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New Zealand November/December 2013

I N D O O R

G A R D E N I N G

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Organoleptic Quality

Which Nutrients Contribute to Good Taste?

Fostering Healthy Bacteria A Guide to Beneficial Insects Community Gardens Pushing CO2

2014 INDOOR GARDENING EXPO TOUR SEATTLE www.maximumyield.com

April 5-6

NOVI

MAY 31 - JUNE 1

SAN FRAN july 26-27

BOSTON october 18-19


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Maximum Yield | November/December 2013


CONTENTS Nov/Dec 2013

FEATURES

34

30 Pushing CO2

by Isabelle Lemay and Mélissa Léveillé

34 The Comfort

Zone: Fostering Healthy Bacteria by Chris Pianta

48

30

42

38 Organoleptic Quality by Frank Rauscher

42 Battle of the Bugs: A Guide to Beneficial Insects by Eric Hopper

48 Collective Growing by Raquel Neofit

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DEPARTMENTS 6

From the Editor

56

Talking Shop

8

Letters to the Editor

58

Did You Know

10

Ask the Experts

59

Max Mart

12

MAX Facts

60

Distributors

22

Product Spotlight

62

Coming up Next

52

Growers Know

62

MaximumYield.com

54

You Tell Us


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FROM THE EDITOR | lINDA jESSON With the weather warming up outside, many indoor gardeners are looking forward to a new growing season. But as the weather changes, it's important to adjust gardening techniques to ensure your plants remain at the optimal temperature and humidity levels. In “The Comfort Zone: Fostering Healthy Bacteria”, Chris Pianta has some tips to help create a thriving root zone around your plants. For growers looking to battle insect infestations in their growrooms, we provide a look at one environmentally friendly weapon in the anti-pest arsenal—beneficial bugs. One main concern for all gardeners is making sure our crops taste wonderful and we've got the details on how to grow vegetables for maximum flavour. We've also got the dirt on a new trend cropping up across Australia, New Zealand and the world—community gardening. Raquel Neofit checks out a couple of community gardens to find out more about how to start your own communal garden.

Message from the

Editor Linda Jesson

To round out the issue, and your Christmas shopping lists, we've included all of the latest and greatest growing gear in our new products section, and don't forget to check out our Max Facts section for the latest industry news. Get ready for our 2014 Grow Like a Pro Expo Tour that we have planned coast to coast across the United States. With new venues and locations, 2014 will see us heading to Seattle, Washington (April 5 and 6); Novi, Michigan (May 31 and June 1); San Francisco, California (July 26 and 27); and Boston, Massachusetts (Oct. 18 and 19). Stay tuned to indoorgardenexpo.com for details so you can plan your 2014 vacation around these fabulous events. Happy holidays, gardeners!

contributors Raquel Neofit is a freelance writer

Chris Pianta, AgroSci CEO, has more

Isabelle Lemay is in charge of

Frank Rauscher is a certified horticulturist and consultant for the gardening industry. He’s a contributing author to several publications and was writer and editor of the Green Pages. Frank finds analyzing plant stress and finding solutions exciting. He is very much at home bringing new ideas to the field of horticulture and indoor gardening.

for the horticulture, travel and lifestyle industries. She has a background in business and radio, and is an avid believer that hydroponics is way of the future. Follow Raquel’s writing on her blog, Black Thumbs Guide to Growing Green—the misadventures of the vertical herb gardening movement— and My Food Story on Facebook.

technical support, customer service and research and development at Nova Biomatique Inc. (igrowing.com), makers of the PLUG’N’GROW climate controllers. She is an agronomist and holds a master’s degree in soil and environment studies, with a specialization in greenhouse production.

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than 25 years of experience in the lawn and garden market. He managed two successful startups and developed programs for Franks Nursery, FTD, Profile Soil Products, Martha Stewart, Agway and GROWELL. Chris is a holder of two United States patents. He earned his B.S. in environmental and professional horticulture from UConn.

Eric Hopper has more than 10 years

of experience in the hydroponic industry as both a retail store manager and owner. He continuously seeks new methods and products that could help maximize garden performance. Eric resides in Michigan where he and his family strive for a self-sufficient and sustainable lifestyle.

