make informed decisions...” We still can’t purchase a green thumb off the shelf, but we’re getting close. Taking advantage of the many informative resources—books, magazines, Internet chat forums, etc.— means it’s much easier to make informed decisions in determining what kind of set-up is going to work for you. For experienced growers, it means being able to improve and streamline their grows for increased production and efficiency, and less work. After a plan is developed, it can be more consistently executed due to the variety of user friendly technologies available. Let’s have a look back and compare, shall we?

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bluelab full

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Indoor Gardening Technologies

Your Grow System Then You built it yourself, and it may have looked awfully close to something Rube Goldberg might have sketched. It likely involved lots of different couplers, plumbing components and fittings and other such items that allowed you to jerry-rig a home-built hydroponic system.You probably had to iron out a fair amount of flaws and leaks to determine which of the parts had become toxic to your plants. Or you may have spent much of your time recovering your hands and wrists from learning to use a hole-saw. Back then, there were no plans available on the Internet or working templates to follow; you were on your own. However, it was rewarding once you got it dialed-in, as should anything that takes way too long to build, and re-build while costing you every spare dime. NOW Cruise down to your local hydroponics shop or browse an endless variety of hydroponics systems, configurations and sizes through the Internet. Before you buy, you can easily find help and feedback from experienced indoor gardeners or check through the back issues of your favorite grow magazine to ensure you’re making the right choice. Today, a grower can set up a system and be running in less than an hour. Everything is engineered and supplied to work and fit together perfectly. Detailed assembly and operation instructions are supplied, and if you need additional assistance, you can call support toll-free. Set-up, plant, press start and voila…you’re growing! Even if you decide to build it yourself, you can find just about anything you might need at your local home building store or one-stop hydroponics shop.You no longer need to source from six different suppliers to set up one little hobby system. The DIY gardening enthusiast can also find clear and concise instructions and grow journals online.

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Indoor Gardening Technologies

Your Crop Lighting Then You cleared out the entire fluorescent lighting section at your local home building store or ventured forth to industrial lighting suppliers who specialized in parking lot or warehouse lighting if you dared to make your own HID (High Intensity Discharge) crop lighting system. Back then you used regular floros and were happy you harvested something, or you put on your electrician/stuntman’s hat and learned how to wire together a ballast core, capacitor and igniter in an attempt to provide intense lighting for bigger yields. Before you did that, you had to figure out what a ballast, capacitor and igniter was, which specs were compatible or incompatible and where the heck you were going to find them! Grey metal boxes with often un-secured components buzzed loudly, produced lots of heat and were attached to lamps that had the most rudimentary reflectors, if any, to direct light down to the crop. Early growers often used the highbay lighting systems for warehouses; all lighting components wrapped-up into one extremely heavy, hot-running and

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non-adjustable crop lighting fixture. Amazingly, some of the earliest growers did all right, although yields and quality were often on the lower side when compared to today’s crop yields and qualities. You would have been considered a real Da Vinci if you owned and operated both HPS and MH lighting in separate growth stages; maybe even a Rockefeller too, because HID lighting systems were very expensive.


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Indoor Gardening Technologies

NOW Growers have the knowledge and means to efficiently and cost effectively deliver the exact amounts and the right types of light for each stage in their plant’s development: next generation fluorescents for cloning and early veg, metal halide (MH) for veg and early flower and high pressure sodium lamps for the bloom phase. A variety of plantspecific spectrum bulbs are available for each phase to maximize growth rates

and the desired quality of growth for any part of the growing cycle. Reflectors now come in just about any shape and size, and are available as horizontal, vertical, air-cooled and watercooled. Some of the available reflectors available are created with computer programs to optimize light delivery. Even more recently, digital ballasts have replaced heavier, power hungry, loud and hot conventional core and coil ballast systems. An emerging growing renaissance

also includes space age LED (light emitting diode) lights that were only used for growing by NASA researchers until very recently. You don’t have to shop from halfway around the world either; just drive down to your local hydroponics supply store. The lighting options of today are likely to be safer to operate, will produce better results and will cost you a lot less money than the lighting systems available just 10 to 20 years ago.

Your Nutrients Then Early indoor gardening enthusiasts often had to make due with less than perfect nutrient formulations for hydroponics, largely because of the lack of quality products. Since hydroponics wasn’t as popular or widespread as it is today, there was no real established market for nutrient formulations. Crop fertilizers used 10 to 15 years ago often lacked the required supplies of critical elements like calcium and magnesium. This gave way to the inclusion of nutrient additives, for example the earliest calcium-magnesium supplements intended for use in hydroponics. It was also more difficult to find specialty nutrients and supplements for other aspects of the growing process, like cloning. Cloning gels, B-vitamin supplements and other nutrient growth co-factors were not readily available and the knowledge of their use did not go far beyond very small circles of growers. Crop feeding programs were virtually non-existent, although earlier growers who developed their own programs over time led way to a new standard in yields, plant health and harvest quality. Some early growers may have been fortunate to receive some helpful advice, although 170

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Indoor Gardening Technologies

Nutrient monitors for EC, PPM and pH were not easy to come by and were very expensive. Furthermore, little information was available to most new growers about what the optimal pH and TDS levels were for their indoor crops.

most played a hit-and-miss game when feeding their crops, occasionally resulting in set-backs or disasters. Before the information highway known as the Internet was fully loaded with information, it was often difficult to obtain any research as to the type of growing that was being conducted indoors in hydroponics versus conventional outdoor methods. Some resourceful growers were able to work directly with the few experts that were available and developed “six pack” systems that consisted of six raw fertilizer components that could be weighed out in varying portions to create one of the early forms of crop feeding programs.

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Growing programs today include the use of beneficial fungi and bacteria, vitamins, enzymes, amino acids and bloom boosters that allow plants to achieve in three to four months what used to take outdoor plants four to six months to accomplish, and in NOW some instances achieve even better An overwhelming variety of nutrients quality. The next step in nutrient are readily available to indoor growers. sophistication is actually more of a There are also a variety of crop feeding simplification, although the technology programs available. Growers can choose behind it is mind-boggling. Growers may soon be using nutrient programs between organic and bio-enhanced synthetic nutrient programs for different that self-adjust pH levels and offer a skill levels. These programs and their constant stream of balanced nutrients components for fast plant are now uptake, “Indoor growers now have a widely much better understanding of the increasing available growth rates nutrient requirements of indoor through and creating a grown crops....” hydroponics more consistent retailers and and reliable online suppliers across the globe. growing experience for growers of Indoor growers now have a much any skill level. Nutrient monitors are better understanding of the nutrient readily available and affordable. The then-and-now comparison requirements of indoor grown crops under high intensity grow lights than they discussed barely scratches the surface in terms of the monumental industry had previously, largely due to pioneering changes that have occurred. Additional research and a culmination of knowledge advancements include reverse osmosis in a rapidly expanding growing culture. water purification systems, ventilation, environmental controllers, carbon dioxide enrichment systems, prefabricated grow tents and split or water-cooled air conditioners. What’s next? While few of us are able to predict the future, I feel quite certain that gardening indoors will continue to explode for hobbyists and professionals alike. What kind of grower do you want to be? Will you be at the forefront, pushing the technology to the edge and expanding on proven practices, or are you happy doing the same thing the same way? Remember that if you do things the same way, you can expect the same results. Today’s results are incredible, especially when looking back to the standards that were set nearly 20 years ago. Can you imagine where they could be in another 20? MY


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MAX-MART

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LLC

Phone: 510.903.1808 Fax: 510.764.1246 13762 Doolittle Drive, San Leandro, CA 94577

www.hydrogardendelight.com

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MAX-MART

GrowCo Garden Supplies Max Double Spot

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COMING UP IN august

Science and Hydroponics

Determine the effects of different products and methods on your plants through accurate testing and trials.

Product Mixing the Right Way

Chemical incompatibility can manifest itself in many different ways, damaging your plants in the process. These simple suggestions and tests will help you avoid the dangers and save your plants.

Advanced Aeroponics

The technology behind the latest aeroponic systems is compressed air, a growing art form that helps you conserve nature’s most precious resource, fresh water.

Industry Meet and Greet Plus Expert Advice

Maximum Yield USA features manufacturers, retailers and growers form this ever-expanding industry. Get to know your indoor gardening comrades in Talking Shop, You Tell Us, How it’s Made and Your Best Advice.

www.maximumyield.com will be available August 1 for FREE at selected indoor gardening retail stores across USA and on maximumyield.com I N D O O R

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G A R D E N I N G

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DO YOU

know?

1

Although the term natural is not regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, they have established some guidelines: the product must not contain added color, artificial flavors or synthetic substances.

2

Some micronutrients are needed in very minute amounts; typically only at 1/10,000 the concentration of the major elements N, P and K.

3

Research has shown that even a short duration, less than 30 minutes of root zone heat build-up, can have a very negative effect on many crops.

4

The first attempts at air pruning containers involved putting holes or slices into normal containers.

5

Aero-hydroponics, an adaptation of aeroponics, is a technology that started in the mid 80s in California.

6

If the population started consuming brown rice instead of white, there could be 38.7 million acres removed from production or 43 million extra tons of food available.

7

Chlorine, the most concentrated micronutrient in plant tissues, was the last to be declared essential in 1954.

8

Although many name exist for nutrient meters, there are really only two: TDS meters or conductivity meters.

9

Lucky bamboo is not actually a bamboo. It is a member of the lily family (Dracaena sanderiana).

10

The positive effects of nutrient chilling seem to be largely the result of changes in the production of plant growth hormones abcissic acid (ABA) and cytokinins that control a range of plant responses.

