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MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2013

USA

FREE

Catch the Shortwave Bloom Busting Goodness

The Hydroponics

Revolution

is here!

maximumyield.com

PLUS... Learn how to interpret

your water report

DENVER

MAXIMUM YIELD’S

maximumyield.com

2013R TOU

MARCH 16-17

COLORADO indoorgardeningexpo.com


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Product # 901455 901460

Description DigiMax™ Digital Lamp 600 Watts DigiMax™ Digital Lamp 1000 Watts

Lumens 92,000 145,000

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CONTENTS

February 2013

FEATURES 124

86

58 Understanding Phosphorous Acid Products

by Don Lester

66 Consistency is the Key by Eric Hopper

76 Decoding ppm by Grubbycup

76 86 Bloom Boosters by Helene Isbell

96 Riding the Shortwave by Dr. Lynette Morgan

110 Starting Plants from Cuttings by Frank Rauscher

124 Interpreting a Water Report by David Kessler

136 Organic Fertilizer Elemental Content by Dr. J. Benton Jones

148 Cation-Anion Balance in Water and Soil

by Guy Sela

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148 DEPARTMENTS 12

From the Editor

132

Tips and Tricks

14

MaximumYield.com

146

How It's Made

18

Letters to the Editor

151

10 Facts On....

20

Ask the Experts

152

22

MAX Facts

Mastering the Art of Hydroponics (STEM)

36

Product Spotlight

160

Max Mart

74

Growing for Health

162

Do You Know?

94

Beginner's Corner

163

Distributors

108

Green Thumb Gardening

178

Coming up in March

122

Avant Gardening


FROM THE EDITOR | Linda Jesson VOLUME 13 – NUMBER 11 February 2013 Maximum Yield is published monthly by Maximum Yield Publications Inc. 2339A Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 Phone: 250.729.2677; Fax 250.729.2687 No part of this magazine may be reproduced without permission from the publisher. If undeliverable please return to the address above.

February is here - the perfect month to show your garden an extra little love! In this information packed issue of Maximum Yield, we share how to maintain consistency in your growing system, calculate cation-anion balance and ppm, as well as outlining how to interpret a water report in order to keep your plants happy. Happy plants are healthy plants and for those of you who suspect your plants life might be over, Heather Rhoades guides us through the process of telling if your plants really are dead or if there’s a chance for revival. This is just a sample of the love we have in this month’s magazine. We also touched on lighting, bloom boosters, various growing mediums and—as always—plenty of new products. We are excited to announce the dates for the 2013 Grow Like a Pro Maximum Yield Indoor Gardening Expo tour! We will be stopping in Denver, Colorado (March 16 & 17); Novi, Michigan (June 1 & 2); San Francisco, California (July 27 & 28); and Long Beach, California (October 26 & 27). We have a lot of new things planned for the 2013 tour and invite you to mark these dates on your calendars and join us for the fun. For more information, hotel specials and booth and sponsorship bookings, please visit indoorgardeningexpo.com or call 250-729-2677.

The views expressed by columnists are a personal opinion and do not necessarily reflect those of Maximum Yield or the editor.

Publication Agreement Number 40739092 Printed In Canada PRESIDENT/PUBLISHER - Jim Jesson GENERAL MANAGER - Don Moores BUSINESS MANAGER - Linda Jesson editorial editor@maximumyield.com

Message from the

Editor Linda Jesson

Editor-in-chief Linda Jesson Assistant Editor Jessica Skelton ADVERTISING SALES Sales Manager Ilona Hawser - ilona@maximumyield.com Account Executives Ashley Heppell - ashley@maximumyield.com Emily Rodgers - emily@maximumyield.com Kelsey Hepples - kelsey@maximumyield.com Katie Montague - katie@maximumyield.com DESIGN & PRODUCTION ads@maximumyield.com Art Director Alice Joe Graphic Designers Liz Johnston Jennifer Everts Dionne Hurd ACCOUNTING Tracy Greeno - accounting@maximumyield.com Tara Campbell - tara@maximumyield.com USA DISTRIBUTION Aurora Innovations • BWGS • General Hydroponics Humbolt Wholesale • Hydrofarm National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply • Nickel City Wholesale Garden Supply • R&M Supply • Tradewinds CANADIAN DISTRIBUTION Brite-Lite Group • Biofloral • Eddis Wholesale • Greenstar Plant Products Inc. • MegaWatt • Quality Wholesale UK DISTRIBUTION Direct Garden Supplies • Growth Technology • Future Harvest Development Europe • Hydrogarden Nutriculture UK • Dutch Pro • Maxigrow AUSTRALIAN DISTRIBUTION Dome Garden Supply • House N Garden • Futchatec • Growth Technology

February is here - the perfect month to show your garden an extra little love!

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contributors Donald Lester is the product manager at JH Biotech, a commercial fertilizer manufacturer with 28 OMRI-certified organic products. Donald has a master’s degree in agronomy with over 10 years of agricultural research experience and 50 scientific publications to his credit. He is also director of SaferGro Laboratories, a home and garden products company located in Ventura, California.

Eric Hopper has over 10 years of

Frank Rauscher is a certified

Dr. Lynette Morgan holds a B. Hort.

Grubbycup has been an avid

Helene Isbell is an avid

Guy Sela is an agronomist and a chemical engineer for his innovative software company, Smart Fertilizer (smart-fertilizer.com), which provides fertilizer management solutions. Applying his background in water treatment, he has lead a variety of projects on reverse osmosis, water disinfection and water purification, and providing high-quality water for irrigation.

David Kessler heads research and development at Atlantis Hydroponics and writes for their popular blog. David has over two decades of experience and multiple degrees from the State University of New York. He’s also an accredited judge for the American Orchid Society and travels the world judging orchid events. Follow his blog at atlantishydroponics.wordpress.com

experience in the hydroponic industry as both a retail store manager and owner. He continuously seeks new methods and products that could help maximize garden performance. Eric resides in Michigan where he and his family strive for a self-sufficient and sustainable lifestyle.

Tech. degree and a PhD in hydroponic greenhouse production from Massey University, New Zealand. Lynette is a partner with SUNTEC International Hydroponic Consultants and has authored five hydroponic technical books. Visit suntec.co.nz for more information.

indoor gardener for over 20 years. His articles were first published in the United Kingdom, and since then his gardening advice has been published in French, Spanish, Italian, Polish, Czechoslovakian and German. He is also considered one of the world’s leading authorities on crochet hydroponics.

Dr. J. Benton Jones Jr. has 50 years of experience growing plants hydroponically. He is an Emeritus Professor at the University of Georgia, Athens and has authored eight books and written articles for magazines that deal with hydroponic issues. He currently has his own consulting company, Grosystems, Inc. Dr. Jones currently lives in Anderson, SC, USA.

horticulturist and consultant for the garden industry. He’s a contributing author to several publications and was writer and editor of the Green Pages. Frank finds that analyzing plant stress and finding solutions is exciting. He is very much at home bringing new ideas to the field of horticulture and indoor gardening.

horticulturalist and has been an advocate of the hydroponics and organic gardening industry for over 10 years. A California native, Helene lives in San Diego, where she promotes the education of urban agriculture and represents Mad Farmer, a company that specializes in hydroponic nutrient supplements.

Become a Maximum Yield contributor and have your articles read by 250,000 readers throughout USA, Canada, UK, New Zealand and Australia. Maximum Yield is the largest free-to-consumer indoor gardening magazine in the world. Every issue is available on maximumyield.com, which has thousands of unique visitors monthly.

COMING UP ON THE WEB 2013 Maximum Yield Indoor Gardening Expo Dates Announced!

Got Questions? Get Answers.

Maximum Yield’s resident experts are available Get ready to Grow Like a Pro at the upcoming 2013 and ready to answer your modern gardening questions. Email editor@maximumyield.com or Expos scheduled for Denver, Colorado–March 1617, Novi, Michigan–June 1-2, San Francisco, CA July fill out the “Ask the Experts” question form on maximumyield.com 28-29, Long Beach, CA–October 26-27. Check out indoorgardenexpo.com for more information including sposorship and booth booking opportunities.

compatible with your Smartphone, scan the QR Code and your phone’s browser will automatically launch, redirecting you to maximumyield.com. It’s that simple!

Free Digital Subscription to Maximum Yield

Now you can receive Maximum Yield free to your inbox every month. Subscribe to the digital edition of Maximum Yield by simply filling out the form at Connect to maximumyield.com instantly from your maximumyield.com/subscriptions Smartphone with our Quick Response (QR) Code, found on the cover of every issue of Maximum Yield. Now you can access the best products, the most in-depth articles and informamaximumyield.com tion, and the latest facebook.com/MaximumYield news at high speeds. indoorgardeningexpo.com Simply download the QR twitter.com/max_yield Code Reader software

Connect With Us

I’m a Fan Contest Introducing the newest contest from Maximum Yield! Tell us why you are a fan of Maximum Yield and you could win monthly prizes of $100 gift card to your favorite indoor gardening shop, and also have a chance at the grand prize of a $1,000 gift card to your favorite indoor gardening shop. Simply send your testimonial, name, address, phone number and email address to editor@maximumyield.com. Contest closes December 14, 2013.

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Connect with US


LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Kudos!

Thank you Maximum Yield and Matt LeBannister for answering my question on companion planting for pest control and nutrient balance in the January issue of Maximum Yield. You gave me just info I was looking for! In particular, I’m excited about your suggestion to plant multiple varieties of tomatoes, basil, etc. (not only because it helps boost the chance that one type might survive a disease/pest outbreak, but I never really considered planting more than one variety of each herb and veggie before). I can’t wait to try out your tips when I plant my garden this coming spring; it’s sure to be a tasty season! Thanks again, JD You’re very welcome, JD! The team of experts here at Maximum Yield are always happy to answer any indoor gardening questions you might have. Keep sending them in—and have your friends send in theirs, too—to editor@maximumyield.com. You can also ask questions through our Facebook page.

Greetings,

One of the things I miss the most is picking up my copies [of Maximum Yield] at the local grow shop. I have learned so much from you over the years. When I come home my first stop will be to grab the latest issue. Thanks, David

enews

In our October 2012 E-News, we asked, “What growing techniques and products do you plan to use in the new year?” This is what one of our readers had to say: Dear Maximum Yield, I have a greenhouse and a separate indoor grow room. I am interested in using both of these spaces to develop a hybrid system that utilizes the strong points of each growing space. What should I do to get the most out of my growing spaces? How should I move forward and what type of system should I build? Lawrence Tandy There are many types of indoor and hydroponic gardening methods available today. It‘s tough to say which system will suit you best. Aeroponic, deep water culture, ebb and flow, drip… the list goes on. It’s really up to the individual to assess their own needs and capacities and develop a system that suits them best. You may want to develop a system for each of your grow spaces as they will have different lighting, ventilation and environmental control issues. This month’s informative articles offer a lot of information about the various options open to the new grower.

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Hi, Max Yield,

We’re the owners of a new hydroponics store and we’d like to know how we could go about being listed as a distributor. Thanks, Terry Hi, Terry, Simply give us a call at 1-250-729-2677 and speak with one of Maximum Yield’s sales associates. They have all the information you need!

Dear Editor,

I absolutely love the vibrant colors and layout of this magazine. Reading the articles and browsing the pics inspires me to design my own hydroponics set-up and learn more about the products that would make it most efficient. Keep all the great tips and tricks coming! Kristin

via Facebook Coming to a Venue Near You... What are your convention dates this year and where will they be held? Michelle Posey The dates are set! Check pages 156 and 157 for more information on our upcoming shows in Denver, Colorado; Novi, Michigan; San Francisco, California; and Long Beach California. This year will have the most exciting Indoor Gardening Expos ever!

We want to hear from you! Maximum Yield Publications Inc. Snail-mail: 2339 Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 Email: editor@maximumyield.com Twitter: twitter.com/max_yield Facebook: facebook.com/MaximumYield


ASK THE EXPERTS

I’m a woman trying to be a thoughtful wife, but I don't really know anything about indoor or outdoor processes. My husband and I live where it snows and is cold more than half the year. He is currently growing indoors but wants to move outdoors with a greenhouse. My question is: what kind of system can I get him so it can go inside and outside without a drop in performance and fruit quality, using the same system? He prefers a more natural light system and natural feeding, but we also need to watch the bill side as well! Please help! Leticia Ryan M. Taylor

What a great gift idea! I hope this thoughtful response will satisfy a thoughtful wife. Without knowing the size of the growing area and number of plants your husband will be growing throughout the year, my answer is focused rather on the key information you provided: the desire to build a flexible, low-cost growing system that can utilize natural (that is, organic) nutrients. While there are a number of commercially made systems available that meet your criteria, I would recommend a do-ityourself project to save as much money as possible. Two types of systems can be built relatively cheaply, will be highly effective indoors and out and can effectively deliver organic nutrients: drip irrigation and the nutrient film technique (NFT). Drip irrigation technology (e.g. tubing, barbed tees, emitters, etc.) can be reconfigured in an infinite number of ways depending on your changing growing conditions. Combined with a suitable substrate, drip irrigation can provide organic nutrients provided that the tubes are flushed periodically with pure water to prevent the build-up of non-soluble material.

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With NFT, plants are grown in tubes or channels where a thin film of nutrient solution passes constantly across the bottom of the root zone; this perpetual motion sufficiently oxygenates the solution—decreasing the probability of an outbreak of bad bacteria—and provides plants with enough nutritious moisture in the event of an otherwise devastating heat wave. Both irrigation systems can be used to grow small or large plants. With drip irrigation, your choice of container size will largely influence the ultimate size of the plant, whereas with NFT, your choice of tube (e.g. pvc pipe, vinyl gutter) will dictate the ultimate size of the plant. One key thing to keep in mind is that planting arrangements are ultimately infinite with drip technology, whereas plant spacing is typically static in NFT once the tubes have been drilled. Unfortunately, this answer is vague, primarily because hydroponic horticulture as a field of study is so complex. But take my word for it: you really won’t go wrong if you invest in a basic drip irrigation or NFT system. Ryan M. Taylor


MAX FACTS

hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Scientists Seek Genetic Diversity in Watermelons Scientists are analysing the wild watermelon for genetic traits that might help develop cultivated forms that are more resistant to diseases. An international team led by Zhangjun Fei at Cornell University’s Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research identified 10 genes as candidates for making the fruit more resistant to plant diseases. Fei said the number of years it will take to cultivate more desirable melons with genetic sequencing technology is half that of older techniques. Once his team identifies a marker for disease resistance on the ancient melon’s genome, it is simple to check a new strain of melon for the same marker and know whether or not it will hold up to certain plant pests. (Source: mongabay.com)

MAXFACTS

hydroponic news, tips and trivia Nanomaterials Could Double Solar Cell Efficiency A new DARPA-funded project explores nanostructured materials that break sunlight into its constituents, allowing for solar cells to absorb specific colors of the spectrum. According to the researchers, this approach could improve efficiency of solar panels by over 50 percent. (Source: inhabitat.com)

Cheating Slime Mold Gets the Upper Hand A new study has found that a “cheater” mutation (chtB) in Dictyostelium discoideum—a free living slime mold able to co-operate as social organisms when food is scarce—allows the cheater strain to exploit its social partner. When conditions are right, the usually amoeba-like Dictyostelium behaves more like a fungus, producing a stalk and a fruiting body that releases spores. The chtB strain is able to reduce the ability of normal Dictyostelium to form spores so that when mixed in equal numbers with wild type Dictyostelium, 60% of the spores will be chtB. The chtB mutation appeared to be normal in all other respects. (Source: sciencedaily.com)

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MAX FACTS

hydroponic news, tips and trivia

California Tops American Organic List According to the USDA, there are more than 9,100 certified organic farms and ranches in the United States. California tops the list with about 1,900 organic farms. (Source: sfgate.com)

Finding Chicago's Food Gardens with Google Earth John Taylor, a doctoral candidate, was skeptical about the lists of Chicago’s urban gardens provided to him by local NGOs. So, he looked them up in Google Earth, using a set of reference images to determine visual indicators of food gardens. Of the 1,236 community gardens listed, only 13 percent were actually producing food. However, Taylor estimated that there are 4,648 urban agriculture sites in the city. This suggests that both backyard gardens and vacant lot gardens contribute substantially to Chicago's total food production. (Source: sciencedaily.com)

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MAX FACTS

hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Engineered Bacteria Make Fuel from Sunlight Chemists at UC Davis have engineered a three-step pathway that allows blue-green algae to convert carbon dioxide into 2,3 butanediol, a chemical that can be used to make paint, solvents, plastics and fuels. The US Department of Energy has set a goal of obtaining a quarter of industrial chemicals from biological processes by 2025. (Source: sciencedaily.com)

Insecticides? There’s an App for That USDA scientists have released two apps that make things easier for anyone who needs to adjust insecticide spray equipment. The apps are designed to ensure that aerial and ground-based crews can hit targets and minimize pesticide drift by keying in specifics on the type of equipment and pesticide they are using. (Source: ars.usda.gov)

Food Deserts Become Oases Food deserts (that is, places where people don’t have access to grocery stores with affordable, healthy food choices) have been found in Houston. However, the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service is helping to solve the problem with a variety of free programs—including those on how to stretch food dollars, how to incorporate more healthy food into their diet and how to affordably grow food at home—in the affected neighborhoods. (Source: freshplaza.com)

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MAX FACTS

hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Natural Sterilizing Medical Nanos Research suggests that Douglas fir needles could be used to sterilize nano devices destined for medical applications. The researchers are developing an antimicrobial, self-sterilizing composite material derived from Douglas fir needles that is essentially a silver-chitosan bionanocomposite that can be used to safely coat medical implants and surgical devices to preclude microbial growth. (Source: sciencedaily.com)

Combating the Stink Bug The USDA ranks the stink bug as its top invasive insect of interest. But help could be on the way: USDA scientists at the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Invasive Insect Biocontrol and Behavior Laboratory, are searching for ways to control the stink bug by deciphering its genetic toolkit, studying the pheromones it releases and evaluating potential attractants for use in commercial traps. (Source: sciencedaily.com)

Helpful Ditches USDA scientists report that vegetated drainage ditches can help capture pesticide and nutrient loads in field runoff, giving farmers a low-cost alternative for managing agricultural pollutants and protecting natural resources. One study evaluated the transport and capture of the herbicide atrazine and the insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin for 28 days in a 160-foot section of a vegetated agricultural drainage ditch. One hour after researchers starting a simulated runoff event, 61 percent of the atrazine and 87 percent of the lambda-cyhalothrin had transferred from the water to the ditch vegetation. At the end of the ditch, runoff pesticide concentrations were generally non-toxic to downstream aquatic fauna. (Source: sciencedaily.com)

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MAX FACTS

hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Boeing Uses Potatoes to Test In-Flight Wi-Fi Wi-Fi is now is now an easy payment away for passengers, but it’s not exactly as reliable as the connection you get in your own living room. However, Boeing has employed an interesting tool to help sort out the in flight Wi-Fi issues: potatoes. Apparently, water-logged tubers interact with electronic signal properties much like humans. So, Boeing filled the plane with sacks of spuds when testing how radio signals interacted with the plane's electrical systems, and now the company is using them to test and tune wireless signals so a stronger signal can be received throughout the aircraft in the safest way possible. (Source: treehugger.com)

Studying Permafrost A combination of ground-penetrating radar, electrical resistance tomography, electromagnetic data and LiDAR airborne measurements are now used to see the different layers of permafrost soils, which store almost as much carbon as the rest of the world’s soils and about twice as much as is in the atmosphere. The goal is to help determine what will happen to this carbon as the climate changes. (Source: sciencedaily.com)

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

YOUR GUIDE TO THIS MONTH’S

HOTTEST ITEMS Ask for them at your local indoor gardening store

Microbe Life PHOTOSYNTHESIS PLUS  Enhanced photosynthesis—vital to all plant life—is achieved through Microbe Life technology! PHOTOSYNTHESIS PLUS enhances biological function at the foliar and root levels, utilizing the sun’s energy and transporting minerals and carbon to the plant at much improved rates, therefore promoting plant vigor. PHOTOSYNTHESIS PLUS comprises a complete ecosystem in the bottle! Visit your local indoor gardening store to learn more.

Liquid W-8 Liquid W-8 is an excellent carbohydrate supplement that provides an added energy source for your plants, giving you huge impressive flowers and fruits. Beneficial carb sources support both your plant directly and act as a food source for the microbial life in the root zone. Derived from organic, unsulfured molasses, Liquid W-8 is an extremely cost-effective additive that enhances energy and stimulates growth. This truly unique formula has the most complete blend of simple and complex carbohydrates on the market today. Green Planet Nutrients starts with the finest raw ingredients to ensure the highest-quality finished product. Click on the QR code on the bottle to see the video related to this product. Visit an indoor gardening store for more info.

Two-Color Super Starter Inserts Easily Identify Plants Want to distinguish between cuttings with a quick look? The extremely popular Super Starter Inserts are now available in black, red and yellow, and blue and green. The new two-color Super Starter Inserts have bright sides for easy identification—just flip one over to designate a new plant. Super Starter Inserts are soft enough to support clones and cuttings without damaging them, yet made of a durable food-grade material that withstands multiple uses. They feature a slit from the edge to the center that allows for easy placement and removal. Super Starter Inserts are compatible with most hydroponic cloning systems and are available in diameters of 2 in., 3 in. and 5 in. Visit a store near you for more information.

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

Bluelab’s Improved Truncheon Nutrient Meters We have released an improved version of all Bluelab Truncheon® Nutrient Meters. Our Truncheons are still tough, reliable, easy-to-use meters with a five-year return or replacement guarantee. The product improvements include easier to read scales, external thermistor for faster readings (no double dipping required!), less cleaning (monthly vs. weekly), blue daylight-readable LED; new packaging label with a QR Code to scan and download this electronic user manual and a simple twist to remove shroud for cleaning (and a twist to refit shroud for nutrient solution testing). Visit your local retailer to find out more.

Pure Essentials Black Label Expanded Clay Pebbles Pure Essentials Black Label Expanded Clay Pebbles meet the needs of the most experienced grower. Lightweight kiln-fired expanded clay is derived from the cleanest natural clay available. Guaranteed absence of heavy metals and other contaminates (super low TDS) and extreme pH Stability makes this expanded clay product an ideal surface for roots and beneficial bacteria. Double prewashed 0.31- to 0.63-in. sized pebbles ensure minimal particles and dust. Pure Essentials Black Label Expanded Clay Pebbles are 100% reusable and a great eco-friendly approach to hydroponic grow mediums. Available in 1.58-cu.-ft. bags at your local hydroponics store.

Does Fungus Have Your Garden in a Bind? Well, look no further! Greenway Nutrients®introduces No Fungus™. No Fungus is natural plant old- and extractbased fungicide. No Fungus can be applied anytime from germination to the day of harvest. No Fungus attacks a wide variety of mold, mildew and fungal spores immediately and on contact. The dual lysis action of our nana surface technology attacks right at the base (mycelium) while penetrating and destroying the cell pathogen. No Fungus also represses further spore germination. Whether you have a full-blown outbreak or simply wish to use as part of your preventative regimen, No Fungus packs a powerful a 92 to 98% efficacy upon first application. To learn more, visit a hydroponic retail shop near you.

Finisher Finisher is a super additive used to finish off your flowering cycle. This product was formulated to get the absolute most from your flowering plants. Like all Green Planet Nutrients, we start with the highest-quality raw materials blended in precisely the right way. Finisher is a must-have for the last three to six weeks of flowering. Most flowering additives are discontinued during the flush stage due to the high mineral salt content. Finisher, on the other hand, can be used all the way through the flowering stage including the flush stage. Finisher will pump up the weight and quality of the flowers, finishing the flowering stage in the best possible way, maximizing your efforts. For more information, visit your local indoor gardening shop.

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT ExHale Bags Photosynthesis is the process by which plant leaves make carbohydrates. Sunlight, CO2 and water are converted into carbohydrates and O2 by the action of chlorophyll in the chloroplasts of the plant. Plants growing indoors under artificial light often lack enough CO2 to efficiently photosynthesize. When plants are able to maximize the process of photosynthesis, the result is larger plants with larger yields. ExHale cultivates CO2 24 hours a day with no need to refill bottles or use expensive CO2 production units. The power of ExHale lies in the mycelial mass inside the vented cultivator. This mycelial mass cultivates CO2 and the microporous breather patch releases CO2 continually for up to six months. No need to turn it on or turn it off, simply place ExHale in your grow space and leave it alone to do its job. To learn more, visit a hydroponics store near you.

Microbe Life NOURISH-L NOURISH-L is a unique liquid conditioner derived from a highly decomposed organic humus deposit, unparalleled by other sources of humates. This rich substrate provides NOURISH-L with high levels of water-soluble humic acids, resulting in a robust structure that can increase water retention and might enhance the ability of plants to absorb nutrients. NOURISH-L also contains a mixture of natural carbon compounds— the ultimate food source for your soil and its micro-organisms— made of marine animal carbon and vegetative carbon compounds. Certified for organic production, this product can be used with most indoor and outdoor systems. Learn more at your nearest hydroponics store.

Air Force Pro Linear Air Pumps by Sunlight Supply, Inc. Sunlight Supply, Inc is pleased to announce the release of Air Force Pro Linear Air Pumps. These Linear Air Pumps are made out of a solid aluminum housing and are perfect for growers who require high output and efficiency, simple maintenance and quiet operation. Made to the highest standards using quality components, Air Force Pro Linear Air Pumps will give you the reliability and performance you need to provide oxygen in reservoirs, fish farms, hydroponic systems and more! All Air Force Pro Linear Air Pumps are UL listed and backed with a 2-year limited warranty. Available in four different models: Air Force Pro-15 (19 LPM), Air Force Pro-40 (47 LPM), Air Force Pro-60 (68LPM) and Air Force Pro-80 (86LPM). Visit your nearest hydroponics store for more information.

Pure Essentials Black Label ZYM Enzymes are an essential component in any healthy root system. Pure Essentials Black Label ZYM has been engineered from more than ten different types of enzymes complemented with an array of vitamins and exotic plant extracts. The result is a dramatic acceleration of the crucial processes relating to the breakdown and cycling of dead and decaying root matter so that harmful pathogenic organisms are less likely to take hold. Pure Essentials Black Label ZYM also helps to protect and reduce stress in your plants and increase overall vigor and plant health. For use in hydroponics, soil, and soilless gardening applications, ZYM will break down dead root mass, unleashing a natural supercharger for your plants! Available in a range of sizes from 8.45 fl. oz. to 55 gallons. See a local indoor garening store for more information.

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

Sunleaves TDS Essential Plus Is a Must-Have Meter The Sunleaves TDS Essential Plus is a highly advanced handheld meter that measures nutrient solutions’ EC from 0 to 9,999 µS, TDS from 0 to 5,000 ppm, and temperature from 33 to 176°F. The water-resistant meter features an easy-to-read LCD screen, auto shutoff, data-hold, low-battery indicator, automatic temperature compensation and push-button digital adjustment. The Sunleaves TDS Essential Plus includes batteries and a one-year warranty. Go to a store near you to find out more.

Galaxy Grow Amp Select-A-Watt Ballast by Sunlight Supply, Inc. Sunlight Supply®, Inc. is pleased to announce the arrival of the Galaxy® Grow Amp Select-A-Watt® Ballasts. Galaxy stateof-the-art HID ballasts are manufactured to provide today’s serious grower with maximum flexibility and performance. The Galaxy Select-A-Watt is the preferred electronic ballast on the market, offering the ability to run multiple wattage lamps or dim the highest wattage (defined by model). Galaxy ballasts have an incorporated staggered low current starting feature to avoid inrush problems when running multiple ballasts. They are available in 1,500; 1,000; 750; 600 and 400 W. The Galaxy brand name carries a strong reputation of reliability and performance. Grow Amp also features ultra low RFI broadband emissions. They are compatible with all Sun System® brand reflectors. For more information, speak to an indoor garden equipment retailer.

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

Get Growing with a Super Starter Propagation Kit Need flexibility to start cuttings or germinate seeds with a single kit? The Super Starter Propagation Kit includes what gardeners need for a super start to the growing season. The 72site round-cell insert and 21 by 10.5-in. heavy-duty flat provide ample space for seeds or cuttings. The Super Starter Heat Mat increases root zone temperatures for improved germination while the Super Starter Humidity Dome with adjustable vents allows regulation of humidity. The Kit includes a 0.25 oz. of Technaflora Rootech Cloning Gel to promote healthy root development in your cuttings. To learn more, visit a store near you.

Aussie Tonic Aussie Tonic is a comprehensive blend of carefully selected vitamins designed to reduce plant stress while supporting essential functions. Aussie Tonic can be used on cuttings, transplants and for general health. It comes in a highly concentrated formula that will support heavy fruit and flowering formation. If shock has been caused from overwatering or under watering, excess heat, transplanting or growth spurts, then Aussie Tonic is a must use. This is your best insurance policy against any stress. When used diligently, the powerful antioxidant will not only boost plant health, but accelerate growth resulting in huge yields as well. See a hydroponics retailer for more information.

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

Introducing Spring Pots Introducing Spring Pots, the first fully collapsible fabric aeration pot that stands up on its own. Spring Pots are reusable containers that control plant temperature, aerate and prune the plant’s roots leading to faster growth and healthy root systems! The rigid shape of the Spring Pots makes filling and transplanting a one-person job without the need to hold open a floppy fabric pot. The upper rim of the Spring Pot is also rigid preventing it from folding over when watering, keeping the water and nutrients in the pot where they belong. The handles and collapsible tabs on Spring Pots come standard and offer multiple tie-down points for plant bending and cropping. The rigid structure and handles save you money by reducing root damage caused by shifting medium, which occurs in other fabric pots. Best of all, Sprint Pots are competitively priced less than the leading non-rigid fabric pot. For more info, see a hydroponics store near you.

EZ-CLONE Classic EZ-CLONE is proud to announce our new Classic Cloning System. With over 75 plus improvements to our original systems, the new Classic is surely nothing short of groundbreaking. With a completely redesigned reservoir and lid, users can now clone more plants in less space and can take advantage of all the new technical improvements (including a fully recessed drain plug for easy drainage in between cycles, individually sized manifolds for all systems with optimum mister positioning, dual finger recesses in the lid for easy Cloning Collar extraction and our new leakproof cord outlet, just to name a few). Be sure to check out the new EZ-CLONE Classic at your local indoor gardening shop.