Become a Maximum Yield contributor and have your articles read by 250,000 readers throughout the USA, Canada, the UK, Europe, Australia and New Zealand. Every issue is available on maximumyield.com, which has thousands of unique visitors monthly.


LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Eighth I'm a Fan Winner

Glendon Warner from South Carolina is the eighth winner of Maximum Yield’s I’m a Fan Contest! Glendon said, “Last week I was shopping at my local garden store Glendon Warner and saw the free copy of this magazine. I was blown away by all the information, articles and tips, not to mention a ton of manufacturer and product information I was never even aware of! I have fallen in love with this perfect publication; I have read the past six issues already and can't wait for the next issue! This magazine is perfect for me and I’m so glad I saw the copy and took it home.” Thank you for your great response, Glendon, and congratulations on winning Maximum Yield’s eighth I’m a Fan contest! We hope you enjoy your $100 gift certificate at your favourite indoor gardening shop, The Green Thumb in Greenville, South Carolina, United States.

Ninth I'm a Fan Winner

Marko Portuondo from Connecticut is the ninth winner of Maximum Yield’s I’m a Fan Contest! Marko said, “I’m not going to get all technical on why I'm a fan of the Marko Portuondo magazine. You guys freakin’ rock! And because of that, my indoor garden rocks. I've learned countless things from your articles, which has made me a pretty successful grower. You’ve got to love Maximum Yield, baby!”

From Average to Super

After reading my first issue, I was blown away with all the information you provide us. Thank you for all the effort you put onto each issue, it is well worth it. This magazine is turning average growers into super farmers. George

Hard Copy, Please

Hi there, I would really like a hard copy of your September/October issue, but can't locate one in my local area. Is it possible to have one posted to me? Michelle, via email Thank you for your request, Michelle. I have emailed you a complimentary digital subscription for our Australia edition, as well it can be viewed every month online at maximumyield.com. As our publication is printed in Australia and sent to retail shops by our distributors, it is best to check in the back of one of the current editions for a retail shop near you that distributes Maximum Yield to pick up your hard copy. Enjoy this issue and stay tuned for the great editorial planned for future issues.

A Green Thumbs Up

Ever wondered what it would be like if your garden were to outgrow everyone's wildest expectations? I want to thank Maximum Yield for helping mine to flourish far beyond what I dreamed possible. Providing us with this free place to share research, ideas and products is invaluable. I started hanging out at local hydro shops, getting all the samples I could and working hard in the garden. Now I work at the local hydro store. Thanks again Maximum Yield and a big, green thumbs up to you all. --Ray Crowley, via email

Thank you for the great response, Marko, and congratulations on winning Maximum Yield’s ninth I’m a Fan contest! We hope you enjoy your $100 gift certificate at your favourite indoor gardening shop, Liquid Sun Hydroponics in Windsor, Connecticut, United States. 8

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We want to hear from you!

Maximum Yield Publications Inc. Snail-mail: 2339 Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9, Canada Email: editor@maximumyield.com Twitter: twitter.com/max_yield Facebook: facebook.com/MaximumYield

VOLUME 11 – NUMBER 4 November/December 2013 PRINTED IN AUSTRALIA Maximum Yield is published bi-monthly by Maximum Yield Publications Inc. 2339A Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 Phone: 250.729.2677; Fax 250.729.2687 No part of this magazine may be reproduced without permission from the publisher. If undeliverable please return to the address above. The views expressed by columnists are a personal opinion and do not necessarily reflect those of Maximum Yield or the Editor. Publication Agreement Number 40739092 PRESIDENT/PUBLISHER - Jim Jesson GENERAL MANAGER - Don Moores BUSINESS MANAGER - Linda Jesson editorial editor@maximumyield.com Editor Linda Jesson Assistant Editors Julie McManus Jennifer McGarrigle