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

ALABAMA Alabama Organics 3348 Bethel Road, Valley Head, AL 35989 256-635-0802

ALASKA Brown’s Electrical Supply 365 Industrial Way, Anchorage, AK 99501 907-272-2259 Far North Garden Supply 300 Centaur Street, Wasilla, AK 99654 907-376-7586 Far North Garden Supply 2834 Boniface Parkway Anchorage, AK 99504 907-333-3141 Holmtown Nursery Inc. 1301 - 30th Avenue, Fairbanks, AK 99701 907-451-8733

ARIZONA ACI Hydroponics 1325 South Park Lane, Tempe, AZ 85282 800-633-2137 Homegrown Hydroponics 601 East Broadway Road, Tempe, AZ 85282 480-377-9096 Homegrown Hydroponics 1702 East Prince Road, Tucson, AZ 85719 520-323-1212 Natural Pools & Gardens 2143 North Country Suite C, Tucson, AZ 85716 520-323-2627 Sea of Green Hydroponics 815 W. University Drive, Suite 110, Tempe, AZ 85281 800-266-4136 Sea of Green West 2340 W. Bell Road, Suite 116, Phoenix, AZ 85023 602-504-8842 Sea of Green Hydroponics 402 North 4th Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85705 520-622-6344

ARKANSAS Fermentables 3915 Crutcher Street, N. Little Rock, AR 72118 501-758-6261 Mickey’s Mercantile 1303 Highway 65 South, Clinton, AR 72031 501-412-0214 Old Soul Organics and More 1771 Crossover Road, Fayetteville, AR 72701 479-444-6955

CALIFORNIA 3rd Street Hydroponics 636 3rd Street Oakland, CA 94607 510-452-5521 805 Hydroponics & Organics 1785 E. Thousand Oaks Boulevard Thousand Oaks, CA 91362 805-494-1785 A+ Hydroponics & Organics 1604 Babcock Street, Costa Mesa, CA 92627 949-642-7776 A Fertile World (Eureka) 65th Street, Eureka, CA 95501 707-444-0200

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A Fertile World (Fortuna) 610 7th Street, Fortuna, CA 95540 707-725-0700 Abundant Hydroponics LLC 1611 Shop Street, #1-A, South Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 530-54 HYDRO Advanced Garden Supply 2660 Lake Tahoe Boulevard, Building C, Unit 9, S. Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 530-541-4769 Advanced Garden Supply 3113 Alhambra Drive, Unit F, Cameron Park, CA 95682, 530-676-2100 Advanced Hydroponics 17808 Sierra Highway, Canyon Country, CA 91351 661-299-1603 AG Natural 403 Idaho Maryland Road, Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-274 0990 All Seasons Hydroponics 17614 Chatsworth Street, Granada Hills, CA 91344 818-368-4388 Alternative Hydro 3870 East, Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91107 888-50-HYDRO Always Sunny Hydroponics 708 W. Swain Road Stockton, CA 95207 209-473-9827 All Ways Hydro 2220 Eastridge Ave. Suite C Riverside CA 92507 888-HYDRO98 American Hydroponics 286 South G Street, Arcata, CA 95521 800-458-6543 Anthony’s Garden & Lighting Supply 30 Ridge Road, Suites 8 & 9 Sutter Creek, CA 95685 209-267-5416 Anything Grows 10607 W. River Street, Building 3 Suite C, Truckee, CA 96161 530-582-0479 Atlantis Garden Supply 2851 A Whipple Road, Union City, CA 94587 510-487-8007 Atwater Hydroponics 3350 Glendale Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90039 323-663-8881 Auburn Organic 4035 Grass Valley Highway, Auburn, CA 95602 530-823-8900 B & S Gardening Supplies 590 Commerce Court, Manteca, CA 95336 209-239-8648 Bakersfield Hydroponics 2408 Brundage Lane, Suite B Bakersfield, CA 93304 661-323-7333 Bare Roots Hydroponics 1615 East Cypress, #5 Redding, CA 96002 530-244-2215 Beginning Hydroponics PO Box 1232, Corona, CA 92787 951-735-4446 Berkeley Indoor Garden 844 University Avenue Berkeley, CA 94710 510-549-2918

Berkeley’s Secret Garden 921 University Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94710 510-486-0117 Best Coast Growers 4417 Glacier Avenue Suite C, San Diego, CA 92120 800-827-1876 Best Yield Garden Supply 3503 West Temple Avenue, Unit A, Pomona, CA 91768 909-839-0505 Better Choice Hydroponics 610 S. Washington Street, Senora, CA 95370 209 533 2400 Better Grow Hydro Pasadena 1271 E. Colorado Boulevard, Pasedena, CA 91106 626 737 6612 Better Grow Hydro Los Angeles 5554 Bandini Boulevard, Bell, CA 91106 323-510-2700; 877 640 GROW Brentwood Hydroponics & Organics 560 Valdry Ct #85 Brentwood, CA 94513 925-634-6704 BWGS West 2247 North Plaza Drive Visalia, CA 93291 888-316-1306 California Hydro Garden 1043 South Glendora Avenue, Suite A West Covina, CA 91790 626-813-0868 California Hydroponics 310 Coral Street, Suite C Santa Cruz, CA 95060 831-423-4769 Central Coast Hydrogarden 1951 Santa Barbara Street, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 805-544-GROW Citrus Heights Hydrogarden 8043 Greenback Lane Citrus Heights, CA 95610 916-728-4769 City Farm Hydroponics 8903 Laurel Canyon Boulevard, Sun Valley, CA 91352 818-767-2076 City Farmer’s Nursery 4832 Home Avenue, San Diego, CA 92105 619-284-6358 Clover Hydroponics & Garden Supply 43 Soda Bay Road, Lakeport, CA 95453 707-263-4000 CNG Garden Supplies 22 Ricknbacker Circle, Livermore, CA 94551 209-836-5550 Coca’s Central Valley Hydroponics 116 West Orangeburg Avenue, Modesto, CA 95350 209-567-0590 Concord Indoor Garden 2771 Clayton Road, Concord, CA 94519 925-671-2520 Conejo Hydroponics 3481 Old Conejo Road #106 Newbury Park, CA 91320 805-480-9596 Conrad Hydroponics Inc. 14915 Unit E, Olympic Drive, Clearlake, CA 95422 707-994 3264


Constantly Growing 6200 Enterprise Drive, Suite A Diamond Springs, CA 95619 530-642-9710 Constantly Growing 4343 Hazel Avenue, Fair Oaks, CA 95628 916-962-0043 Constantly Growing - Davis 123 D Street Davis, CA 95616 530-756-4774 D&S Garden Supplies 17-130 Doolittle Drive San Leandro, CA 94577 510-430-8589 Dazey’s Supply 3082 Redwood Drive, Redway, CA 95560 707-923-3002 Direct Hydroponics Wholesale 14228 Alberts Way, Chino, CA 91710 909-606-5885 Dirt Cheap Hydroponics 17975 H Highway 1, Fort Bragg, CA 95437 707-964-4211 Discount Hydroponics 4745 Hiers Avenue, Riverside, CA 92505 877-476-9487 Dr. Greenthumbs Hydroponic Garden Supplies 566 San Ramon Valley Blvd. Danville, CA 94526 925-314-9376 Eel River Hydroponics & Soil Supply 164 Dinsmore Drive, Fortuna, CA 95540 707-726-0395 El Centro Hydro & Brew Supply Inc. 591 main Street, Suite N-2 El Centro, CA 92243 760-235-4985 Elite Horticulture Supply 22330 Sherman Way, C13, Canoga Park, CA 91303 818-347-5172 Emerald Garden 8249 Archibald Avenue, Ranch Cucamanga, CA 91730 909-466-3796 Emerald Garden 13325 South Highway 101, Hopland, CA 95482 707-744-8300 Emerald Garden 307 East Perkins Street, Ukiah, CA 95482 707-463-2510 Endless Green Hydroponics 25 Enterprise Court, Suite 3 Napa, CA 94558 707-254-0200 Evergreen Hydroponics 923 N. Central Avenue, Suite B, Upland, CA 91786 909-946-7100 Everything Green Hydroponics 915 Texas Street, Fairfield, CA 94533 707-432-0774 Everything Green 448 Georgia Street, Vallejo, CA 94590 707-647-0774 Extreme Hydroponics 11479 San Fernando Road C, San Fernando, CA 91340 818-898-0915 EZ Green Hydroponics 7017 Reseda Boulevard, Reseda, CA 91335 818-776-9076 Farm Hydroponics, The 1950 Lake Tahoe Boulevard #3, S. Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 530-541-3276

Foothill Hydroponics 10705 Burbank Boulevard, N. Hollywood, CA 91601 818-760-0688 Foothills Hydrogarden 3133 Penryn Road, Penryn, CA 95663 916-270-2413 Full Sun Supply 3535 Industrial Drive, Unit B-3 Santa Rosa, CA 95403 877-FULL-SUN Funny Farms Hydroponics 963 Transport Way, #12 Petaluma, CA 94954 707-775-3111 G & G Organics and Hydroponics 901 W. Victoria Street Unit D, Compton, CA 90220 310-632-0122 Garden Connection, The 2145 Park Avenue, Unit 2 Chico, CA 95928 530-342-7762 Garden Depot, The 203 Commerce Street, Suite 101 Lodi, CA 95240 209-339-9950 Garden Highway Garden Supply 598 Garden Highway #22 Yuba City, CA 95991 530-755-2877 Garden Shed, The 1136 El Camino Real San Carlos, CA 650-508-8600 Garden Spout, The 44800 Highway 101, Laytonville, CA 95454 707-984-7260 Garden Spout, The 630 S. Main Street, Willits, CA 95490 707-456-0196 Garden Warehouse 6355 Scarlet Court, #2, Dublin, CA 94568 925-556-3319 Gardening Unlimited 60 Old El Pueblo Road, Scotts Valley, CA 95066 831-457-1236 Go Big Hydroponics 4501 Van Nuys Boulevard, Sherman Oaks, CA 91403 818-789-3341 Go Green Hydroponics 15721 Ventura Boulevard, Encino, CA 91436 818-990-1198 Golden Gecko Garden Center, The 4665 Marshall Road, Garden Valley, CA 95633 530-333-2394 Golden Harvest Hydroponics & Garden Supply 8626 Lower Sacramento Road #48, Stockton, CA 95210 209-951-3550 Gonzo Grow 2550 Guerneville Road, Suite C, Santa Rosa, CA 95401 707-546-1800  Gottagrow Garden Supply 769 Wilson Street, Santa Rosa, CA 95404 707-544-7782 Grass Roots Hydroponics 31875 Corydon, Suite 130 Lake Elsinore, CA 92530 951-245-2390 Grass Valley Hydrogarden 12506 Loma Rica Drive, Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-477-2996 Green Acres Hydroponics 1215 Striker Avenue, Suite 180, Sacramento, CA 95834 916-419-4394