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

Pure Essentials Black Label Root Enhance At the base of every huge harvest is a healthy, active root zone. Now, from extensive years of research, comes this one-of-a-kind root stimulator that is free from the harmful plant growth regulators (PGRs) found in some lesser products. This unique, breakthrough product stimulates root growth to explosive proportions, driving increased vegetative growth and bountiful harvests. Amazingly, this product not only repairs damaged roots (including some of the most virulent root molds), but it also insures continued health and disease resistance in the rhizosphere, meaning new pathogens find it much harder to take hold. So, protect your garden with Pure Essentials Black Label Root Enhance. For more information, visit your nearest indoor gardening shop.

CO2 in a Bottle?

Yes, you read that correctly! Increase Grow™ and Increase Bloom™ are the world’s first all-in-one foliar fertilizers that deliver professionalgrade CO2 directly to your plants leaf surfaces. Infused, CO2-charged and perfectly primed at 1,800 ppm, these highly concentrated products with their revolutionary trade secret formulations are simple, easy-to-use liquid foliar technologies. Our products deliver a direct charge of our isolated CO2 technology at 1,800 ppm with a complete, highly concentrated blend of Mother Nature’s raw energy (Increase Grow: 12-12-3, and Increase Bloom: 3-10-1) with no synthetic additives, fillers or chelates. Experience the results for yourself; simply open a bottle, mist to runoff, apply and let Mother Nature do the rest. It’s that simple! For more information, contact your nearest retailer. 

The Original Triple-layer Breathable Blackout Fabric by FFG Forever Flowering Greenhouses has the perfect cover for any light deprivation enthusiast. It consists of three layers of material to create total darkness with the ability to transfer heat and humidity. It’s black on the inside to ensure total darkness and white on the outside to avoid heat buildup. The material is lightweight and can be used in manual or automated systems. FFG works with a company with over 125 years of greenhouse experience to produce these fabrics. Our goal is to provide high-quality, longlasting materials for our customers. They come in a variety of sizes, and it’s never too early to prepare for next season. For more info, talk to your nearest hydroponics equipment retailer.

Mite Kill and Mold Kill by Spider Organics Spider Organics produces Mite Kill and Mold Kill with OMRI-listed and 100%-natural ingredients. We are a family-owned and operated business with facilities in California, Oregon and Michigan. Our products eliminate spider mites and their eggs and mold on contact, and it will not burn or leave any residue—leaving your plants shiny and pest-free. Spider Organics provides you with a safe, economical and natural way to rid your garden of soft-bodied pests and mold based on proven agricultural research. Available in a variety of sizes. For more information, talk to your local indoor gardening equipment retailer.

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

Microbe Life FOLIAR SPRAY & ROOT DIP In today’s hydroponic world, foliar spraying is more commonly recommended and accepted to ensure your plants absorb their required nutrition directly. Nontoxic, nonpathogenic and safe for all vegetable and plants, Microbe Life FOLIAR SPRAY & ROOT DIP is a natural, humic and microbial-based product containing endo- and ectomycorrhizal fungi and beneficial bacteria—including photosynthetic micro-organisms. It can also be used as a root dip to reduce transplant shock or it can be introduced directly into your water reservoir for application during your regular watering schedule. It is compatible with all standard nutrient and fertilizer programs and with the use of CO2. It works well with all indoor and outdoor systems, can be used during all stages of growth and will not burn plants. See your local retailer for more information.

New Packaging for Bluelab’s Probe Care Kits Bluelab have gone for a greener, recyclable cardboard box for their Probe Cleaning Kit packaging, shifting away from a non-recyclable plastic. The boxes have been given a complete new look, along with a name change. All kit contents remain the same, however; so, you still receive all the tools you need to care for your Bluelab Conductivity or pH Probe and Bluelab pens. Probe cleaning is one of the most important parts of owning any Bluelab meter, monitor or controller. The right care of your probe increases the lifespan and improves accuracy of readings. Accurate readings make it easier to maximize the growth of your crop! Contact your nearest retailer to order or find out more.

SuperCloset Releases the SuperStar to Popular Demand SuperCloset recently released the SuperStar within its grow box suite of products. The SuperStar is a 24- by 24- by 66-in. grow box cabinet divided into two different growing chambers for both propagation and vegetative growth and flowering. The cloning chamber houses a 14-plant site SuperCloner and Germination Station and is powered by two 24-W T-5 fluorescent bulbs, which is ideal for new plants. The flowering chamber holds up to 16 plants in two eight-plant site, 8-gal. reservoirs. The flowering chamber is powered by a 150-W full spectrum HPS lighting system. The lighting system is height adjustable as it is suspended by yo-yo’s. In addition, there is a carbon filter added for odor control and every other accessory and component imaginable is added to the system for the complete turnkey product experience. For more information, go to your nearest hydroponic shop.

CO2 Regulator and Valve now Available Through HDI

Hydrodynamics International introduces the Aura Systems CO2 Regulator and Valve. Enriching the air with CO2 helps to stimulate growth and development in nearly all plants. Using the Aura Systems CO2 Regulator and Valve makes adding CO2 to your plant’s environment easier for you. This regulator will work with any 120-V device and has flexible 0.5 to 15 SCFH settings. In addition, there is a tank pressure gauge and a 3-year full-exchange warranty for this product, along with a solenoid valve and a 6-ft. power cord. You’ll appreciate the easy-to-read square CO2 flow meter and your plants will appreciate the added CO2! Visit an indoor gardening equipment shop for more information.

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

Deep Fusion Humboldt County’s own Deep Fusion Fertilizer Series combines the best of both worlds: high-potency chemical fertilizers balanced with kelp, vitamin B1 and molasses—the key organic substrate that is the base nutrient of almost all commercial organic fertilizers. Molasses is a rich source of simple and complex sugars, polysaccharides, esters, vitamins, amino acids and a full spectrum of micronutrients. It forms soluble bio-available complexes with many micronutrients under a wide range of pH conditions. This is especially important for growers who are working with less than ideal water sources. To learn more, visit your local indoor gardening shop.

Sun System HardCore HPS 600- and 1,000-W 120-V/240-V Ballasts Sunlight Supply®, Inc. is pleased to announce the arrival of the Sun System® Sun System® HardCore™ HPS 600- and 1,000-W 120-V/240V Ballasts. This open ballast design is compact and runs cool! HardCore offers superior cooling capabilities while extending the longevity of the capacitor and igniter. Our HardCore ballast with dual input voltage easily switches from 120- to 240-V power! Simply unplug the detachable 8-ft. 120-V power cord, turn the power plate around for 240-V power and plug in a 240-V power cord. Powdercoated steel housing with louvered venting and solid design helps protect internal components. Rubber feet reduce noise and vibration. Excellent ballast quality with high temp (302°F) wire connections will provide years of troublefree operation. Accepts all Sun System® lamp cords and is the only ETL-listed open ballast design on the market. Visit a hydroponics store to learn more.

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

Gorilla Grow Tent’s Adjustable Height 2by 4-ft. Grow Tent Gorilla Grow Tent’s working horse tent is the 2- by 4-ft. grow tent. It is perfect for a three 5-gal. soil pot array designed for three plants or a hydroponic system designed for 16 plants in a sea-of-green configuration. The height extension system allows for the tent to increase from a standard height of 83 in. to 95 in. This feature is unique to the grow tent market and is the number-one reason for the rush of pre-orders. In addition, this tent is designed with the thickest 1680D IR blocking fabric mesh insulation—essentially three to nine times thicker than any other tent on the market today—which helps it maintain perfect temperature and humidity throughout. Contact a retailer near you for more information.

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The new Hula Perfect Planter The innovative new Hula planter is a combined achievement and creation of Sanctuary Soil and Feed Inc. and EcoActive Surfaces. The Oxytitan coating is cutting-edge technology combined with the easy and portable Hula perfect planter. The new Hula reusable and recyclable planter’s outer OxiTitan coating, electro-statically traps and then kills all types of bacteria, viruses and fungal spores through the production of reactive oxygen species (especially hydroxyl radicals, which are one of the most powerful oxidizers of organics). The Hula Perfect planter can be watered using any method—top feed, flood or DTW, as well as hand watered. It provides a cleaner and healthier environment with the safe and transparent OxiTitan Antimicrobial Coating. Learn more by visiting a hydroponics shop near you.


PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

Magnum Humboldt County’s own Magnum with vitamin B1; magnum is a potent magnesium supplement for preventing or treating magnesium deficiency. Magnesium is the critical element in the chlorophyll molecule, which drives all the energy processes in a plant. High demand for magnesium in the bloom stage can cause fading green leaves due to chlorophyll deficiency right when flowers are putting on mass at a rapid rate. Magnum will keep a plant’s energy factories optimized and the vitamin B1 helps to relieve the serious stress caused by high-performance bloom formulations. Visit a hydroponics store to learn more.

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Dutch Master Introduces 8.4-oz Sizes By popular demand, Dutch Master is introducing all new 8.4-oz size! We are so confident in the results that our Gold Range products achieve that we decided to make our Gold Range Foliar Spray and Tank Additive products in a smaller size for those that aren’t so sure or for those on a tighter budget. Our products are concentrated enough to go a long way, effective enough to see results fast and now smaller size is affordable enough for people to experience the results themselves! So, now you can encourage your customers to try the Dutch Master Gold Range and see just how good our products really are! For information, please visit the nearest hydroponics shop.


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understanding phosphorous acid products

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Phosphorus

Phosphite

First, plants need certain essential nutrients—carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium—in large quantities. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are sold in the market as fertilizers; they make up the N-P-K numbers [grade] on fertilizer bags. In terms of phosphorus (P), not all forms of phosphorus are available in the soil for plants to use, nor are all of the forms useful to the plant once inside. The main use of phosphorus in plants is for the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is the energy-storing molecule (or gasoline, if you will) of the plant. Phosphorus is also used heavily in root growth and other biochemical processes. Phosphorus can come in many forms—each with a different function in the plant—and yet still be sold as fertilizer. It is important to know the differences between these products and their functions so you know what kind of results to expect from them. In fertilizers, phosphorus is usually in the phosphate form (PO4) and expressed as a percentage of equivalent P2O5. Phosphate fertilizers are made using phosphoric acid. It makes more sense to list the amount of phosphorus on fertilizer labels (as it is done in Europe), but the P2O5 equivalence requirement stems from an archaic law that is still on the books in the United States. Some common phosphate fertilizers are super phosphate and ammonium phosphate. Phosphate fertilizers are used in large amounts in horticultural, agricultural and turf applications and they are often blamed for algae blooms in rivers and lakes (water carries phosphates and nitrogen fertilizers to these bodies of water). The rapidly growing algae blooms suck oxygen from the water, thus resulting in large fish kills. It is for this reason that many states are regulating and limiting the amount of phosphorus products that can be applied to crops and turf as fertilizers. In fact, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is considering regulating waste water effluent from greenhouses and hydroponics operations in the future to control their levels of nutrients released into municipal sewer systems and the environment. In other words, growers will have to become more efficient in their use of phosphate, nitrogen and other nutrients, so it will become more important in the future to know the various forms of these materials and how to use them correctly.

Phosphite (PO3) is a phosphorous compound that has one less oxygen molecule than phosphate fertilizer. Phosphite is made using phosphorous acid. The key difference between phosphite and phosphate is that phosphite has very strong fungicidal qualities, particularly against the water mold fungi phytophthora, rhizoctonia and downy mildew. This quality makes phosphites particularly attractive for hydroponics applications since the plant’s roots are kept in very moist and wet conditions for prolonged periods of time. Phosphites also have some fungicidal activity against fusarium, apple scab, phomopsis, colletotrichum leaf spot (anthracnose), uromyces, sclerotinia and xanthomonas. Conversely, phosphate fertilizer has no fungicidal activity.

Maximum Yield USA | February 2013

Phosphorus

can come in many forms—each with a different function in the plant—and yet still be sold as fertilizer. It is important to know the differences between these products and their functions so you know what kind of results to expect from them.”


understanding phosphorous acid products Phosphites are labeled and sold as both fungicides and fertilizers. The reason for the fertilizer label is that the phosphite will be exposed to oxygen and microbial action over time and, thus, transformed into phosphate fertilizer. The problem is that, according to some scientists, this process is too slow to be of any practical value (it takes at least six weeks). For example, bone meal is a form of phosphorus certified for use in organic food production, but you can imagine how immediately available to plants the phosphorus in bones might be—yet bone meal has no label restriction in this regard. Nevertheless, it is for this reason that thirteen states—California, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas and Washington—do not recognize phosphites as a source of phosphate fertilizer. In these states, a phosphite with an analysis of 0-2825 would have to be labeled 0-0-25. In California, it would be labeled as 0-28*-25 (the asterisk is required since a state law was passed in 2006). So, there are often arguments about whether phosphites are really fungicides or fertilizers—sort of like the old Saturday Night Live skit: “It’s a floor wax, no it’s a dessert topping; actually, it’s both!” The mode of action in which phosphite materials control fungal disease is not clear, but it is thought that there is direct activity against the pathogen and an effect on the crop plant. Phosphites are known to jump-start the plants’ immune system by ramping up the production of phytoalexins. There is evidence for the existence of other lesser-known modes of action, thus making the formation of resistance to phosphites very unlikely (given that the pathogen has to overcome these multiple systems). It is for these reasons that phosphites are so effective for disease control and why there are literally dozens of manufacturers worldwide selling them as fertilizer and fungicide. Phosphites are routinely used in fungicide rotations to manage resistance. The phosphites belong to resistance management class FRAC 33. Phosphites are usually created by combining a strong inorganic acid (low pH solvent) with a strong inorganic base (high pH solvent) to form phosphite salts. Inorganic, in the chemical sense, means there is no carbon in the molecule.

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Phosphites have another interesting characteristic: once absorbed into the plant they travel in both the xylem and phloem conductive tissues, meaning that they are transported to all plant tissues in a systemic fashion. Moreover, phosphites are readily absorbed by root, stem and leaf tissues, making for versatile application procedures (such as drenches, root dips, tree bark treatments, soil application, soil injection, chemigation and foliar and aerial application methods). And besides being useful during the crop season, many phosphites are labeled for post-harvest applications by either spraying the crop as it enters a storage bin or by using a vaporizing system. As a rule, phosphites are very safe for humans and the EPA often approves them as reduced-risk pesticides.

Phosphites

have another interesting characteristic: once absorbed into the plant they travel in both the xylem and phloem conductive tissues, meaning that they are transported to all plant tissues in a systemic fashion.”


understanding phosphorous acid products

One side benefit of using phosphites is that they enhance root growth through root flushes. There is some debate as to whether this is the result of direct growth promotion of the roots, or a suppression of root-rotting fungi, leading to healthier and more extensive root systems. Phosphites have both curative and preventive action, so it is important to apply them preventively to get the full benefit.

Phosphonate In chemistry, any material with a carbonphosphorus bond is termed a phosphonate. The main beneficial feature of phosphonates is that they decompose or break down to become phosphites. One particular phosphonate product is made with aluminum, but—true to the phosphonates—this product must undergo a chemical conversion after application to produce phosphite. Ethylene gas is released during the conversion process, which can be a problem at times as ethylene gas controls the ripening of fruits. Moreover, aluminum can be toxic to plants in acidic soils and it can compete with other micronutrients in the soil, thus causing nutrient deficiencies. Although this type of product has been in the market a long time and is effective, many growers like to buy products where the ratio of ingredients that are usable by plants is maximized (for example, potassium phosphite, calcium phosphite, ammonium phosphite and others are preferred as potassium, calcium and ammonium are all used by plants). Therefore, the term phosphonates is often used or confused as an umbrella term for all phosphiterelated products, but this is a misnomer since inorganic phosphites (phosphite salts) contain no carbon.

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So, now that you have a basic understanding of the terminology, you can feel more confident in buying and using phosphorus and phosphorous acid products for your indoor growing operation. The versatility, effectiveness and safety of using phosphorous acid products make them an attractive and useful addition to your fertilizer and fungicide application program.

the term

phosphonates is often used or confused as an umbrella term for all phosphiterelated products, but this is a misnomer since inorganic phosphites (phosphite salts) contain no carbon.”


by

r e p p o H c i r E

Volume Produced (m3)

Plants are very diverse and unique organisms. Each individual species has its own unique requirements for nutritional intake, light intensity, temperature, humidity,CO2 and pH of the medium and nutrient solution.

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energy input (kj)


Consistency is the key

Further increasing the complexity, there are often multiple subspecies that can also greatly vary in their requirements for optimal growth. The good thing for horticulturalists is that although plant species vary greatly in their specific requirements, almost every plant species on the planet thrives with consistency. So, in order to help your plants thrive, it is important to understand the parameters required to supercharge the plants throughout all stages of growth.

Seedlings Although seedlings from different plants will vary greatly in their requirements for optimal performance, most fast-growing annual seedlings share the same basic needs. By following some general rules of thumb, a gardener can achieve seedling success fairly easily. During germination, the majority of summer plant varieties require warm conditions (usually 72 to 80°F). Spring or fall varieties of flowers or vegetables require lower tempera-

tures for germination. A seedling heat mat is a must-have for any indoor horticulturalist. This device, teamed with a thermostat, ensures consistent temperatures for even the most novice of growers. A consistent temperature throughout the germination stage is crucial to root development. Many plant varieties also benefit from higher humidities during the early stages of seedling growth. A humidity dome, plastic bag or any other device that can be used to raise the humidity level around the seedling is beneficial. Unlike cuttings and clones, seedlings usually only require high humidity for the first day or two and then can acclimate well to the surrounding environment. Nutrient requirements for seedlings are generally one-eighth of what is required for a mature plant of that particular variety. Most potting soils will contain more than enough nutrients to start seeds. If you are using an inert medium, add a very diluted fertilizer. You can use a diluted grow fertilizer (one-eighth strength), although few seedlings require high nitrogen at this early stage. Many horticulturalists supplement a blooming fertilizer at one-eighth strength to their seedlings with great success.

Volume Produced (m3)

in order to help

your plants thrive it is important to understand the parameters required to supercharge the plants throughout all stages of growth.”

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energy input (kj)


The good

thing for horticulturalists is that although plant species vary greatly in their specific requirements, almost every plant species on the planet thrives with consistency.”

Cuttings Most cuttings have similar requirements to the seedlings. Horticulturalists need to pay special attention during this stage of growth. Cuttings are more sensitive to large temperature and humidity variances. Cuttings are usually most successful if they have their own grow space (note that some plant varieties are simply easier to clone than others). This is not to say that you cannot successfully grow cuttings in a vegetative room alongside other plants; however, having a specific place to grow cuttings allows the grower to have more control over the atmospheric conditions. Still, most plants have a range of desirable conditions that are almost universal when discussing the cutting process. The temperature requirement for most cuttings is between 72 and 82°F, with the sweet spot usually right around 78°F. A heat mat can be a lifesaver in keeping consistent temperatures throughout the cutting process. In environments where temperatures stray too far from the ideal range,

input (kj)

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Consistency is the key

In bioponics,

Growers should utilize humidity domes, ultrasonic humidifiers or any other device that can keep the humidity between 80 and 100% for the first five to seven days of the cutting process. After the first week, or at the first sign of roots, the cuttings can be slowly acclimatized to their surrounding environment.”

Volume Produced (m3)

less than desirable results will occur. If temperatures are too low, the cuttings will enter a state of suspended animation—that is, they will appear green and healthy but will never sprout roots. Eventually they will die or rot. Cuttings grown in temperatures that are too high usually soften and rot within a week without producing any viable roots. This can be a problem for growers using aeroponic cloners in atmospheric conditions that are too warm. The submersible pump in aeroponic cloners produces heat that, if left unchecked in an already warm environment, can put the water temperature above the desired range. This can be rectified by placing the cloner in a cooler environment or cycling the pump. A cycle timer can reduce the heat created by the pump by allowing it to cool between cycles. Sophisticated cycle timers allow the grower to set the on and off time down to the second or minute. A basic fifteen minute increment timer can work in a pinch for a grower with a hot cloner. Consistent humidity is another crucial parameter in the cutting stage. Most plant varieties require high humidity levels for the first week or so. This is because

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energy input (kj)

the leaves still transpire moisture the way they did when they were part of the whole plant. If a cutting transpires more moisture than it is able to replace it will wilt and die. In a high-humidity environment a cutting can retain much of its moisture and, therefore, retain its structural integrity. Growers should utilize humidity domes, ultrasonic humidifiers or any other device that can keep the humidity between 80 and 100% for the first five to seven days of the cutting process. After the first week, or at the first sign of roots, the cuttings can be slowly acclimatized to their surrounding environment. Nutrient requirements for cuttings are similar to that of seedlings. Most plant varieties require very little fertilizer for the initial cutting stage. High nitrogen fertilizers can actually hinder root development, so diluted blooming fertilizers or specific cutting fertilizers are usually the best choice for growers.

Vegetative stage The majority of fast-growing annual plants have a vegetative stage and a fruiting or flowering stage. Throughout the vegetative stage most plants will thrive in a temperature range of 72 to 85°F. Keeping the temperature consistently within that range during the light cycle will be extremely beneficial. Humidity for the vegetative stage can be much higher than that of the fruiting or flowering stage. The ideal range is usually between 60 and 80%. With the temperature


and humidity consistently kept in the desired range, the plants are able to most efficiently use the light energy, nutrients, CO2 and water supplied by the horticulturalist. When temperatures and humidity fall too far from the desired ranges, the plant’s ability to photosynthesize is compromised, its metabolism slows down and all plant functions are no longer operating at optimal levels. Consistent temperature and humidity in the vegetative stage, teamed with adequate light energy and quality nutrients, results in accelerated, vigorous growth. Nutrient intake for plants in the vegetative stage revolves around nitrogen. A good grow fertilizer will always have a higher ratio of nitrogen relative to potassium and phosphorus. Nitrogen is needed for fast, luscious, green growth. The vegetative stage is the foundation for the future harvest of fruit or flowers and its importance should be recognized as equal to any other stage of growth. The more structurally sound a plant’s vegetative growth, the larger the fruit or flowers it can produce.

Fruiting or flowering stage As fast-growing annuals finish their vegetative stage, they will enter the fruiting or flowering stage. This is the stage where they bear fruit or create blooms. Ideal temperature ranges for the fruiting

The vegetative

stage is the foundation for the future harvest of fruit or flowers and its importance should be recognized as equal to any other stage of growth.”

input (kj)

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Consistency is the key or flowering stage are just slightly lower than that of the vegetative stage—usually around 70 to 80°F, with no more than a 15 degree variance in the light to dark cycle temperatures. The ideal humidity for the fruiting or flowering stage is 40 to 60%, which is significantly lower than that of the vegetative stage. Keeping an indoor garden within these parameters will ensure your fruit or flowers can develop quickly and to maximum size without being impeded by molds or fungus. High temperatures teamed with high humidity in a bloom room are an invitation for a variety of pathogenic molds and a recipe for disaster. Low temperatures in a blooming room will dramatically slow growth and lower yields. Consistency is also important in the temperature difference between the light and dark cycle of a growroom. Repetitive temperature fluctuations that exceed 15°F can create condensation, which raises humidity and increases the likelihood of pathogenic mildews. Nutrient requirements for the blooming stage require a lessened amount of nitrogen in comparison to the other macronutrients. Bloom fertilizers with high phosphorus and potassium are usually the best choice for any fast-growing annual plant. The reduction of nitrogen along with the increase of phosphorus will help trigger plant hormones specific to fruiting or flowering. Once a horticulturist finds the optimal conditions for their given crop, the best way to continually maximize performance is to make those magical parameters as consistent as possible. Consistency allows for the basic plant functions we all take for granted to function at full tilt. Variance from those optimal conditions will slow plant functions down. Our goals as indoor horticulturists are not only to give the plants what they need to survive, but to create an artificial environment in which they can thrive. In order for plants to thrive, they must have their basic needs met—met in a consistent manner on which they can capitalize.

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energy input (kj)


growing for health

by Chad Garbet Nothing is worse than finding pests in your garden or your growroom, and it’s no different when those pests are tiny fungus gnats. 74

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Fungus gnats are a common nuisance to many gardeners. This tiny black creature with a slender thorax (much like a miniature mosquito) is annoying when in the area and its larvae eat away at precious root growth, destroying plant structure. Even the smallest amount of fungus can attract them, and infestation can happen quickly—often before most can notice. The larvae—translucent, greyish-white mini worms with black heads—hatch from small grey silk-like cocoons. Any signs of any of these creatures can stress gardeners out, and most people will immediately think of turning to pesticides. Now, that might be a good option, but one should always remember that a pesticide is a poison. So, that being said, pesticides should always be used as a last resort. Luckily, we have other options. There are now natural-based gnat products on the market. Also, as humans have dealt with pests naturally for thousands of years, it is possible to take things into your own hands. Pesticide-free options are almost always an easy fix and, being the busy gardener that I am (like most gardeners), easy sounds like it saves some of that precious time. First, you have to think like the gnat. Be the gnat. Now, that we are gnats: aren’t you kind of hungry? After all, we see that there’s a bunch of hungry gnats out there on our plants, so now we have to figure out what they eat and how to get rid of that. They are called fungus gnats so that saves us some brainstorming. Fungus is the primary food source for gnats. These little buggers are attracted to it like the scourge. Fungus might not even be apparent at the time, but these pests smell it out. Small amounts of fungus are easy enough to clear out. In bad fungus cases, we might want to move directly out of the growroom. For small fungus infestations, an easy solution is baking soda. It’s in most refrigerators, cupboards and pantries, so it saves us a bit of time and

some money. Mix about a level tablespoon of baking soda and a single drop of dish detergent per quarter gallon of water, remembering to shake well. Spray this on your plants lightly about once every three days for about two weeks. The baking soda raises pH, thus causing fungus to stop its growth, and the detergent makes sure the area is clean, thus stopping anymore fungi from forming. Now that the fungus gnat’s main food source is gone, hopefully no more fungus pests will be attracted. After this, the current population’s numbers will start to dwindle down. You might find the few stragglers, but this is okay; home remedies sometimes take time. Now, like Superman, the fungus gnats have a kryptonite. It’s cinnamon. Those little guys can’t stand it. You can see them squirm when you lightly dust the soil with the cinnamon. Also, the same effects are present when you water with chamomile or spearmint teas. (I personally think the cinnamon works the fastest.) Gnats will literally flee the scene, leaving only a few egg sacks. However, you have to be persistent and repeat a few times or they will multiply and come back. After a few weeks of treatment, you will see the fungus gnats are not present. To make sure the little pest’s don’t come back, ensure your garden or growroom is always clean. For heavily effected plants, these home remedies might not work and pesticides might have to be applied. Remember, this is only a last resort; try to do the all-natural ways first. Still, there is another way to get around pesticides and home remedies. Mother Nature provides us with more bugs to fight against the pests. Bugs that eat other bugs… seems pretty neat to me. Nematodes and Hypoaspis miles are two great warriors to use to get revenge on the fungus gnats. The nematode is a parasitic round worm that enters the pests’ larvae and release a bacterium into the host, killing it within 48 hours. Hypoaspis miles is a preditory mite that also feed on the young of the fungus gnats. Another bug that can work is ladybugs; if no aphids can be found, these guys will resort to other pest (they’re also a fun bug to have around).

pesticides should always be used as a last resort.”

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G N I D O DEC PPM by Grubbycup

Often, plants require nutrient elements in quantities so minute that we need to look at them in parts per hundred and parts per million. Grubbycup explains how these measuring systems works.

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decoding PPM

“it is in the best interest of the gardener to have some idea of the nutritional value of the fertilizer being added.” Plants require nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), along with other elements known as macro- and micronutrients, to grow well. In the wild, plants send out roots and try to find usable sources of these elements. In a garden, these nutrients are usually supplied (one way or another) by the gardener via fertilizers. With fertilizers, the gardener adds material that contains the desired elements in forms that are either immediately available to the plant, such as is the case with many nutrient salts, or will break down gradually over time to become available to the plant, as organic materials tend to do. In either case, it is in the

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best interest of the gardener to have some idea of the nutritional value of the fertilizer being added, both to make sure that they don’t overfeed or insufficiently feed their plants, and to make sure that they aren’t adding several sources of one element and not enough of another. Nutrient solutions are generally based on true solutions, although the math works out the same even if they are mixtures instead. A solution is made of at least two substances. The majority of the solution will be the solvent (in aqueous solutions, like those used in gardening, the solvent used is water). The substance dissolved into the water is known as the solute. The amount of solute in a solution determines the solution’s concentration. To put it simply,


Decoding PPM

the more nutrient added to the water, the stronger the solution becomes. Knowing what elements (nutrients) a solute (the fertilizer) has, and at what strength they are in, is important to calculating the final nutrient solution given to the plants. To help with this, fertilizers are marked with an N-P-K listing values to help gardeners get an idea of how much N, P and K is in the bottle or bag. Parts per hundred is a pretty common way to relate two things, although it is more commonly referred to as percent. For example, a fertilizer with an N-P-K rating of 10-5-14, is made of 10 parts N per 100 parts of fertilizer. Another way to express that is to say it is 10% N. In the case of N, the N-P-K value listed and the amount of elemental N are the same. For P and K, their N-P-K values are for the oxide forms. Phosphorus oxide is 43.6 parts per 100 elemental P, so— using the N-P-K value above—multiplying 5 by 0.436 will give the elemental P value of 2.18 parts per hundred, or 2.18%. Potassium oxide is 83% elemental K, so a final N-P-K value of 14 would indicate a fertilizer that is 11.62% K (0.83 x 14 = 11.62). While knowing that the composition of our solute is 10% N, 2.18% P and 11.62% K tells us some useful information about the proportions of what we are putting into the water to make our solution, concentration is another critical factor. As this is a

pretty potent nutrient, the difference between mixing 1 mg per liter and 1 tsp (5 mg) per liter makes for a very different experience for the plants (this is why I recommend at least reading the recommended feeding rates even if you don’t follow them exactly). Just how big of a difference can be shown with a little more math and the numbers we already have. 1 liter of water weighs 1,000 mg. If we add 1 mg of solute, the total weight becomes 1,001 mg. Since our solute is 1 mg of 10% elemental N, we can calculate the weight of the element: 10% of 1 mg = 0.1 mg. Since fertilizers are added to in small amounts, and the amount of the desired elements are only a fraction of those small amounts, it is common to use parts per million (ppm) to express how much of each element is in the nutrient solution. Parts per million is used for concentrations smaller than can be easily expressed in parts per hundred (percent), but larger than those commonly expressed in parts per billion. To calculate ppm, simply divide the weight of element in solute by the total weight of solution and multiply that total by one million. So, using the data from our example for N:

(0.1 mg N / 1,001 mg) x 1,000,000 = 100 ppm elemental N We can also calculate the value of P and K using this same formula.