ADVERTISING SALES Sales Manager Ilona Hawser - ilona@maximumyield.com Account Executives Kelsey Hepples - kelsey@maximumyield.com Katie Montague - katie@maximumyield.com Jed Walker - jed@maximumyield.com Sarah Dale - sarah@maximumyield.com PRODUCTION & DESIGN ads@ads.maximumyield.com Art Director Alice Joe Graphic Designers Jennifer Everts Dionne Hurd Jesslyn Gosling ACCOUNTING Tracy Greeno - tracy@maximumyield.com Katie LaFrance - ar@maximumyield.com

AUSTRALIAN DISTRIBUTION Dome Garden Supply Holland Forge House N’ Garden Growlush Hydroponic Generations Plant Symbionts UK DISTRIBUTION Growth Technology Future Harvest Development Europe Nutriculture UK Direct Garden Supplies Dutch Pro Maxigro Ltd. CANADIAN DISTRIBUTION Brite-Lite Group Biofloral Eddis Wholesale Greenstar Plant Products Inc. Hydrotek MegaWatt Quality Wholesale USA DISTRIBUTION Aurora Innovations BWGS General Hydroponics Humboldt Wholesale Hydrofarm Hydro International National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply R&M Supply Tradewinds


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SIMON ASK THESAYS EXPERTS

My tomato leaves seem to be so heavy. They just droop down. Is this normal? If not, what could it be? -Jason Miller There are a couple reasons this might be happening. The most likely culprit is heat. If plants are too close to light sources they will become droopy. The same can be said for plants that are too cold. The ideal temperature range for most crops is 18 to 29°C. It could also be a result of overwatering. If plant roots are starved of oxygen the leaves will begin to droop and wilt. Allow the growing medium to dry out before watering. A more serious problem could be bacterial wilt, fusarium wilt or verticillium wilt—these are fungal and bacterial diseases. The symptoms of each include wilting leaves and stems. There are other symptoms involved such as yellowing leaves. There is no cure for these diseases. One can only remove the infected plants. I hope this helps clear things up.

Sincerely, Matt LeBannister

I am running just LEDs for both stages of growth. Is this okay or should I take out one of my 400-W LED lights and add a 400-W hps/mh for my flowering plants? -Kolton Davis LED lighting can work great for both stages of growth especially when using higher wattage LED fixtures (like the 400-w units you are using). LEDs produce more usable light energy for plants per watt of electricity consumed. Because the HPS/ MH is equal to the LED unit in terms of wattage I would recommend sticking with the LEDs. I do recommend keeping the LED light fixture as close to the plant canopy as you can without causing stress (usually 25.4 to 45.7 cm above the plants) to ensure sufficient light penetration.

Sincerely, Eric Hopper

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MAX FACTS

Growing news, tips and trivia

Pursuing Perfect Pineapples Pineapple farmers are upping the ante when it comes to getting consumers excited to buy tropical fruit this summer. Special effort is being afforded this year to make sure every fruit is picked at the perfect time. Yeppoon's Tropical Pines pineapple packing business services and represents 50% of the industry in Australia. “Our challenge is that we are supplying markets that are up to six days away if we're going to Western Australia. So you've got to get the balance right about what's fresh in Yeppoon today and what's still going to taste fantastic in six or seven days' time when it hits the shelves in Perth," says Mr. Craggs. "When you've got a patch of 30,000 pineapples, they don't all ripen on the same day, but they probably ripen within a couple of weeks of each other. So rather than going through and picking everything at once, we are working with our growers to pick fruit two or three times to make sure they get optimum ripeness." (Source: abc.net.au)

MAXFACTS Growing tips, news and trivia Growers Concerned About Pomegranate Imports A Nutty Campaign A three-year marketing campaign has changed Japan's perceptions of Australian’s native nut. Research indicates Japanese consumers no longer believe macadamias make you fat, are bad for your skin or originate from Hawaii. The Australian Macadamia Society's Lynne Zielke says it was a better result than expected. “Consumers now regard the product as being a more premium product than they did previously,” she said. “They now recognise the product has very good health and beauty benefits.” There was also a dramatic shift away from consumers purchasing macadamias only as a souvenir or gift product. “Far fewer people associate macadamias with being a souvenir or a gift than they did previously,” she said. Consumer research due to begin in November in China will determine whether the macadamia industry invests in a marketing campaign there. (Source: abc.net.au)