Green Coast Hydroponics 3560 State Street, Santa Barbara, CA 93105 805-898-9922 Green Coast Hydroponics 2405 Mira Mar Avenue, Long Beach, CA 90815 562-627-5636 Green Coast Hydroponics 496 Meats Avenue Orange, CA 92865 714-974-4769 Green Coast Hydroponics 11510 Whittier Boulevard Whittier, CA 90601 562-699-4201 Green Door Hydro and Solar 830 Traction Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90013 212-625-1323 Greenfire Sacramento 3230 Auburn Boulevard, Sacramento, CA 95821 916-485-8023 Green Gopher Garden Supply 679 Redwood Avenue, Suite A, Sand City, CA 93955 831-899-0203 Green Joint Ventures 61 Tarp Circle, Salinas, CA 93901 831-998-8628 Green Lady Hydroponics 4879 Newport Avenue, San Diego, CA 92107 619-222-5011 GreenLeaf Hydroponics 2212 Artesia Boulevard, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 310-374-2585 Green Light Hydroponics 2615 Honolula Ave. Montrose, CA 91020 818-640-2623 Green Logic Garden Supply 860 Piner Road, #38, Santa Rosa, CA 95403 707-843-3156 Greenmile Hydroponic Garden Supply 1480 South E. Street, Suite D, San Bernardino, CA 92408 909-885-5919 Green Thumb Hydroponics 35 Quinta Court, Suite B, Sacramento, CA 95823 916-689-6464 Green Thumb Lighting & Garden 1647 W. Sepulveda Boulevard, Unit 5, Torrance, CA 90501 888-326-GROW Greentrees Hydroponics Inc. 2581 Pioneer Avenue, Unit D Vista, CA 92081 760-598-7551 GreenWay Hydroponics 11510 Whittier Boulevard, Whittier, CA 90601 562-699-4201 Grodan Inc. 5152 Commerce Avenue, Moorpark, CA 93021 541-646-8245 Gro More Garden Supply 2937 Larkin Avenue, Clovis, CA 93021 541-646-8245 Grow A Lot Hydroponics, San Diego 1591 N. Cuyamaca Street, El Cajon, CA 93612 619-749-6777 Growers Choice Hydroponics 1100 Carver Road, Modesto, CA 95350 209-522-2727 Growers Choice Hydroponics 16754 East 14th Street, San Leandro, CA 94578 510-278-6200

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

Grow It Yourself Gardens 401 Sunset Drive, Suite L, Antioch, CA 94509 925-755-GROW Grow Light Express 5318 East Second Street suite 164, Long Beach, CA 90803 888-318-GROW Grow Your Own 3401 Traval Street, San Francisco, CA 94116 415-731-2115 Grow Zone 718 Willow Rd. Menlo Park CA 94025 650-326-4769 Grunder Family Organics & Hydroponics 12321 Magnolia Avenue, Suite C, Riverside, CA 92503 877-468-7974 H20 Gardening 355 West 7th Street, San Pedro, CA 90731 310-514-1416 Hahn’s Lighting 260 E. VA Suite 1, San Jose, CA 95112 408-295-1755 Harvest Hydroponics 6650 Merchandise Way Suite B, Diamond Springs, CA 95619 530-622-5190 High Desert Hydroponics 13631 Pawnee Road, #7 Apple Valley, CA 92308 760-247-2090 High Street Hydro 180 Cleveland Avenue, Auburn, CA 95603 530-885-5888 Hi-Tech Gardening 5327 Jacuzzi Street, #282, Richmond, CA 94804 510-524-4710 Hollywood Hydroponics and Organics 5109 1/2 Hollywood Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90027-6105 323-662-1908 Home Life Hydroponics and Organics 1745 East Vista Way, Vista, CA 92084 760-643-2150 Hooked Up Hydroponics 339 S. Golden State Boulevard, Turlock, CA 95380 209-668-1300 House of Hydro 224 Weller Street, #B, Petaluma, CA 94952 707-762-4769 Humboldt Electronics 2547 California Street, Eureka, CA 95501 707-443-9408 Humboldt Hydroponics 1302 Union Street, Eureka, CA 95501 707-443-4304 Humboldt Hydroponics 2174 Pine Street, Redding, CA 96001 530-241-7454 Humboldt Hydroponics 601 I Street, Arcata, CA 95521 707-822-3377 Humboldt Hydroponics 2010 Tunnel Road, Redway, CA 95560 707-923-1402 Humboldt Nutrients 65th Street, Eureka, CA 95501 888-420-7770

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Hydroasis 2643 S. Fairfax Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90232 888-355-4769 Hydrobrew 1319 South Coast Highway, Oceanside, CA 92054 760-966-1885; 877-966-GROW Hydro Depot 5665 Redwood Drive, #B, Rohnert Park, CA 94928 707-584-2384 Hydrogarden Delight 13762 Doolittle Drive, San Leandro, CA 94577 510-903-1808 Hydrogarden Mendocino County 1240 North Main Street, Fort Bragg, CA 95437 707-962-9252 Hydro King 105 Hartnell Avenue, Suite C and D, Redding, CA 96002 888-822-8941 Hydro King 2540 South Whitman Place, Chico, CA 959282 530-893-GROW (4769) Hydro-Logic Purification Systems 2825 Mattison Lane, Suite 103, Santa Cruz, CA 95065 888 H2O LOGIC HydroPacific - Hydroponics & Garden Supplies 351 C Hastings Av., Ukiah, CA 95482 707-467-0400 Hydroponic Connection Warehouse, The 1995 Evans Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94124 415-824-9376 Hydroponics 4 Less 41669 Winchester Avenue, Temecula, CA 92590 800-A1-HYDRO Hydroponics Plus 2250 Commerce Avenue, Suite C Concord, CA 94520 925-691-7615 Hydroponics Unlimited.com 2728 E. Palmdale Boulevard #121 Palmdale, CA 93550 661-266-3906 Hydrostar Hydroponics & Organics 1307 W. Sixth Street, #211, Corona, CA 92882 951-479-8069 Igrow Hydro 2280 Veatch Street, Oroville, CA 95965 530-534-4476 Igrow Hydro 9000 Atkinson Street, Roseville, CA 95678 916-773-4476 Inland Empire Hydrogarden 1301-C South State Street, San Jancinto, CA 92853 886-72-HYDRO Inland Empire Hydrogarden 28822 Old Town Front St. #206 Temecula, CA 92590 886-74-HYDRO Innovative Growing Solutions (IGS) 7922-B Miramar Road, San Diego, CA 92126 858-578-IGS7 Kaweah Grower Supply 1106 1/2 N. Ben Maddox Way, Visalia, CA 93293 559-625-4937

Kern Hydroponics 2408 Brundage Lane, Suite B, Bakersfield, CA 93304 661-323-7333 LAX Hydro 10912 S. La Cienaga Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90045 310-337-6995 Lazy Gardeners Hydroponics ‘N’ More 14626 East Whittier Boulevard, Whittier, CA 90605 562-945-0909 Let it Grow 1228 2nd Street, Crescent City, CA 95531 707-464-9086 Let it Grow 160 Westwood Center, Arcata, CA 95521 707-822-8733 Liquid Gardens 21752 Devonshire Street, Chatsworth, CA 91311 818-718-7624 Long Beach Hydroponics & Organics 1772 Clark Avenue, Long Beach, CA 90815 562-498-9525 Lumatek Digital Ballasts 33 Commercial Boulevard, Suite B Novato, CA 94949 415-233-4273 M&M Garden Supply 2509 West Lane, Suite B Stockton, CA 95205 209-939-0664 M&M Garden Supply 22540 D Foothill Boulevard, 2509 Westlane Suite B Stockton, CA 95205 Marin Hydroponics 1219 Grant Avenue, Novato, CA 94945 415-897-2197 Medicine Man Farms 1602 53rd Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601 707-980-0456 Mendocino Garden Shop PO Box 1301, 44720 Maint Street (at Hwy. 1), Mendocino, CA 95460 707-937-3459 Mendocino Greenhouse & Garden Supply 900 East School Way, Redwood Valley, CA 95470 707-485-0668 Merced Hydroponics 1809 East 21st Street, Merced, CA 95340 209-726-4769 M.G.S. 22540 D Foothill Boulevard, Hayward, CA 94541 510-582-0900 Mighty Garden Supply 4780 Mission Gorge Pl. #A-1, San Diego, CA 92120 619-287-3238 Monterey Bay Horticulture Supply 224B Reindollar Avenue, Marina, CA 93933 831-38-HYDRO Monterey Bay Hydroponics and Organics 81 Hangar Way, #1, Watsonville, CA 95076 831-761-9999 Myron L Company 2450 Impala Drive, Carlsband, CA 9210-7226 760-438-2021 Mystic Gardens 8484 Florin Road, #110, Sacramento, CA 95828 916-381-2464


National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply 1950 C South Grove Avenue, Ontario, CA 91761 888-888-3319 Nature’s Secret Garden and Supply 41469 Albrae Street, Fremont, CA 94577 510-623-8393 New Leaf Hydro 34150 123rd Street, Parablossom, CA 93553 661-944-2226 NorCal Creations PO Box 28, Cedar Ridge, CA 95924 Nor Cal Hydroponics 4837 Geary Boulevard, San Francisco, CA 94118 415-933-8262 Northcoast Horticulture Supply 60 West 4th Street, Eureka, CA 95501 707-444-9999 Northcoast Horticulture Supply 357 Main Street, Fortuna, CA 95540 707-725-5550 Northcoast Horticulture Supply 1070 Highway 101, Crescent City, CA 95531 707-464-1200 Northcoast Hydrogardens 3450 North State Street, Ukiah, CA 95482 707-462-7214 No Stress Hydroponics 7543 Santa Monica Boulevard, West Hollywood, CA 90046 323-845-9874 One Stop Hydroponics 12822 Victory Boulevard North Hollywood, CA 91606 818-980-5855 Oracle Garden Supply 5755 Oberlin Drive, Suite 100 San Diego, CA 92121 858-558-6006 Orange County Hydroponics 12687 Beach Boulevard, Unit H, Stanton, CA 90680 714-893-9493 Organic Bountea 1919 Dennis Lane, Santa Rosa, CA 95403 800-798-0765 Orsa Organix 111 Willow Street, Redwood City, CA 94063 650-369-1269 Pacific Beach Hydroponics 1852 Garnet Avenue, San Diego, CA 92109 858-274-2559 Pacific Coast Hydroponics 4147 Sepulveda Boulevard, Culver City, CA 90230 310-313-1354 Pacific Garden Supply 128 H Carlos Drive, San Rafael, CA 94903 Palmdale Hydroponics 2728 East Palmdale Boulevard Suite 108, Palmdale, CA 93550 661-266-9908 Palm Springs Hydroponics 4651 Ramon Road, Palm Springs, CA 92264 760-327-ROOT Plant It Earth 2279 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94114 415-626-5082 Plant Life 32 Race Street, San Jose, CA 95126 408-283-9191 Plant-N-Grow 1602 53rd Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601 707-980-0456