(0.0218 mg P / 1,001 mg) x 1,000,000 = 22 ppm elemental P (0.1162 mg K / 1,001 mg) x 1,000,000 = 116 ppm elemental K So, if 1 mg of this nutrient is added per liter, the nutrient solution will have 100 ppm N, 22 ppm P and 116 ppm K—which is in the ballpark for many plants that aren’t actively fruiting. Since plants can survive twice those values, going as high as 2 mg per liter would be reasonable to work up to.

“Knowing what elements (nutrients) a solute (the fertilizer) has, and at what strength they are in, is important to calculating the final nutrient solution given to the plants.”

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Decoding PPM

“not only can current feeding schedules be analyzed, but they can be adjusted to produce specific ppm solutions for different stages of plant growth.”

Note: if gallons are easier for you to work and mix in, simply multiply the 1 mg by 3.78541 to get the amount to add per gallon (in this case, we would use 3.78541 mg per gallon). Back to our example, if you were to use 1 tsp per liter (or a heaping tablespoon per gallon) instead of 1 mg, calculating ppm shows how dramatic a difference that makes for your plants. Here is the math:

feeding problems. Also note that the equation can be reversed to estimate a dose from a desired ppm. If a concentration of 150 ppm of N is the goal (and we’re using our sample solute of 10% N), then:

150 ppm = 10% x 1,000,000 x amount to add / 1,000 mg (ish) This reduces to:

1 tsp = 5 mg

This will almost certainly cause over-

Weight of N in solute = 0.5 mg (10% of 5 mg)

Weight of P is solute = 0.109 mg (2.18% of 5 mg) Weight of K in solute = 0.581 mg (11.62% of 5 mg) Total weight of solution = 1,005 mg (1,000 mg water + 5 mg solute) So, (0.5 mg / 1,005 mg) x 1,000,000 = 498 ppm of elemental N (0.109 mg / 1,005 mg) x 1,000,000 = 108 ppm of elemental P (0.581 mg / 1,005 mg) x 1,000,000 = 578 ppm of elemental K

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150 ppm = 0.1 x 1,000 mg x amount to add Leading to the answer of:

1.5 mg = amount to add One of the most important statistics to consider in formulating a feeding schedule is the ppm of each element of the final solution. By running the numbers on paper, schedules can be evaluated (even if they use several different components in concert). Also, not only can current feeding schedules be analyzed, but they can be adjusted to produce specific ppm solutions for different stages of plant growth. For those that follow the manufacturer’s recommended application schedule, these types of calculations should already have been into account. However, for those gardeners who like to experiment while trying to perfect their own feeding regimen concentrations, these types of calculations can be critical. Oh, and if math isn’t your strong suit, or you would just prefer not to do the calculations yourself, don’t despair! There are free nutrient calculators online that can be used to compute the ppm values with a minimal effort on your part.


BOOSTERS

by Helene Isbell The blooming stage is one of the most amazing parts of a plant’s life cycle, and we’ve figured out how to make it even more incredible. 86

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As conscious gardeners, we take great pride in the produce that we grow. The main goal in the garden is to cultivate the most delicious, nutritious, high-yielding fruits and flowers possible. Experiencing the bloom stage of a female plant’s life cycle is the fun part of growing that makes hours of tedious labor well worth the effort. It’s the sexy, seductive stage when the plant shows herself in all of her flowering glory. From bashful budding to ripe, busty blooms, the flowering stage is the time in a plant’s life cycle in which it undergoes the most drastic transformation. It is so satisfying—the joyous ending when gardeners get to celebrate the fruits of their labor! As the horticultural industry advances in research and development, specialized fertilizers and supplements have been perfected to give plants the specific nutrients they need to grow into healthy producers. There are hundreds of fertilizers on the market and sometimes deciding which brand to use can be an overwhelming and daunting process. To choose a fertilizer that will produce the best results, it is important to understand the specific nutritional requirements of the crop during the different stages of the flowering process. Experienced gardeners might also choose to use a bloom booster, a potent formula designed to significantly increase the size of the crop’s final yield.

Entering the flowering stage Plants begin the flowering process when their light source is changed from 18 hours

There are hundreds

of fertilizers on the market and sometimes deciding which brand to use can be an overwhelming and daunting process.”

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bloom boosters

The importance of nutrients The bloom cycle is the stage when plants are focusing all of their energy on producing big, juicy fruits and flowers. Indeed, as plants make the transition from the vegetative cycle to the flowering cycle, their nutritional requirements also change. Specific macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, enzymes and trace elements work together in the flowering process to aid in the formation of healthy flowers. Each ingredient in a nutrient mixture plays a different vital role, so making sure that all of the plant’s needs are met can be the biggest challenge for growers.

1,308 words Bloom Boosters Helene Isbell of sunlight down to 12 hours of sunlight per day. In the natural environment, this occurs when autumn arrives and the days begin to shorten and the seasons begin to change. In an indoor garden, growers have the ability to control the seasons with indoor horticultural lighting. By setting the lights on a timer with 12 hours under lights and 12 hours in the dark, the indoor garden mimics the natural cycle of the sun. It sends a message to the plant, triggering the end of its life cycle and forcing it to reproduce. This is the stage in which the plants begin budding. A female plant produces flowers in hope that it will be pollinated by a male plant to produce seeds, which will carry on both parents’ genetics. By preventing male plants from entering the garden space and exposing females to their pollen, gardeners have the ability to create seedless varieties of flowering plants. However, if the plant is exposed to environmental stress, such as light leaks during the flowering process, there is the possibility that it could self-pollinate and produce seeds.

By preventing

Macronutrients of the flowering cycle

Macronutrients, sometimes referred to as base nutrients, are the primary elements that are the most vital in sustaining healthy plants. Metaphorically speaking, they are the main course in a plant’s meal plan, while micronutrients would make up the side dishes. The three main macronutrients are nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) and at least one of these elements are found in all fertilizers. The ratio of those ingredients, known as the N-P-K ratio, represents the proportions of available nutrients by weight in that particular formula. It is delineated on the bottle by numeric values separated by dashes (the first number represents the volume of nitrogen, the second corresponds with the phosphorous and the third with the potassium).

male plants from entering the garden space and exposing females to their pollen, gardeners have the ability to create seedless varieties of flowering plants.

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Nitrogen (N): this is the least important macronutrient in the flowering cycle. It encourages photosynthesis and chlorophyll production, aiding in vertical growth


of foliage, and stem and leaf production. Nitrogen is necessary during the vegetative stage, but it should be used very sparingly–or not at all—during the flowering cycle. So, for the bloom cycle, choose nutrients with a low N value on the N-P-K rating. Phosphorous (P): this is an overall beneficial stimulant for flowering plants. It promotes the production of healthy roots and flower sites, as well as plays an important role in respiration, conversion of energy and cell division and growth. Phosphorous also speeds up plant maturity. Potassium (K): this is another important macronutrient during the flowering cycle. It transports liquid throughout the roots and stems of the plant and assists in enzymatic activity. Potassium also regulates fluctuations in plant metabolism, increases the amount of flower sites, fortifies plant growth, heightens the immune system and disease resistance of the plant and aids in overall plant vitality.

The other macros Calcium, magnesium and sulfur are three mineral elements that are categorized as the secondary macronutrients. These elements are generally needed in lower quantities than primary base nutrients.

Macronutrients,

sometimes referred to as base nutrients, are the primary elements that are the most vital in sustaining healthy plants.”

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bloom boosters

Calcium (Ca): this plays an important role in cell wall formation and division. Calcium is also a necessary component of the roots, stems, leaves and flowers of a plant. It increases fruit set and promotes beneficial microbial activity. Magnesium (Mg): this element is a key component of chlorophyll. It also increases the availability and efficiency of phosphorous, as well as activates and enables several enzymatic processes. Sulfur (S): this is an important constituent of amino acids. Sulfur also aids enzyme and vitamin development.

Micronutrients Micronutrients, sometimes referred to as trace elements, are other minerals that are vital to plant health. Each plays a specific role in supporting necessary functions in the plant life cycle. They are used in lesser quantities compared to primary and secondary base nutrients (hence, the term micro). The main micronutrients are boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), chloride (Cl), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo) and zinc (Zn).

What are bloom boosters? Bloom boosters are specialized, multi-functional supplements designed to enhance the natural performance of plants during the flowering cycle. There are dozens upon dozens of bloom boosters to choose from, so considering their N-P-K ratios and specific features highly influences the success that they bring to the garden.

Bloom boosters

are specialized, multi-functional supplements designed to enhance the natural performance of plants during the flowering cycle.�

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bloom boosters

Choosing the best bloom booster While the common goal of bloom boosters is to increase size, density and quality of the final yield, exceptional boosters will also assist with the ripening of the harvest. The boosters that produce the most dramatic results will contain daring levels of phosphorous and potassium. Some might contain vitamin B-1 to assist with shock that plants might experience during the powerful growth rates that result from the booster. To reduce the amount of products you introduce to the nutrient regimen, look for bloom boosters that are versatile enough to use not only as a finishing agent, but also during the first week of flowering to kick-start an aggressive bloom cycle. A well-rounded, clean bloom booster should be compatible with all lines of nutrients, be formulated with food-grade ingredients and be free of dyes and coloring agents. To witness a flowering plant transition through the different phases of its life cycle is nothing short of a miraculous experience. Nature has designed plants to be intuitive creatures; their cycles are triggered by the seasons to precisely perform the functions necessary to ensure their genetic survival. Modern science has allowed humans to perfect the natural process, resulting in yields of unprecedented proportions. With the use of premium-quality nutrients and power-packed bloom boosters, hobby gardeners and farmers worldwide are celebrating exceptional harvests. An expert nutrient schedule combined with the innovative technology continually emerging in the horticulture industry has the unique potential to produce gardens that boast the revolutionary results that will shape the gardens of our future.

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beginner's corner

Tips to Make Hydroponics Simple Using Foam Propagation Media By Dr. Vijay Rapaka To make hydroponic gardening easy, here are some handy tips on to using foam propagation media from just getting started and propagating unrooted cuttings to germinating seeds and transplanting.  

Getting started

Unrooted cutting propagation

The first step is to sterilize all your tools, trays and equipment—really, anything you expect to come into contact with seedlings or cuttings—in order to reduce the risk of disease. Once you’re done cleaning, separate the hydroponic media sheets into strips or individual cells, as crop spacing or your hydroponics system requires. Be sure to space cubes enough to allow proper air circulation and light levels for the specific plant you’re growing. Next, you should fully saturate the media with water, making sure to drain off and dispose of any excess. After sowing your seeds, be sure to keep the media moist. And be sure to use to a new, clean sheet of foam each time you start a new crop in order to maintain a diseasefree environment.

Prior to sticking unrooted cuttings, gardeners should fully saturate the media with fresh water. Once that’s done, place cuttings in the foam’s hole with only enough pressure to seat the cuttings at the bottom. This is typically between a half and three-quarters of the full depth of the cube. Since cuttings have no roots, you must maintain high humidity levels with a humidity dome, spray bottle or mist system. Be sure to keeping the media moist, too. Once you begin to see initial root development, feel free to reduce humidity levels. For the best performance, gardeners should maintain a consistent bottom heat of 75 to 80oF, depending on crop requirements. Then, after plant roots begin to develop, you can begin a more formal fertilization program (adjusting temperature and light levels according to the needs of your specific plant).

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Seed germination Prior to sowing, make sure you fully saturate the growing media with fresh water. Next, place your pelleted or raw seeds in the cube’s hole. Please note there is no need to cover your seed with any other media. However, you should always keep the media moist during germination. In fact, you maintain a water level of approximately 0.25 in. in the tray, lowering the level as the plant roots develop. For uniform growing results, we suggest maintaining a consistent bottom heat level of 75 to 80oF. Using a humidity dome will aid in germination, but you’ll need to remove the dome as soon as roots begin develop to help reduce the risk of disease. Once germination occurs and the roots start sprouting, you can begin your fertilization program to enhance plant growth. Again, you’ll need to adjust the temperature and lighting according to your specific plant’s needs.  

Transplanting

Depending on the crop and the particular hydroponics system you use, you might need to transplant your seedlings or cuttings. If that’s the case, you’ll want to thoroughly water the propagation media prior to transplanting into another media. To determine whether or not your seedlings or cuttings are ready to transplant, simply measure how far the roots protrude from the media. If they stick out 0.25 to 0.50 in. from the media, it’s definitely time to transplant. But rest easy; you don’t need to remove your plants from the foam when transplanting. Just transplant the media along with the plant into its new home. Eliminating the need to remove the plantlet from the foam will prevent root shock or damage and continue to promote healthy plant growth. At this point, you should continue with your regular fertilization program, maintaining the proper temperature and light levels for your specific plant type.

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riding the shortwave

Light provides a source of external information to plants, which have a series of photo receptors that sensing parameters such as intensity, direction, photoperiod, spectrum and wavelength. Different parts of the light spectrum can cause different physiological and morphogenetic responses, many of which vary from species to species. This allows growers to use high-tech lighting to tailor the light spectrum towards desirable plant characteristics (while the exact details of the potential of customised wavelength lighting are still being researched and understood, this concept is already well accepted by many indoor gardeners).

Ultraviolet wavelengths While we are aware of the wavelengths that power photosynthesis (blue—450 to 495 nm—and red—629 to 750 nm—light), other wavelengths are sensed by different receptors in plants and might help control normal plant growth and function. Of particular interest these days is ultraviolet (UV) shortwave light. Also known as electromagnetic radiation, this light has a wavelength is shorter than that of visible light but longer than that of X-rays. It is the range 10 to 400 nm. Within this range, UV is divided into a number of band spectrums, including UV-C (below 280 nm), UV-B (280 to 320 nm)

Some studies have reported that other compounds such as beta carotene, which gives the orange color in fruits and vegetables, is also stimulated by UV light.”

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riding the short wave

UV is divided into a number

of band spectrums, including UV-C (below 280 nm), UV-B (280 to 320 nm) and UV-A (320 to 400 nm).”

and UV-A (320 to 400 nm). UV is a natural part of sunlight and while humans can’t see UV light, some insects and birds can. When we think of UV light most of us are reminded of sun burn, skin damage, genetic mutation and other negative affects; however, small doses of UV are also beneficial for humans as it is responsible for vitamin D synthesis.

When it comes to plants, UV has been known for some time to have harmful effects plants, but in certain plant species, it seems that small doses can have some very beneficial effects (most of which we are only just starting to understand). For example, it’s only recently that it was discovered that plant roots can sense UV-B and use it as a signal between cells, which helps young plants with seedling morphogenesis and normal growth patterns (as with all plants, too much UV light can be toxic, and only small doses are required to activate receptors in plant tissue). Still, this of particular interest for both greenhouse and indoor gardeners—both who have more control of light intensity and wavelength than ever before as they are able to pick and choose from different lamp types and greenhouse films in order to provide varying degrees of UV shortwave light.

UV and protected cultivation When exposed to UV, plants can produce a range of defence proteins that are similar to those activated when a plant is physically damaged. Shortwave light in the UV bands acts as a stress factor on plant growth and is therefore able to induce a wide range of plant growth and developmental characteristics. For example, UV-B light has been shown in a number of studies to

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riding the short wave

reduce plant height and cause the development of smaller, thicker and shorter leaves (a typical stress response in plants). While this type of growth effect might be useful in a number of crops where a short, compact plant form is desirable, such as with potted flowering ornamentals, it might not be an advantage for others. Also, plants can increase their production of these defence proteins as the level of UV light increases up to a point where cell damage starts to become severe. In greenhouse horticulture, there has been the development of a range of cladding films that have incorporated into the polythene material specific spectral filters designed to block or allow through certain wavebands. This finding has an obvious and significant benefit to growers of all crops as a reduction in the use of plant protection chemicals and compounds is a major advantage in commercial production. In contrast, some studies have found certain greenhouse pests (such as whitefly) to be significantly reduced under UV-blocking film claddings. However, at the same time, filtering out all UV might have negative effects on certain aspects of plant growth. Most commercial greenhouse production is still carried out under standard horticultural-grade plastic or glass claddings that block some of the UV wavelengths, allowing other short wavelengths through. In the future, we can

expect to see the development of different greenhouse films for different crops and purposes based on their UV penetration category. One of the most interesting and commercially important findings regarding UV light is the effect on the production of anthocyanin, which gives the deep red pigmentation in red lettuce cultivars and similar colored plants. It has been found that red lettuce (Lollo rosso) grown under greenhouse films that transmit UV light (transparent above 280 nm) had eight times more anthocyanin content, and hence a significantly deeper red color than those grown under UV-blocking greenhouse films. It was also found that total red pigmentation was highest in lettuce when both UV-A and UV-B wavelengths were provided together rather than when just UV-A was provided on its own. Anthocyanin production in many plants has also been found to be stimulated and increased when UV light was supplemented with use of lamps producing short wavelengths in the UV region. Some studies have reported that other compounds such as beta carotene, which gives the orange color in fruits and vegetables, is also stimulated by UV light. Plants produce these antioxidants to protect themselves from the negative effects of shortwave light exposure. For producers of red lettuce and other salad plants where a strong pigmentation is essential for marketability, this is an important finding as the penetration of UV (both as UV-A and UV-B) light down to the crop is likely to be just as essential as the initial selection of highly colored cultivars to maintain anthocyanin levels. As well as increased anthocyanin and plant coloration, exposure to shortwave UV light has been found to

Different

parts of the light spectrum can cause different physiological and morphogenetic responses, many of which vary from species to species. This allows growers to use hightech lighting to tailor the light spectrum towards desirable plant characteristics .�

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riding the short wave

have a range of other benefits. In many species, UV light is an important contributor to flavor and aromatic compounds. Overall higher levels of secondary metabolites are produced under UV and it is thought that when both UV-A and UV-B wavelengths are present, plants accumulate secondary products that protect them from damage to the photosynthetic systems. These secondary metabolites are thought to include UV-protecting or -absorbing compounds that prevent some of the damage to cells and DNA caused by UV radiation reaching the photosynthetic apparatus. This means that the photosynthesis systems are not as damaged as we would expect with exposure to UV radiation. However, in some studies it has been found that damage can still occur to photosystem II in particular under UV wavelengths. In certain species, this causes a reduction in growth; so, it is possible that under UV wavelengths, the plant might divert some of its photosynthetic energy into producing compounds to protect it, thus reducing overall growth slightly. In yet other studies, no significant effect on growth reduction was seen when UV light was provided, so it’s likely any negative effects are species and environment dependant.

These protective secondary metabolites are likely to include flavonoid and phenolic compounds, many of which are also of interest for human health benefits. Anthocyanins, flavonoids and phenolics provide the anti-oxidant activity in fruits and vegetables that are linked to a range of health promoting effects and prevention of degenerative diseases. More recently, the possibility of producing commercial crops with increased beneficial compounds under greenhouse films that transmit sufficient UV has been under investigation.

What does this mean for indoor gardeners? While plants will grow and yield perfectly well under the tried-and-true red and blue spectrums of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), there does exist the potential to provide specific supplementary short wavelengths where they provide benefits to certain species. Enhancing the deep-red coloration in those plants that require high levels of anthocyanin production—such as red lettuce, ornamentals with highly colored leaves and others grown indoors—would be one such use. Another might be to promote short, stocky, compact plant growth, an advantage in the confined space of an indoor garden where height restriction is a bonus. Increased resistance to pest and disease attack with harder, tougher

plant roots can sense UV-B and use

it as a signal between cells, which helps young plants with seedling morphogenesis and normal growth patterns.”

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riding the shortwave

plants and an activation of the plants’ natural immune response by UV wavelengths could be seen as another major benefit of including some shortwave radiation in the plants’ smorgasbord of light. Many full-spectrum bulbs, fluorescents and other commonly used lamps still provide some UV output, although it pays to check the spectral output to ensure this is in the correct wavelengths of UV-A and UV-B. Despite the potential benefits, the use of UV wavelengths must be considered with some caution: while plants can generate secondary metabolites to protect themselves against low levels of UV, people can’t do the same thing. UV is still an issue with damaging sensitive human skin, so sunscreen protection might be required when working under UV for prolonged periods of time. Also, we need to remember that research studies have shown that both UV-A and UV-B wavelengths should be used together as they have a synergistic effect on plant response. Supplying just some UV-A might give no response and no benefit, while UV-A and UV-B together produce a much greater accumulation of flavonoids and other beneficial compounds. So, while shortwave UV won’t necessarily increase growth, it seems to have certain advantages that can’t be ignored when we consider how complex the interaction of plants and wavelengths actually is.

Despite

the potential benefits, the use of UV wavelengths must be considered with some caution: while plants can generate secondary metabolites to protect themselves against low levels of UV, people can’t do the same thing.”

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Green thumb gardening

Vermicompost: Micronutrient Rich Fertilizer From Worms Want to produce your very own homemade organic fertilizer while eliminating waste from landfills? Well, it’s all about the worm poop. There are few friends in the garden more important than the earthworm. Worms increase the permeability of soil, improving drainage and allowing more air and water to penetrate the soil. They eat organic material and the waste they produce, referred to as worm castings, is a micronutrient-rich organic fertilizer. Worm castings are not only rich in the micronutrients our plants crave, but they are full of beneficial bacteria. Now, what if I told you that you could bring the benefits of worms to the indoor garden? What if you could use them to make your own fertilizer loaded with micronutrients and you could do it essentially for free? Too good to be true? Actually, making, maintaining and harvesting your own vermicompost is a really simple process that anyone can learn if they follow a few easy steps.

Making your own worm bin Worm bins are easy to make at home. First, you need a box or bin (plastic storage containers are great for this) to house your worms and the compost. The size of the box depends on the amount of food scraps your family produces; however, the box must be no taller than 12 to 18 in. otherwise the weight of the compost can cause compaction—and if there is not enough air getting to the compost, it won’t be a healthy environment for the worms and millions of beneficial bacteria that are

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converting the compost into a great organic fertilizer. To further improve oxygen levels in your worm bin, drill small holes around the sides of your container, roughly 2 to 4 in. above the base. The next step is to line the base of your worm bin with a couple inches of bedding. Bedding will house the worms and can be made from a light organic material—shredded newspaper that has been moistened but not soaked with water makes great worm bin bedding. Once the bedding is in place, you can add the worms. Worms can be purchased at bait shops or dug up in a garden. The worms will work their way down into the bedding instinctively.

Feeding your worms Now that your worms are comfortably set up in your worm bin, it is time to start feeding them. Spread organics loosely over the bedding. Most table scraps are acceptable to add to your worms bin. Fruit and vegetable rinds are great, as well as eggshells and coffee grinds (in small amounts). You can also add lawn clippings, leaves and used napkins and paper towel. Try to avoid adding meat, dairy and fatty foods, mainly due to the odor (especially if your worm bin is indoors). Also, citrus fruits can be a problem if you add too much.

The worms will instinctively move away from the light, to the lowest section of the vermicompost pyramid. Remove the top third of the pile and repeat the process until you have removed most of the compost and most of the worms are left in the bottom. Keep the last bit of compost containing the worms and reintroduce it into your worm bin once you have adding fresh bedding. The little bit of compost will accelerate the breakdown of the next round of organics added to your worm bin. You can now repeat the process of feeding and harvesting year-round.

making, maintaining and harvesting your own vermicompost is a really simple process that anyone can learn if they follow a few easy steps.”

Harvesting your vermicompost After two to three months, your vermicompost is ready to be added to your indoor or outdoor garden. If you are able to wait four to six months, the organics in your worm bin will resemble healthy soil. To harvest your vermicompost, you need to sort out the worms. One of the easiest ways to do this is to spread the contents of your worm bin on a tarp underneath a light. Try to pile it all into a pyramid shape.

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starting

PLANTS from cuttings By Frank Rauscher

want some new cultivars for your garden, but also want a way to guarantee their quality? well, this is a perfect opportunity for some diY cutting… 110

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Starting Plants from Cuttings Why would anyone want to go to the trouble to start a plant from a cutting when it is so easy to just go out and buy a small plant at the nursery? Well, think about it: it’s not always so easy to locate that certain plant you want to grow, and it’s even tougher to find it in a healthy condition. And what if you want certain unique characteristics in your specimen? Not every plant with the same genus, species or even same variety will have the same exact traits. Only clones, or cultivars, can guarantee identical characteristics.

“Only clones, or cultivars, can guarantee identical characteristics.” Grafted clones can be hybridized to produce certain benefits, such as sweetness or health, or to create a new type of fruit. If you’re not so interested in developing some new type of fruit or plant, remember that grafting allows you to produce as many of that awesome tomato plant you had last year as you can. Another reason for wanting to start a new plant from a cutting could include the fact that the original or mother plant doesn’t produce many seeds; a new plant started from a cutting off the old one can produce more seeds. So, let’s get started looking at how we can start a plant from a cutting. The basic process after we have

The first cut on a rosemary plant. When first making a new cut, try to take soft wood or new growth.

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Starting Plants from Cuttings selected the plant we want to clone involves cutting off a section from the mother plant and getting it to create some roots so we can transplant it. That sounds simple enough, but if we aren’t particular about what time of year, where on the plant we cut, what we cut with and how we plan to get the new roots started, it’s not likely we’ll have easy success. Plants are generally woody or herbaceous. Woody plants have three categories: arborescent (single trunk, such as an ash tree), fruticose (large and woody with many trunks, such as a ligustrum) and suffrutescent (shrubs or vines that are only woody at the base; these are often also considered herbaceous).The suffrutescent group would be the easiest to start from a cutting within the woody grouping. Herbaceous plants are generally the easiest to start from a cutting. These also have three main subgroupings: annuals, which only live for one season

“Tomatoes... are actually perennials that are cultivated as annuals.”

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or one year (the celosia is an example); biennials, which complete their life cycle in two years (for example, carrots); and herbaceous perennials, which continue for at least three years (an example would be asparagus). Tomatoes are an interesting case as it they are actually perennials that are cultivated as annuals and are, in my opinion, one of the easiest to start. The best time of year to take a cutting from a plant will depend on what type of plant it is. We want to try to get soft wood or new growth cuttings. The interior cellular walls need to be active and so more easily encouraged to reproduce. For outdoor plants, the odds favor spring. For indoor or hydroponic plants, it will depend more on the plants current life cycle than the time of year. You want the plant specimen to be in top health. No signs of nutrition insufficiency or disease. The plant should also be properly hydrated. Not overwatered or suffering from drought. The cells in the plant tissue will need moisture in order to begin knitting themselves back together and creating the root system you need. Do a thorough inspection of the proposed plant before deciding. Don’t forget to look for insects. Chances are many of the insects that might be on your plant are too small to see without a microscope or at least a good magnifying glass.


Starting Plants from Cuttings

“Cut back your specimen to just below a node on the stem.” Next, prepare for cutting and restarting. You will need pruners; a razor blade (box cutters provide safety); distilled water; containers for disinfectant, water and rooting hormone; containers with drainage for potting; bleach; soilless potting mix; plastic wrap or plastic bags or a humidity dome; and a pencil or Q-tip (for making soil holes). After selecting a good, healthy specimen, you will need to perform the cutting. You’ll want to prune off your specimen where it grows and then bring it inside where you are set up to do the rest of your starting process. Make sure your pruners are sharp and clean. Cut your specimen from green nonwoody stems near the tip of a branch, not near the base. Once inside the house, you will make your final cuts before restarting. Use a sharp knife for this cut is key as it will reduce trauma and avoid failure. The blade should be cleaned and sterilized. Any bacteria or fungi present on the blade will have a serious negative effect. Wash with soapy water first to remove any dirt or grease, and rinse using distilled water. Dilute the bleach at 10 parts to one, submerse the blade and rinse again. Wipe dry with fresh tissue paper. Now cut back your specimen to just below a node on the stem. Nodes exist where a leaf or petiole was attached. After you make this cut, you will want to remove all but a few leaves with your blade (so keep this in mind when choosing where you cut; the larger the leaf, the fewer needed). The new little root system will need to provide nutrients for the leaves you left on the specimen. Too many leaves are stressful on the new roots and too few will not provide sufficient photosynthesis. Make a final cut on the specimen at the middle of the end node. This is the spot where the plant has the best chance to generate roots. Before planting, wash off the tip in distilled water to assure cleanliness. The amount of time between this final cut and insertion into your prepared potting mix is critical. Be prepared and transplant at once.

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Cut back your specimen to just below a node on the stem. Nodes exist where a leaf or petiole was attached.


Starting Plants from Cuttings While rooting hormone is not always necessary (some plants will even root in water), it does stimulate a plant to generate new roots and can increase your chances of success. Put an adequate amount of hormone into a container (you cannot return the unused hormone to the bag). Dip the new cutting in the water and then into the hormone before putting into the potting mix. Only a moderate amount of hormone should be on the cutting, so tap off any excess. Whether you prefer rooting in water or soil, it will take a week or two before the cutting is ready to transplant. There are pros and cons to rooting in water. While you can see the roots and moisture is always available, some plant types do better with more oxygen available and sometimes transplanting into soil later can be an issue.

“If you choose to root in soil, a good quality potting mix is very important.”

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Starting Plants from Cuttings

“Tomatoes are super easy to root and almost assure your success.” If you choose to root in soil, a good quality potting mix is very important. Soil has clay, silt and sand in it and can inhibit tender new roots. A sterile soilless mix with only fine particles is best. After all, you don’t want all your efforts to be wasted because there pests in the soil. Germinating mix is pre-sterilized, but you can sterilize your own in the oven at 180°F for about 30 minutes (just don’t let the temperature go over 200°F). Pre-moisten the soil with your distilled water (avoid using tap water that could contain chlorine), but do not saturate it. The combination of adequate air and moisture is what your fragile little plant needs to develop roots. Use your pencil for making an inch-deep hole in the potting mix—this step reduces any trauma created by pressing the stem into the mix and helps the hormone to stay attached.

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Keeping the potting mix adequately moist is your next concern. Covering the pot with clear plastic, but allowing enough room for the leaves and making a couple small holes for ventilation, will do the trick. By reducing evaporation like this, you won’t need to be adding more water and risk drowning the plant. The new plant needs UV light but not strong direct sun. After a week or two, you can poke some more holes in the plastic to allow oxygen and drier air to help it adapt. During this period you will need to check and add water. Don’t ever overwater, though; plants need air in the soil as well as moisture. A gentle tug on the plant after a couple weeks will indicate if it has developed roots and is ready for transplanting. Remember that insects love little new plants like this, so even after transplant, you might want to keep it indoors for awhile. Though the process sounds a bit complicated at first reading, it is actually quite easy once you understand it and have tried a couple times. If this is a first time for you, you might want to try a tomato plant. Tomatoes are super easy to root and almost assure your success. Starting a plant from cuttings is a fun new way to take your next step in gardening. Try it, and don’t give up if you don’t succeed at first. The end result is a plant that you will certainly be proud to show your friends.


avant gardening

g n i t n a l p s n Tra s c i n o Aerop from

by Karen Wilkinson

Aeroponics is an innovative growing method that makes optimal use of its airmist environment. There is no growing medium; instead, plants are grown in a closed or semi-closed environment where its roots and lower stem are sprayed with a nutrient-water solution. The roots never stand in stagnant water and constantly receive oxygenated water, thanks to the mist cycle. Aeroponically grown plants are also fast to respond to nutrients, as there is no medium between its roots and food. They can grow bigger and badder than if grown in soil or other media—and due to the direct nature of aero, they have limitless growth potential. To go down the cheesy lane, the sky’s the limit with aero!