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A Western Australian growers' group has raised concerns about fruit from overseas hitting shop shelves in Perth. The Hills Orchard Improvement Group says pomegranates have come in from the United States in significant amounts for the first time. The group says although the fruit is not a competitive risk to locally grown pomegranates, which appear from May to July, it is competing with other locally grown fruit. Mr. DelSimone says WA consumers should think before buying imported fruit. “It needs to go through a quarantine protocol, which can take time depending on whether it's a cold storage or a fumigation protocol,” he says. “Then you have the travel factor bringing it into Australia and we all know that nutrient content breaks down the longer the fruit is stored so fresh is always best.” (Source: freshplaza.com)


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MAX FACTS

Growing news, tips and trivia

Aussie Asparagus Victorian asparagus growers say consumers should expect good quality asparagus at cheaper prices this spring. About 90% of Australia's asparagus is grown east of Melbourne, near Koo Wee Rup. Alex Motta, vice president of the Asparagus Growers Council, says warmer soil temperatures have brought an early start to the harvest. “If we get good quantity and quality, I think the farmers will do OK. And I think the consumers will do very well this year. There's a bigger crop than we've had the last couple of years, so that can only mean more in the stores and probably cheaper prices than we've seen in the last couple of years.” (Source: freshplaza.com)

Software to Help Reduce Greenhouse Gases Levels of nitrous oxide are difficult to measure in agricultural sites across Australia due to their scattered nature. So, scientists from the Queensland University of Technology have created Semaphore, a computer program that aims to help farmers and landowners track their greenhouse gas emissions. By measuring the amount of nitrous oxide produced by fertilisers, soils and varying temperatures, researchers can work with the industry to suggest climatefriendly alternatives. Semaphore uses a cloud-based model of biochemical tools that simulate the fluctuations of carbon and nitrogen in the atmosphere. Initiated by professor Peter Grace of the National Agricultural Nitrous Oxide Research Program, the software has the advantage of combining data from 15 sites across Australia for further analysis. (Source: phys.org)

Taking a Good Foodie Photo Considering taking and posting pictures of your hard-earned yields? The one thing you can do to make your food photos look better is to use natural light. Don't use overhead lighting, which casts a yellow greasy-spoon look to a plated dish, and definitely don't use an on-camera flash. Set your dish near a window and turn off any nearby artificial lights. The indirect light from a window will illuminate your food just right. Try to photograph with the light at your back or to the side of a dish, so that the shadows are to the side or behind it. If you have a window that lets in loads of direct sunlight, you can cover it with a white sheet to soften the light. You can also use a white sheet or white poster board facing the window to bounce light back on the shadowed side of the food, filling in those shadows with a little bit of extra light. (Source: mnn.com)

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MAX FACTS

hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Introducing the Potato Tom The grafted Potato Tom brings a tomato and a potato together in one place. It was released to garden centres in New Zealand earlier this year. This is the first time at a commercial level anyone has delivered this concept to home gardeners in New Zealand. The new concept brings double the fun and productivity to the home gardener by combining a juicy gardeners delight tomato and a crop of the popular eating potato Agria from the one plant! As both potatoes and tomatoes are from the same family, the two plants are graft compatible and can therefore be grafted together. "It is the perfect combination that produces a good crop of both potatoes and beautiful cherry tomatoes—you get tomatoes in summer, potatoes in autumn" says Andrew Boylan, general manager of Tharfield Nursery which produces and markets the Potato Tom. (Source: voxy.co.nz)

Exotic Melons Grow Popular Vegetable seed breeder Graham Adams says he's dealing with many more unusual types of melons because Australian consumers are becoming more adventurous with their tastes. He says French and South American varieties offer extra sweetness and different textures. An increase in multinational residents and more worldly Australia attitudes are thought to be driving the trend. “There's a lot of international people in Australia, and with that comes whole different tastes that they need, and I think also Australians are very worldly-wise these days. They travel, they see, they taste and so they go overseas and they see something and they want to bring it back to Australia,” says Graham. (Source: abc.net.au)