Precision Hydroponics 132 Kennedy Avenue, Campbell, CA 95008 408-866-8176 Pro Gardening Systems 3715 Santa Rosa Avenue #2, Santa Rosa, CA 95407 707-585-8633 Pro Gardening Systems 4936 Highway 12, Santa Rosa, CA 95472 707-538-8402 Pro Gardening Systems 765 Petaluma Avenue, Sebastopol, CA 95472 707-829-7252 Redway Feed Garden and Pet Supply 290 Briceland Road, Redway, CA 95560 707-923-2765 Redwood Garden Supply 55 Myers Avenue, Myers Flat, CA 95554 707-943-1515 Reforestation Technologies International 1341 Daton Street, Units G&I Salinas, CA 93901 831-424-1494; 800-RTI-GROW RH Distribution 1751 S. Pointe Avenue Ontario, CA 91761 888-545-8112 Roots Grow Supply 1330 North Hulbert, #101 Fresno, CA 93728 559-840-0122 Sac Hydroponics 9529 Folson Boulevard, Suite C Sacramento, CA 95827 916-369-7968 San Diego Hydroponics East County 11649 Riverside Drive, Suite 141, Lakeside, CA 92040 619-562-3276 San Diego Hydroponics Beach Cities 4122 Napier Street, San Diego, CA 92110 619-276-0657 San Diego Hydroponics North 802 N. Twin Oaks Valley Road #108 San Marcos, CA 92069 760-510-1444 San Francisco Hydro 123 Tenth Street, San Francisco, CA 94103 Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - West Side 815 Almar Avenue, Unit K, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 831-466-9000 Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - East Side 4000 Cordelia Lane Soquel, CA 95073 831-475-9900 Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - North 6241 Graham Hill Road, Felton, CA 95018 831-335-9990 Santee Hydroponics 7973A Mission Gorge Road, Santee, CA 92071 619-270-8649 SB Hydro 1109 W. 190th Street, Unit #F, Gardena, CA 90248 310-538-5788 Seaside Hydrogarden 1070 Highway 101 North, Crescent City, CA 95531 707-465-3520 Shadow Valley Aquatics 75 Kimick Way, Red Bluff, CA 96080 530-526-0479 Skywide Import & Export Ltd. 5900 Lemon Hill Avenue, Sacramento, CA 95824 916-383-2369

Socal Hydroponics 1727-B Oceanside Boulevard, Oceanside, CA 92054 760-439-1084 South Bay Hydroponics and Organics - Mtn. View 569 East Evelyn Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94041 650-968-4070 South Bay Hydroponics and Organics - San Jose 1185 South Bascom Avenue, San Jose, CA 95128 408-292-4040 South County Hydroponics 22511 Aspan Street, Suite E Lake Forest, CA 92630 949-837-8252 South Valley Hydroponics 320 Kishimura Drive, #3 Gilroy, CA 95020 1-866-848-GROW Sparetime Supply 208 E. San Francisco Avenue, Willits, CA 95490-4006 707-459-6791 Specialty Garden Center 1970 East Vista Way, Suite 10, Vista, CA 92084 760-758-4769 Stop N Grow 340 Pine Avenue, Goleta, CA 93003 805-685-3000 Stop N Grow 4160 Market Street, Unit 11 Ventura, CA 93003 805-639-9489 Stop N Grow 640 S. Frontage Road, Nipomo, CA 93444 805-619-5125 Sun-In Hydroponics 1257A Cleveland Avenue, Santa Rosa, CA 95401 707-578-5747 Sunland Hydroponics 8300 Foothill Boulevard, Sunland, CA 91040 818-352-5300 Supersonic Hydroponic and Organic Garden Supply 850 Shasta Avenue, Suite B Morro Bay, CA 93442 805-772-5869 Supersonic Hydroponic and Organic Garden Supply 3850 Ramada Drive, Unit D2 Paso Robles, CA 93446 805-434-2333 Super Starts PO Box 732, Bellmont, CA 94002 650-346-8009 Surf City Hydroponics 7319 Warner Street, Suite B Huntington Beach, CA 92647 714-847-7900 Sweet Leaf Hydroponics 1611 Sebastobol Road, Santa Rosa, CA 95407 707-575-GROW (4237) Sylvandale Gardens 1151 Evergreen Road, Redway, CA 95560 707-923-3606 Tahoe Garden Supply 645 Westlake Boulevard, Suite 2, PO Box 487 Tahoe City, CA 96145 530-581-3200 Tell 2 Friends Indoor Gardening 62 Sutherland Drive, Auburn, CA 95603 530-889-8171 The Green Shop 66420 Mooney Boulevard, Suite 1 Visalia, CA 93277 559-688-4200 The Hydro Source 671 E. Edna Place Covina, CA 91723 877 HYDRO 82; 626-915-3128

MAXIMUM YIELD USA - July 2010

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

The Hydro Shop 3980 Saco Road Bakersfield, CA 661-399-3336 The Shop 6542 Front Street, Forestville, CA 95436 707-887-2280 The Urban Farmer Store 653 E. Blithedale Avenue, Mill Valley, CA 94941 415-380-3840 The Urban Farmer Store 2833 Vicente Street, San Francisco, CA 94116 415-661-2204 The Urban Farmer Store 2121 San Joaquin Street, Richmond, CA 94804 510-524-1604 Thrive Hydroponics 70 A West North Street, Healdsburg, CA 95446 707-433-4068 Thunders Hydroponic Center 1729 Yosemite Boulevard, Medesco, CA 95354 TNC Supply 9490 Main Street, P.O. Box 763 Upper Lake, CA 95485 707-275-9565 Tower Garden Supply & Organic Nursery 403 W. Olive Avenue, Fresno, CA 93728 559-495-1140 Tradewinds Wholesale Garden Supplies 1235 Striker Avenue #180, Sacramento, CA 95834 888-557-8896 Tulare County Growers Supply 435 W. Noble Avenue, Unit A, Farmersville, CA 93223 559-732-8247 Turbo Grow 1889 San Pablo Avenue, Pinole, CA 94564 510-724-1291 Two Chix Garden Supply 1230 Yuba Street, Marysville, CA 95901 530-923-2536 Under The Sun 12638 Foothill Boulevard, Clearlake Oaks, CA 95423 707-998-GROW (4769) Urban Gardens 22516 Ventura Boulevard, Woodland Hills, CA 91364 818-876-0222 Urban Gardens Unlimited 704 Filbert Street, San Francisco, CA 94133 415-421-4769 US Orchid & Hydroponic Supplies 1621 South Rose Avenue, Oxnard, CA 93033 805-247-0086 Valley Garden Solutions Inc. 15650 Nordhoff Avenue, Suite 104, North Hills, CA 91345 818-336-0041 Vital Landscaping Inc. 12817 Loma Rica Drive, Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-273-3187 Wai Kula Hydrogardens 5297 Linda Vista Road, San Diego, CA 92110 619-299-7299 Weather Top Nursery 44901 Harmon Drive, Laytonville, CA 95454 707-984-6385

186

MAXIMUM YIELD USA - July 2010

We Grow Hydroponics 3350 East Los Angeles Avenue, Simi Valley, CA 93063 805-624-4566 West Coast Growers Hydroponics 13481 Colifax Highway, Grass Valley, CA 95945 888-924-4769 West Coast Hydroponics, Inc. 27665 Forbes Road, Unit 10 Laguna Niguel, CA 92677 949-348-2424 Western Auto 1156 Main Street, Fortuna, CA 95540 707-725-1189

COLORADO Bath Nursery & Garden Center 2000 E. Prospect, Fort Collins, CO 80525 970-484-5022 Big Tomato, The 14440 E. 6th Avenue, Aurora, CO 80011 303-364-4769 Big Tomato, The 3000 Main Avenue, Durango, CO 81301 970-375-1238 Boulder County Caregivers PO Box 7406, Golden, CO 80403 303-495-2195 Boulder Hydroponics 1630 N. 63rd Street, #5, Boulder, CO 80301 303-415-0045 Cultivate Hydroponics & Organics 7777 W. 38th Avenue, #A120A, Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 303-954-9897 Denver Hydroponic & Organic Center 6810 North Broadway, Unit D Denver, CO 80221 303-650-0091 Desert Bloom Hydroponics 445 Pitkin Avenue, Grand Junction, CO 81501 970-245-6427 Ever Green Hydroponics Inc. 1131 Francis Street, Suite A, Longmont, CO 80501 303-682-6435 Garden Tech 737 Garden of the Gods Road, Colorado Springs, CO 80907 719-278-9777 Go Green Hydro 1005 Caprice Drive, Castle Rock, CO 80109 303-688-0599 Greenhouse Tech 917 East Fillmore, Colorado Springs, CO 80907 719-634-0637 GroWize 3225 S. Wadsworth Boulevard, Lakewood, CO 80227 303-986-2706 Grow Store South, The 5050 S. Federal Boulevard, #37, Englewood, CO 80110 303-738-0202 Grow Store, The 8644 W. Colfax Avenue, Lakewood, CO 80215 888-510-0350 GWS Hydroponics 7025 Highway 82 Building 4B, Glenwood Springs, CO 81601 970-384-2040

Head Start Hydroponics & Organic Gardening Emporium 34500 US Highway 6, Unit B-9, North Edwards, CO 81632 970-569-3139 Hydro Grow Supply 644 Peterson Road, Colorado Springs, CO 80915 719-596-2600 Hydro Planet 711 Washington Avenue, Golden, CO 80401 303-279-6090 Hydro Shack, The 220 Main Street, Suite E Frisco, CO 80443 970-668-0359 Indoor Garden Warehouse 8100 S Akron St., Suite 322, Centennial, CO 80112 720-496-2110 Indoor Paradise Hydroponics 309 S. Summit View, Unit 17, Fort Collins, CO 80524-1462 970-221-3751 Lyons Indoor Gardening 138 Main Street, Lyons, CO 80540 720-530-3828 Mile High Hydroponics 37 Strong St. Brighton, CO 80601 303 637 0069 Olympic Hydroponics Supply LLC. 1530 S Nevada Avenue, Colorado Springs, CO 80906 719-635-5859 Rocky Mountain Hydroponics and Organics 15985 S. Golden Road Golden, CO 80401 720-475-1725 Rocky Mountain Lighting and Hydroponics 7100 N. Broadway, Suite 3D Denver, CO 80221 303-428-5020 Way To Grow 3201 E. Mulberry Street, Fort Collins, CO 80524 970-484-4769 Way To Grow 6395 Gunpark Drive, Boulder, CO 80301 303-473-4769