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Transplanting is by far one of the most critical stages of a plant’s life—after cloning—and it requires much care and preparation, along with patience and a gentle touch. (Just like the stress people feel when moving from one home or office to another, plants feel similar moving pains.) When taken from an aeroponics system to another grow medium, plants are at higher risk of getting broken roots, so handle them delicately. Also, try to limit the number of transplants, and if going into a container, choose one that is large enough for its roots to spread and live a long time.   While there are many, some are more popular than others. We compiled a list of five growing mediums and detailed the benefits and potential drawbacks of each. 


To aeroponics A simple and smooth transition for the plants, aero-to-aero is the least messy transplanting method (though aero is arguable one of the most challenging grow methods). For the plants, there is virtually no transplant shock; with proper, plant-specific nutrients, they shouldn’t notice a thing.

To coconut fiber A truly organic growing medium that’s gaining popularity in the grow world, coconut fiber can be used in soil and hydroponic gardening systems; some growers also mix it with perlite or expanded clay for increased drainage.

To expanded clay A wildly popular and simple hydroponic growing medium, expanded clay is lightweight and nearly inert, meaning it’s pH neutral and releases virtually no minerals into the nutrient stream. Due to its incredible ability to hold oxygen and nutrients, expended clay is an ideal growing medium for rooted clones and mother plants. Next to soil, it’s the most versatile growing medium.

To soil One of the more forgiving growing mediums, soil is ideal for transplanting to if you want to grow outdoors and enjoy the pleasures of a little dirt.

To rockwool cubes Rockwool is comprised of spun rock and sand, allowing it to retain great amounts of water. It also comes in many shapes and sizes, and holds onto air—which is prefect for newly transplanted clones’ vulnerable roots. Like with most growing methods and techniques, there is no one right way, as it’s all up to the grower’s preference. So, do what works best for you and don’t be afraid of a little experimentation— it could end up increasing your plants’ yield and prove to be a great learning experience! 

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Interpreting a Water Report: How to Make the Most of the Information You Have. by David Kessler Getting a water quality report is one thing, but interpreting the findings is a whole other game. Here, David Kessler shows us in the ins and outs of deciphering all those terms and numbers in relation to your garden.…

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Interpreting a Water Report

Alkalinity Think of this as the ability of water to neutralize acid. The higher the alkalinity, the more acid it will take to lower the pH of the water. Alkalinity is a measurement that incorporates the amount of bicarbonates, carbonates and hydroxides joined to calcium, magnesium and sodium. Alkalinity is expressed in parts per million (ppm) of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). • Anything above 120 ppm CaCO3 could cause a gradual increase in the pH of your potting medium • Low-alkalinity water (less than 60 ppm CaCO3) is not able to neutralize sufficient amounts of acid. As such, the recurrent use of acidic fertilizers might result in a decrease in the pH of your growing medium

Electrical conductivity (EC) This is a measure of the conductivity of a solution. As the level of mineral salt dissolved in the water increases, so does the solution’s conductivity. EC is often expressed in reciprocal ohms (mhos). Most water reports express EC in millimhos per centimeter (mmhos/cm). • Acceptable range is 0.5 to 0.75 mmhos/cm • Problematic range is 0.76 to 3.0 mmhos/cm • The severity of the problem will be determined by two factors: which compound is responsible for the elevated EC and how high the EC is

Sodium absorption ratio (SAR) This is a measure of the suitability of water for use in agricultural irrigation. It defines the sodium (Na) hazard by comparing the concentration of Na to the concentration of

So, before you sits a water quality report and you’re asking yourself, “Now what?” It says you have a pH of 6.84 and an alkalinity of 37.3… is that good or bad? Well, read on my friends as we delve deeper into deciphering a water report.

pH Potential of hydrogen. This is the measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+). pH is measured on a logarithmic scale of 1 to 14, with 1 being most acidic and 14 being most alkaline. • Acceptable range is 6.5 to 8.0 • pH values under 6.0 and over 8.0 can cause severe problems • pH influences the availability of plant nutrients and other elements.

“A high Sodium Absorption Ratio ...will prevent water from being absorbed by the soil.”

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Interpreting a Water Report calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg). A high SAR value can cause reduced porosity in soils and create a salt crust on the surface, which will prevent water from being absorbed by the soil. Fine soils (i.e. clays) are affected more than large particle soils (i.e. sandy soils.) • Acceptable range is less than 10 mEq/L(mEq/l is short for milliequivalents per liter) • Problematic range is 10.1 to 18 mEq/L • Severe problem range over 18 mEq/L

Phosphate (PO4-3)

Commonly found in groundwater and fertilizers. Too many phosphates can cause algal blooms in runoff water, followed by significant decrease in dissolved oxygen. You can manage these levels with reverse osmosis filters or build fertilizer programs around the levels in your water supply. • Acceptable range is less than 1.2 ppm • Problematic range is 1.2 to 2.4 ppm • Severe problem range is over 2.4 ppm

Too many phosphates can cause algal blooms in runoff water.

Potassium (K+)

Calcium (Ca+2)

Potassium (K) originates from dissolved rock, soil and fertilizer. High levels in the solution can increase K levels in plant tissue, thereby creating nutrient antagonism of N or Mg. You can also manage these levels with reverse osmosis filters • Acceptable range is less than 20 ppm • Problematic range is 20 to 50 ppm • Severe problem range is over 50 ppm (can cause foliar damage)

This originates from dissolved rock, limestone, gypsum, soil or fertilizer. High levels of Ca form lime deposits when combined with CO3 or HCO3. • Acceptable range is less than 25 ppm for soil and water hazard, and less than 60 ppm for ideal foliar levels • Problematic range is 25 to 250 ppm for soil and water hazard, and 60 to 100 ppm for problems with foliar injury • Severe problem range is over 250 ppm for soil and water hazard, and over 100 ppm for severe foliar injury

Magnesium (Mg+2) Magnesium originates from dissolved rock, limestone, dolomite, soils, and fertilizers. High levels of Mg form lime deposits when combined with CO3 or HCO3. • Acceptable range is less than 20 ppm • Problematic range is 20 to 40 ppm • Severe problem range is over 40 ppm *Note: When designing a fertilizer program, remember the ideal ratio of K:Ca:Mg is 4:2:1.

Zinc (Zn) Occurs naturally in small amounts. • Acceptable range is less than 2.0 ppm • Problematic range is greater than 2.0 ppm

“When designing a fertilizer program, remember the ideal ratio of K:Ca:Mg is 4:2:1.”

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Interpreting a Water Report

“Copper Occurs naturally in small amounts but Might be present due to corroding copper pipes.”

osmosis filtration is recommended course of action if levels are high. • Acceptable range is under 100 ppm • Problematic range is 100 to 200 ppm • Severe problem range is greater than 200 ppm

Boron (B) Naturally occurring from ground water and decaying plant material. Boron is required in small amounts, but it is highly toxic when in excess. • Acceptable range is less than 1.0 ppm • Problematic range is 1.0 to 2.0 ppm • Severe problem range is over 2.0 ppm

Copper (Cu) Occurs naturally in small amounts, but Cu might be present due to corroding copper pipes. • Acceptable range is less than 0.2 ppm • Problematic range is 0.2 to 5.0 ppm • Severe problem range is over 5.0 ppm; however, toxicity in some plants has been shown with levels as low as 1.0 ppm

Manganese (Mn) Dissolved from shale and sandstone, and is not usually a problem. • Acceptable range is less than 0.2 ppm • Problematic range is greater than 0.2 ppm

Iron (Fe+2 or +3) Iron is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth’s crust. It’s not easily absorbed by plants unless the pH of the water is less than 5.5. Iron can mix with bacteria, causing slimes that can clog irrigation equipment. • Acceptable range is less than 0.3 ppm • Problematic range is 0.3 to 5.0 ppm • Severe problem range is over 5.0 ppm • Levels greater than 5.0 ppm can form coatings on leaf surfaces, reducing photosynthesis.

Sulfate (SO4-2)

This is naturally dissolved into water from rock and soil containing gypsum, iron sulfides and other sulfur compounds. If mixed with calcium, scale can form. Reverse 130

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Sodium (Na+) Naturally occurring from dissolved minerals, but Na also comes from road salt and fertilizer. Levels greater than 70 ppm can cause foliar damage (leaf burn). • Acceptable range is under 70 ppm • Problematic range is 70 to 200 ppm • Severe problem range is greater than 200 ppm

Chloride (Cl-) Naturally occurs from dissolved minerals and sea water, but it also could come from road salt, fertilizer and sewage. Levels greater than 100 ppm can cause foliar damage (leaf burn). Chloride can be absorbed by plant roots accumulating in leaves causing toxicity. • Acceptable range is under 70 ppm • Problematic range is 70 to 300 ppm • Severe problem range is over 300 ppm

Nitrate (NO3)

Naturally occurring in soil and from decaying plant material, but high levels of nitrate is often the result of fertilizer usage. High concentrations can cause plant tissue to become more susceptible to pests. • Acceptable range is less than 50 ppm • Problematic range is 50 to 100 ppm • Severe problem range is over 100 ppm


tips and tricks

Is it

Dead? by Heather Rhoades

How to tell if a plant is dead and how to recover it if it’s only almost dead. How do you tell if a plant is dead? While this might seem like an easy question to answer, the truth is that telling if a plant is truly dead can often be a difficult task. If your plant has lost all of its leaves or the leaves have all gone brown, don’t panic. If you suspect your plant is dead, but you are not sure, the fastest way to tell if it is dead is to check the stems. The stems of the plant should be pliable and firm and will have a green cast on the inside if they are still alive. If the stem is mushy or brittle, check the roots for the same conditions. The roots too should be pliable but firm. If both the stems and roots are brittle or mushy, the plant is dead and you will simply need to start over.

Is the plant really worth saving? If your plant is not dead, the next step is to decide if you really want to make the effort of nursing the plant back to health. Keep in mind that a plant might still die despite your best efforts. Also, the plant will look utterly pathetic for weeks, month or even years. Is it worth spending the time to recover what might be a lost cause, or could you get a comparable but healthy plant at the local nursery or store for a reasonable price? If this is a plant that has sentimental value or is hard to find, then it is certainly worth saving; otherwise, you should just start over again.

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What to do when only the roots are still alive? If the roots are still good, but the stems are dead, you will be hoping that the plant re-grows from the roots. Cut away the stems a third at a time. You might find that as you get closer to the roots, parts of the stem might be alive. If you do find living stem, try to leave as much as possible. If you find no living stem, leave 2 in. of the stem intact above the soil. Place the plant in conditions where it will get roughly half the amount of sun that is normally recommended for that plant. Water only when the soil is dry to the touch. If the plant is able to, you will see new stems sprout from around the remaining stem in a month or two. If you do not, recheck the roots to see if the plant has died.

What to do when the stems are still alive? Trim away as much dead stem as you can find on the plant. Place the plant in indirect light or in conditions where it will get roughly half the amount of sun that is normally recommended for that plant. Water only when the soil is dry to the touch, but do not let the soil dry out completely. In three to four weeks, maybe less, you will hopefully start to see new stems or leaves being produced where the old leaves were. As the leaves and stem become more fully developed, cut away any parts of the stems that are not producing leaves or stems. If you do not see any new leaves or stems after a few weeks, recheck the stems on the plant and prune away the dead wood as the stem dies. Remember, even with all the love and attention in the world, it is sometimes not possible to save a badly damaged plant. Sometimes you just have to start over and try not to let what happened before happen again.

Is it worth spending the time to recover what might be a lost cause, or could you get a comparable but healthy plant at the local nursery or store for a reasonable price?�

Reprinted from Gardening Know How (gardeningknowhow.com) Maximum Yield USA | February 2013

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Organic Fertilizer Elemental Content:

Why It's Important by J. Benton Jones, Jr.

Knowing the elemental content of your organic fertilizer is imperative to plant health. However, as J. Benton Jones, Jr. points out, this information isn’t as easy to discover as one would think…

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Organic Fertilizer Elemental content A colleague who owns both a couple hydroponic stores called me with an inquiry. He and his customers had tried to wade through the current maze of organic fertilizer products in order to make a selection that would meet the elemental requirements of the plant species that they were growing. They didn’t know what to do. State statutes that regulate the labeling and sale of materials as fertilizer do not fit those substances that are identified as containing organically-sourced essential plant nutrient elements. A material marketed as fertilizer, in terms of its elemental content, requires an analysis that identifies its percent content. For nitrogen (N), the amount on the label is the elemental total; for the element phosphorus (P), the number represents the citrate-soluble form (expressed as the oxide, P2O5); and for potassium (K), it is the water-soluble form (expressed as the oxide, K2O). The other essential plant nutrient elements, if guaranteed, are identified as their elemental total content, although some might use their oxide form. However, labeling is not the primary concern for the user; when using an organic fertilizer as a source for a particular element, it is the accompanying elements—identified or not—that can result in an elemental insufficiency. A recent correspondent asked me about various organicbased sources for N, in particular wondering if blood meal would be suitable (it has relatively high N content).

“when using an organic fertilizer as a source for a particular element, it is the accompanying elements— identified or not—that can result in an elemental insufficiency.”

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Organic Fertilizer Elemental content I responded with another question: What about the companion elements? In blood meal, P has been reported to be as high as 1.0% (2.2% P2O5), depending on the blood source. With repeated use of blood meal as an N source, the accumulating P could eventually result in an excess that could adversely impact plant growth. I was sent a sample of a blood meal material that had excellent physical properties, finding that its N content was 14.0%, the high end of that reported in the literature. Another blood meal product I saw listed only N (at 12.0%). This range in N content raises an interesting question: what is the expected natural range in N content among blood meal products? It might seem like an inconsequential question, but could have significant importance if blood meal is the only available N source. The other element of interest would be P, reported to be 1.0% in some literature, but was found to be 0.6% in the sample that I assayed. I decided to purchase a package of blood meal from a local fertilizer store for analysis. The results of the two blood meal products are given in Table 1. When I was preparing the samples for elemental analysis, I found that blood meal product A went into solution when concentrated nitric acid was added to the digestion flask, while blood meal product B did not. The physical form of the blood meal product A is a small pill, while blood meal product B was a mix of fine and small particles of varying size. Would the differences in solubility and particle characteristics have an effect on the reactivity of blood meal when added to a rooting medium? It’s a question that needs to be determined by testing.

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The differences in elemental content between in the two blood meal products is considerable (see Table 1), and many of the element contents are not in agreement with values found in the literature for blood meal (N higher, P and K lower). So, the next question is: what would be the range in elemental content among batches of the same blood meal product, as well as between different blood meal sources? For a grower assuming that the blood meal product being using has a 12% N content, what plant growth effect would occur if the actual product contains 16.6% N? The other element in blood meal that can affect a plant’s physiology is iron (Fe). Depending on the growing conditions and method of use, high Fe availability can interfere with zinc (Zn) metabolism in the plant by inducing a Zn deficiency (a deficiency that might not be visually evident, but will result in reduced plant growth). The elements in an organic fertilizer are not in that form required for root absorption, therefore requiring

“Depending on the growing conditions and method of use, high iron availability can interfere with zinc metabolism in the plant.”


Organic Fertilizer Elemental content decomposition of the organic matrix. Such decomposition might not readily occur and, in addition, decomposition might then result in either the transformation of an element into another form not available for root absorption, or be absorbed by the micro-organisms present in the rooting media. Those organisms that carry out decomposition are also plant-like, having the same elemental requirements as the green-leaf plant growing in the rooting medium. Since these organisms are strong competitors, they are in position to absorb released elements and thereby deprive the plant. A good example is what occurs when a highly carbonaceous substance is added to a soil, as the growing plant might become N deficient as the organisms in the rooting medium absorb whatever N is available in order to decompose the added material, thereby depriving the plant of N.

“There are three physical phases within a rooting medium: organic, inorganic and a solution phase.”

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Table 1. Elemental Content of Two Blood Meal Products Element

A

B

- - - - - - - - -% - - - - - - Nitrogen (N) 15.0 16.6 Phosphorus (P)

0.11

0.12

Potassium (K) 0.30 0.06 Calcium (Ca) 0.02 0.07 Magnesium (Mg)

0.01

0.01

Sulfur (S)

0.40

0.04

- - - - - - - - ppm - - - - - - Boron (B) 4.3 5.5 Copper (Cu) 3.0 2.6 Iron (Fe)

4245.0*

4395.0*

Manganese (Mn)

2.4

3.0

19.0

19.0

979.0

600.0

Zinc (Zn) Sodium (Na) Silica (Si)

15.7 _____

*approximate values

94.4


Organic Fertilizer Elemental content

“plants do not grow well when an active biological environment exists within a rooting medium.” There are three physical phases within a rooting medium: organic, inorganic and a solution phase. The factors that will determine which equilibrium exists within the solution phase are determined by the physical and chemical characteristics of the mineral and organic components, plus the factors of temperature, moisture level and pH. With the addition of an organic substance to a rooting medium, a dynamic and ever-changing environment will evolve, which could significantly alter the biochemical activity within the rooting media. However, plants do not grow well when an active biological environment exists within a rooting medium. Such activity consumes oxygen and interferes with the movement of ions within the water solution that surrounds plant roots. When an element is not sufficient in the rooting medium, the trick is to apply only what is required by the plant, adding either an inorganic or organic fertilizer source of that element. In order to do so, three things need to be known: 1. The nutrient element requirement of the plant. 2. The available concentration of that nutrient element already existing in the rooting medium. 3. The quantity of nutrient element being supplied by the applied inorganic or organic fertilizer. For most inorganic fertilizers, the elemental content is usually known for all the elements in the fertilizer. For most organic fertilizers, on the other hand, the primary element content is known and the accompanying elements are not. For the user, this can result in an elemental insufficiency of a companion element when using an organic fertilizer. The remedy: have the organic fertilizer assayed for its elemental constituents. 144

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How it's made

ExHale HOMEGROWN by Glenn Babcock

The development of the ExHale Homegrown CO2 Bag began over a decade ago. Wendy and I, along with a university graduate research student, traveled to China in early 2002 in search of mushroom strains. We spent close to a month traveling the countryside, procuring and learning, and we collected and returned to the United States with more than 200 strains. One of these strains eventually became ExHale. When producing mushrooms, your goal is to find a strain that produces mushrooms easily and consistently. When looking at a strain for CO2 production, the reverse is true. A strain that is non-fruiting will produce more CO2 for a longer period of time. After a strain actually produces a fruiting body, CO2 production falls off as vigor drops. The mycelium

Craig Belanger, farm manager

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ExHale test dome.

Garden City Fungi, located close to the city of Missoula, Montana, was founded in 1995 with a focus of producing fresh, healthy and organic mushrooms. However, producing mushrooms is not all they do. Here, Glen Babcock takes us on the journey of how the ExHale Homegrown CO2 Bag came to be…

knows that reproduction has taken place and realizes that its genetics will be passed on. Basically, the mycelium becomes lazy. We began testing strains and looked at a number of characteristics, including speed of colonization, strength of mycelial threads and the inability to fruit. The amount of CO2 produced by each strain was also tested. After a long and vigorous process, we focused in on one strain that we believed held great promise. Through a process of tissue

Back L-R: Glen, Nick, Casey & Craig Front L-R: Webdty, Jesse & Don

transfers from petri dish to petri dish, we subcultured this strain a number of times. With a trained eye, you can notice desirable characteristics and selectively transfer this thread of mycelium into a new plate insuring that characteristic is preserved. The ExHale strain is now stored in a number of strain vaults that we operate here at the farm, as well as off-site locations—one of which stores the strain cryogenically at -70°F. When working with mycelial cultures, we must continually be

Unloading an autoclave


CO2 BAG “We have developed techniques here that are on the cutting edge. Our scientific discoveries have been published in scientific journals and presented at scientific conferences worldwide.” working in a sterile environment. The mycelial cultures for ExHale begin their life inside a petri dish, where the substrate is potato dextrose agar. Once the mycelium has colonized the plate, it’s time to move to a more nutritious substrate. Cereal grains are the perfect choice for the second phase of mycelial growth. The substrate is autoclaved at 250°F for one hour to insure sterilization. There are many choices of grain, but most use rye, wheat or millet. Mycelium is transferred to the cereal grains and allowed to grow out completely.

ExHale bags in their prime color.

Once this second phase is complete, we begin to prepare the final substrate for the purpose of CO2 production. We have developed techniques here that are on the cutting edge. Our scientific discoveries have been published in scientific journals and presented at scientific conferences worldwide. The science lies in the carbon-nitrogen ratio (or, C-N ratio). Most mushroom producers pay little attention to this; however, it might be the single most important factor when it comes to a good substrate. The ExHale substrate is fortified with more nutrients than normal mushroom substrates, which allows for more CO2 production over a longer period of time. The substrate

Replace by date for quality control.

is blended and water is added to achieve a moisture content of around 65%. After blending, the substrate is placed into a heat-tolerant bag prior to being autoclaved. This bag contains a microporous breather patch that will allow the bag to breathe after it is inoculated. Once sterilized, the bags are allowed to cool in a HEPA-filtered environment to maintain sterility. Once cooled, the bags are inoculated with the ExHale strain and the bag is sealed using a high-heat continuous belt sealer. The bags are pressure tested to insure a good seal and allowed to sit in our incubation room while the mycelium recovers from the transfer. After a few days, mycelial growth is evident and it is now time to label and date each bag. Each bag receives a replace-by date and is packed and is now ready to ship. ExHale is made to order, we ship within one week of inoculation. We ship to a number of stores direct, as well as utilizing a number of distributors. Within the next few weeks the color of the bag changes from the brown color of the substrate to the whitish color of the mycelium. This white color means optimum CO2 production. ExHale was created with the grower in mind. We are here to help those in our industry succeed. ExHale was created by farmers for farmers. We believe that customer service is key. They say the customer is right; well, our motto is “If the end-user of our product is not happy, then we are not happy.” We welcome calls from anyone who has questions or concerns about the ExHale bag. When you call us, you talk to someone who cares about your concerns. That is just the way we operate. So, the next time you see an ExHale CO2 bag, you will know a little bit more about us and know a little bit more about how it’s made. Maximum Yield USA | February 2013

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Ca tio n - Ani o n

Balance In

Wat er & So i l

Balance has a number of different meanings when it comes to your system’s water, nutrient solution and soil. One example is the cation-anion balance, which refers to the system’s total electrical charge. Here’s how it works…

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by

Guy Sela


According

Cation-anion balance of a given system is calculated by comparing the total charge of the positive-charged ions (cations) with the total charge of the negative-charged ions (anions).

Calculating the cation-anion balance

to the principle of electroneutrality, the total charge of an aqueous solution must be zero.”

In order to find the amount of charges, we have to use a unit that integrates both the concentration (and mass) of the ion and its charge. This unit is called the equivalent (we also use the milliequivalent (meq), which is 1/1,000 of an equivalent). The equivalent is calculated simply by multiplying the number of moles of the ion by its charge. For example, the molecular weight of calcium is 40 lbm/ lbmol and it carries a positive charge of +2 (Ca+2). Therefore: 40 lbm of calcium = 1 mole x 2 = 2 equivalents.  As another example, the molecular weight of nitrate (NO3-) is 62 lbm/lbmol and it carries a negative charge of  (-1), hence 62 lbs of NO3- = 1 mole = 1 equivalent. Cation-anion balance is calculated by comparing the number of equivalents of the cations with the number of equivalents the anions.  

analysis is not accurate. Also, if the laboratory did not test for one of the major cations or anions, then a correct balance cannot be calculated.

Cation-anion balance in nutrient solutions

All nutrient solutions are always balanced in respect to the cation-anion balance. For example, a typical analysis of calcium nitrate is:

14.4% N-NO31.1% N-NH4+ 19% Ca+2 • Converting to milliequivalents results in:

1.03 meq NO3 0.08 meq NH4 0.95 meq Ca   • Calculate and compare the cations and anions:  

Is your irrigation water balanced? When ionic compounds—minerals, salts and fertilizers—dissolve in water, they are dissociated into ions. According to the principle of electroneutrality, the total charge of an aqueous solution must be zero. Therefore, the number of positive charges must be equal to the number of negative charges. This implies that the irrigation water is always balanced. So, if water is always balanced, why do we check the cation-anion balance for? The purpose of checking the cation-anion balance in a water analysis is to validate the water test results. If the analysis is accurate, then the sum of milliequivalents of cations and anions should be nearly equal. However, an error of more than 5% in the cation-anion balance might imply that the

Cations (NH4+, Ca+2): 0.08 + 0.95 = 1.03 Anions (NO3-): 1.03

As we can see, it is balanced. This same principle applies to all mineral fertilizers. Therefore, addition of mineral fertilizers to the irrigation water always results in a balanced nutrient solution. Also note that there is a difference between a balanced nutrient solution

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Cation-Anion Balance in Water and soil

and a cation-anion balanced solution. The first refers to the ratios, proportions and concentrations of the substances in the water. For example, we might require specific ratios between ammonium and nitrate in the solution, and we might also require minimum concentrations of certain substances and maximum concentrations of others. Therefore, a nutrient solution that is considered to be balanced for a certain crop might not be balanced for another crop; however, it will be always balanced with respect to cation-anion balance.

Is your soil balanced?

Soil is composed of two phases that are relevant to this discussion: the liquid phase and the soil phase. The liquid phase is the soil solution, and being an aqueous solution, the explanations above are valid for this phase (i.e. cations and ions are balanced). The solid phase, on the other hand, is composed of the soil minerals. As in the case of the nutrient solution, a balanced soil does not refer to the cation-anion balance, but to

the ratios between the substances in the soil or their quantity in each of its phases. In regards to cation-anion balance, most soil minerals have a negative charge on their surfaces. So, in order to neutralize this charge, cations are adsorbed to these surfaces. These cations are called exchangeable cations as they are in equilibrium with the soil solution. As such, a soil system is also always naturally balanced in the cation-anion sense. Also, there are different types of balances and different approaches to determine them. For example, when the balance refers to the ratios between the exchangeable cations (K+, Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+), then it is called base-cation saturation ratio. So, is your system balanced? The answer to this question depends on the approach you want to take for interpreting your test results and on the crop you are growing. However, as you can probably guess by now that if we referring to the cation-anion balance, the answer to this question would be yes, always.

a nutrient

solution that is considered to be balanced for a certain crop might not be balanced for another crop; however, it will be always balanced with respect to cationanion balance.” 150

Maximum Yield YieldUSA | February USA | February2013 2013 Maximum


10 facts on...COPPER by Philip mcintosh

COPPER Copper (from the latin cuprum), atomic symbol Cu and atomic number 29, is a soft, reddish-pink- to orange-colored metal.

Cu

It was discovered to be essential to the normal growth and development of higher plants in 1931. Copper is required by plants in very small amounts. It doesn’t take much to get the job done. About 2 to 10 ppm of Cu is typically found in dried plant matter. So what exactly is copper’s job in a plant? Copper is part of the electron transport system and serves as an enzyme activator. Most of it is found in chloroplasts. Copper is often provided in nutrient solutions in low concentrations of 0.001 to 0.01 ppm as Cu+2 derived from copper sulfate (CuSO4•5H2O). The Cu+1 ion is called the cuprous ion and Cu+2 is called the cupric ion. The Cu concentration of feed water should be checked because there might be enough present to meet a plant’s needs, especially if the water travels through a lot of copper pipe. Too much Cu is bad. If the Cu concentration in the nutrient solution gets too high (say above 0.1 ppm), it can damage roots. But, not enough Cu is bad too. The symptoms of Cu deficiency include chlorosis (loss of chlorophyll) in older leaves, stunted growth and malformed fruit.

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Mastering the Art of Hydroponics (STEM) by Ryan M. Taylor

MAKING a Natural PLANT GROWTH

Regulator CHEAPLY

Plant growth regulators are making a buzz in the hydroponics industry lately, and one of the reasons is because they’re so darn expensive. Here’s how to make your own—it’s simpler than it sounds!