Vineyard Yield Optimisation Australia produces less than 1% of the world’s wine, but is recognised as a premium producer. The Marlborough region in the South Island is particularly regarded as one of the premier growing areas of sauvignon blanc. Managing grape volume to ensure a consistent supply of wine reaches the market is a key factor in the profitability of the wine industry, as excessive volumes of wine can reduce the premium price the industry can command in the marketplace. Excess crop load can also result in under-ripe berries and a dilution of the compounds necessary to produce a high-quality wine. Statistical models that predict the potential productivity of sauvignon blanc grape vines, based on weather conditions, guide vine management decisions and allow growers to thin their vines to manage yields. (Source: growernews.co.nz)

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MAX FACTS

growing news, tips and trivia

Popular Persimmons They look like the perfect mix of a pumpkin and tomato—orange in colour, small and plump in size—but few know anything about them. That could soon change with predictions that persimmons could be the ideal cash crop for Mallee fruit growers. Grant Bignell, a researcher from the Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, says there’s a growing demand for persimmons. “There’s an increasing Asian population in Australia and it’s a very popular fruit amongst Asian people,” he said. “With our population increasing, there’s definitely scope for the industry to increase.” Bignell says the biggest challenge facing persimmons is getting people to identify the fruit. He says educating young people about persimmons will be essential. (Source: abc.net.au)

Carrots Top of the Crops Carrots were the most commonly purchased vegetable in September, heading the list of the top 10 vegetables purchased by Australians, according to the results of a new survey of more than 800 consumers. The monthly survey of consumers, which will run over three years, showed that 94% of respondents purchased carrots. The next most popular vegetables in the top 10 were tomatoes (92%), potatoes (83%), broccoli (80%), cauliflowers (79%), celery (78%), capsicums (76%), white onion (76%), cabbage (74%) and zucchini (74%). The survey has shown that the health benefits associated with carrot consumption are a major trigger to purchase amongst consumers, with 67% purchasing them because they are healthy while 60% said they purchased them because they were easy to prepare. (Source: ausveg.com.au)

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

YOUR GUIDE TO THIS ISSUE’S

HOTTEST

Ask for them at your local indoor gardening store. Whisper Silencer Fan The secret is out on the new EP Whisper Silencer fan. The Whisper Silencer fan is a high-powered fan combined with an external silencer to help supress any unwanted noise. It will also help minimise the space in your growroom by combining both the fan and silencer in one great package, saving you space to add to your ducting. It will also provide you with a stronger support base when hanging your fan/filter combo. Whisper Silencer Fans come in various sizes of 150 mm, 200 mm, 250 mm and 300 mm to cater to all room sizes and needs, as either an air-in, or an extraction fan. The Whisper Silencer Fan is one of the most sought after fans in Australia. See your local hydro store for more information.

groCELL Pyramid Grow Tents

Jungle Room Grow Tents

The groCELL Pyramid range of grow tents is available in three sizes: the GCP80 is 80 by 80 by 80 cm; the GCP120 is 120 by 120 by 120 cm and the GCP150 is 150 by 150 by 150 cm. Designed in Germany, these grow tents each feature three independent, low-weight lighting sources: LED, CFL and T5 that provide great coverage without the need of a reflector. The lights are low energy and create less heat. Each groCell Pyramid grow tent is quick and easy to assemble and are suitable for both small and larger sized plants. The tents are also great for propagation and are distributed by Growlush in Australia and New Zealand. For more information, visit your nearest grow store.

Jungle Room Grow Tents are indoor harvest systems that come with a range of new key benefits, which have set them apart from competitors. Look for new and improved changes, such as 19-mm thick poles and steel corners for a sturdier tent. Outlet holes are 250-mm in diameter with draw strings to fit various fan sizes. Inspection windows and side door zippers make for easier viewing and working around your plants without disrupting them. Plumbing outlets have been added so you no longer need to cut holes in your tent. More importantly they are now available in two heights, the standard 2-m high tent and the new 2.3-m high ceiling for the gardener who prefers bigger plants and more room for lighting. Look out for these tents at hydroponic stores and remember: your hidden treasure starts here! Visit a local hydro store for more information.