CONNECTICUT Harvest Moon Hydroponics 775 Silver Lane, East Hartford, CT 06118 860-568-4067 LiquidSun速 CT 10C South Main Street, East Windsor, CT 06088 860-254-5757 Organix Hydroponics 749 Saybrook Road, (Tradewinds Plaza) Middletown, CT 06457 860-343-1923

FLORIDA 3D Hydroponics and Organics 7139 US Highway #19, New Port Richey, FL 34652 727-847-3491 Advanced Hydro Gardens 4960 NW 165 Street, Suite B-4, Miami, FL 33014 866-97-HYDRO Atlantic Hydroponics 430 Count Street, Melbourne, FL 32901 321-821-1535 Best Hydro 4920 Lena Road, Bradenton, FL 34211 941-756-1928


Blossoms Experience, The 7207 NW 54th Street, Miami, FL 33166 866-452-4769 Cultivating Eden Hydroponic Supplies 946 18th Avenue SW, Vero Beach, FL 32962 772-564-8880 East Coast Hydroponics & Organics 461 Forrest Avenue, Suite 105 Coca, FL 32922 321-243-6800 Eden Garden Supply 5044 N. Palafox Street, Pensacola, FL 32505 850-439-1299 Esposito Garden Center 2743 Capital Circle NE, Tallahassee, FL 32308 850-386-2114 Falero Hardware & Hydroponics 6758 W. Flager Street, Miami, FL 33144 305-266-8878 Florida Garden Supplies 2692 W 79 Street, Hialeah, FL 33016 1-800-931-5215 Florida Garden Supplies 8020 Belvedere Road, Unit 4, West Palm Beach, FL 33411 561-333-1088 Future Farms Inc., The 14291 SW 120th Street, Suite 105 Miami, FL 33186 305-382-2757 Gardener’s Edge Gainesville 5000 NW 34th Street, Suite 13, Gainesville, FL 32605 352-375-2769 Gold Coast Hydroponics 1539 SW 21st Avenue, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33312 1-800-780-7371 Gold Coast Hydroponics 4241 SW 71st Avenue, Miami, FL 33155 1-800-780-6805 Grace’s Hydro-Organic Garden Center 8877 North 56th Street Tampa, FL 33617 813-514-9376 Green Thumb Hydroponics Supplies 13482 North Cleveland Avenue, Fort Meyers, FL 33903 239-997-4769 GreenTouch Hydroponics Inc. 5011 S State Road 7, Suite 104 Davie, FL 33314 954-316-8815 Green Winters Inc. 147 Tomoka Avenue, Ormond Beach, FL 32174 386-235-8730 Grower's Choice & Hydroponics 11855 North Main Street, Jackonsonville, FL 32218 904-683-4517 Growing Garden Inc., The 12811 SW 42nd Street, Miami, FL 33175 305-559-0309 GrowSmart Indoor Garden Centers 14587 Southern Boulevard, Loxahatchee, FL 33470 561-429-3527 Harvest Time Hydroponics 14414 N. Florida Avenue, Tampa, FL 33613 813-264-7101 Healthy Gardens and Supply of Florida, Inc. 196 East Nine Mile Road, Suite F, Pensacola, FL 32534 850-912-4545 High Tech Garden Supply 2975 West New Haven Avenue, Melbourne, FL 32901 321-821-0853

Hydro For Less 9545 Southwest 72nd Street, Miami, FL 33173 305-598-4311 Hydroponics International Inc. 7029-10 Commonwealth Avenue, Jacksonville, FL 32220 904-693-6554 Hydroponics of Tampa 120 W. Bougain Villea, Tampa, FL 33612 813-333-6828 Hydro Terra Corp. 924 North Federal Highway, Hollywood, FL 33020 954-920-0889 Palm Beach Hydroponics Supply, Inc. 968 N. Congress Avenue, West Palm Beach, FL 33409 561-296-6161 Simply Hydroponics & Organics 7949 Ulmerton Road, Largo, FL 33773 727-531-5355 Simply Hydroponics & Organics (North) 3642 South Suncoast Boulevard, Homosassa, FL 34448 352-628-2655 Stoney Hydro @ Schiro's Barn n Garden Supplies 7812 Causeway Boulevard, Tampa, FL 33619 813-626-0902 Sunshine Hydroponics Garden Center 1420 East Altomonte Drive, Altamonte Spring, FL 32701 407-830-GROW Sunshine Hydroponics Garden Center 5561 S. Orange Blossom Trail, Orlando, FL 32809 407-859-7728 Sunshine Hydroponics Garden Center 6100 Hanging Moss Road, Suite 500, Orlando, FL 32807 888-833-GROW Urban Organics & Hydroponics 5325 Fairmont Street, Jacksonville, FL 32207 904-398-8012 Worm’s Way Florida 4412 North 56th Street, Tampa, FL 33610 800-283-9676; 813-621-1792

GEORGIA Atlantis Hydroponics 1422 Woodmont Lane, #4, Atlanta, GA 30318 404-367-0052 Atlantis Hydroponics 2561 West Point Avenue, College Park, GA 30337 678-510-0032 Flora Hydroponics Inc. 2475 Jefferson Road, Suite 600 Athens, GA 30607 866-404-0551 Savannah Hydroponics & Organics 4107 Eighth Street, Suite C Garden City, GA 31408 912-349-4030

HAWAII Aqua Plant Hawaii / Kahala Hydroponics 4224 Wailae, Suite 1A, Honolulu, HI 96816 808-735-8665 Eco-Island Supply 810 Haiku Road, #394 Haiku, HI 96708 808-575-9171 Green Hands of Aloha 1713 Mary Street, Honolulu, HI 96819 808-847-4263 Ohana Greenhouse & Garden Supply 300 Hukilike Street, #2M, Kahalui, HI 96732 808-871-6393

Pahoa Feed & Fertilizer 15-2754 Old Government Road, Pahoa, HI 96778 808-965-9955

IDAHO Boise Hydroponics 614 North Orchard Street, Boise, ID 83706 208-344-3053 Greenthumb Greenhouses 5895 Ensign Avenue, Boise, ID 83714

ILLINOIS Aerostar Global 824 South Kay Avenue, Addison, IL 60101 Alternative Garden Supply 615 Industrial Drive, Unit A Cary, IL 60013 800-444-2837 Big Grow Hydroponics 9225 Trinity Drive, Lake In The Hills, IL 60156 847-854-4450 Brew and Grow 359 W. Irving Park Road Unit E, Roselle, IL 60172 630-894-4885 Brew and Grow 3625 N. Kedzi Avenue, Chicago, IL 60618 773-463-7430 Brew and Grow 3224 South Alpine Road, Rockford, IL 61109 815-874-5700 Brew and Grow 2379 Bode Road, Schaumburg, IL 60440 630-771-0555 Brew and Grow 181 Crossroads Parkway, Bolingbrook, IL 60194 847-885-8282 Fertile Ground 463 West MacArthur Drive, Cottage Hills, IL 62018 618-259-5500 Goldman's Grow Show 910 Greenwood Road, Glenview, IL 60025 847-657-7250 Green Fields 8137 N. Milwaukee, Niles, IL 60714 847-965-5056 Grow Big Hydroponics 7817 B North 2nd Street, Manchesney Park, IL 61115 815-637-4769 Hydrocork 20647 Renwick Road, Crest Hill, IL 60435 815-838-0100 Kreation’s Indoor Gardening Center 3427 Old Chatman Road, Springfield, IL 62704 217-341-0821 Let it Grow - Carbondale West Main Street, Carbondale, IL 62908 573-450-5401 Prairie House Garden Center 15151 South Harlem Avenue, Orland, IL 60462 708-687-3131 Water Works Indoor Gardening 1900 South Dirksen Parkway, Springfield, IL 62703 217-553-6929

INDIANA BWGS 7854 North State Road 37, Bloomington, IN 47404 800-316-1306

MAXIMUM YIELD USA - July 2010

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

Five Point Gardens 56555 Oak Road, South Bend, IN 46619 574-287-9232 Frogs Lilly Pad, The 706 Citation Road, Carmel, IN 46032 317-846-4610 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 4200 S. East Street, Indianapolis, IN 46227 317-780-8070 Hops & Harvest 4616 E. DuPont Road, Suite Q, Fort Wayne, IN 46825 260-918-3035 Magic Bulb Garden Center 6229 Allisonville Road, Indianapolis, IN 46220 317-202-2852 Sunleaves Garden Products 7854 North State Road 37, Bloomington, IN 47404 888-464-9676 Worm’s Way Indiana 7850 North State Road 37, Bloomington, IN 47404 800-598-8158

KANSAS Green Circle Hydroponics 6890 W. 105th Street, Overland Park, KS 66212 913-642-3888

KENTUCKY Garden Grove Organics 29 East 7th Street, Covington, (Cincinnati Metro), KY 41011 859-360-1843 Grow Shop, The of Lexington 2320 Palumbo Drive, Suite 130, Lexington, KY 40509 859-268-0779 Louisville Hydroponics 3471 Taylor Boulevard, Louisville, KY 40215 502-366-4000 New Earth Garden Center 9810 Taylorsville Road, Louisville, KY 40299 800-462-5953 Worm’s Way Kentucky 1360 Donaldson Hwy. Suite A, Erlanger, KY 41018 800-669-2088

LOUISIANA Geaux Hydroponics! 2126 O’Neal Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70816 225-751-4769 Laughing Buddha Nursery 4516 Clearview Parkway, Metairie, LA 70006 504-887-4336 Ourcrazydeals Hydroponics 201 Angus Drive, Yungsville, LA 70592 337-303-6146 Urban Organics 285 St. Claude Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70117 504-352-4709