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The hydroponics industry has been abuzz in recent months with discussions concerning plant growth regulators (PGRs), hormones that are used ubiquitously in the horticulture industry. These products are used throughout the lifecycle of plants, whether we are using auxins to produce rooted cuttings or paclobutrazol to retard the vertical growth of plants. Most of the conversations I have participated in recently have revolved around one of three dimensions: the use and safety of these products, whether it is better to use natural or synthetic hormones and why these products are so expensive to purchase. Any one of these topics would necessitate many more column inches than are available here, so I will primarily focus on a single topic that has ramifications across the aforementioned dimensions: making a natural plant growth regulator cheaply. From the outset, I should make my personal philosophy clear: I advocate using plant growth regulators to efficiently optimize plant growth, regardless of whether they are derived with natural methods or synthetically created. Since I run my own hydroponic horticulture business and keep a vigilant eye on my cost structure and profit margins, I generally choose to create my own PGRs naturally than to buy them. While this might sound daunting, the technique I will describe hereafter provides cost savings across the board for interested growers. The basic method can be summarized as follows: recirculate your nutrient solution for an extended period of time (e.g. beyond one year) to allow organic compounds exuded from the roots, including PGRs, to accumulate in the nutrient solution. So, rather than periodically discard-

Using a continuous system, the lettuce was physically smaller, but the yield was not.

ing your complete solution, you should simply top-off your solution with pure water or a diluted-nutrient solution as necessary to maintain a set electrical conductivity level. As the continuously-recirculated solution builds up natural PGRs, your canopy size per plant will decrease—but your plants will mature at a faster rate. To maximize this growth strategy, it is recommended that you adopt a continuous production system rather than a batch production strategy. This might sound too simplistic to work, but I assure you that the science is sound. After reading some technical briefs from NASA, where a team of researchers grew potatoes with the nutrient film technique for over a year without changing the nutrient solution, I attempted this with my own crops. I grew three types of lettuce in floodand-drain tubes for a year without completely changing the nutrient solution and was amazed at the differences between the early plantings and those near the end. As you can see from the pictures, the plants became smaller over time, but I didn’t lose yield over time. It amazes me that I could save so much money on nutrient solution and growth regulators by growing my own PGRs so to speak; however, the major trade off is that a lot more planning and effort is needed to rationally manage your nutrient solution parameters. In any event, you can be sure that your PGRs are naturally produced and are appropriate for the crops you are growing. Maximum Yield USA | February 2013

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talking shop

Did you know it’s possible to grow outof-season raspberries in both warm and cool climates? Did you also know that it’s best to grow these berries indoors, no matter the climate? Well, now you do, and here’s how to do it… Since raspberries do not travel well, they are an ideal crop to grow for the local market. While it is possible to grow out-of-season production of raspberries outside in warm climates, it is favorable to grow them under some form of protective cultivation because the fruit is larger (due to shelter from wind and rain) and birds can be excluded. Size is an important aspect of all berry fruit production, and raspberries are no exception. In most developed countries, harvesting costs are high due to high labor costs; so, the larger the fruit, the more pounds of fruit can be harvested per hour. Also, consumers in general prefer large over small berry fruit. When I was an undergraduate student in the mid1950s, one of the postgraduates was Ian (later, Dr.) Williams, whose research work on raspberry physiology set the basis for the year-round production of raspberries. He demonstrated that there are essentially two types of flowering patterns for raspberries: the autumn flowering types, which produce flowers

on the tips of the young canes (primocanes), and the summer flowering types, which only produce flowers on the lateral buds of the one-year-old canes (florocanes). Of course, the autumn flowering types will also produce flowers on the lateral buds of the young cane after going through the normal winter dormancy. Thus, in theory, it should possible in theory to produce ripe raspberries at any time of the year by using the appropriate environmental treatments. I first came across this in the mid-1990s when I visited a berry fruit grower who was growing both strawberries and raspberries out of season. The methodology for the raspberries was simple in the extreme. Autumn flowering raspberries were grown outside in pots and the pots were transferred into a greenhouse once the fruit had set. The result was a crop of good-quality raspberries, which matured after the normal outdoor autumn crop had finished (or been damaged by the weather). Once the crop was finished, the pots were put outside, where the canes experienced the essential winter chill to break dormancy. In February, the fruiting tips of the canes were removed and the pots were returned to the greenhouse, where they produced an early crop of raspberries on the florocanes. The pots were then moved outside, the old canes were removed and the young canes were allowed to grow and produce new primocanes. This provides a continuous supply of raspberries year-round, and in order to achieve this, one needs to make use of both florocanes and primocanes in a more distinct way.

SIZE

is an important aspect of all berry fruit production, and raspberries are no exception.”

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Raspberries have a very simple means of vegetative propagation, which was developed by Professor Hudson in the early ’50s. If dormant raspberry roots are cool stored then the dormant buds on them will shoot to produce young canes when they are put into warm, moist growing conditions. If the cultivars are ones that flower on the young wood (primocane types), then it is very simple to establish a new lot of planting material. The downside is that when growing from root cuttings, the young shoots are juvenile and do not initiate any flower buds on the lower nodes. However, this should not be a major concern because we have is the potential to produce primocanes at any time of the year without the need for large cool storage resources as the roots take up very little room (they would, of course, be sealed in plastic bags while in the cool store to reduce moisture loss). This is a technology I suspect can be undertaken anywhere in the world, provided field temperatures are not too extreme. Since florocanes are the one-year-old primocanes, they need not be autumn flowering types. One common method of producing early raspberries in protective cultivation is to grow the canes in a cool climate where the autumn temperatures cause early dormancy and then to transfer the canes to a warmer climate once they have experienced enough winter chill

to ensure good bud break. This winter chilling can be natural or it can be simply managed by transferring the canes into a cool store at the appropriate temperature (44.6°F) for the correct amount of time. This, however, will be cultivar dependent; bare-rooted canes need to have their roots protected from moisture loss while in the cool store. In fact, the best results are obtained when using potted plants. The system is called the long-cane system. Also, as we are talking of a high-value horticultural crop, it is essential that the plants are grown in a highquality growing medium with the appropriate supply of moisture and nutrients. Coir (coco peat) is a very suitable medium, and using large pots (or coir modules) with drip fertigation is the most logical solution. Pollination is essential, and bumble bees are the obvious method for out-of-season production. It goes without saying that attention should also be taken to ensure good pest and disease management.

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161


DO YOU KNOW?

1.

Woody plants have three categories: arborescent, fruticose and suffrutescent.

The main use of phosphorus in plants is for the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy-storing molecule of the plant. Phosphorus is also used heavily in root growth and other biochemical processes.

3.. 4.

2.

Bloom boosters that produce the most dramatic results will contain daring levels of phosphorous and potassium. Some might contain vitamin B-1 to assist with shock that plants might experience during the powerful growth rates that result from the booster.

The elements in an organic fertilizer are not in that form required for root absorption, therefore requiring decomposition of the organic matrix.

The N-P-K value listed on a fertilizer label is the same as the amount of elemental nitrogen in the fertilizer. The label value for phosphorus and potassium, on the other hand, are for those elements’ oxide forms.

6. 7. 8.

Ultraviolet (UV) shortwave light (10 to 400 nm), also known as electromagnetic radiation, has a wavelength that is shorter than that of visible light but longer than that of X-rays. Within this range, UV is divided into a number of band spectrums, including UV-C (below 280 nm), UV-B (280 to 320 nm) and UV-A (320 to 400nm).

During germination, the majority of summer plant varieties require warm conditions (usually 72 to 80°F). Spring or fall varieties of flowers or vegetables, however, require lower temperatures for germination.

Alkalinity is a measurement that incorporates the amount of bicarbonates, carbonates and hydroxides joined to calcium, magnesium and sodium.

Phosphate fertilizers are used in large amounts in horticultural, agricultural and turf applications and they are often blamed for algae blooms that suck oxygen from rivers and lakes, thus resulting in large fish kills.

10. 162

5.

9.

UV-B light has been shown in a number of studies to reduce plant height and cause the development of smaller, thicker and shorter leaves.

Maximum Yield USA | February 2013


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The Greenhouse Garden Supply 7619 Fair Oak Blvd. Carmichael, CA 95608 916-515-9130 thegreenhousegardensupply.com _________________________ NorCal Creations PO Box 28, Cedar Ridge, CA 95924 Garden Connection, The 629 Entler Ave. #32 Chico, CA 95928 530-342-7762 Hydro King 2540 South Whitman Place, Chico, CA 959282 530-893-GROW (4769) Grow4Less garden Supply & Hydroponics 320 Trousdale Dr., Suite L Chula Visa, CA 91910 619-425-GROW Citrus Heights Hydrogarden 8043 Greenback Lane Citrus Heights, CA 95610 916-728-4769 Conrad Hydroponics Inc. 14915 Unit E, Olympic Dr., Clearlake, CA 95422 707-994 3264 Under The Sun 13361 East Highway 20 Clearlake Oaks, CA USA 95423 707-998-GROW G & G Organics and Hydroponics 901 W. Victoria Street Unit D, Compton, CA 90220 310-632-0122

Concord Indoor Garden 2771 Clayton Rd., Concord, CA 94519 925-671-2520 Hydroponics Plus 2250 Commerce Ave., Suite C Concord, CA 94520 925-691-7615 123 Grow 2175 Sampson Ave. #123, Corona, CA 92879 951-280-9232 Hydrostar Hydroponics & Organics 1307 W. Sixth St., #211, Corona, CA 92882 951-479-8069 The Hydro Spot 21785 Temescal Cyn Rd., Corona, CA 92883 A+ Hydroponics & Organics 1604 Babcock St., Costa Mesa, CA 92627 949-642-7776 The Hydro Source 671 E. Edna Place Covina, CA 91723 877 HYDRO 82; 626-915-3128 Let it Grow 1228 2nd St., Crescent City, CA 95531 707-464-9086 _________________________

Northcoast Horticulture Supply 1070 Highway 101, Crescent City, CA 95531 707-464-1200 _________________________ Seaside Hydrogarden 1070 Hwy., 101 North, Crescent City, CA 95531 707-465-3520 Pacific Coast Hydroponics 4147 Sepulveda Boulevard, Culver City, CA 90230 310-313-1354 Dr. Greenthumbs Hydroponic Garden Supplies 566 San Ramon Valley Blvd., Danville, CA 94526 925-314-9376 Constantly Growing - Davis 123 D St., Davis, CA 95616 530-756-4774 Constantly Growing 6200 Enterprise Dr., Suite A Diamond Springs, CA 95619 530-642-9710 Appleseed Hydroponics 6650 Merchandise Way Suite B, Diamond Springs, CA 95619 530-622-5190 Victory Garden Supply 1900 N Lincoln St., #100 Dixon, CA 95620 707-678-5800 Watch it Grow Hydro

9453 Firestone Blvd Downey, CA USA Tel: 562 861 1928 Grow A Lot Hydroponics, San Diego 1591 N. Cuyamaca St., El Cajon, CA 93612 619-749-6777 Indoor Garden Solution Inc. 12424 Exline St., El Monte, CA 91732, 626-453-0443 Go Green Hydroponics 15721 Ventura Boulevard, Encino, CA 91436 818-990-1198

Maximum Yield USA | February 2013

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors _________________________

A Fertile World (Eureka) 6th Street, Eureka, CA 95501 707-444-0200 _________________________ Bayside Garden Supply 4061 Highway 101 Ste 6 Eureka, CA 95503 707-826-7435 ________________________

Humboldt Hydroponics 1302 Union St., Eureka, CA 95501 707-443-4304 _________________________

Northcoast Horticulture Supply 60 West 4th St., Eureka, CA 95501 707-444-9999 _________________________ Happy Green Lawn Care

3890 Walnut Drive Eureka, CA USA 95534 Tel: 707 497 6186 Fax: 707 832 2255 Constantly Growing 4301 Hazel Ave., Fair Oaks, CA 95628 916-962-0043 Fallbrook Hydro 208 E Mission Rd., Ste B Fallbrook, CA 92028 760-728-4769 _________________________

Tulare County Growers Supply 435 W. Noble Ave., Unit A, Farmersville, CA 93223 559-732-8247 _________________________ Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - North 6241 Graham Hill Rd., Felton, CA 95018 831-335-9000 _________________________

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Northcoast Horticulture Supply 357 Main St., Fortuna, CA 95540 707-725-5550 _________________________ Nature’s Secret Garden and Supply 41469 Albrae St., Fremont, CA 94577 510-623-8393 _________________________ Gro More Garden Supply & Hydroponics Gro More Garden Supply 2686 Clovis Ave., Ste.109 Fresno, CA 93727 559-348-1055 _________________________

Roots Grow Supply 1330 North Hulbert, #101 Fresno, CA 93728 559-840-0122 _________________________ Tower Garden Supply & Organic Nursery

403 W. Olive Ave., Fresno, CA 93728 559-495-1140 Valley Hydroponics 207 E. Sierra Ave. Fresno, CA 93710 559-449-0426 Grow Wurks Hydroponics 765 S. State College Boulevard. Suite J Fullerton, CA 92831 714-253-Grow (4769) SB Hydro 1109 W. 190th Street, Unit #F, Gardena, CA 90248 310-538-5788 Golden Gecko Garden Center, The 4665 Marshall Rd., Garden Valley, CA 95633 530-333-2394 Probiotic Solutions 20889 Geyserville Ave., Geyserville, CA 95441 707-354-4342 South Valley Hydroponics

320 Kishimura Dr., #3 Gilroy, CA 95020 866-848-GROW _________________________

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Dirt Cheap Hydroponic

151 N 7th St. #4 Grover Beach CA 93433 Tel: 805-473-3478 _________________________

All Seasons Hydroponics 17614 Chatsworth St., Granada Hills, CA 91344 818-368-4388 _________________________

AG Natural 403 Idaho Maryland Rd., Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-274 0990 _________________________

A Fertile World (Fortuna) 610 7th St., Fortuna, CA 95540 707-725-0700 _________________________

164

Zen Hydroponics 1801 Victory Blvd. Glendale, CA 91201 877 ZEN Grow; 818-806-4500 _________________________

Stop N Grow 340 Pine Ave., Goleta, CA 93003 805-685-3000 _________________________

Grass Valley Hydrogarden 12506 Loma Rica Drive Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-477-2996 grassvalleyhydrogarden.com _________________________

Maximum Yield USA | February 2013

43 Soda Bay Rd., Lakeport, CA 95453 707-263-4000 _________________________

San Diego Hydroponics East County 11649 Riverside Dr., Suite 141, Lakeside, CA 92040 619-562-3276 _________________________

Total Hydroponics Center Inc 4820 Paramount Blvd., Lakewood, CA 90712 562-984-GROW (4769) _________________________ Weather Top Nursery 44901 Harmon Dr., Laytonville, CA 95454 707-984-6385

Vital Landscaping Inc. 12817 Loma Rica Dr., Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-273-3187 _________________________ West Coast Growers Hydroponics 13481 Colifax Hwy., Grass Valley, CA 95945 888-924-4769 Joy's Green Garden Supply 340-A Elm Ave, Greenfield, CA 93927 831-674-1416 M.G.S. 22540 D Foothill Boulevard, Hayward, CA 94541; 510-582-0900 Thrive Hydroponics 30-A Mill Street Healdsburg CA USA 95448 707-433-4068 Bear Valley Hydroponics & Homebrewing 17455 Bear Valley Rd., Hesperia CA 92345 760-949-3400 Emerald Garden 13325 South Hwy. 101, Hopland, CA 95482 707-744-8300 Surf City Hydroponics 7391 Warner Ave. Ste B Huntington Beach, CA 92647 714-847-7900 Hydroluv Hydroponics

Eel River Hydroponics & Soil Supply 164 Dinsmore Dr., Fortuna, CA 95540 707-726-0395 _________________________ The Shop 6542 Front Str., Forestville, CA 95436 707-887-2280 Dirt Cheap Hydroponics 17975 H Hwy. 1, Fort Bragg, CA 95437 707-964-4211 Hydrogarden Mendocino County 1240 North Main St., Fort Bragg, CA 95437 707-962-9252 _________________________

Clover Hydroponics & Garden Supply

16582 Gothard St Huntington Beach CA 92647 714-916-0428 Dutch Garden Supplies Park Circle Suite 12 Irvine CA 92614 949-748-8777 West Coast Hydroponics, Inc. 27665 Forbes Road, Unit 10 Laguna Niguel, CA 92677 949-348-2424 La Habra Hydroponics 1301 S Beach Blvd., Suite O. La Habra, CA 90631 562-947-8383 _________________________

Grass Roots Hydroponics 31875 Corydon, Suite 130 Lake Elsinore, CA 92530 951-245-2390 _________________________ South County Hydroponics 22511 Aspan St., Suite E Lake Forest, CA 92630 949-837-8252

CNG Garden Supplies

22 Ricknbacker Circle, Livermore, CA 94551 925-454-9376 DL Wholesale 6764 Preston Ave. Suite D Livermore CA 94551 510-550-0018 _________________________

National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply 6485 Brisa Street, Livermore, CA 94550 888-570-4678 (Southern CA) _________________________ Garden Depot, The 203 Commerce Street, Suite 101 Lodi, CA 95240 209-339-9950 Valley Rock Landscape Supply 2222 N H Street; Lompoc CA 93436 805-736-0841; 805-735-5921 562 Hydro Shop 717 East Artesia Blvd. Long Beach Ca,90805 562-726-1101 _________________________

Green Coast Hydroponics 2405 Mira Mar Ave., Long Beach, CA 90815 562-627-5636 _________________________ Grow Light Express 5318 East Second St. Suite 164, Long Beach, CA 90803 888-318-GROW _________________________

Long Beach Hydroponics & Organics 1772 Clark Ave., Long Beach, CA 90815 562-498-9525 _________________________ Atwater Hydroponics 3350 Glendale Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90039 323-663-8881 Green Door Hydro and Solar 830 Traction Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90013 212-625-1323

Hardman Hydroponics 3511 Youree Dr., Shreveport Los Angeles 71105 318-865-0317 Hollywood Hydroponics and Organics 5109 1/2 Hollywood Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90027-6105 323-662-1908 Hydroasis 2643 S. Fairfax Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90232 888-355-4769 LAX Hydro 10912 S. La Cienaga Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90304 310-337-6995 Nirvana Hydroponics 340 South San Pedro Los Angeles, CA 90013 310-795-2914 _________________________

Sunland Hydroponics 4136 Eagle Rock Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90065 323-254-2800 _________________________

Superior Hydroponic Supply 5651 Hollywood Blvd., 90028 Los Angeles,CA 323 465-grow (4769) _________________________ Green Giant Hydroponics 7183 Hwy. 49 Unit B Lotus, CA 95651; 530-622-4465 Big Momma’s 11455 Clayton Creek Rd., Lower Lake, CA 95457 707-994-1788 California Green Hydroponics 16491 Rd., 26, Suite 101 Madera, California 93638 559-674-1400 grow 22333 Pacific Coast Hwy., Ste. 101 Malibu, CA 90265; 310-456-2910 Deep Roots Garden Center & Flower Shop 207 N. Sepulveda Blvd. Manhattan Beach, CA 90266 310-376-0567 B & S Gardening Supplies 592 Commerce Court, Manteca, CA 95336 209-239-8648 Monterey Bay Horticulture Supply

218 Reindollar Ave., Suite 7A, Marina, CA 93933 831-38-HYDRO Two Chix Garden Supply 1230 Yuba St., Marysville, CA 95901 530-923-2536 _________________________

Northcoast Horticulture Supply 1580 Nursery Way McKinleyville, CA 95519 707-839-9998 _________________________ Mendocino Garden Shop PO Box 1301, 44720 Maint St. (at Hwy. 1), Mendocino, CA 95460 707-937-3459


Hooked Up Hydroponics 1004 W. 15th St. Suite B & C, Merced, Ca 95340 209-723-1300 Indoor/Outdoor Garden Supply 1501 W. Main St., Merced, CA 95340 209-580-4425 The Urban Farmer Store 653 E. Blithedale Ave., Mill Valley, CA 94941 415-380-3840 Mission Viejo Hydroponics 24002 Via Fabricante Suite 502 Mission Viejo, CA 92691 949-380-1894 Coca’s Central Valley Hydroponics 116 West Orangeburg Ave., Modesto, CA 95350 209-567-0590 Year Round Garden Supply 11000 Carver Rd. #20 Modesto, CA 95350 209 522 2727 _________________________

Green Light Hydroponics 2615 Honolula Ave. Montrose, CA 91020 818-640-2623 _________________________ 247 Garden

1101 Monterey Pass Rd. Unit B Monterey Park CA 91754 323-318-2600 South Bay Hydroponics and Organics - Mtn. View 569 East Evelyn Ave., Mountain View, CA 94041 650-968-4070 Redwood Garden Supply 55 Myers Ave., Myers Flat, CA 95554 707-943-1515 _________________________

Endless Green Hydroponics 25 Enterprise Court, Suite 3 Napa, CA 94558 707-254-0200 _________________________ Wyatt Supply 4407 Solano Ave., Napa, CA 94558 707-251-3747 _________________________

Conejo Hydroponics 3481 Old Conejo Rd., #106 Newbury Park, CA 91320 805-480-9596 _________________________ Big Momma’s 2581 Stokes Ave., Nice, CA 95464 707-274-8369 _________________________

Stop N Grow 640 S. Frontage Rd., Nipomo, CA 93444 805-619-5125 _________________________ Valley Garden Solutions Inc. 15650 Nordhoff Ave., Suite 104, North Hills, CA 91345 818-336-0041

_________________________

Foothill Hydroponics 10705 Burbank Boulevard, N. Hollywood, CA 91601 818-760-0688 _________________________ One Stop Hydroponics 12822 Victory Boulevard North Hollywood, CA 91606 818-980-5855 Lumatek Digital Ballasts 33 Commercial Boulevard, Suite B Novato, CA 94949 415-233-4273 Marin Hydroponics 721 Francisco Blvd East San Rafael CA 94901 415-482-8802 Marin Hydroponics 1219 Grant Ave., Novato, CA 94945 415-897-2197 Roots Grow Supply 40091 Enterprise Dr. Oakhurst CA 93644 559-683-6622 3rd Street Hydroponics 636 3rd St., Oakland, CA 94607 510-452-5521 Medicine Man Farms 1602 53rd Ave., Oakland, CA 94601 707-980-0456 Plant-N-Grow 1602 53rd Ave., Oakland, CA 94601 707-980-0456 Hydrobrew 1319 South Coast Hwy., Oceanside, CA 92054 760-966-1885; 877-966-GROW Socal Hydroponics 1727-B Oceanside Boulevard, Oceanside, CA 92054 760-439-1084 Cultivate Ontario 2000 Grove Ave. #a110 Ontario, CA 91761 909-781-6142 Flairform 1751 S Pointe Ave., Ontario, CA 91761 213-596-8820 GreenCoast Ontario Unit 102-103 1920 South Rochester Ave., Ontario, CA 909-605-5777 _________________________

National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply 1950 C South Grove Ave., Ontario, CA 91761 888-888-3319 _________________________ Palm Tree Hydroponics 2235 E 4th St, Suite G Ontario, CA 91764 909-941-9017 _________________________

RH Distribution 1751 S. Pointe Ave., Ontario, CA 91761 888-545-8112 _________________________

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Green Coast Hydroponics 496 Meats Ave., Orange, CA 92865 714-974-4769 _________________________ Natural Pest Controls 8320 B Hazel Ave., Orangevale, CA 95662 916-726-0855 Greenback Garden Supply 9341 Greenback Ln., Ste C Orangevale, CA 95662 530-391-4329 _________________________

Advanced Soil & Garden Supply 350 Oro Dam Boulevard, Oroville, CA 95965 530-533-2747 _________________________ Igrow Hydro 2280 Veatch St., Oroville, CA 95965 530-534-4476 Orville Organic Gardens 5250 Olive Hwy Ste 1 Oroville, CA 95966 530-589-9950 US Orchid & Hydroponic Supplies 1621 South Rose Ave.,, Oxnard, CA 93033 805-247-0086 Pacifica Hydroponics 90 Eureka Square Pacifica, CA 94044 650-355-5100 _________________________

America’s Best Hydroponics & Gardening Center 641 W. Palmdale Blvd. Unit D Palmdale, CA 93551 661-266-3906 _________________________

Hydroponics Unlimited 641 W. Palmdale Blvd. “D” Palmdale, CA 93550 661-266-3906 _________________________ Palm Springs Hydroponics 4651 Ramon Rd., Palm Springs, CA 92264 760-327-ROOT _________________________

DNA Hydroponics Inc 19345 North Indian Canyon Dr., North Palm Springs, Suite 2-F CA 92258 760-671-5872 _________________________

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Radiant Roots Gardening & Hydroponics 1394 S Pacific Coast Hwy., Redondo Beach, CA 90277 310-540-2005 Shadow Valley Aquatics

Green Bros Hydroponics 14072 Osborne St., Panorama City, CA 91402 818-891-0200 _________________________ Mission Hydroponics 1236 East Mission Pomona, CA 91766 909-620-7099 New Leaf Hydro 34150 123rd St., Parablossom, CA 93553 661-944-2226 Alternative Hydro 3870 East, Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91107 888-50-HYDRO 365 Hydroponics 2062 Lincoln Ave., Pasadena, CA 91103 626-345-9015 Garden All Year Inc. 3850 Ramada Dr.,Unit D2 Paso Robles, CA 93446 805 434 2333 www.gardenallyear.com Supersonic Hydroponic and Organic Garden Supply 3850 Ramada Dr., Unit D2 Paso Robles, CA 93446 805-434-2333 Foothills Hydrogarden 3133 Penryn Rd., Penryn, CA 95663 916-270-2413 _________________________

Funny Farms Hydroponics 963 Transport Way, #12 Petaluma, CA 94954 707-775-3111 _________________________ House of Hydro 224 Weller St., #B, Petaluma, CA 94952 707-762-4769 Wyatt Supply 1016 Lakeville St., Petaluma, CA 94952 707-762-3747 JNJ Hydroponics 4774 Phelan Rd. Suite 2 Phelan, CA 92371 760-868-0002 Turbo Grow 1889 San Pablo Ave., Pinole, CA 94564 510-724-1291 Hillside Hydro & Garden 4570 Pleasant Valley Rd., Placerville CA 95662 530-644-1401 All Elements Hydroponics & Gardening Supply 5623 Motherlode Drive Placerville, CA 95667 530-642-4215 Best Yield Garden Supply 3503 West Temple Ave., Unit A, Pomona, CA 91768 909-839-0505 Mission Hydroponics 1236 East Mission Pomona, CA 91766 909-620-7099 Emerald Garden 8249 Archibald Ave., Ranch Cucamanga, CA 91730 909-466-3796

75 Kimick Way, Red Bluff, CA 96080 530-526-0479 Bear Roots Hydroponics 1615 East Cypress, #5 Redding, CA 96002 530-244-2215 Dazey’s Supply 3082 Redwood Dr., Redway, CA 95560 707-923-3002 Humboldt Hydroponics 2010 Tunnel Rd., Redway, CA 95560 707-923-1402 Redway Feed Garden & Pet Supply 290 Briceland Rd., Redway, CA 95560 707-923-2765 Sylvandale Gardens 1151 Evergreen Rd., Redway, CA 95560 707-923-3606 Hydro King 105 Hartnell Ave., Suite C and D, Redding, CA 96002 888-822-8941 Orsa Organix 111 Willow St., Redwood City, CA 94063 650-369-1269 _________________________

Mendocino Greenhouse & Garden Supply 960 East School Way, Redwood Valley, CA 95470 707-485-0668 _________________________ EZ Green Hydroponics 7017 Reseda Boulevard, Reseda, CA 91335 818-776-9076 Hydro Hills Hydroponics 19320 Vanowen St., Reseda, CA 91335 Box Of Rain Inc. Po Box 302, Rexford, CA 59930 406-755-7245 Hi-Tech Gardening 5327 Jacuzzi St., #282, Richmond, CA 94804 510-524-4710 The Urban Farmer Store 2121 San Joaquin St., Richmond, CA 94804 510-524-1604 _________________________

Discount Hydroponics 4745 Hiers Ave., Riverside, CA 92505 877-476-9487 _________________________

All Ways Hydro 2220 Eastridge Ave. Suite C Riverside CA 92507. 888-HYDRO98 _________________________

Maximum Yield USA | February 2013

165


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors _________________________

Calwest Hydroponics 11620 Sterling Ave., Suite A Riverside, CA 92503 800-301-9009 _________________________ Hydro Depot 5665 Redwood Dr., #B, Rohnert Park, CA 94928 707-584-2384 Igrow Hydro 9000 Atkinson St., Roseville, CA 95678 916-773-4476 Constantly Growing

1918 16th Street Sacramento CA USA 95811 916-448-1882 Green Acres Hydroponics 1215 Striker Ave., Suite 180, Sacramento, CA 95834 916-419-4394 Greenfire Sacramento 3230 Auburn Boulevard, Sacramento, CA 95821 916-485-8023 Green Thumb Hydroponics 35 Quinta Court, Suite B, Sacramento, CA 95823 916-689-6464 _________________________

KY Wholesale 8671 Elder Creek Rd. #600 Sacramento, CA 95828 916 383 3366 _________________________ Mystic Gardens 8484 Florin Rd., #110, Sacramento, CA 95828 916-381-2464 Sac Hydroponics 9529 Folson Boulevard, Suite C Sacramento, CA 95827 916-369-7968 Skywide Import & Export Ltd. 5900 Lemon Hill Ave., Sacramento, CA 95824 916-383-2369 Tradewinds Wholesale Garden Supplies 1235 Striker Ave. #180, Sacramento, CA 95834 888-557-8896 Green Joint Ventures 61 Tarp Circle, Salinas, CA 93901 831-998-8628 _________________________

Greenmile Hydroponic Garden Supply 1480 South E. Street, Suite D, San Bernardino, CA 92408 909-885-5919 Garden Shed, The 1136 El Camino Real San Carlos, CA 650-508-8600 Pure Food Gardening/ Microclone 830 H Bransten Rd. San Carlos,CA 94070-3338 Green Gopher Garden Supply 679 Redwood Ave., Suite A, Sand City, CA 93955 831-899-0203 Modern Gardens 26620 Valley Center Dr. Santa Clarita, CA 91351 661-513-4733 Best Coast Growers 4417 Glacier Ave. Suite C, San Diego, CA 92120 800-827-1876 City Farmer’s Nursery 4832 Home Ave., San Diego, CA 92105 619-284-6358 Green Lady Hydroponics 4879 Newport Ave., San Diego, CA 92107 619-222-5011 Home Brews & Gardens 3176 Thorn St., San Diego, CA 92104 619-630-2739 _________________________

Indoor Garden Depot 1848 Commercial St. San Diego CA 92113 619-255-3552 _________________________ Innovative Growing Solutions (IGS) 5060 Santa Fe St. Ste.D San Diego, CA 92109 858-578-4477 _________________________

National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply 1900 Bendixsen St. , Bldg. 1, Samoa, CA 95564 800-683-1114 (Northern CA) _________________________

166

Pacific Beach Hydroponics

1852 Garnet Ave., San Diego, CA 92109 858-274-2559 _________________________

San Diego Hydroponics Beach Cities 4122 Napier St., San Diego, CA 92110 619-276-0657 _________________________ Wai Kula Hydrogardens 5297 Linda Vista Rd., San Diego, CA 92110 619-299-7299 Direct Hydroponics Wholesale 1034 W. Arrow Hwy. #D San Dimas, CA 91773 888-924-9376 Liquid Gardens 1034 West Arrow Hwy. #D San Dimas, CA 91773 888-924-9376 Extreme Hydroponics 11479 San Fernando Road C, San Fernando, CA 91340 818-898-0915 Plant It Earth 661 Divisadero San Francisco, CA 94117 415-626-5082 Plant It Earth Warehouse 1 Dorman Ave., San Francisco, CA 94124 415-970-2465 _________________________

Grow Your Own 3401 Traval St., San Francisco, CA 94116 415-731-2115 _________________________ Hydroponic Connection Warehouse, The 1995 Evans Ave., San Francisco, CA 94124 415-824-9376 The Hydroponic Connection San Francisco

Mighty Garden Supply 4780 Mission Gorge Pl. #A-1, San Diego, CA 92120 619-287-3238 _________________________

Reforestation Technologies International 1341 Daton St., Unit G Salinas, CA 93901 800-784-4769 _________________________

Xtreme Gardening 1341 Dayton St. Annex B Salinas CA 93901 800-784-4769 _________________________

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Miramar Hydroponics & Organics 8952 Empire St., San Diego CA 92126 858-549-8649 _________________________

Oracle Garden Supply 5755 Oberlin Dr., Suite 100 San Diego, CA 92121 858-558-6006 _________________________

Maximum Yield USA | February 2013

1549 Custer Ave. San Francisco CA 94124 415-864-9376 Nor Cal Hydroponics 4837 Geary Boulevard, San Francisco, CA 94118 415-933-8262 Plant It Earth 2279 Market St., San Francisco, CA 94114 415-626-5082 _________________________

US Garden

417 Agostinio Rd., San Gabriel, CA 91776 626 285-5009 Inland Empire Hydrogarden 1301-C South State St., San Jancinto, CA 92853 Hahn’s Lighting 260 E. VA Suite 1, San Jose, CA 95112 408-295-1755 Plant Life 32 Race St., San Jose, CA 95126 408-283-9191 Hydrofarm, Inc. 2249 South McDowell Extension Petaluma, CA 94954 800-634-9990 Hydrofarm Southwest 12991 Leffingwell Road Santa Fe Springs, CA 90670 800-634-9990 South Bay Hydroponics and Organics - San Jose 1185 South Bascom Ave., San Jose, CA 95128 408-292-4040 D&S Garden Supplies 17-130 Doolittle Dr., San Leandro, CA 94577 510-430-8589 Hydrogarden Delight 13762 Doolittle Dr., San Leandro, CA 94577 510-903-1808

Urban Grow Systems 204 N Quarantine St., Santa Barbara, CA 93103 805-637-6699 _________________________

Santa Clarita Valley Hydroponics 25835 Railroad Ave. #26 Santa Clarita CA 91350 661 255 3700 661 255 3701 _________________________ California Hydroponics 310 Coral St., Suite C Santa Cruz, CA 95060 831-423-4769 Hydro-Logic Purification Systems 370 Encinal St., Suite 150, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 888-H2O-LOGIC Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - West Side 815 Almar Ave., Unit K, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 831-466-9000 Gottagrow Garden Supply 769 Wilson St., Santa Rosa, CA 95404 707-544-7782 _________________________

Central Coast Hydrogarden

1951 Santa Barbara St., San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 805-544-GROW Healthy Harvest Hydroponics and Organics 2958 S. Higuera St., San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 805-596-0430 _________________________

San Diego Hydroponics North 802 N. Twin Oaks Valley Road #108 San Marcos, CA 92069 760-510-1444 _________________________ H20 Gardening 355 West 7th St., San Pedro, CA 90731 310-514-1416 Marin Hydroponics 721 Francisco Blvd East San Rafael, CA 94901 415-482-8802 Pacific Garden Supply 128 H Carlos Dr., San Rafael, CA 94903 San Rafael Hydroponics 1417 Fourth St. San Rafael, CA 94901 415-455-9655 _________________________

UrbanGardens advanced hydroponics and gardening

704 Filbert Street, San Francisco, CA 94133

Urban Gardens Unlimited 704 Filbert St., San Francisco, CA 94133 415-421-4769 _________________________ San Francisco Hydro 123 Tenth St., San Francisco, CA 94103 The Urban Farmer Store 2833 Vicente St., San Francisco, CA 94116 415-661-2204

_________________________

Green Coast Hydroponics 3560 State St., Santa Barbara, CA 93105 805-898-9922 _________________________ Nutes Int’l 204 N Quarantina St., Santa Barbara, CA 93103 805-687-6699 Planet Earth Hydroponics 102 East Haley St., Santa Barbara, CA 93101 805-899-0033

Green Logic Garden Supply 860 Piner Road, #38, Santa Rosa, CA 95403 707-843-3156 _________________________ Organic Bountea 1919 Dennis Lane, Santa Rosa, CA 95403 800-798-0765 Wyatt Supply 747 Yolanda Ave. Santa Rosa, CA 95404 707-578-3747 Next Generation Hydroponics 10658 Prospect Ave., Ste.A Santee, CA 92071 619-438 2415 _________________________

Santa Rosa Hydroponics 4880 Sonoma Hwy Santa Rosa, CA 707-595-1340 Santa Rosa Hydroponics 4130 S Moorland Ave Santa Rosa, CA 707-584-9370 _________________________ Santee Hydroponics 7949 Mission Gorge Rd., Santee, CA 92071 619-270-8649 Gardening Unlimited 60 Old El Pueblo Rd., Scotts Valley, CA 95066 831-457-1236 Pro Gardening Systems 765 Petaluma Ave., Sebastopol, CA 95472 707-829-7252 Better Choice Hydroponics 610 S. Washington St., Senora, CA 95370 209-533-2400 Go Big Hydroponics

4501 Van Nuys Boulevard, Sherman Oaks, CA 91403 818-789-3341


Bloom Brothers Garden Supply, Inc.