Dimlux Maxi Controller Dimlux Holland’s range of Maxi Controllers and Extreme Horticultural Ballasts in Australia and New Zealand are proudly distributed by Dutch Bio-Power. The Dimlux Maxi Controller can completely control a 160 Dimlux ballast. The Maxi Controller has on/off/dimming/boost control, auto dim at high temperatures, emergency shut-down at extreme temperatures, dual room mode and a sunrise and sunset mode that allows the environment to heat and cool down in a subtle way, minimising flower internal condensation and grey mould and botrytis. The Maxi Controllers also have asynchronous time fashion, which allows for whatever time you want (i.e. 10 hours on, 13 hours off). The Dimlux Maxi Controller also monitors and controls CO2 ppm levels and equipment. Temperature and relative humidity are also monitored and displayed. Radio frequency interference is no longer a problem when operating an electronic ballast, and there is no in-rush of electricity to the ballast. Another feature is the VPD camera integrated into the unit that dims or turns off lights if plants start to wilt through some failure. Relays and timers are now a thing of the past. Visit an indoor gardening retail store for more information.

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT OptiClimate Stay in perfect control 24 hours a day with the OptiClimate—the first system of its kind that cools, heats, dehumidifies, circulates and filters the air out of one system. It is perfect for growers wanting to consistently take their produce to the next level. Precise temperature differentiation between day and night can be programmed into the OptiClimate monitor with ease. Temperature and RH levels can be programmed hourly so decreased morning and late afternoon temperatures can be mimicked, taking quality levels to new highs. OptiClimate units come in a range of sizes that can handle configurations such as six 600-W lights and nine 400-W lights, right up to 35 400-W lights. The OptiClimate gives off no heat or thermal footprint, making detection thermally impossible, and most models can be set up by a non-professional. Opticlimate, the great innovator in the horticultural scene today, is distributed in Australia and New Zealand by Dutch Bio-Power. Visit an indoor gardening retail store for more information.

Flo-n-Gro's Drip-n-Gro

OxyClone 20-Site Cloner

Flo-n-Gro brings you the new Drip-n-Gro dual top feed drip system. This innovative bucket system comes ready to use with all the critical components pre-fabricated to allow for easy set-up and to get you gardening fast. Packaged in a food-grade, 208-L reservoir, the Drip-n-Gro includes six 15-L Gro sites with 360-degree mesh inserts to promote lateral root growth, top-off float valve, control module with exclusive feed manifold and all the required irrigation tubing. All you have to do is add your favourite grow media, nutrients and plants. You can expand your Drip-n-Gro system to up to 60 Gro sites using the Drip-n-Gro Expansion Kits available separately. Designed for quick set-up, the Drip-n-Gro assembles in less than an hour. For more information, check out a local indoor gardening retailer.

Sunlight Supply is pleased to announce the release of the OxyClone 20-Site Cloner. The OxyClone 20-Site Cloner works on the principle of re-circulating oxygenated water created by the OxyHead. It can be used with Eco Air 1 for super oxygenated water. The OxyHead draws in oxygen from the atmosphere and produces turbulence to continuously nourish your cuttings. There are no spray jets that clog up and the water stays cool. Kit includes two sets of neoprene oxycerts (20 coloured and 20 black), one OxyHead, one moulded cover and one impact-resistant reservoir. It’s made of black lightproof materials and comes with a 90-day warranty. For more information, visit a local indoor gardening store.