MAINE Green Thumb Indoor Gardening 19 Stage Road, St. Albans, ME 04971 207-938-5909 Urban Garden Center 235 Lewiston Road, Toposhan, ME 04086 207-373-0990

188

MAXIMUM YIELD USA - July 2010

MARYLAND

East Coast Organics 2800 Sisson Street, Baltimore, MD 21211 Healthy Gardens and Supply 5001-F Harford Road, Baltimore, MD 21214 443-708-5144 Maryland Hydroponics Inc. 10051 North 2nd Street, Laurel, MD 20723 301-490-9236 Maryland Hydroponics Inc. 12130 Nebel Street, Rockville, MD 20852 240-551-4625 Meadowview Feed & Garden Center 1202 Meadowview Road, Pasadena, MD 21122 443-817-0018 Purple Mountain Organics 100-7010 Westmoreland Avenue, Takoma Park, MD 20912 877-538-9901

MASSACHUSETTS Greenlife Garden Supply 481 Boston Road, Unit 4, Billerica, MA 01821 978-262-9966 Green Path Garden Supply 276 West Main Street, Northborough, MA 01532 508-393-4181 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 29 Washington Street, Route 1 Foxboro, MA 02035 800-660-6977 LiquidSun® MA 8 Lynwood Avenue, Holyoke, MA 01040 413-539-6875 New England Hydroponics 15 D Coolege Hwy. (Rt. 10), Southampton, MA 01073 888-529-9025 Worm’s Way Massachusetts 121 Worc-Providence Turnpike, Sutton, MA 01590 800-284-9676

MICHIGAN BIg Creek Hydroponics 555 Old Little Lake Road, Marquette, MI 49855 906-249-5297 Cultivation Station of Michigan Inc., The 23529 Little Mack Avenue, St. Clair, MI 48080 586-775-9485 Cultivation Station of Michigan Inc., The 6540 Allen Road, Allen Park, MI 48101 313-383-1766 Cultivation Station 3 Inc. 46912 Gratiot, Chesterfield, MI 48051 586-949-7453 Flo-N-Grow. 214 N. 2nd Street, Niles, MI 49120 269-683-1877 Gro Blue Indoor Gardening Supplies 270 W. Liberty Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48104 734-913-2750 Grow Store, The 721 W. Blue Star Drive, Traverse City, MI 49684 231-421-5191

Growco Garden Supply 1042 Michigan Street, NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 877-939-6900 Growing Consultant 2260 Apple Avenue, Muskegon, MI 49442 231-773-5600 Home Grown Hydroponics 8075 Gratiot Road, Unit C, Saginaw MI 48609 989-781-1930 Homelight Gardens 3471 S. Huron Road, Bay City, MI 48706 989-922-0088 Horizen Hydroponics 1614 Leonard Street, NW, Grand Rapids, MI 49504 866-791-1664 Horizen Hydroponics 4646 W. Main Street, Kalamazoo, MI 49006 269-567-3333 HotHydro® 5245 Jackson Road, Suite F Ann Arbor, MI 48103 734-761-5040; 877-893-0716 Hydroharrys.com 24500 Dequindre, Warren, MI 48091 800-461-8819 Hydro Heaven 73647 W 8th Mile Road, Detroit, MI 48235 313-861-0333; 877-823-2076 Hydro Grow, The 8210 Telegraph Road, Taylor, MI 48180 313-633-0641 Hydrospot 34236 Michigan Avenue, Wayne, MI 48184 734-722-1285 Indoor Garden Superstore 2570 Dixie Highway, Waterford Twp., MI 48328 248-673-2200; 877 22 HYDRO J&L Growco 206 S. Michigan Avenue, Big Rapids, MI 49307 231-796-1528 Kalamazoo Indoor Garden 450 W. Maple, Kalamazoo, MI 49001 269-344-2550 Light Green Water 3661 Highland Road, Waterford, MI 48329 248-681-0001 Stealth Hydro 15 E. Cross Street, Ypsilanti, MI 48198 866-998-1916 Sunnyside Hydroponics 24930 Gratiot Avenue, Eastpoint, MI 48021 586-777-2528 Sunshine Supply Co. 5800 East Pickard Street, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48858 989-775-3700 Superior Growers Supply 19582 Middlebelt Road, Livonia, MI 48152 248-473-0450 Superior Growers Supply 4870 Dawn Avenue, East Lansing, MI 48823 517-332-2663


Urban Gardening Center, The 2520 22nd Street, Detroit, MI 48216 313-898-0200 Van Hydro 7480 N State, Davison, MI 48423 810-653-8267 Wild Child 7740 M 72 East, Traverse City, MI 49690 866-711-GROW

MINNESOTA American Garden Supply 601-6th Avenue, North, Princeton, MN 55371 763-631-0543 Brew and Grow 8179 University Avenue, Fridley, MN 55432 612-780-8191 Duluth Hydroponics 26 W 1st Street Duluth, MN 55802 218-341-7253 Eco Garden Supply 800 Transfer Door 25 in rear St. Paul, MN 55114 651-647-1896 Eden Indoor Organic Gardens 831 Highway 75 North Moorhead, MN 56560 218-477-EDEN (3336) Indoor Gardening 10 NE 3rd Street, Faribault, MN 55021 507-209-1546 Interior Gardens 115 -1620 Central Avenue NE, Minneapolis, MN 55413 800-498-4178; 612-870-9077 Midwest Hydroponics 3440 Belt Line Boulevard, Suite A, Minneapolis, MN 55416 888-449-2739 Still-H2O Inc. 14375 North 60th Street, Stillwater, MN 55082 651-351-2822

MISSISSIPPI Indoor Garden Shop LLC 1310 Bienville Boulevard, Ocean Springs, MS 39564 228-875-3725

MISSOURI Divine Hydroponics 301 North Bishop Avenue, Rolla, MO 65401 573-426-2348 Grow Your Own Hydroponics 3617 Saint John Avenue, Kansas City, MO 64123 816-241-2122 Green Circle Hydroponics 12 East Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64106 816-421-1840 Green Thumb Organics 249 Mid Rivers Mall Drive, St. Peters, MO 63376 636-397-4769 (GROW) Heartland Hydrogardens 5695 E. Clark Lane, Suite L, Columbia, MO 65202 HYDROGARDENS 573-474-GROW (4769) Let It Grow - Springfield 2519 E. Kearney Street, Springfield, MO 65803 417-862-GROW Let It Grow - Girardeau 879 S. Kings Highway, Cape Girardeau, MO 63703 573-803-0628 U-Grow 1724 North, 13th Street, St. Louis, MO 63106 314-452-6368

Worm’s Way Missouri 1225 North Warson Road, St. Louis, MO 63132 800-285-9676

MONTANA Alpengrow Nursery Supplies 238 Highway 93 S., Eureka, MT 59917 406-882-4496 Bizzy Beez LLP 5875 Highway 93 S, Whitefish, MT 59937 406-863-9937 Cornucopia Grow Your Own 127 Stoner Creek Rd., Lakeside, MT 59922 406-709-1076 Dr. Green Thumbs 1106 West Park, Livingston, MO 59047 406-222-7440 Heightened Harvest 2018 Main Street #4, Billings, MT 59105 406-252-4311

NEBRASKA Advanced Hydro-Ponics 10711 Mockingbird Drive, Omaha, NE 68127 (108th and L-Q) 402-991-6630 Paradigm Gardens 8949 J Street, Suite 5, Omaha, NE 68127 402-339-4949 Patio-Ponics 3255 Cornhusker Highway, Suite 4 Lincoln, NE 68504 402-466-9218

NEVADA AAA Indoor Organic Garden SuperCenter 2101 S. Decatur Boulevard, #21, Las Vegas, NV 89102 702-450-4769 Advanced Gardens Hydroponics 3111 South Valley View, (on Desert Inn West of Valley View) Suite V103 Las Vegas, NV 89102 702-257-4769 All American Hydroponics 2675 East Patrick Lane, Unit 8, Las Vegas, NV 89120 702-894-9888 Anything Grows 190 West Moana Lane, Reno, NV 89509 775-828-1460 Carson Valley Hydroponics 2520 Empire Ranch Road, Carson City, NV 89701 775-884-4769 Lorraine Ink 290 Spear Court, Fernley, NV 89408 775-575-7757 Nevada Hydroponics 4700 B Maryland, Suite 1, Las Vegas, NV 89119 702-798-2852

NEW HAMPSHIRE Hydro World 17 White Birch Lane, Lincoln, NH 03251 603-745-3030

NEW JERSEY 77HYDRO 37 Fairfield Place, West Caldwell, NJ 07006 877-774-9376 Claraqua 4 Redwood Court, West Windsor, NJ 08550 East Coast Horticultural Supply 1652 Hurffville Road, Swewell, NJ 08080 856-228-5290

Garden State Hydroponics 511 Avenel Street, Avenel, NJ 07001 888-300-8711 Green Touch 2 Hydroponics Inc. 888 Route 33, Unit 1, Hamilton, NJ 08619 HYDROPO NI C S 609-570-8829

greentouch2 I NC .