3293 Industry Dr. Signal Hill, CA 90755 562 494-0060 ________________________

________________________

Sunland Hydroponics 8300 Foothill Boulevard, Sunland, CA 91040 818-352-5300 ________________________ Anthony’s Garden & Lighting Supply

We Grow Hydroponics 3350 East Los Angeles Ave., Simi Valley, CA 93063 805-624-4566 ________________________ Abundant Hydroponics LLC 1611 Shop St., #1-A, S. Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 530-54-HYDRO ________________________

30 Ridge Road, Suites 8 & 9 Sutter Creek, CA 95685 209-267-5416

Tahoe Garden Supply 645 Westlake Boulevard, Suite 2, PO Box 487 Tahoe City, CA 96145 530-581-3200 The Otherside Hydroponics 19425 Ventura Blvd Tarzana CA 91356 818-881-HYDRO (4937) Hydroponics 4 Less 41669 Winchester Avenue, Temecula, CA 92590 800-A1-HYDRO

Advanced Garden Supply 2660 Lake Tahoe Boulevard, Building C, Unit 9, S. Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 530-541-4769 ________________________

Inland Empire Hydrogarden 28822 Old Town Front St. #206 Temecula, CA 92590 886-74-HYDRO ________________________

Northcoast Hydrogardens 3450 North State Street, Ukiah, CA 95482 707-462-7214 Wyatt Supply 2200 N. State St. Ukiah, CA 95482 707-462-7473 Atlantis Garden Supply 2851 A Whipple Road, Union City, CA 94587 510-487-8007 Evergreen Hydroponics 923 N. Central Avenue, Suite B, Upland, CA 91786 909-946-7100 TNC Supply 9490 Main Street, P.O. Box 763 Upper Lake, CA 95485 707-275-9565 Everything Green 1650 Lewis Brown Dr. Vallejo, CA 94589 707-647-0774 Sky High Garden Supply 3081 Alhambra Dr. Suite 105 Cameron Park CA 95682 530-676-4009 Hydroponics Market 15816 Arminta St Van Nuys, CA 91406 818-305-6261 886-72-HYDRO ________________________

Farm Hydroponics, The 1950 Lake Tahoe Boulevard #3, S. Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 530-541-3276 Valley Hydro and Organics 19230 Sonoma Hwy. Sonoma CA 95476 707-396-8734 Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - East Side 4000 Cordelia Lane Soquel, CA 95073 831-475-9900 ________________________

Orange County Hydroponics 12797 Beach Boulevard, Stanton, CA 90680 714-893-9493 ________________________

HomeGrown Indoor Garden Supply

681 A Grider Way, Stockton, CA 95210 209-477-4447 ________________________

Golden Harvest Hydroponics & Garden Supply 8626 Lower Sacramento Road #48, Stockton, CA 95210 209-951-3550 M&M Garden Supply 2509 West Lane, Suite B Stockton, CA 95205 209-939-0664 Pacific Ave Indoor Garden Supply 4633 pacific Ave Stockton, CA 95207 209-955-0945 City Farm Hydroponics

8903 Laurel Canyon Boulevard, Sun Valley, CA 91352 818-767-2076

805 Hydroponics & Organics 1785 E. Thousand Oaks Boulevard Thousand Oaks, CA 91362 805-494-1785 ________________________

Art of Hydro 2636 E. Thousand Oaks Blvd. Thousand Oaks, CA 91362 805-230-2227 ________________________ Green Thumb Lighting & Garden 1647 W. Sepulveda Boulevard, Unit 5, Torrance, CA 90501 888-326-GROW Los Angeles Hydroponics and Organics 3007-3009 W. Artesia Blvd. Torrance, CA 90504 310-323-4937 Anything Grows 10607 W. River Street, Building 3 Suite C, Truckee, CA 96161 530-582-0479 Garden Depot Hydroponics 1460 Freitas Park Turlock, CA 95380 209-250-0101 Hooked Up Hydroponics 339 S. Golden State Boulevard, Turlock, CA 95380 209-668-1300 Emerald Garden 307 East Perkins Street, Ukiah, CA 95482 707-463-2510 ________________________

Stop N Grow 4160 Market Street, Unit 11 Ventura, CA 93003 805-639-9489 ________________________

BWGS-CA 7530 W. Sunnyview Avenue Visalia, CA 93291 888-316-1306 ________________________ The Green Shop 66420 Mooney Boulevard, Suite 1 Visalia, CA 93277 559-688-4200 Kaweah Grower Supply 1106 1/2 N. Ben Maddox Way, Visalia, CA 93293 559-625-4937 Greentrees Hydroponics Inc. 2581 Pioneer Avenue, Unit D Vista, CA 92081 760-598-7551 Home Life Hydroponics and Organics 1745 East Vista Way, Vista, CA 92084 760-643-2150 Specialty Garden Supply 7 Hangar Way Ste B Watsonville Ca 95075 831-768-0420 Evergreen Farm Feed and Garden 1131 Main Street Weaverville, CA 96093 530-623-2884 1043 South Glendora Avenue, Suite A West Covina, CA 91790 626-813-0868 No Stress Hydroponics

7543 Santa Monica Boulevard, West Hollywood, CA 90046 323-845-9874

________________________

National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply 3550 B Odessa Way, Aurora, CO 80011 866-877-4188 (Northeast) _________________________

Flower Hut Nursery 603 4th Street Wheatland, CA 95692 530-633-4526 ________________________

Green Coast Hydroponics 11510 Whittier Boulevard Whittier, CA 90601 562-699-4201 ________________________ GreenWay Hydroponics 11510 Whittier Boulevard, Whittier, CA 90601 Lazy Gardeners Hydroponics ‘N’ More 14626 East Whittier Boulevard, Whittier, CA 90605 562-945-0909 Garden Spout, The 260 Margie Dr Willits, CA 95490 707-456-0196 Jolly Rancher

399 Business Park Ctr. Suite 205 Windsor CA 95492 707-838-0842 Green Acres 20946 Victory Blvd., Woodland Hills, CA91367

California Hydro Garden

HydroPacific - Hydroponics & Garden Supplies 351 C Hastings Av., Ukiah, CA 95482 707-467-0400 ________________________

Hydronation 2491 Boatman Drive, Suite B West Sacramento, CA 95691 916-372-4444

Sparetime Supply 208 E. San Francisco Avenue, Willits, CA 95490-4006 ________________________

Hydromagic Supply 40 N. East St. Suite F Woodland,CA 95776 530-661-0117 ________________________ Urban Gardens 22516 Ventura Boulevard, Woodland Hills, CA 91364 818-876-0222 ________________________

Ultra Lo Hydro ultralohydro.com 937-252-8224 _________________________ Garden Highway Garden Supply 598 Garden Highway #22 Yuba City, CA 95991 530-755-2877 Golden Valley Hydroponics 870 W. Onsott Rd. Ste F Yuba City, CA 95993 530-763-2151 Southern Humbolt Garden Supplies

31653 Outer Highway 10 Yacaipa, CA 92373 909-794-6888

Yucca Valley Hydroponics 56825 Twentynine Palms Hwy. Yucca Valley, CA 92284 760 369 0300 COLORADO South Park Hydroponics 42 E Buckskin Rd. Alma CO 80420 719 836 1533

 Nick’s Garden Center 2001 S. Chambers, Aurora, CO 80014 303-696-6657 ________________________

The Big Tomato Indoor Garden Supply 14440 E. 6th Ave. Aurora, CO 80011 (303) 364-4769 ________________________ Family Hydroponics-Boulder 2125 32nd Street Boulder, co 80301 303-996-6100 Polar Ray 5171 Eldorado Springs Dr. Boulder, CO 80303 303-494-5773 Rocky Mountain Lighting and Hydroponics 2125 32 Street Boulder, CO 80301 303-996-6100 Way To Grow 6395 Gunpark Drive, Boulder, CO 80301 303-473-4769 Deep Roots Garden Supply 1790 Airport Road, Unit 1 Breckenridge, CO 80424 970-453-1440 Mile High Hydroponics 37 Strong St. Brighton, CO 80601 303-637-0069 Brighton Hydroponics 839so.Kuner rd., Brighton, CO 80601 303-655-1427 ________________________

ACME Hydroponics 300 Nickel St Suite 3 Broomfield, CO 80020 720-524-7306 ________________________ Colorado Grow 3400 Industrial Lane, Unit 10A Broomfield, CO 80020-1652 303-465-GROW (4769) Hydrofarm Mountain 400 Burbank St Broomfield, CO 80020 800-634-9990 J&D Organic Growing Solutions 217 1/2 Clayton Street Brush, CO 80723 970-310-5408. CT. Home Grown

45 South Canterbury Rd. Canterbury CT 06331 BIG BloomZ 1011 Caprice Drive, Castle Rock, CO 80109 303-688-0599

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors ________________________

_________________________

Gardener

Indoor

The

Indoor Gardener. The 3225 I-70 Business Loop Unit A10 Clifton, Colorado 81520 970-434-9999 ________________________

Indoor Garden Warehouse 8100 S Akron St., Suite 322, Centennial, CO 80112 720-496-2110 Garden Tech 737 Garden of the Gods Road, Colorado Springs, CO 80907 719-278-9777 Greenhouse Tech 917 East Fillmore, Colorado Springs, CO 80907 719-634-0637 Hydro Grow Supply 644 Peterson Road, Colorado Springs, CO 80915 719-596-2600 Purple Mountain Hydroponics LLC 1530 S Nevada Avenue, Colorado Springs, CO 80906 719-635-5859 Room To Grow LLC 422 South 8th Street Colorado Springs CO 80905 719-633-8682 Roots and Rocks Hydroponic and Organic Garden Supply 1014 S. 21st Street Colorado Springs, CO 80904 719-634-1024 ________________________

TS

C

N-BR Y-

EN

ROC K

High Tech Garden Supply 5275 Quebec St. Commerce City, CO 80022 720-222-0772 _________________________

ON

I F E R, C

O

Grofax 25797 Conifer Rd #a-8 Conifer, Co 80433 303-838-5520 _________________________ Happy Grow Lucky

11873 Springs Rd. Conifer, CO 80433 1-303-838-8700 _________________________

Roll-N-Green Farms Horticultural Supply 25797 Conifer Rd #A-8 Conifer, Co 80433 303-838-5520 _________________________

Global Organics & Hydroponics 11 N Broadway Cortez CO 81321 970-564-8100 _________________________ Joy of Growing

1410 Valley View Dr. Delta CO 81416 970-874-2550

168

_________________________

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

BWGS-CO 11685 E. 55th Avenue Denver, CO 80239 888-316-1306 _________________________

Chlorophyll 3801 Mariposa St. Denver CO 80211 303-433-1155 _________________________ Cultivate Hydroponics & Organics 666 S. Buchtel Blvd Denver, CO 80210 303-954-9919 Denver Hydroponic & Organic Center 6810 North Broadway, Unit D Denver, CO 80221 303-650-0091 Rocky Mountain Lighting and Hydroponics 1717 39th Ave Denver, CO 80205 800-58-HYDRO The Grow Outlet 4272 Lowell Boulevard Denver, CO 80211 303-586-5543 Way To Grow 301 East 57th Ave. Denver, CO 80216 303-296-7900 _________________________

All Seasons Gardening 434 Turner Drive, Suite 2B Durango, CO 81303 (970) 385-4769 _________________________ Blue Sky Hydroponics 1301 Florida Road Unit C Durango, CO 81301 970-375-1238 DHL Garden Supply 178 Bodo Dr.Unit B Durango, Co 81303 970-247-1090 Grow Store South, The 5050 S. Federal Boulevard, #37, Englewood, CO 80110 303-738-0202 Rocky Mountain Lighting and Hydroponics 439 Edwards Access Rd Unit B101 Edwards, CO 81632 970-926-2100 Alpenglow Garden Supply 2712 South College Ave Fort Collins, CO 80525 970-266-8888 Bath Nursery & Garden Center 2000 E. Prospect, Fort Collins, CO 80525 970-484-5022 Gold Coast Hydroponics West 8101 S.W. Frontage Road Suite 300 Fort Collins, Colorado 80528 970-232-3220 Indoor Paradise Hydroponics 309 S. Summit View, Unit 17, Fort Collins, CO 80524-1462 970-221-3751 Way To Grow

3201 E. Mulberry Street, Fort Collins, CO 80524 970-484-4769

Maximum Yield USA | February 2013

Hydro Shack, The 753 10 Mile Drive Frisco, CO 80443 970-668-0359 _________________________ GWS Hydroponics 7025 Highway 82 Building 4B, Glenwood Springs, CO 81601 970-384-2040 Rocky Mountain Hydroponics and Organics 7800 Colorado 82 #203 Glenwood Springs, Colorado 81601 970-947-9551 Hydro Planet 711 Washington Avenue, Golden, CO 80401 303-279-6090 Rocky Mountain Hydroponics and Organics 15985 S. Golden Road Golden, CO 80401 720-475-1725 Desert Bloom Hydroponics 445 Pitkin Avenue, Grand Junction, CO 81501 970-245-6427 _________________________

Primo Gardens 1600 North Ave. Suite B Grand Junction, CO 81501 970-241-1209 970-668-0359 _________________________ Greeley Nutrients 700 11th Street Unit 101 Greeley CO 80631 970-673-8302 Your Grow Bud 6801 South Emporia St. Suite 106 Greenwood Village, CO 80112 303-790-2211 GroWize 3225 S. Wadsworth Boulevard, Lakewood, CO 80227 303-986-2706 Grow Store, The 8644 W. Colfax Avenue, Lakewood, CO 80215 888-510-0350 _________________________

MileHydro 355 S. Harlan St. Lakewood CO 80226 303-935-4769 _________________________ Ever Green Hydroponics Inc. 1131 Francis Street, Suite A, Longmont, CO 80501 303-682-6435 _________________________

Ultra Lo Hydro ultralohydro.com 937-252-8224 _________________________

Victory Hydro Gardening 1387 E. South Boulder Rd. Louisville, CO, 80027 303-664-9376 _________________________

Head Start Hydroponics & Organic Gardening Emporium 34500 US Highway 6, Unit B-9, North Edwards, CO 81632 970-569-313 Grow Depot 1434 W. 104th Ave. Northglenn, CO 80234 303-459-7878 Pueblo Hydroponicss and Organics - Downtown 113 W 4th St, Pueblo CO 81003 719-542-6798 Pueblo Hydroponics and Organics- South 2704 S Prarie Ave Suite C Pueblo CO 81005 719-564-2660 Pueblo Hydroponics and Organics 609 E Enterprise Dr Pueblo West CO 81007 709-647-0907 Salida Hydroponic Supply 1242 C Street Salida, CO 81201 719-539-4000 Cultivate Hydroponics & Organics 7615 W.38th Ave. Suite B111 Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 303-954-9897 CONNECTICUT _________________________

CT Home Grown 45 South Canterbury Rd. Canterbury, CT 06331 860-546-6161 _________________________ Grow Crazy 11 Berlin Rd. Unit 2 Cromwell CT 06416 203-660-8486 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 775 Silver Lane, East Hartford, CT 06118 860-568-4067 LiquidSun® CT 10C South Main Street, East Windsor, CT 06088 860-254-5757 _________________________

Rogue Hydroponics 160 Broadway Hamden, CT 06518 866-277-4432 _________________________ Organix Hydroponics

749 Saybrook Road, (Tradewinds Plaza) Middletown, CT 06457 860-343-1923 _________________________

Good To Grow 335 Westport Avenue Norwalk, CT 06851 203-956-5600 www.goodtogrowct.com _________________________ Delaware Sunny Day Organics 1867 Coastal Hwy. Rehoboth Beach, Delaware MD 19917 302-703-2538

FLORIDA _________________________

Urban Sunshine 1420 E. Altamonte Dr. Altamonte Springs, FL 32701 407-830-4769 _________________________ Best Hydro 4920 Lena Road, Bradenton, FL 34211 941-756-1928 Palm Coast Hydroponics 4490 N Hwy US1 Ste. 108 Bunnell FL 32110 386-246-4119 _________________________

East Coast Hydroponics & Organics 461 Forrest Avenue, Suite 105 Coca, FL 32922 321-243-6800 _________________________ 

GreenTouch Hydroponics Inc. 5011 S State Road 7, Suite 104 Davie, FL 33314 954-316-8815 Absolute Hydroponic Garden Center Inc 1607 Old Daytona Steet Deland, FL 32724 386-734-0696 Organic Grow Hut 2 780 Deltona Blvd. #107 Deltona, Florida 32725 1-888-574-GROW; 386-259-5777 Gold Coast Hydroponics 1539 SW 21st Avenue, Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33312 1-800-780-7371 _________________________

Biofloral 6250 NW 27th Way, Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33309 877-735-6725 _________________________ Green Thumb Hydroponics Supplies 13482 North Cleveland Avenue, Fort Meyers, FL 33903 239-997-4769 Gardener’s Edge Gainesville 5408 Northwest 8th Ave. Gainesville Florida 32605 352-375-2769 _________________________

Florida Garden Supplies 2692 W 79 Street, Hialeah, FL 33016 1-800-931-5215 _________________________ Hydro Terra Corp. 924 North Federal Highway, Hollywood, FL 33020 954-920-0889 Simply Hydroponics & Organics (North) 3642 South Suncoast Boulevard, Homosassa, FL 34448 352-628-2655 Hydroponics International Inc.

7029-10 Commonwealth Avenue, Jacksonville, FL 32220 904-693-6554


_________________________

Grower’s Choice & Hydroponics 11855 North Main Street, Jacksonville, FL 32218 904-683-4517 _________________________ Urban Organics & Hydroponics 5325 Fairmont Street, Jacksonville, FL 32207 904-398-8012 Simply Hydroponics & Organics 7949 Ulmerton Road, Largo, FL 33773 727-531-5355 GrowSmart Indoor Garden Centers 14587 Southern Boulevard, Loxahatchee, FL 33470 561-429-3527 Palm Beach Discount Hydroponics – West 14703 Southern Blvd. Loxahatchee, FL 33470 561-296-8555 Atlantic Hydroponics 430 Count Street, Melbourne, FL 32901 321-821-1535 _________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 2975 West New Haven Avenue, Melbourne, FL 32901 321-821-0853 ________________________ Advanced Hydro Gardens 4960 NW 165 Street, Suite B-4, Miami, FL 33014 866-97-HYDRO Blossoms Experience, The 7207 NW 54th Street, Miami, FL 33166 866-452-4769 _________________________

Florida Garden Supplies 9545 Sunset Drive, Miami, FL 33173 800-931-5215 _________________________ Future Farms Inc., The 14291 SW 120th Street, Suite 105 Miami, FL 33186 305-382-2757 Gold Coast Hydroponics 4241 SW 71st Avenue, Miami, FL 33155 1-800-780-6805 Growing Garden Inc., The

12811 SW 42nd Street, Miami, FL 33175 305-559-0309 VitaOrganix 7921 NW 67th St Miami, FL 33166 786-845-8633

3D Hydroponics and Organics 7139 US Highway #19, New Port Richey, FL 34652 727-847-3491 _________________________

Florida Garden Supplies 8442 Tradeport Drive, Unit 200, Orlando, FL 32827 _________________________

_________________________

Urban Sunshine 6100 Hanging Moss Rd ste 50 Orlando, FL 32807 407-647-4769 _________________________

Urban Sunshine 6142 S. Orange Ave Orlando, FL 32809 407-859-7728

_________________________

Green Winters Inc. 147 Tomoka Avenue, Ormond Beach, FL 32174 386-235-8730 800-931-5215 The Healthy Harvest Ste. 126 21113 Johnson St. Pembroke Pines, FL. 33029 954-538-1511 Eden Garden Supply 5044 N. Palafox Street, Pensacola, FL 32505 850-439-1299 Healthy Gardens and Supply of Florida, Inc. 196 East Nine Mile Road, Suite F, Pensacola, FL 32534 850-912-4545 _________________________

National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply 455 S. Andrews Avenue, Pompano Beach, FL 33069 877-649-3567 (Southeast) _________________________ Hydroponic Depot II 2395 S Tamiami Trail #19 Port Charlotte FL 33952 941 255 3999t EZ Grow Green 604 S.W. Bayshore Blvd. Port St. Lucie, Fl 34983 772-807-7755 Urban Sunshine Organic & Hydroponic Gardening 2841 South Nove Rd., Ste. 5 South Daytona, FL 32119 386-236-9989 386-492-6978 Mr. Nice Guy Hydroponics 1800 NW. Federal Hwy., Stuart, FL 34994 772 934 6785 Esposito Garden Center 2743 Capital Circle NE, Tallahassee, FL 32308 850-386-2114 Evershine Hydroponics

1519 Capital Circle NE Unit #35 Tallahassee FL 32308 850-765-0040 Grace’s Hydro-Organic Garden Center 8877 North 56th Street Tampa, FL 33617 813-514-9376 Harvest Time Hydroponics 14414 N. Florida Avenue, Tampa, FL 33613 813-264-7101 Hydroponics of Tampa 120 W. Bougain Villea, Tampa, FL 33612 813-333-6828 Stoney Hydro @ Schiro’s Barn n Garden Supplies 7812 Causeway Boulevard, Tampa, FL 33619 813-626-0902

_________________________

Worm’s Way Florida 4412 North 56th Street, Tampa, FL 33610 800-283-9676; 813-621-1792 _________________________

Alpha Hydroponics and Garden Supply Inc. 3904 N Druid Hills Rd. Suite 247 Decatur GA 30033 404 590 4769 Savannah Hydroponics & Organics 4107 Eighth Street, Suite C Garden City, GA 31408 912-349-4030 Atlantis Hydroponics 5182-B Brook Hollow Parkway, Norcross, GA 30071 770.558.1346

365 Hydroponics 13054 W Colonial Drive Winter Garden, FL 34787 407-656-GROW(4769) _________________________ Cultivating Eden Hydroponic Supplies 946 18th Avenue SW, Vero Beach, FL 32962 772-564-8880 _________________________

HAWAII Eco-Island Supply 810 Haiku Road, #394 Haiku, HI 96708 808-575-9171 Aqua Plant Hawaii / Kahala Hydroponics 4224 Wailae, Suite 1A, Honolulu, HI 96816 808-735-8665 Green Hands of Aloha 1713 Mary Street, Honolulu, HI 96819 808-847-4263 Ohana Greenhouse & Garden Supply 300 Hukilike Street, #2M, Kahalui, HI 96732 808-871-6393 Aiyah’s Garden 4558 kukui st. kapa’a, Hi. 96746 Aiyah’s Garden 3-3122 Kuhio Hwy. unit B-2 Lihue, Hi. 96766 808 245 2627 Pahoa Feed & Fertilizer 15-2754 Old Government Road, Pahoa, HI 96778 808-965-9955

Florida Garden Supplies 8020 Belvedere Road,Unit 4, West Palm Beach,FL 33411 800-931-5215 _________________________ Palm Beach Discount Hydroponics – East 968 North Congress Ave. West Palm Beach, FL 33409 561-296-6161

IDAHO Boise Hydroponics 614 North Orchard Street, Boise, ID 83706 208-344-3053 Four Seasons Garden Supply 6218 W Overland Rd Boise ID 83709 208-377-3030 Greenthumb Greenhouses 5895 Ensign Avenue, Boise, ID 83714

Monkey Hydroponics 940 West Oakland Ave. Unit A1 407-574-8495 _________________________

Happy Planet Hydroponics 1179 E. Alfred St., Tavares FL 32778 352-253-1001 _________________________

GEORGIA _________________________

Atlantis Hydroponics 1422 Woodmont Lane, #4, Atlanta, GA 30318 404-367-0052 _________________________ Flora Hydroponics, Inc. 1239 Fowler St. NW Atlanta, GA 30318 Flora Hydroponics Inc. 2475 Jefferson Road, Suite 600 Athens, GA 30607 866-404-0551 Flora Hydroponics, Inc. 195 Paradise Blvd. Athens, GA 30607 _________________________

Atlantis Hydroponics 2561 West Point Avenue, College Park, GA 30337 678-510-0032 _________________________

ILLINOIS Aerostar Global 824 South Kay Avenue, Addison, IL 60101 Brew and Grow 181 Crossroads Parkway, Bolingbrook, IL 60194 847-885-8282Let it Grow Carbondale West Main Street, Carbondale, IL 62908 573-450-5401 Versaponics.COM Box 166 West Main St. Carbondale, IL62901 573-450-5401 Alternative Garden Supply 615 Industrial Drive, Unit A Cary, IL 60013 800-444-2837 Brew and Grow 3625 N. Kedzi Avenue, Chicago, IL 60618 773-463-7430 Fertile Ground 463 West MacArthur Drive, Cottage Hills, IL 62018 618-259-5500 Brew and Grow- Crystal Lake 176 W. Terra Cotta Ave. Crystal Lake, IL 60014 815-301-4950

_________________________

Midwest Hydroganics 20647 Renwick Road, Crest Hill, IL 60403 815-838-0100 _________________________

Inc.

Goldman’s Grow Shop 910 Greenwood Road, Glenview, IL 60025 847-657-7250 _________________________

Grow Masters 4641 Old Grand Ave. Gurnee, Il. 60031 224-399-9877 _________________________ Big Grow Hydroponics 9225 Trinity Drive, Lake In The Hills, IL 60156 847-854-4450 Grow Big Hydroponics 7817 B North 2nd Street, Manchesney Park, IL 61115 815-637-4769 _________________________

Gardinside 618 S. Rt. 59 suite 104 Naperville, IL 60540 630-276-9885 _________________________ Green Fields 8137 N. Milwaukee, Niles, IL 60714 847-965-5056 _________________________

Autumn Bloom Alternative Indoor Gardening 1020 Derby Street Pekin, Illinois 61554 309-642-6943 _________________________ Grow Shop of Peoria 2621 N University Peoria, IL 61604 (309)-299-0953 wix.com/growshoppeoria/growshoppeoria GroUp Gardening 221 N. 5TH St. Pekin, IL 61554 309-349-4407 Aerogro 502 N Prospect suite 18 Bloomington, IL, 61704 Prairie House Garden Center 15151 South Harlem Avenue, Orland, IL 60462 708-687-3131 Brew and Grow

3224 South Alpine Road, Rockford, IL 61109 815-874-5700 Brew and Grow 359 W. Irving Park Road Unit E, Roselle, IL 60172 630-894-4885

Maximum Yield USA | February 2013

169


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors Organic Garden Center 9223 Skokie Blvd. Skokie, IL 60077 847-675-2722 _________________________

Kreation’s Indoor Gardening Center 3427 Old Chatman Road, Springfield, IL 62704 217-341-0821 Kreation’s Indoor Gardening Center 2110 North Grand Ave Springfield , IL, 62702 217-341-0821 _________________________ Kentuckiana Hydroponic Garden Supply 632 Eastern Blvd, Unit B Clarksville IN, 47129 812-725-8005 kentuckianahydro.com Water Works Indoor Gardening 1900 South Dirksen Parkway, Springfield, IL 62703 217-553-6929 _________________________

Midwest Hydroganics 949 W Irving Park Rd. Streamwood IL 60107 630-483-1600 _________________________ INDIANA _________________________

BWGS-IN 1400 Hancel Pkwy., Mooresville, IN 46158 800-316-1306 _________________________ Sunleaves Garden Products 7854 North State Road 37, Bloomington, IN 47404 888-464-9676 _________________________

Worm’s Way Indiana 7850 North State Road 37, Bloomington, IN 47404 800-598-8158 _________________________

Worm’s Way Mail Order 7850 North State Road 37 Bloomington, IN 47404 800-274-9676 _________________________ Kentuckiana Hydroponic Garden Supply 632 Eastern BLVD, Unit B

Clarksville, IN 47129 812-725-8005 www.kentuckianahydro.com Frogs Lilly Pad, The 706 Citation Road, Carmel, IN 46032 317-846-4610

170

Hops & Harvest 4616 E. DuPont Road, Suite Q, Fort Wayne, IN 46825 260-918-3035 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 1336 East Washington St. Indianapolis, IN 46202 317-780-8020 Magic Bulb Garden Center 6229 Allisonville Road, Indianapolis, IN 46220 317-202-2852 Maximum Grow Gardening 6117 E Washington Street, Indianapolis, IN 46219 317-359-GROW (4769) Next Generation Gardening & Hydroponics 6805 Madison Avenue Indianapolis, IN 46227 317-786-0066 www.nggandh.com _________________________

Five Point Gardens 56555 Oak Road, South Bend, IN 46619 574-287-9232 _________________________ KANSAS Green Circle Hydroponics 6890 W. 105th Street, Overland Park, KS 66212 913-642-3888 KENTUCKY Garden Grove Organics 29 East 7th Street, Covington, (Cincinnati Metro), KY 41011 859-360-1843 _________________________

Worm’s Way Kentucky 1360 Donaldson Hwy. Suite A, Erlanger, KY 41018 800-669-2088 _________________________ Grow Shop, The of Lexington 2320 Palumbo Drive, Suite 130, Lexington, KY 40509 859-268-0779 Louisville Hydroponics 3471 Taylor Boulevard, Louisville, KY 40215 502-366-4000 New Earth Garden Center 9810 Taylorsville Road, Louisville, KY 40299 800-462-5953 The Wine-N-Vine Inc. 1524 East McGalliard RD. Muncie IN. 47303 765) 282-3300 Bluegrass Organic Grow Shop 125 Quinn Dr., Nicholasville, KY 40356 859 887 0677 LOUISIANA Geaux Hydroponics! 2126 O’Neal Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70816 225-751-4769 Laughing Buddha Nursery 4516 Clearview Parkway, Metairie, LA 70006 504-887-4336 Urban Organics 285 St. Claude Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70117 504-352-4709

Maximum Yield USA | February 2013

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Ourcrazydeals Hydroponics 201 Angus Drive, Yungsville, LA 70592 337-303-6146 MAINE The Urban Garden Center 600 Wilson St. Brewer, ME 04412 207-989-2020 LiquidSun of Maine 51West Gray Rd. Gray, ME 04039 207-657-8033 Natures Palate Indoor Garden Store

1321 Mercer Rd ( rte2) Mercer, ME 04957 877-587-4150; 207-587-4150 _________________________

Evergreen Garden Center 301 Forest Ave Portland, ME 04101 207-761-2800

_________________________

High Tech Garden Supply Maine178 Rand Rd. Portland, ME 04102 Phone: 207-899-4387 _________________________ The Urban Garden Center 659 Warren Ave Portland, ME 04103 1-207-347-2350 Here We Grow 30 Parsons St. Presque Isle, ME 04769 207-SOY-BEAN (769-2326) Green Thumb Indoor Gardening 19 Stage Road, St. Albans, ME 04971 207-938-5909 New England Horticulture Supply 125 John Roberts Road Suite 1 South Portland, ME 04106 207-899-0510 newenglandhorticultersupply.com Urban Garden Center 235 Lewiston Road, Topsham, ME 04086 207-373-0990 Greenlife Garden Supply 611 US Rt. 1 York, ME 03909 207-363-0844 MARYLAND East Coast Organics 2800 Sisson Street, Baltimore, MD 21211 Healthy Gardens and Supply 5001-F Harford Road, Baltimore, MD 21214 443-708-5144

Greenlife Garden Supply 481 Boston Road, Unit 4, Billerica, MA 01821 978-262-9966 GYOstuff – Grow Your Own 2400 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02140 617-945-1654 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 29 Washington Street, Route 1 Foxboro, MA 02035 800-660-6977 Here We Grow 123 Russell St. (Rt. 9) Hadley, MA 01035 413-584-FARM (3276) LiquidSun® MA 8 Lynwood Avenue, Holyoke, MA 01040 413-539-6875 _________________________

INDOOR GARDEN CENTER

Rootdown Hydroponics Indoor Garden Center 236 Mystic Ave. Medford MA 01255 781-874-1693 _________________________ Green Path Garden Supply 276 West Main Street, Northborough, MA 01532 508-393-4181 _________________________

Evergreen Garden Center 216 Newbury St. Peabody MA 01960 _________________________ Hydroponics N More Garden Center

MASSACHUSETTS Grow it Green 122 Pulaski Boulevard Bellingham MA 02019 508-883-GROW

J&L Growco

206 S. Michigan Avenue, Big Rapids, MI 49307 231-796-1528 Hydro Vision 11820 Belleville Belleville, MI 48111 (734) 325-6210 Growers Outlet 7720 Clyde Park SW Byron Center, MI 49513 616-878-4444 9750 Cherry Valley Ave SE Caledonia MI 49316 (616) 891-0706 Greenway Gardens 916 W 13th St Cadillac, Mi,49601 231-775-7075 ________________________

331 Centre Ave., Rockland, MA 02370 Tel: 781 421 3356 _________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 560 Boston Turnpike (Rt.9) Shrewsbury, MA 01545 508-845-4477 _________________________

New England Hydroponics 15 D College Hwy. (Rt. 10), Southampton, MA 01073 888-529-9025 _________________________

10051 North 2nd Street, Laurel, MD 20723 301-490-9236

1202 Meadowview Road, Pasadena, MD 21122 443-817-0018 Purple Mountain Organics 100-7010 Westmoreland Avenue, Takoma Park, MD 20912 877-538-9901

Cultivation Station of Michigan Inc., The 6540 Allen Road, Allen Park, MI 48101 313-383-1766 _________________________ Gro Blue Indoor Gardening Supplies 270 W. Liberty Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48104 734-913-2750 Grow Show, The 4095 Stone School Rd. Ann Arbor, MI 48108 734-677-0009; 734-677-0509 HotHydro® 5245 Jackson Road, Suite F Ann Arbor, MI 48103 734-761-5040; 877-893-0716 Homelight Gardens 3471 S. Huron Road, Bay City, MI 48706 989-922-0088

A Plus Hydroponics of Michigan LLC

Maryland Hydroponics Inc.

Meadowview Feed & Garden Center

_________________________

Worm’s Way Massachusetts 121 Worc-Providence Turnpike, Sutton, MA 01590 800-284-9676 _________________________ MICHIGAN

Cultivation Station 3 Inc. 46912 Gratiot, Chesterfield, MI 48051 586-949-7453 _________________________ Absolute Hydro & Grow Centre

2583 Union Lake Rd., Commerce Township, MI 48382 248-937-8664 HydroMaster 36345 Groesbeck Hwy Clinton Twp, MI 48035 586-792-0277

H2O Grow Supply 3364 Arent Ct Coloma, MI 49038 269-468-3890 Van Hydro 7480 N State, Davison, MI 48423 810-653-8267 _________________________

The Grow Station 5670 Telegraph Rd. Dearborn, MI 48127 313-406-5147; 800-797-4769 (GROW) __________________________

Get Growing Urban Garden Centre

142 S. Main St Adrian MI 49221 U Can Grow Hydro 2247 W. Liberty Ann Arbor MI 48103

Hydro Giant 14455 Ford Rd, Dearborn, MI __________________________


_________________________

Cultivation Station – Eastern Market, The 2518 Market Street, Detroit, MI 48207 313-394-0441 _________________________

Hydro Giant 21651 W. 8 Mile Rd. Detroit, MI (8Mile & Lahser) 313-387-7700; 313-216-8888 _________________________ Hydro Heaven 73647 W 8th Mile Road, Detroit, MI 48235 313-861-0333; 877-823-2076 _________________________

Ultra Lo Hydro ultralohydro.com 937-252-8224 _________________________

Urban Gardening Center, The 2520 22nd Street, Detroit, MI 48216 313-898-0200 _________________________

_________________________

Home Grown Hydroponix 5333 Plainfield Suite C, Grand Rapids MI 49525, 616-361-2924 _________________________

Horizen Hydroponics 1614 Leonard Street, NW, Grand Rapids, MI 49504 866-791-1664 _________________________ Holland Hydroponic Outlet 604 N. Beacon Blvd Grand Haven MI 49423 616-847-1277

OÊFÊÊÊGÊAÊRÊDÊEÊNÊÊÊCÊIÊTÊY

The Grow Shop of Garden City 28505 Ford Road Garden City, MI 48135 734-956-5400 _________________________

Synthetic Sun Hydroponics, LLC 799 S. Wisconsin Avenue Gaylord, MI 49735 989-731-8800 _________________________

Growco Garden Supply 1042 Michigan Street, NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 877-939-6900 NEW 2nd LOCATION!

4640 West River Dr Comstock Park, Mi. 49321 _________________________

Superior Growers Supply, Inc. 2731 East Grand River Howell, MI 48843 517-376-6843 _________________________

Green Forest Indoor Garden Supply, LLC. 2555 N. State(M-66) Rd. Ionia, MI 48846 616-523-6111 _________________________

Stealth Hydro 14630 King Dr. Milan, MI 48160 734-961-4333 Big Blue Hydroponics 590 Ottawa St. Muskegon, MI 49441 231-571-9400 Growing Consultant 2260 Apple Avenue, Muskegon, MI 49442 231-773-5600 Green Lantern H2O 1383 E. Laketon Ave Muskegon, Mi 49442 greenlanternh2o@yahoo.com www.greenlanternh2o.com 231-722-0420 Sunshine Supply Co. 5800 East Pickard Street, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48858 989-775-3700 _________________________

It is Green Ville Gardens

11500 Morgan Mills Road NE Green Ville Michigan 48838 616-745-0500 www.greenvillegardens.com _________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 1745 West Main St. Kalamazoo, MI 49006 269-978-8697 _________________________

Hydroharrys- HP 24047 Dequindre Road Hazel Park, MI 48030 248-541-0099 _________________________ Garden Doctor 2974 28th St. SW Grandville MI 49418 616-530-2500 _________________________ Holland Hydroponic Outlet

Superior Growers Supply 4870 Dawn Avenue, East Lansing, MI 48823 517-332-2663 _________________________ Sunnyside Hydroponics 24930 Gratiot Avenue, Eastpoint, MI 48021 586-777-2528 Hydro Vision 495 Fenway Dr. Fenton, MI 810-714-1719 Granny Green Thumbs 103 W. Grand River Flowerville MI 48836 517-223-1302 _________________________

_________________________

587-40 East 8th Street, Holland, MI 49423 616-298-7395 _________________________

Flower Factory, The 2223 East Highland Road Highland, MI 48356 248-714-9292 _________________________ Hydro Grow Room 15201 N. Holly Road, Unit B Holly, MI 48442 248-369-8333 Hydro Grow Room 15201 N Holly Rd Unit B Holly MI, 48430 248-369-8333 Holland Hydroponic Outlet 1220 Phoenix Rd. South Haven MI 49090 269-637-5941 ________________________

HGR Garden Supply 15231 N. Holly Rd. Holly MI 48442 248-369-8333 ________________________

Synthetic Sun Hydroponics, LLC 705 S., Loxley Houghton Lake, MI 48629 989-422-2800 _________________________

Hydro Vision 1247 e Grand River Howell, MI 48843 517-552-4965

Horizen Hydroponics 4646 W. Main Street, Kalamazoo, MI 49006 269-567-3333 Kalamazoo Indoor Garden 450 W. Maple, Kalamazoo, MI 49001 269-344-2550 _________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 2815 East Grand River Ave. Lansing, MI 48912 (517) 580-0555 _________________________ Hills Hydro 1290 S. Lapeer Rd., Lake Onion, MI 48360 248-693-5747 Horizen Hydroponics 5425 W. Saginaw Highway Lansing, MI 48917 517-323-ROOT _________________________

Superior Growers Supply Inc. 3928 West Saginaw Highway Lansing, MI 48917 517-327-1900 _________________________ Hills Hydro 700 Main St. Ste III Lapeer, MI 48446 810-245-8687 _________________________

Superior Growers Supply 292200 Seven Mile West Livonia, MI 48152 248-473-0450 _________________________ Northern Lights Hydroponic and Garden Supply 29090 Campbell rd. Madison Heights, MI 48071 248-439-6269. BIg Creek Hydroponics 555 Old Little Lake Road, Marquette, MI 49855 906-249-5297 Indoor Garden Center 236 Mystic Ave. Medford, MA 02155 781-874-1693

Flo-N-Grow Hydroponics Co. 214 North 2nd Street Niles, MI 49120 (269) 683-1877 www.FNGhydro.com _________________________

Aric’s Indoor Garden Supply 611 Main st. Norway, Michigan 49870 (906)563-1518 _________________________

HGR Garden Supply 200 E. Main St, Owosso MI 48867 989 472 4999 _________________________ Super Grow 288 W. MONTCALM PONTIAC, MI 48342 248-24SUPER (78737) Green Earth Hydroponics 8127 Portage Rd. Portage, MI 49002 269-342-4190 _________________________

Hydroponics Highway Inc. 2708 14th Ave. Port Huron MI, 48060 810-982-4769 _________________________ Ultra Green Hydroponics 9300 Telegraph Rd. Redford MI 48239 313-534-9377 Hydro Vision 66783 Gratiot Ave. Richmond, MI 48062 586-430-1956 _________________________

Growers Edge 175 Marcell Dr Rockford MI 49341 _________________________ Hills Hydro 896 S. Rochester Rd. Rochester Hills, MI 48307 248-650-4937 Green Thumb Hydroponics and Organic Indoor Supply 8460 Algoma Suite G Rockford MI 49341 616-884-5500

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors _________________________

Grower’s Edge 175 Marcell Drive Rockford, MI, 49341 616-863-9095 www.thegrowersedgeonline.com _________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 28000 Groesbeck Highway Roseville, Michigan 48066 586-435-2335 _________________________ Home Grown Hydroponics 4880 Gratiot Rd., Ste # 2 Saginaw MI 48638 989-781-1930 _________________________

Superior Growers Supply, Inc. 5716 South Pennsylvania Avenue South Lansing, MI 48911 517-393-1600 _________________________ ________________________ Hydro Giant 19363 Eureka Rd, Southgate, MI 734-281-8888 _______________________

Cultivation Station of Michigan Inc., The 23529 Little Mack Avenue, St. Clair, MI 48080 586-775-9485 _________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 7889 Telegraph Road. Taylor, MI 48180 313-908-7554 _________________________ Hydro Grow, The

8210 Telegraph Road, Taylor, MI 48180 313-633-0641 Great Lakes Green Horticultural Supply 757 S. U.S. Highway 131 Three Rivers, MI 49093 269-278-130 Grow Store, The 90 N U.S. Highway 31 South , Traverse City, MI 49685-7923 231-421-5191 _________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 720 South Garfield Ave. Traverse City, MI 49686 231-668-6913 _________________________ Wild Child 7740 M 72 East Traverse City, MI 49690 866-711-GROW

172

Hydro Vision 1910 West rd Trenton, MI 48183 734-301-3745 _________________________

Hydroharrys – WL 1138 E. West Maple Road Walled Lake, MI 48390 248-896-0099 _________________________ Beste's Indoor/Outdoor Garden Supply 21410 Schoenherr Warren, MI 48089 586-776-1794 Hydro King Indoor Garden Supply 32000 Van Dyke Ave Warren MI 48093

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

_________________________

Cultivation Station – Grand Rapids, The 4907 S. Division Ave., Wyoming, MI 49548 616-855-4440 _________________________

Stealth Hydro 15 E. Cross Street, Ypsilanti, MI 48198 866-998-1916 _________________________

Indoor Garden Superstore 2570 Dixie Highway, Waterford Twp., MI 48328 248-673-2200; 877-22-HYDRO _________________________ The Grow Stop

Light Green Water 3661 Highland Road, Waterford, MI 48329 248-681-0001 _________________________ Bubonic Hydroponics 38540 Michigan Ave Wayne MI, 48184 734-331-2316 _________________________

7380 Highland Road Waterford, MI 48327 248-599-9231 _________________________ MINNESOTA Duluth Hydroponics 26 W 1st Street Duluth, MN 55802 218-341-7253 The Interior Tomato, LLC 519 N. Central Ave. Duluth, MN 55087 218-260-5167 www.theinteriortomato.com _________________________

Ultra Green Hydroponics 8067 N. Wayne Rd. Westland MI 48185 734-425-1000 G.C. II 1006 E. Colby St. Suite A Whitehall, MI 49417 231-893-2400 _________________________

Indoor Eden 9281 East-M 36 Whitmore MI 48189 810-355-1465 _________________________ AAA Hydroponics LLC 22 50th Street Wyoming, MI 49504 616-249-8338 Urban Garden Supply 4516 Pasadena Ave. Flint, MI 48504 810-733-0420 Urban Garden Supply 3410 S. Dort Hwy Flint, MI 48507 810-875-9580

Maximum Yield USA | February 2013

MISSISSIPPI Indoor Garden Shop LLC 1310 Bienville Boulevard, Ocean Springs, MS 39564 228-875-3725 _________________________

Sunrise Garden Center

5173 W 4th St. Hattiesburg, MS USATel: 601 264 9300 matthew@sunrisegc.com www.sunrisegc.com _________________________ MISSOURI Versaponics LTD 879 South Kingshighway Cape Girardeau, Missouri 63703 573-450-5401 www.versaponics.com _________________________

HYDROGARDENS Heartland Hydrogardens 705 Vandiver Drive, Suite G Columbia, MO 65202 573-474-4769 _________________________ Grow Your Own Hydroponics 3617 Saint John Avenue, Kansas City, MO 64123 816-241-2122 Let It Grow - Springfield 2519 E. Kearney Street, Springfield, MO 65803 417-862-GROW

Hydrospot 34236 Michigan Avenue, Wayne, MI 48184 734-722-1285 _________________________ B&B Hydro Supply 28974 Warren Rd Westland MI 48185

Still-H2O Inc. 14375 North 60th Street, Stillwater, MN 55082 651-351-2822 Eco Garden Supply 800 Transfer Door 25 in rear St. Paul, MN 55114 651-647-1896

Indoor Gardening 10 NE 3rd Street, Faribault, MN 55021 507-209-1546 _________________________ Brew and Grow 8302 Highway 65 NE., Minneapolis, MN 55432 763-780-8191 Interior Gardens 115 -1620 Central Avenue NE, Minneapolis, MN 55413 800-498-4178; 612-870-9077 _________________________

Midwest Hydroponics 5825 Excelsior Blvd., St. Louis Park,MN 55416 888-449-2739 _________________________ Eden Indoor Organic Gardens 831 Highway 75 North Moorhead, MN 56560 218-477-EDEN (3336) _________________________

American Garden Supply 601-6th Avenue, North, Princeton, MN 55371 763-631-0543Q _________________________

U-Grow 1724 North, 13th Street, St. Louis, MO 63106 314-452-6368 _________________________

Worm’s Way Missouri 1225 North Warson Road, St. Louis, MO 63132 800-285-9676 _________________________

Green Thumb Organics 249 Mid Rivers Mall Drive, St. Peters, MO 63376 636-397-4769 (GROW) _________________________ MONTANA Heightened Harvests 3103 Harrison Ave. Butte, MT 59701 406-494-4222 Magic City Organic & Hydroponic Supply 812 Central Billings, MT 59102 406-245-LEAF(5323) One World – Life Products 906 Broadwater Billings MT 59101 406 839 9969

Heightened Harvests 3103 Harrison Avenue, Suite B Butte, MT 59701 Alpengrow Nursery Supplies 238 Highway 93 S., Eureka, MT 59917 406-882-4496 _________________________

Butteopia 127 Main Street, Butte, Montana 59701 1-406-782-8476 _________________________ Big Sky Garden Supply 528 West Idaho, Kallispell, MT 59901 406-755-1465 Box of Rain Indoor Garden Center 860 N. Meridian Road B-19, Kalispell, MT 59901 406-755-RAIN (7246) Cornucopia Grow Your Own 127 Stoner Creek Road Lakeside, MT 59922 406-709-1076 Dr. Green Thumbs 1106 West Park, Livingston, MO 59047 406-222-7440 Bizzy Beez LLP 5875 Highway 93 S, Whitefish, MT 59937 406-863-9937 NEBRASKA Bodhi Organic Garden Supply 1438 S1 St. Ste 6 Lincoln, NE 68502 402-438-6785 Patio-Ponics 3255 Cornhusker Highway, Suite 4 Lincoln, NE 68504 402-466-9218 _________________________

Advanced Hydro-Ponics 10711 Mockingbird Drive, Omaha, NE 68127 (108th and L-Q) 402-991-6630 _________________________

Paradigm Gardens 8949 J Street, Suite 5, Omaha, NE 68127 402-339-4949 _________________________ NEVADA Carson Valley Hydroponics 2520 Empire Ranch Road, Carson City, NV 89701 775-884-4769 Lorraine Ink 290 Spear Court, Fernley, NV 89408 775-575-7757 Hydro Store, The 1014 W. Sunset Road, Henderson, NV 89014 702-434-7365 AAA Indoor Organic Garden SuperCenter 2101 S. Decatur Boulevard, #21, Las Vegas, NV 89102 702-450-4769 Advanced Gardens Hydroponics 7850 Dean Martin Dr. Suite 506 Las Vegas,NV 89139 702-247-4769


All American Hydroponics 2675 East Patrick Lane, Unit 8, Las Vegas, NV 89120 702-894-9888 Best Hydroponic Supply 6818 W Cheyenne, Las Vegas, NV 89108 702-750-9300 Grow Hydro Gardens 5870 s Decatur Suite 11 Las Vegas, NV 89148 702-997-7053 Local 866-568-4769 Toll Free GrowHydroGardens.com Hydro Store, The 7145 W. Ann Road, Las Vegas, NV 89130 702-434-9376 Nevada Hydroponics 4700 B Maryland, Suite 1, Las Vegas, NV 89119 702-798-2852 Anything Grows 190 West Moana Lane, Reno, NV 89509 775-828-1460 Everything Green Hydroponics Box 34869 Reno, Nevada 89533 The Hydro Store 121 Woodland Ave #160

Reno NV 89523 775-787-2760

NEW HAMPSHIRE Greenlife Garden Supply 885 Second Street Manchester, NH 03102 603-782-8259 www.greenlifegardensupply.com The Beez Kneez Garden Supply 180 Emerald St., Keene, NH 03431 603-903-1488 info@thebeezkneezgardensupply.com www.thebeezkneezgardensupply.com _________________________

Hydro101 545 Hooksett Rd. #24 Manchester, NH 03104 603-782-8894 _________________________ Natural Roots Hydroponics 24 Crown St. Nashua NH 03060 603-204-5528 Four Seasons Horticulture Supply 2076 White Mountain Hwy. North Conway, NH 03860 603-733-5444 NEW JERSEY Garden State Hydroponics 511 Avenel Street, Avenel, NJ 07001 888-300-8711 Bergen County Hydroponics 70 Essex Street, Hackensack, NJ 07601 201-342-2001 _________________________

greentouch2 HYDRO PO N I C S

I N C .

Green Touch 2 Hydroponics Inc. 888 Route 33, Unit 1, Hamilton, NJ 08619 609-570-8829 _________________________ East Coast Horticultural Supply 1652 Hurffville Road, Sewell, NJ 08080 856-228-5290 77HYDRO 37 Fairfield Place, West Caldwell, NJ 07006 877-774-9376

Claraqua 4 Redwood Court, West Windsor, NJ 08550 NEW MEXICO _________________________

AHL Year Round Garden Supply 1051 San Mateo Blvd. SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108 505-255-3677 _________________________

All Seasons Gardening 3600 Osuna Road, Suite 406 Alburquerque, NM 87109 505-508-4292 _________________________ Common Shaman 1319 San Mateo N.E., Albuquerque, NM 87110 505-255-6463 _________________________

All Seasons Gardening 1228 Parkway, Suite E Sante Fe, NM 87507 505-438-GROW _________________________ Santa Fe Hydroponics 821 W. San Mateo Road, Suite 4, Santa Fe, NM 87505 505-467-8454 NEW YORK Organica: Garden Supply & Hydroponics 296 Delaware Ave., Albany, NY 12209 518-618-7666 The Grow Room 32-32 49th Street Astoria, NY 11103 718-218-GROW (4769) Saratoga Organics & Hydroponic Supply

19 Front Street, Ballston Spa, NY 12020 518-885-2005; 800-850-4769 The Grape Vine 4020 Hempstead Turnpike Bethpage,NY,11714 516-731-1100 Bronx Hydro & Garden 39 Bruckner Boulevard, Bronx, NY 10454 718-993-3787 Bklyn Hydro & Garden 316 McGuiness Blvd Brooklyn NY 11222 718-383-0095 Brooklyn Farms 51Hicks Street St. Brooklyn, NY 11231 347-725-3491 Indoor Outdoor Gardener 8223 5th Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11209 718-836-2402 Hydroponics of Buffalo 1497 Hertel Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14216 716-838-3545 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 340 West at 59, Central Nyack, NY 10960 California Hydroponics 27 Corporate Circle, East Syracuse, NY 13057 315-432-9387

Upstate Hydroponics 2026 Lake Rd unit B Elmira, NY 14903 607-483-9199 _________________________

FutureGarden Inc. 59 Central Avenue, Farmingdale, NY 11735 516-420-0884 _________________________ Sunflower Supplies, LLC 176-18 Central Ave Farmingdale, NY 11735 631-651-8281 East Coast Hydroponics 14649 Horace Harding Exp, Flushing, NY 11367 718-762-8880 Healthy Harvest Organics and Hydro 163 Broadway, Fort Edwart, NY 12828 518-480-4698 Saratoga Organics & Hydroponic Supply 10 Saratoga Ave S. Glen Falls, NY 12803 518-798-820 Greentree Garden Supply 606 Elmira Rd. Ithaca, NY 14850 607-272-3666 Mike’s Nursery and Grower Supplies 199 E. Fairmount Ave, Lakewood, NY 14750 716-763-1612 Hudson Valley Hydroponics 217 Route 32 North, New Paltz, NY 12561 845-255-3633 _________________________

The Green Box 495 9th Avenue NY NY 10018 212 967 4777 thegreenboxhydro.com _________________________ Sunlight Solutions Hydroponics

2045 Niagara Falls Blvd, Suite 13 Niagara Falls, NY 14304 888-GROWBOX The Grow Room 8 Bridge Street, Nyack, NY 10960 800-449-9630 Revolution Hydroponics 309 West State St. Olean NY 14760 716.373.Grow (4769) _________________________

Green Zone Hydroponics 2928 Southwestern Blvd Orchard Park NY 14127 716-677-9663 _________________________ Mor Gro Hydroponics 5680 State Route 104 E Oswego , NY 13126 315-877-8725 Environmental Gardens 8 John Walsh Boulevard, Suite 310 Peekskills, NY 10566 800-254-0507; 914-736-6676 Harvest Moon Hydroponics Henrietta Townline Plaza, 3047 West Henrietta Road, Rochester, NY 14623 716-865-7353 Hydro Garden Center 1069B Lyell Avenue, Rochester, NY 14606 1-800-277-1322

Sunset Hydroponics & Home Brewing 1590 West Ridge Road, Rochester, NY 14615 866-395-9204 KG Garden Supply 4575 Commercial Drive New Hartford, NY 13413 877-KG-HYDRO LiquidSun of New York 1702 Fiero ave Rotterdam, NY 12150 518-952-4654 Hydroponics Shops of America 2606 Erie Boulevard, Syracuse, NY 13224 315-251-2516 _________________________

Green Zone Hydroponics 2148 Niagara Falls Blvd. Tonawanda, NY. 14150 716-693-9663 _________________________ Harvest Moon Hydroponics 147 Fourth Street, Troy, NY 10960 Follow The Sun 1185 B Yonkers Ave Yonkers, N.Y 10704 914-237-2760 NORTH CAROLINA Advanced Hydroponic Garden 55 Shiloh Road #6 Asheville, NC 28803 1 (828) 277-3488 Fifth Season Gardening Company

21 B Westside Dr. Asheville NC 28806 828-225-5007 Fifth Season Gardening Company 45 Banks Avenue, Asheville, NC 28801 828-253-4112

Fifth Season Gardening Company 106 South Greensboro Street, Carrboro, NC 27510 919-932-7600 ________________________

BWGS-NC 4045 Perimeter West Drive,Suite 400, Charlotte, NC 28214 800-316-1306 ________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 2712 B Freedom Drive Charlotte, NC 28208 704-697-0911 ________________________ Flow & Grow Hydroponics & Organic Garden Center 4521 Cumberland Road, Fayetteville, NC 28306 910-423-FLOW (3569) Fifth Season Gardening Company 1616 D-3 Battleground Avenue, Greensboro, NC 27408 336-271-3373 Good Harvest Garden Center 629 Oakridge Farm Hwy. Mooresville NC 28115 704-658-9136 Fifth Season Gardening Company 5619-A Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, NC 27606 919-852-4747 New Age Gardens 2236A US Highway 70, Swannanoa, NC 28778 828-299-9989