NEW MEXICO AHL Year Round Garden Supply 1051 San Mateo Blvd. SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108 505-255-3677 AHL Year Round Garden Supply 9421 Coors Blvd. NW Suite K, Albuquerque, NM 87114 505-899-0592 Common Shaman 1319 San Mateo N.E., Albuquerque, NM 87110 505-255-6463

NEW YORK Bronx Hydro & Garden 39 Bruckner Boulevard, Bronx, NY 10454 718-993-3787 California Hydroponics 27 Corporate Circle, East Syracuse, NY 13057 315-432-9387 East Coast Hydroponics 14649 Horace Harding Exp, Flushing, NY 11367 718-762-8880 Environmental Gardens 8 John Walsh Boulevard, Suite 310 Peekskills, NY 10566 800-254-0507; 914-736-6676 FutureGarden Inc. 59 Central Avenue, Farmingdale, NY 11735 516-420-0884 Greentree Nursery 308 Elmira Road, Ithaca, NY 14850 607-272-3666 Grow Room, The 8 Bridge Street, Nyack, NY 10960 800-449-9630 Harvest Moon Hydroponics Henrietta Townline Plaza, 3047 West Henrietta Road, Rochester, NY 14623 716-865-7353 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 340 West at 59, Central Nyack, NY 10960 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 147 Fourth Street, Troy, NY 10960 Healthy Harvest Organics and Hydro 163 Broadway, Fort Edwart, NY 12828 518-480-4698 Hudson Valley Hydroponics 217 Route 32 North, New Paltz, NY 12561 845-255-3633 Hydro Garden Center 1069B Lyell Avenue, Rochester, NY 14606 1-800-277-1322 Hydroponics of Buffalo 1497 Hertel Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14216 716-838-3545 Hydroponics Shops of America 2606 Erie Boulevard, Syracuse, NY 13224 315-251-2516 Indoor Outdoor Gardener 8223 5th Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11209 718-836-2402 KG Garden Supply 1327 Floyd Avenue, Rome, NY 13440 1-877-KG-HYDRO

MAXIMUM YIELD USA - July 2010

189


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

Saratoga Organics & Hydroponic Supply 19 Front Street, Ballston Spa, NY 12020 518-885-2005; 800-850-4769 Sunlight Solutions Hydroponics 2045 Niagara Falls Boulevard, Suite 13, Niagara Falls, NY 14304 888-GROWBOX Sunset Hydroponics & Home Brewing 1590 West Ridge Road, Rochester, NY 14615 866-395-9204

NORTH CAROLINA Be Well Hydroponics & Urban Gardening 4732 Monroe Road, Charlotte, NC 28205 704-344-8010 BWGS East 4045 Perimeter West Drive, Suite 400 Charlotte, NC 28214 800-316-1306 Fifth Season Gardening Company 21 B Westside Dr. Asheville NC 28806 828-225-5007 Fifth Season Gardening Company 45 Banks Avenue, Asheville, NC 28801 828-253-4112 Fifth Season Gardening Company 106 South Greensboro Street, Carrboro, NC 27510 919-932-7600 Fifth Season Gardening Company 1616 D-3 Battleground Avenue, Greensboro, NC 27408 336-271-3373 Fifth Season Gardening Company 5619-A Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, NC 27606 919-852-4747 Flow & Grow Hydroponics & Organic Garden Center 4521 Cumberland Road, Fayetteville, NC 28306 910-423-FLOW (3569) High Tech Garden Supply 2712 B Freedom Drive Charlotte, NC 28208 704-697-0911 New Age Gardens 2236A US Highway 70, Swannanoa, NC 28778 828-299-9989 Progressive Gardens 6005 Oleander Drive, Wilmington, NC 28403 910-395-1156 The Family Tree Nursery & Garden Center 6033 Ocean Highway E.,(on mile marker 35) Winnabow, OH 28479 910-253-9200

OHIO Advanced Hydrorganics Indoor Garden Center 5204 Darrow Road, Hudson, OH 44236 234-380-1287 Akron Garden Center 434 W Wilbeth Road, Akron, OH 44314 330-724-2700 Cleveland Garden Center Inc. 727 East 185th Street, Cleveland, OH 44119 216-481-7868 CropKing 134 West Drive, Lodi, OH 44254 330-302-4203 Carefree Garden Center 134 West Drive, Lodi, OH 44254 330-302-4203

190

MAXIMUM YIELD USA - July 2010

Dayton Hydroponics 3856 Miamisburg-Centerville Road, West Carrolton, OH 45449 937-859-3999 Garden Indoors of Ohio 4720 Indianola Avenue, Columbus, OH 43214 800-833-6868 Greenleaf Hydroponics 1805 Elm Road, Warren, OH 44483 330-372-1039 Harvest Moon 9215 Market Street, Youngstown (North Lima), OH 44452 800-776-8399 Garden Grove Organics 29 East 7th Street, Covington, (Cincinnati Metro), KY 41011 859-360-1843 Grow Wizard, The 5700 Denison Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44102 216-961-2500 Herb-N-Garden Center 14901 Puritas Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44135 216-252-2001 Indoor Garden Worx 906 Blue Avenue, Zanesville, OH 43701 866-900-9679 Indoor Gardens 1222 Hill Road, North, Pickerington, OH 43147 614-866-6065 Kissed by the Sun Hydroponic 10740 Reading Road, Cincinnati, OH 45241 513-769-0159 Magic Home Gardens 209 Cemetery Road, Canal Winchester, OH 43110 614-837-2440 Magic Home Garden 4538 Indianola Avenue, Columbus, OH 43214 614-263-2440 Summit Hydroponics 1030 Kenmore Boulevard Akron, OH 44314-2114 330-753-5222 Sweet Greens 5540 Brecksville Road Independence, OH 44131 800-421-7084 Super Harvest 5956 A Colerain Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45239 513-385-5999 Toledo Hydroponics Ltd. 855 S. Holland-Sylvania Road, Suite 2 Toledo, OH 43615 1-877-893-0716 Trinity Hydro Organics 435 Woodman Drive Riverside, OH 45431 937-252-GROW Urban Gardens 671 E. Center Street Marion, OH 43302 740-375-2800 Worm’s Way Greater Cincinatti / N. Kentucky 1360 Donaldson Road (Route 236), Suite A, Erlanger, KY 41018 800-669-2088

OKLAHOMA AAAAHA! Hydroponics Unlimited P.O. Box 74, Oakhurst, OK 74050

Organics OKC Garden Supply 3620 N Pennsylvania Avenue, Oklahoma City, OK 73118 405-528-GROW Tulsa County Hydro-Organics 1928 W. Albany, Broken Arrow, OK 74012 918-259-HYDRO Urban Garden 3141 E. 15th Street, Tulsa, OK 74104 918-289-0018

OREGON American Agriculture 9220 Southeast Stark Street, Portland, OR 97216 800-433-6805 Anthony’s Garden & Light Supply 93779 B Troy Lane, Coos Bay, OR 97420 541-266-8822 Aqua Serene 2836 W. 11th Avenue, Eugene, OR 97402 541-302-9073 Aqua Serene 465 Applegate Way, Ashland, OR 97520 541-482-7600 Aurora Innovations PO Box 22041, Eugene, OR 97402 866-376-8578 Basin Indoor Gardening 1221 Main Street, Klamath Falls, OR 97601 541-273-2023 B.I.G.S. 155 SW Century Drive, Suite 401, Bend, OR 97702 541-385-5222 BIGS Warehouse 2606 SW 4th Street, Unit B Redmond, OR 97756 541-504-8886 Cascade Horticulture 39570 Pioneer Boulevard, Sandy, OR 97055 503-668-8242 Corvallis Hydroponics & Organics 5490 SW Philomath Boulevard, Corvallis, OR 97333 541-738-2820 Everybody’s Garden Center 2701 SE 14th Avenue, Portland, OR 97202 800-669-5483 Forever Green Organic Hydro Gardens 7530 Crater Lake Highway, White City, OR 97503 541-826-2946 Garden Spout, The 4532 South East 63rd Avenue, Portland, OR 97206 503-788-4769 Gorge Garden Center 1203 12th Street Suite H, Hood River, OR 97031 541-386-GROW Gorilla Garden Supply 1810 Virginia Avenue, North Bend, OR 97459 Garden Supplies 541-756-5005 Green Thumb Hydrogarden and Organic Supply 2021 West Main Street, Medford, OR 97501 541-779-8600 Grow America Garden Supply LLC 11511 SW Pacific Highway, Tigard, OR 97223 503-841-6868 Growing Crazy (Hooked On Hydroponics) 817 W. 2nd Street, Medford, OR 97501


H2organic LCC 620 NE 3rd Street, McMinnville, OR 97128 503-434-6107 Herb N’ Jungle Hydroponics 930 SE Textron Drive, Bend, OR 97702 541-382-4010 Homegrown Garden Supply 7112 NE Gilsan Street, Portland, OR 97213 877-EZ2-GROW In and Out Gardens 1574 Skypark Drive Medford, OR 97501 541-858-3333 Indoor Garden Center 1697 SE 25th Street, Salem, OR 97302 503-566-7888 Indoor Garden Depot 15828 SE McGloughlin Boulevard, Milwaukie, OR 97267 503-786-2445 Indoor Garden Supply 536 SW 6th Street (rear alley), Redmond, OR 97756 541-504-7750 Island Flowers & Indoor Garden Center 909 N. Tomahawk Island Drive, Suite 103, Portland, OR 97217 503-546-3185 J-N-B Hydro 2 Go 155 West Central Avenue, Sutherlin, OR 97479 541-459-9211 Ladybug Indoor Gardens 3960 W. Main Street, Medford, OR 97501 541-618-4459 Lights Distributing 9843 SW 55th Avenue, Portland, OR 97219 Liquid Sun 1845 Southwest Highway 101, Lincoln City, OR 97367 541-994-7070 Moonshine Park Farm 135 South East 62nd, Unit F South Beach, OR 97366 541-444-2298 Northern Light and Garden Beaverton 9290 SW Beaverton-Hillsdale Highway, Beaverton, OR 97005 503-297-7331 Northern Light and Garden Grants Pass 1203 Rogue River Highway, Grants Pass, OR 97527 541-474-1700 Northern Light and Garden Salem 1915 Lancester Drive, Salem, OR 97305 503-364-4769 Oregon Rainforest Co. 19949 E. Burnside Street, Gresham, OR 97233 503-465-9909 Paradise Supply Inc. 1409 N. Highway 99, Ashland, OR 97520 541-552-1037 Paradise Supply LLC 560 NE. "F" Street, Unit C, Grand Pass, OR 97526 541-955-7293 Rain or Shine 13126 NE Airport Way, Portland, OR 97230 503-255-1981 Roots Garden Supply 5426 North Gay Avenue, Portland, OR 97217 503-285-4768 Roseburg Hydroponics 853 SE Stephens Street, Roseburg, OR 97470 541-229-1420 SunInside Gardening Co. 665 Conger, Unit F, Eugene, OR 97402 541-686-9966

The Good Earth Organics 30088 Redwood Highway, Cave Junction, OR 97523 541-592-4496 Urban Flora 2865 South East, Portland, OR 97214 503-236-3344 Westcoast Organic and Hydroponic Supply 12410 SE 282nd Avenue, Unit C Boring, OR 97009 503-766-4106 Wizard's Garden, LLC 621 Spruce Street, Unit C, Myrtle Point, OR 97458 541-572-2333