_________________________

All Season Hydroponics 890 South Kerr Avenue, Wilmington, NC 28410 _________________________ Progressive Gardens 6005 Oleander Drive, Wilmington, NC 28403 910-395-1156 OHIO Akron Garden Center 434 W Wilbeth Road, Akron, OH 44314 330-724-2700 Summit Hydroponics 1030 Kenmore Boulevard Akron, OH 44314-2114 330-753-5222 _________________________

Purely Hydroponic, LLC 1507 Lear Industrial Pkwy. Avon, OH 44011 866-787-5060 _________________________ Campbells Indoor Gardening Supplies 1721 Greenville Road Bristolville, OH 44402 330-889-0049 Magic Home Gardens 209 Cemetery Road, Canal Winchester, OH 43110 614-837-2440 ________________________

CincyPonics 3314 Harrison Ave. Cincinnati, Ohio 45211 513-661-3886 ________________________ Dumont Seed Co. 619 30th ST. N.W. Canton, ohio 44709 330-492-0204 Dayton Hydroponics 4920 Provident Drive Cincinnati, Ohio 45246 513-942-7111 Eastside Hydroponics 834 Ohio Pike #318 Cincinnati, Ohio 45245 513-528-4769 Kissed by the Sun Hydroponic 10740 Reading Road, Cincinnati, OH 45241 513-769-0159 Cleveland Garden Center Inc. 727 East 185th Street, Cleveland, OH 44119 216-481-7868 Grow Wizard, The 5700 Denison Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44102 216-961-2500 Herb-N-Garden Center 14901 Puritas Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44135 216-252-2001 Garden Indoors of Ohio 4720 Indianola Avenue, Columbus, OH 43214 800-833-6868 Magic Home Garden 4538 Indianola Avenue, Columbus, OH 43214 614-263-2440 Miami Valley Hydro 8220 N. Dixie Dr. Dayton OH 45414 937-280-4468

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors Garden Connections

3341 Centerpoint Dr. Grove City OH 43123 614 871 0707 Advanced Hydrorganics Indoor Garden Center 5204 Darrow Road, Hudson, OH 44236 234-380-1287 Sweet Greens 5540 Brecksville Road Independence, OH 44131 800-421-7084 _________________________

Hydro Gardens Wholesale 1144 N Memorial Drive Lancaster, OH 43130 855-210-5599 _________________________ Carefree Garden Center

134 West Drive, Lodi, OH 44254 330-302-4203 CropKing 134 West Drive, Lodi, OH 44254 330-302-4203 USA Hydrogarden

7450 Industrial Pkwy, Ste. A Lorain, Ohio 44053 440-282-4880 The Grow Shop 165 Davids St. Marion OH 43302 740-223-7467 _________________________

Urban Gardens 671 E. Center Street Marion, OH 43302 740-375-2800 _________________________ Top Garden Products 8600 East Avenue Suite C. Mentor, OH 44060, 440-290-8773 Gardening-Indoor 5851 Youngstown-Warren Rd. Niles, OH 44446 USA 330-932-1023 Green Garden Indoor Garden Center 1664 North Main St. N. Canton, OH 44720 330-494-1234 Pet Finatics LLC 3150 Navarre Ave Suite A Oregon OH 43616 Indoor Gardens 1222 Hill Road, North, Pickerington, OH 43147 614-866-6065 _________________________

Trinity Hydro Organics 465 Woodman Drive Riverside, OH 45431 937-252-GROW _________________________ 4 Ever Green Grow Shop 5228 Detroit Rd. Sheffield, Ohio 44035 440-934-2664 Toledo Hydroponics Ltd. 855 S. Holland-Sylvania Road, Suite 2 Toledo, OH 43615 877-893-0716 Organic Garden Center

5215 Monroe St. Toledo OH 43623 419-517-8110

174

Hot Hydro ®

855 S. Holland-Sylvania Rd. #2 Toledo, Ohio 43615 419-866-1266 _________________________

Plant Lighting Hydroponics 2201-A Pinnacle Parkway Twinsburg, OH 44087 888-258-0670 _________________________ Greenleaf Hydroponics 1805 Elm Road, Warren, OH 44483 330-372-1039 Dayton Hydroponics

3856 Miamisburg-Centerville Road, West Carrolton, OH 45449 937-859-3999 Gardening-Indoor 9215 Market St. Youngstown (North Lima) OH 44452 330 758 0272

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Herb N’ Jungle Hydroponics 930 SE Textron Drive, Bend, OR 97702 541-382-4010 Northern Light & Garden 9290 SW Beaverton-Hillsdale Highway, Beaverton, OR 97005 503-297-7331 Westcoast Organic & Hydroponic Supply 12410 SE 282nd Avenue, Unit C Boring, OR 97009 503-766-4106 The Good Earth Organics 30088 Redwood Highway, Cave Junction, OR 97523 541-592-4496 Anthony’s Garden & Light Supply 93779 B Troy Lane, Coos Bay, OR 97420 541-266-8822 Corvallis Hydroponics & Organics 5490 SW Philomath Boulevard, Corvallis, OR 97333 541-738-2820 _________________________

Indoor Garden Worx

906 Blue Avenue, Zanesville, OH 43701 866-900-9679

OKLAHOMA Tulsa County Hydro-Organics 1928 W. Albany, Broken Arrow, OK 74012 918-259-HYDRO AAAAHA! Hydroponics Unlimited P.O. Box 74, Oakhurst, OK 74050 Organics OKC Garden Supply 2800 N Pennsylvania Avenue, Oklahoma City, OK 73107 405-528-GROW The OKC Urban Gardener 3711 N. Western Ave. Oklahoma City, OK 73118 405-521-9300 Urban Garden 3141 E. 15th Street, Tulsa, OK 74104 918-289-0018 OREGON _________________________

Aqua Serene 465 Applegate Way, Ashland, OR 97520 541-482-7600 _________________________

Astoria Indoor Garden Supply 1343 Duane St. Unit C Astoria OR 97103 503 468 0606 _________________________ Rogue Silicates Inc. POB 21, Azalea, OR 97410 541-837-8590

Aqua Serene 2836 W. 11th Avenue, Eugene, OR 97402 541-302-9073 _________________________

Aurora Innovations PO Box 22041, Eugene, OR 97402 866-376-8578 _________________________ SunInside Gardening Co. 665 Conger, Unit F, Eugene, OR 97402 541-686-9966 Advanced Indoor Gardens 17831 se 82nd drive Gladstone, OR 97027 503-305-6341 Northern Light & Garden 1203 Rogue River Highway, Grants Pass, OR 97527 541-474-1700 Paradise Supply LLC 560 NE. “F” Street, Unit C, Grand Pass, OR 97526 541-955-7293 Vital Organix 932-B SE “M” Street Grants Pass, OR 97526 541-226-9283 _________________________

Oregon Rainforest Co. 19949 E. Burnside Street, Gresham, OR 97233 503-465-9909 _________________________

Basin Indoor Gardening 417 N. Spring St. Klamath Falls, OR 97601 541-273-2023 Green Zone Garden Center & Hydroponic Supplies 1845 S W Hwy. 101 Ste. 3 Lincoln, OR 97367 541-994-7070 H2organic LCC 620 NE 3rd Street, McMinnville, OR 97128 503-434-6107 Green Thumb Hydrogarden & Organic Supply 2021 West Main Street, Medford, OR 97501 541-779-8600 Growing Crazy (Hooked On Hydroponics) 817 W. 2nd Street, Medford, OR 97501 _______________________

In & Out Gardens 1574 Skypark Drive Medford, OR 97501 541-858-3333 _________________________ Ladybug Indoor Gardens 3960 W. Main Street, Medford, OR 97501 541-618-4459 Advanced Organics & Garden Supply 290- B Merlin Avenue Merlin, Oregon 97532 541-659-1466 H2organic LCC 620 NE 3rd Street, McMinnville, OR 97128 503-434-6107 _________________________

Wizard’s Garden, LLC 621 Spruce Street, Unit C, Myrtle Point, OR 97458 541-572-2333 _________________________ Green Zone Garden Center & Hydroponic Supplies

454 S.W. Coast Hwy Newport OR 97365 USA 541-265-8252 _________________________

Garden Supplies

Gorilla Garden Supply 2011 Union Ave, North Bend, OR 97459 541-756-5005 _________________________ Green Garden Indoor Garden Center

1664 North Main St. N. Canton, OH 44720 330-494-1234 _________________________

American Agriculture

9966 SW. Arctic Dr. Beaverton OR 97005 503 641 3500 _________________________

B.I.G.S. 35 NW Bond Bend, OR 97701 541-385-5222 _________________________

Maximum Yield USA | February 2013

Healthy Harvest 1635 SE Tualatin Valley Hwy., Hillsboro, OR 97123 503-640-0995 _________________________

In & Out Gardens 93484 Hwy 99 South Junctin City OR 97448 541-234-2342 _________________________

Indoor Garden Depot 3260 SE Oak Grove Blvd., Oak Grove, OR 97267-1421 503-786-2445 _________________________ American Agriculture 9220 SE Stark St. Portland OR 97216 800-433-6805 Bloom Garden Supply 518 NE 20th Ave. Portland, OR 97232 971-255-1336

_________________________

BWGS-OR 18201 NE Portal Way, Ste. 104 Portland, OR 97230 888-316-1306 _________________________

Everybody’s Garden Center 2701 SE 14th Avenue, Portland, OR 97202 800-669-5483 Garden Spout, The 4532 South East 63rd Avenue, Portland, OR 97206 503-788-4769 Homegrown Garden Supply

7112 NE Gilsan Street, Portland, OR 97213 877-EZ2-GROW Island Flowers & Indoor Garden Center 909 N. Tomahawk Island Drive, Suite 103, Portland, OR 97217 503-546-3185 Lights Distributing 9843 SW 55th Avenue, Portland, OR 97219 Rain or Shine 13126 NE Airport Way, Portland, OR 97230 503-255-1981 Roots Garden Supply 5426 North Gay Avenue, Portland, OR 97217 503-285-4768 Urban Flora 2865 South East, Portland, OR 97214 503-236-3344 BIGS Warehouse 2606 SW 4th Street, Unit B Redmond, OR 97756 541-504-8886 Indoor Garden Supply 536 SW 6th Street (rear alley), Redmond, OR 97756 541-504-7750 DC Hydroponics & Organics 7275 Green Siding Rd. Roseburg, OR 97471 541-679-3700 Roseburg Hydroponics 853 SE Stephens Street, Roseburg, OR 97470 541-229-1420 Indoor Garden Center 1697 SE 25th Street, Salem, OR 97302 503-566-7888 Northern Light & Garden Salem 1915 Lancester Drive, Salem, OR 97305 503-364-4769 Cascade Horticulture 39570 Pioneer Boulevard, Sandy, OR 97055 503-668-8242 Moonshine Park Farm 135 South East 62nd, Unit F South Beach, OR 97366 541-444-2298 J-N-B Hydro 2 Go 155 West Central Avenue, Sutherlin, OR 97479 541-459-9211 Samurai Greenhouse Supply 32067 Old Hwy. 34 Tanget, OR 97389 541-928-3431 Grow America Garden Supply LLC 11511 SW Pacific Highway, Tigard, OR 97223 503-841-6868 Pharmer Hydroponics

11135 SW Industrial Way Bldg 10-4 Tualatin, OR 97062 503-486-5751


PENNSYLVANIA Pocono Hydroponic Solutions 25 Route 611 Bartonsville, PA 18321 570-730-4544 Green Solutions Hydroponics 1700 Orange Street Berwick, PA 18603 570-752-1530 Garden Indoors of Pennsylvania 208 Route 13, Bristol, PA 19007 800-227-4567 22 GROW

1775 North Main Street Extension Butler, PA 16001-1327 724-561-3777 ________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 20232 Route 19, Unit 6, Cranberry Twp., PA 16066 724-473-1113 ________________________ New Moon Indoor Garden Supply 20550 Route 19 Perry Highway, Cranberry Twp., PA 16066 724-591-8086 Home Hydroponics of Pittsburgh 830 Route 119, Greensburg, PA 15601 724-836-1118 Buds to Blooms Garden and Supply Co., LLC 509 Orchard Avenue Kennett Square, PA 19348 484-860-8056 _________________________

The Companion Plant 363 E. Main St Kutztown, PA 19530 610-683-9676 _________________________ Flairform PO 1417, Lansdale, PA 19446 215-395-6353 _________________________

RH Distribution PO 1417, Lansdale, PA 19446 888-545-8112 _________________________ Esbenshades Greenhouses 546A East 28th Div Hwy Lititz Pa 17543 717-626-7007 Hydro Ponics of Harrisburg 310 South 10th Street, Lemoyne, PA 17043 877-684-3808 Always Green Garden Supply 4400 Old William Penn Hwy Ste. 106 Monroeville PA 15146 412-646-1243 New Stanton Hydro 150 Post Ave. New Stanton, PA. 15672 724-635-0297 Hydrofarm East 270 Canal Road Fairless Hills, PA 19030 888-780-4567 The Companion Plant 363 E. Main St Kutztown, PA 19530 610-683-9676 Esbenshades Greenhouses 546A East 28th Div Hwy Lititz Pa 17543 717-626-7007

Full Bloom Hydroponics 84 South 24th Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 888-872-3602 Gardening-Indoor 20550 Rt. #19 Cranberry Twp. Pitsburgh PA 16066 724 591 8086 Home Hydroponics of Pittsburgh 2008 Smallman Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15222 412-232-7030 Healthy Gardens and Supply

1012 Lincoln Avenue, Prospect Park, PA 19076 866-32-HYDRO

Northeast Hydroponics & Homebrewing 221 Scranton Carbondale Hwy. Scranton PA 18508 570-209-7924 Full Time Garden Supply 1011 Ritner Highway Shippensburg PA.17257 717-477-0350 www.fulltimegardensupply.com Home Hydroponics of Pittsburgh 9 North Main St. Washington, PA 15301 724-222-0200 Western Pennsylvania Innovative Gardening 1177 Pittsburgh Road, Suite 103 Valencia, PA 16059 724-903-0800 Organic Garden Center 800 Washington Blvd. Williamsport, PA 17701 570-322-3120 _________________________

National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply 450 Grim Lane, York,PA 17406 877-779-7111(Northeast) _________________________ PA Hydroponics & Home Gardening Supply 20 Quaker Church Road, York Springs, PA 17372 717-528-4175 RHODE ISLAND Oakworld Garden Center 39 West Street, Barrington, RI 02806 401-245-5705 Solar Seed Hydroponics, Inc. 2406 Putman Pike, Chepachet, RI 02814 401-710-9010 Organically Grown 768 Atwood Ave Cranston, RI 02920 401-944-0549 Hydro-Earth 1243 Mineral Springs Avenue, North Providence, RI 02904 401-305-5520 The Organic Grow Hut 375 Putnam Pike- Ste 13 Smithfield, RI 02828 401-349-4141 South County Hydroponics 51 Old Tower Hill Road, Wakefield, RI 02879 401-783-1733 Mother Nature Hydroponics

1268 Post Rd. Warwick RI 02888 401-780-0600 LiquidSun® RI 1179 Central Avenue, Pawtucket, MA 02861 401-722-2724

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Good To Grow 34 Nooseneck Hill Road, West Greenwich, RI 02817 401-392-3100 _________________________ Growin’ Crazy 93 Kingston Road Wyoming, Rhode Island 02898 401-284-0810 SOUTH CAROLINA GreenSpirit Hydrogarden 1864 Meeting Street, Charleston, SC 29405 843-225-1GRO Skyes the Limit 455 B Fleming Rd. Charleston, SC 29412 843-566-2121 www.skyesthelimitsc.com 247 Garden Supply 535 D Clemson Road, Columbia, SC 29229 803-788-4445 The Urban Garden Hydroponics 9557 Two Notch Rd. Ste. E Columbia, SC 29223 803-788-9313 Okatie Organics and Hydroponics 138 Short Cut Rd. Ridgeland SC 2993 _________________________

All Season Hydroponics 1350 Hwy. 501 Business, Store 3&4 Conway, SC 29526 843-347-9266 _________________________ Green Thumb Unique Gardening & More 1230 Rutherford Road, Greenville, SC 29609 864-271-8830 _________________________

Greenspirit Hydrogardens 3600 Unite 1 Hwy.17 S. North Myrtle Beach, SC 29582 843-361-7777 _________________________ SOUTH DAKOTA _________________________

Green Earth Products Inc. 5700 Highway 79 S.,Unit 1, Rapid City, SD 57702 605-342-1307 _________________________ TENNESSEE

Innovative Hydroponic Supply Inc.

3286 North Park Blvd. Unit G Alcoa TN 37701 865-984-0280 Atlantis Hydroponics 1800 Rossville Avenue, #3, Chattanooga, TN 37408 423-752-5400 Advanced Hydroponic Garden 783 French Mill Road, Dandridge, TN 37725 800-521-1643 Perpetual Harvest 75 Riverport Drive, Jackson, TN 38301 877-422-3391 Advanced Hydroponic Garden 6912 Clinton Highway, Knoxville, TN 37921 866-938-3318

Sun City Hydroponics 2235 Whitten Road, Suite 104, Memphis, TN 38133 901-372-8100 _________________________

National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply 126 Belinda Parkway, Mt. Juliet, TN 37122 888-265-9005 _______________________ All Seasons Gardening and Brewing Supply Co. 924 8th Avenue, South, Nashville, TN 37203 800-790-2188 _________________________

Worm’s Way Tennessee 901 Main Street, Nashville, TN 37072 800-397-4153 _________________________ TEXAS Abundant Harvest Hydroponics & Organics 3101 Avenue E East, Arlington, TX 76011 817-649-0100 Brite Ideas Hydroponics & Organics

4360 S.Congress Avenue, #310, Austin, TX 78745 512-444-2100 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Central Austin) 5126 Burnet Road, Austin, TX 78756 512-459-4769 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (South Austin) 2125-A Goodrich Avenue, Austin, TX 78704 512-440-4769 Third Coast Horticulture Supplies 7010 Burnet Rd., Ste.A Austin, TX 78757 512-459-4353 Happy Harvest Hydroponics & Organic 1500 C rescent Drive, Suite 202 Carrollton, TX 75006 972-466-1300 GroGreen Hydroponics 4015 Main Street, Dallas, TX 75226 214-370-9984 Jolly Green Hydroponics (Greenhouse Horticultural Supplies) 13628 Neutron Road, Dallas, TX 75244 866-WE-JOLLY; 469-341-5555 Lone Star Hydroponics & Organics

1302 Motor Circle, Dallas, TX 75207 214-634-9376 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Dallas) 3400 Elm Street, Dallas, TX 75226 214-744-4769 _________________________ Organic Garden & Feed 3801 N Interstate Hwy 35,Suite126, Denton Texas 76207 940-381-9890 _________________________ Earth Organics 1360 Lee Trevino Drive,Suite 105 El Paso, TX 79936 915-591-9500 Hydrofarm Central 950 Avenue S Grand Prairie, TX 75050-1133 800-634-9999

Airline Hydroponics P.O. Box 980904, Trader’s Village #363, Houston, TX 77098 713-942-0484 Botani Garden 15120 Bellaire Blvd Houston, TX 77083 281-575-1999 Houston Discount Hydroponics 9384 Richmond Avenue, Houston, TX 77063 713-464-9406 Hydroponic Nation 9001 Frey Road Houston TX 77034 713-943-1115 In-N-Out Garden Supply 11011 S Wilcrest Drive Ste K Houston, TX 77099 281-568-5265 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Houston) 7730 A Park Place Boulevard, Houston, TX 77087 713-641-4769 Ultimate Hydroponic Garden Supply

6125 West Sam Houston Parkway, North Suite 206 Houston, TX 77041 713-856-8425 Texas Growers Supply 5990 N. Sam Houston Pkwy. E. #602, Humble, TX 77396 281-441-3739 Field of Dreams Indoor Growing Supplies 5302 Slide Road Unit B, Lubbock, TX 79414 806-793-2901 Hydro Mart 3841 Main Street, Rowlett, TX 75088 972-475-6114

Brite Ideas Hydroponics & Organics

5121 Crest Way Dr., Ste. 203 San Antonio, TX 78239 210-248-9309 www.bihydro.com _________________________

Sol Organics & Hydroponics 1634 Babcock Road, San Antonio, TX 78229 210-366-9082 _________________________ Innergrow Hydroponics 24451 Interstate Highway 20, Wills Point, TX 75169 866-475-4769 UTAH Wasatch Hydroponics 4050 South Howick, Suite 11E, Salt Lake City, Utah 84107 801-716-4133 _________________________

Salt Lake Plant & Hydro 60 West 3300 S. #6 South Salt Lake, UT 84115 801-488-3200 _________________________ VERMONT Greenthumb - Vermont 394 Route 15, Jericho, VT 05465 802-899-4323 Peak Hydroponic Garden Supplies

20 School Street, Plainfield, VT 05667 802-454-8000

Maximum Yield USA | February 2013

175


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors LiquidSun® VT 1 Bellows Falls Road, (Route 5 North) Putney, VT 05158 802-387-1100 Green Thumb Gardening P.O. Box 235, Route 15, Underhill, VT 5489 800-564-9376 VIRGINIA Fifth Season Gardening Co. 900 Preston Ave. Charlottesville VA 22903 434-293-2332 Clean & Green Technologies 196 Corning Drive, Christiansburg, VA 24073 866-694-1628 Maryland Hydroponics 1061 West Broad Street Falls Church, VA 866-324-9376 I Love Hydroponics 612 N. Sheppard Street, Richmond, VA 23221 804-377-3020 Lucky Roots 612 North Sheppard St. Richmond, VA 23221 804-377-3020 Blue Ridge Hydroponics & Home Brewing Company 5327 D Williamson Road Roanoke, VA 24012 540-265-2483 Inside-Out Garden Supply 6517 Backlick Road, Springfield, VA 22150 703-451-3259 I Love Hydroponics 368 Newtown Road, #105, Virginia Beach, VA 23462 757-490-5425 Hydroponics & Growlights 13400 Occoquan Road, Woodbridge, VA 22191 703-490-0700

Island Horticulture Supply 1500 Port Dr., Burlington, WA 98233 360-293-0000 www.islandhorticulture.com _________________________

Indoor Tropics

_________________________ Garden Smart 500 Bond Drive, Castlerock, WA 98611 360-274-7960 Indoor Gardening 111 W.Main Centralia, WA 98531 360-807-4259 Grow Center, The 615 South Fir DeerPark WA 99006 509-276-GROW _________________________

Ellensburg, WA 98926 509-933-4441 _________________________ Healthy Grow Indoor Garden Supplies 10 SE Everett Mall Way Suite B Everett WA 98208 425-374-2227 _________________________

Indoor Garden Depot 1401 S. 324th Street, Federal Way, WA 98003 253-874-1112 _________________________

176

KP Indoor Garden Store 8912 Key Peninsula HWY N Lakebay, WA 98349 253-884-SURE (7873) ________________________ InDoor Gardening 1158 Commerce Longview WA, 98632 360-353-3851 Indoor Gardening 5718 Pacific Ave. Lacey WA 00000 360-338-0676 ________________________

Seattle's Hydro Spot 917 NW 49th St. Seattle, WA 98107 206-784-2161 ________________________

704 N. Wenas St.

WASHINGTON _________________________

5087 Lincoln Road, Blaine, WA 98230 Kitsap Garden & Lighting 2130 6th Street, Bremerton, WA 98312 360-377-1277 M & R Lighting Unit C 22914 Highway 410, Buckley, WA 98390 253-891-4190

Grogro Hydro 12316 32nd AVE NE #103 Seattle, WA 98125 Hydro-Tech 2121 Aurora Avenue, North, Seattle, WA 98103 206-547-2202 ________________________

Indoor Tropics

Indoor Garden Depot 8630 Evergreen Way, Suite B Everett, WA 98208 425-347-0700 _________________________

Liquid Sunshine Hydroponics

Kent Garden Supplies Ltd. 18817 East Valley Highway, Kent, WA 98032 425-251-9299 Grogro Hydro 12403 NE. 124th Street, Kirkland, WA 98034 888-7-GROGRO; 425-820-6200 _________________________

5930 Sunburst Lane #B Cashmere, WA 98815 509-470-7782

West VIRGINIA Panhandle Hydroculture 800 East Moler Ave. Martinsburg, WV 25401 304-240-7587 Almost Heaven Hydroponics 3476 University Ave., Morgantown, WV 26505 304-598-5911

Island Horticulture Supply 8608 S March Point Rd. Anacortes WA 98221 360-293-0000 _________________________ Mike’s Indoor Garden Supply 6121 172nd Street NE #A, Arlington, WA 98223 360-474-1900 Belfair Garden & Lighting 24090 NE State Route 3 #F Belfair,WA 98528 360-275-2130 Green Gardens Distributing 12738 Bel-Red Road, Bellevue, WA 98005 425-454-5731 Northern Lights Gardening 4159 Hannegan Road, Bellingham, WA 98225 360-715-8585

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

North West Hydro Supply 1355 Pacific Pl, Ste. 101 Ferndale WA 98248 360-778-3254 _________________________ Fife Indoor Garden Center 1422 54th Ave. E. Fife, WA 98424 253-922-5352 Good 2 Gro

3507 W Clearwater Ave. Kennewick, WA 99336 509-737-1313 Hefty Harvest Garden & Hydroponic Supply

2825 Marvin Road NE Ste M Lacey, WA 98516 360-628-8964 _________________________

Indoor Garden & Lighting 714 South Central Avenue, Kent, WA 98032 253-373-9060 _________________________

Maximum Yield USA | February 2013

Indoor Garden & Lighting 20505 Highway 99,, Lynnwood, WA 98036 425-673-2755 _________________________ Go-N-Green Hydroponics 1241 State Ave Suite #102 Marysville, WA 98270 (360)386-8230 Green Acres Indoor Garden & Lighting 514 State Ave, Suite #102 Marysville, WA 98270 360-658-GROW (4769) Island Hydroponic & Supplies 1515 5th Street #B, Marysville, WA 98271 425-299-5855 Mike’s Indoor Garden Supply 1204 East Wheeler Road, Moses Lake, WA 98837 509-766-5856 M & R Lighting 17238 Memorial Drive, Mt. Vernon, WA 98273 360-848-1080 Northern Lights Gardening 1524 Riverside Dr #2 Mt. Vernon, WA 98273 360-982-2217 ________________________

Indoor Garden & Lighting 8606 Preston Fall City Rd. SE Preston WA 98050 425-222-9661 ________________________ Linda’s Gardening & Hydroponics 11522 Canyon Road East, Puyallup, WA 98373 253-531-9641 Renton Indoor Garden Center 329 Wells Ave. S., Renton WA 98057 425-917-9000 Eco Enterprises 1240 NE 175th Street, #B Shoreline, WA 98155 800-426-6937 _________________________

Aqua Serene 3839 Stone Way North, Seattle, WA 98103 206-547-GROW (4769) ________________________

Sodo Hydro 1727 1st Ave. South, Seattle, WA 98134

_________________________

National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply 4525 NW Fruit Valley Road, Vancouver, WA 98660 888-478-6544 (Northwest) ___________________________

National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply 5408 NE 88th Street, Building A, Vancouver, WA 98665 888-478-6544 _________________________

Indoor Garden Supply LLC 1250 Atlantic Ave, Woodland, WA 98674 360-841-8055 WISCONSIN _________________________

206-682-9377; 888-90-HYDRO (904-9376)

__________________________ Northwest Horticultur-e Supply 161 Hooker Road, #1, Sequim, WA 98057 360-582-0702 509 Grow 2718 N Division Spokane, WA 99207 509-327-GROW(4769) Grow Center, The 2808 W Sprague Spokane WA 99202 509-456-GROW River City Hydroponics 1514 East Francis Avenue, Spokane, WA 99208 509-464-0246

Spokane Organic & Hydroponic Supply

4823 East Sprague Avenue E., Spokane Valley, WA 99212 509-534-4055 ________________________

Waterworks Hydroponics 5039 S. Washington Tacoma, WA 98409 • 253-301-4343 waterworkshydro@hotmail.com ________________________ Garden City Hydroponics 14103 Pacific Ave., S. Tacoma WA 98444 253-301-3985 ________________________

Indoor Garden & Lighting 3839 6th Avenue, Tacoma, WA 98406 253-761-7478 ________________________ Solar Shop 306 West 4th Street, Tonasket, WA 98855 509-486-4508 ________________________

Indoor Garden Depot 6400 NE Highway 99, Suite H, Vancouver, WA 98665 360-993-7779

Aric’s Indoor Garden Supply 1104 West Wisconsin Avenue, Appleton, WI 54914 920-574-3258 _________________________ Grow BIG Hydroponics 954 S. Westland, Appleton, WI 54914 920-749-4769 H2oGrow 1150 Madison rd Beloit WI 53511 608-289-1852 Brew and Grow 285 N. Janacek Road, Brookfield, WI 53045 262-789-0555 Sustainable Growth LLC

218 N Dewey St. Eau Claire WI 54703 715-901-0511 Garden Supply Guys 752 Memorial Drive - Suite A Green Bay, WI 54303 920-857-9493 Hydro Your Own 8501-75th Street, Unit C Kenosha, WI 53142 262 697 6112 Brew and Grow 3317 Agriculture Drive, Madison, WI 53716 608-226-8910 _________________________

Paradigm Gardens 4501 Helgesen Drive, Madison, WI 53718 608-241-3800 _________________________ Brew and Grow 2246 Bluemound Road Ste. B Waukesha, WI 53186 262-717-0666 PUERTO RICO _________________________

Tecno-Hydro Ave Campo Rico GJ17, PO Box 1450 Carolina, PR 00982 787-752-8252 _________________________


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Draw closes on February 15, 2013. For complete contest rules, go to maximumyield.com/winbig Prizes might not be exactly as shown.


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Ten Steps Toward a Super Spring

for more information

Spring planting marks the beginning of the outdoor gardening season, and getting off to a good start can go a long way toward a successful harvest in the fall. Here are ten tips to get you started…

Conditioning Sterilized Soils The process of steam sterilization kills soil pathogens such as soil-borne fungi and bacteria, fungus gnat eggs, snails, other pest insects, weeds and weed seeds. However, steam is non-discriminating; it also kills beneficial insects, fungi and bacteria. Thankfully, there are ways to re-establish soil balance after sterilization

Introduction to Lighting Types Everyone knows you need a light to grow plants indoors. This article will not only help you understand light itself, but also how to choose the right type of lamp to suit your growing needs.

www.maximumyield.com Maximum Yield USA March will be available next month for free at select indoor gardening retail stores across the country and on maximumyield.com Subscriptions are available at maximumyield.com/subscriptions

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Maximum Yield USA | February 2013

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Maximum Yield USA February 2013  

Indoor gardening monthly magazine that is distributed internationally through stores that retail hydroponics gardening products.

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