PENNSYLVANIA 422 GROW 1775 North Main Street Extension Butler, PA 16001-1327 724-561-3777 Full Bloom Hydroponics 84 South 24th Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 888-872-3602 Garden Indoors of Pennsylvania 208 Route 13, Bristol, PA 19007 800-227-4567 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 1239 South Airport Road, Allentown, PA 18103 610-432-4949 Healthy Gardens and Supply 1012 Lincoln Avenue, Prospect Park, PA 19076 866-32-HYDRO High Tech Garden Supply 20232 Route 19, Unit 6, Cranberry Twp., PA 16066 724-473-1113 Home Hydroponics of Pittsburgh 2008 Smallman Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15222 412-232-7030 Home Hydroponics of Pittsburgh 830 Route 119, Greensburg, PA 15601 724-836-1118 Hydro Ponics of Harrisburg 310 South 10th Street, Lemoyne, PA 17043 877-684-3808 PA Hydroponics & Home Gardening Supply 20 Quaker Church Road, York Springs, PA 17372 717-528-4175 RH Distribution POB 1417 Lansdale, PA 19446 888-545-8112

RHODE ISLAND Good To Grow 34 Nooseneck Hill Road, West Greenwich, RI 02817 401-392-3100 Hydro-Earth 1243 Mineral Springs Avenue, North Providence, RI 02904 401-305-5520 LiquidSun® RI 1179 Central Avenue, Pawtucket, MA 02861 401-722-2724 Oakworld Garden Center 39 West Street, Barrington, RI 02806 401-245-5705

SOUTH CAROLINA 247 Garden Supply 535 D Clemson Road, Columbia, SC 29229 803-788-4445 All Good Hydroponics & Gardening 6729 Two Notch Road, Columbia, SC 29223 803-708-4819

GreenSpirit Hydrogarden 1864 Meeting Street, Charleston, SC 29405 843-225-1GRO; Green Thumb Unique Gardening & More 1230 Rutherford Road, Greenville, SC 29609 864-271-8830

SOUTH DAKOTA Green Earth Products Inc. 5700 Highway 79 S.,Unit 1, Rapid City, SD 57702 605-342-1307

TENNESSEE Advanced Hydroponic Garden 783 French Mill Road, Dandridge, TN 37725 800-521-1643 Advanced Hydroponic Garden 6912 Clinton Highway, Knoxville, TN 37921 866-938-3318 All Seasons Gardening and Brewing Supply Co. 924 8th Avenue, South, Nashville, TN 37203 800-790-2188 Atlantis Hydroponics 1800 Rossville Avenue, #3, Chattanooga, TN 37408 423-752-5400 National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply 126 Belinda Parkway, Mt. Juliet, TN 37122 888-265-9005 Perpetual Harvest 75 Riverport Drive, Jackson, TN 38301 877-422-3391 Sun City Hydroponics 2235 Whitten Road, Suite 104, Memphis, TN 38133 901-372-8100 Worm’s Way Tennessee 707 Rivergate Parkway, Suite E Goodlettsville, TN 37072 800-397-4153

TEXAS Abundant Harvest Hydroponics & Organics 3101 Avenue E East, Arlington Road, TX 76011 817-649-0100 Airline Hydroponics P.O. Box 980904, Trader’s Village #363, Houston, TX 77098 713-942-0484 Botani Hydroponics & Organics 7730 Highway 6 South Houston, TX 77083 281-575-1999 Brite Ideas Hydroponics & Organics 4360 S.Congress Avenue, #310, Austin, TX 78745 512-444-2100 Earth Organics 1360 Lee Trevino Drive,Suite 105 El Paso, TX 79936 915-591-9500 Field of Dreams Indoor Growing Supplies 5302 Slide Road Unit B, Lubbock, TX 79414 806-793-2901 GreenMaker Nursery 3030 Northwest Loop, Stephenville, TX 76401 254-965-7273 GroGreen Hydroponics 4015 Main Street, Dallas, TX 75226 214-370-9984 Happy Harvest Hydroponics & Organic 1500 Crescent Drive, Suite 202 Carrollton, TX 75006 972-466-1300

MAXIMUM YIELD USA - July 2010

191


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

Houston Discount Hydroponics 9384 Richmond Avenue, Houston, TX 77063 713-464-9406 Hydro Mart 3841 Main Street, Rowlett, TX 75088 972-475-6114 Hydroponic Nation 9700 Almeda Genoa Road, Suite 108, Houston, TX 77075 281-501-9636 Innergrow Hydroponics 24451 Interstate Highway 20, Wills Point, TX 75169 866-475-4769 Jolly Green Hydroponics (Greenhouse Horticultural Supplies) 13628 Neutron Road, Dallas, TX 75244 (866) WE-JOLLY; 469-341-5555 Lone Star Hydroponics and Organics 1302 Motor Circle, Dallas, TX 75207 214-634-9376 Sol Organics & Hydroponics 1634 Babcock Road, San Antonio, TX 78229 210-366-9082 Texas Growers Supply 5990 N. Sam Houston Pkwy. E. #602, Humble, TX 77396 281-441-3739 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Central Austin) 5126 Burnet Road, Austin, TX 78756 512-459-4769 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (South Austin) 2125-A Goodrich Avenue, Austin, TX 78704 512-440-4769 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Dallas) 3400 Elm Street, Dallas, TX 75226 214-744-4769 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Houston) 7730 A Park Place Boulevard, Houston, TX 77087 713-641-4769 Ultimate Hydroponic Garden Supply 6125 West Sam Houston Parkway, North Suite 206 Houston, TX 77041 713-856-8425

UTAH Salt Lake Plant & Hydro 60 West 3300 S. #6, South Salt Lake, UT 84115 801-488-3200

VERMONT Green Thumb Gardening P.O. Box 235, Route 15, Underhill, VT 5489 800-564-9376 Greenthumb - Vermont 394 Route 15, Jericho, VT 05465 802-899-4323 LiquidSun® VT 1 Bellows Falls Road, (Route 5 North) Putney, VT 05158 802-387-1100 Peak Hydroponic Garden Supplies 20 School Street, Plainfield, VT 05667 802-454-8000

VIRGINIA Blue Ridge Hydroponics & Home Brewing Co. 5524 Williamson Road, Suite 11 Roanoke VA 24012 540-265-2483

192

MAXIMUM YIELD USA - July 2010

Clean & Green Technologies 196 Corning Drive, Christiansburg, VA 24073 866-694-1628 Fifth Season Gardening Company 900 Preston Ave. Charlottesville VA 22903 434-293-2332 Hydroponics & Growlights 13400 Occoquan Road, Woodbridge, VA 22191 703-490-0700 I Love Hydroponics 612 N. Sheppard Street, Richmond, VA 23221 804-377-3020 I Love Hydroponics 368 Newtown Road, #105, Virginia Beach, VA 23462 757-490-5425 Inside-Out Garden Supply 6517 Backlick Road, Springfield, VA 22150 703-451-3259

WASHINGTON 509 Grow 2718 N Division Spokane, WA 99207 509-327-GROW(4769) Aqua Serene 3839 Stone Way North, Seattle, WA 98103 206-547-GROW (4769) Eco Enterprises 1240 NE 175th Street, #B Shoreline, WA 98155 800-426-6937 Garden Smart 500 Bond Drive, Castlerock, WA 98611 360-274-7960 Green Gardens Distributing 12738 Bel-Red Road, Bellevue, WA 98005 425-454-5731 Hydro-Tech 2121 Aurora Avenue, North, Seattle, WA 98103 206-547-2202 Indoor Garden Depot 6400 NE Highway 99, Suite H, Vancouver, WA 98665 360-993-7779 Indoor Garden Depot 1401 S. 324th Street, Federal Way, WA 98003 253-874-1112 Indoor Garden & Lighting 3839 6th Avenue, Tacoma, WA 98406 253-761-7478 Indoor Garden & Lighting 23303 Highway 99, Suite A, Edmonds, WA 98026 425-673-2755 Indoor Garden & Lighting 714 South Central Avenue, Kent, WA 98032 253-373-9060 Indoor Garden Supply LLC 1950b Belmont Loop, Woodland, WA 98674 360-841-8055 Island Hydroponic & Supplies 1515 5th Street #B, Marysville, WA 98271 425-299-5855 Kent Garden Supplies Ltd. 18817 East Valley Highway, Kent, WA 98032 425-251-9299 Kitsap Garden & Lighting 2130 6th Street, Bremerton, WA 98312 360-377-1277

Linda’s Gardening & Hydroponics 11522 Canyon Road East, Puyallup, WA 98373 253-531-9641 Liquid Sunshine Hydroponics 5087 Lincoln Road, Blaine, WA 98230 M & R Lighting 17238 Memorial Drive, Mt. Vernon, WA 98273 360-848-1080 M & R Lighting Unit C 22914 Highway 410, Buckley, WA 98390 253-891-4190 Mike's Indoor Garden Supply 6121 172nd Street NE #A, Arlington, WA 98223 425-346-6481 National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply 5408 NE 88th Street, Building A, Vancouver, WA 98665 888-478-6544 Northern Light and Garden Vancouver 6305 NE Highway 99, Vancouver, WA 98665 360-993-7779 Northern Lights Gardening 4159 Hannegan Road, Bellingham, WA 98225 360-715-8585 Northwest Horticulture Supply 161 Hooker Road, #1, Sequim, WA 98057 360-582-0702 Renton Indoor Garden Center 207 Sunset Blvd. N, Building A, Renton, WA 98055 425-917-9000 River City Hydroponics 1514 East Francis Avenue, Spokane, WA 99208 509-464-0246 Sodo Hydro 1727 1st Ave. South, Seattle, WA 98134 888-904-9376 Solar Shop 306 West 4th Street, Tonasket, WA 98855 509-486-4508 Spokane Organic and Hydroponic Supply 4823 East Sprague Avenue E., Spokane Valley, WA 99212 509-534-4055

WISCONSIN Aric's Indoor Garden Supply 1104 West Wisconsin Avenue, Appleton, WI 54914 920-574-3258 Brew and Grow 285 N. Janacek Road, Brookfield, WI 53045 262-789-0555 Brew and Grow 3317 Agriculture Drive, Madison, WI 53716 608-226-8910 Grow BIG Hydroponics 954 S. Westland, Appleton, WI 54914 920-749-4769 Paradigm Gardens 4539 Helgesen Drive, Madison, WI 53718 608-241-3800

PUERTO RICO Tecno-Hydro Ave Campo Rico GJ17, Carolina, PR 00982 787-752-8252


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