Growlush Platinum Modular Hydroponic Systems Growlush is proud to introduce the new Platinium Modular Hydroponic Systems arriving in Australia. With these systems, it is now possible to move from one growing system to another in no time and at a reduced cost. The Platinium Hydroponics line is completely made out of ABS, 90% recycled plastic, meaning more environmentally sustainable production is possible and the maintenance of systems is made easy. Each of the systems are compact, easy to assemble and transport and include set-up instructions. Systems include the Hydro Stone, which uses a recirculating, top-drip system designed for rockwool buckets; the Hydro Grower, a hydroponic system that uses clay pellets and recirculating top-drip irrigation; the Hydro Star, similar to the Hydro-Stone series but with more versatility and upgrade options; the Ebb and Flow designed for use with rockwool buckets or slabs and easily adaptable for use with pots; the Hydro Pro that uses modular ABS Mapito pots that can be removed from the system when a plant develops past a certain stage; and the Aero Star that uses a 360-degree mist nozzle for each plant and is adaptable for hydroponic use if needed. For inquiries and to place orders, visit an indoor retail store.

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT Hydro Series T5 Propagation Lights Hydro Series T5 propagation lights, distributed by Growlush Australia, keep young clones, seedlings and precious mother plants productive while conserving electricity and keeping temperatures in propagation areas low. Designed by industry-leading reflector manufacturer Growlite and utilising 95% reflectivity aluminium, these propagation lights provide even light distribution with specially manufactured reflectors that increase lumen output. These lights feature cool-running, high-output fluorescent lights and can be placed close to plants to maximise light absorption without risking heat burn. These versatile lights can also be hung sideways for use as supplemental lighting for more mature plants. They are encased in a tough, powder-coated steel housing with side vents to allow for cool operation, and are backed by a three-year warranty. Extra value-added features include a series power outlet that allows multiple lights to be powered from a single electrical outlet, multiple on/off switches and a set of high-output, 6,500-K T5 bulbs. The Hydro Series T5 propagation lights are offered in several configurations. Visit your local store for more information.

CalCarb Foliar Booster from Xtreme Gardening CalCarb is the key to dense fruit and flower development. CalCarb is a unique form of calcium carbonate that plants are able to absorb through the foliage and quickly convert into calcium and carbon dioxide. Calcium is critical to plant health, contributing to the strength of cell membranes and regulation of nutrient use. CO2 is basically jet fuel for photosynthesis, allowing for higher growth rates and heavier yields. CalCarb does not require machinery or regulators, just simply spray the underside of plant leaves once a week and watch your plants take off. CalCarb works from inside the cell wall of leaves, meaning it does not require a sealed room. Use indoors and outdoors. CalCarb helps shield plants from powdery mildew by raising the pH on foliage. CalCarb may be used with any nutrient line. For more information, visit an indoor gardening retail store.

Tea Brews from Xtreme Gardening Xtreme Tea Brews are a blend of the highest quality organic matter teaming with active soil microbes, such as bacteria and symbiotic fungi. The treasure trove of beneficial organisms in Tea Brews— brought to life through a simple brewing process—are poured around the base of your plant, where they begin rapidly breaking down nutrients into forms that plants can access. With more nutrients and minerals available, your plants reach new peak rates of growth. The living microbes help shield plants from disease and stress, while naturally increasing their production of hormones, enzymes and secondary metabolites, such as terpenes, flavonoids, antioxidants and essential oils. Tea Brews enhance plant vigour from start to finish, ensuring the quality harvest you’ve been looking for. Tea Brews are a beneficial additive and may be used with any nutrient line. For more information, visit an indoor gardening retail store.

Dimlux 400-V EL Extreme Series Ballast and Full Fixtures Dimlux 400-V EL Extreme Series Ballasts are state-of-the-art digital ballasts and are full fixtures that turn 230 V into 400 V. The Dimlux 400-V EL Extreme Series is proudly distributed by Dutch Bio-Power in Australia and New Zealand. These ballasts also take PAR illumination to higher levels—comparable to most 750-W lights when using the Dimlux 600 W, and comparable to 1500-W HPS lights when using the Dimlux 1,000 W, 400 V. These higher illumination levels make these the next generation in digital ballasts. Dimlux ballasts are dimmable from 35% to full intensity with no increments with one switch, and when combined with the Dimlux Maxi Controller, they have full use of this in both the sunrise and sunset programs. Both open and closed types can be forced air cooled. The reflector is made from Miro Silver and is designed according to the single bounce clear sight principle. Ballasts use variable optics to create a perfect overlapping between reflectors, or to direct the light downwards when the reflector is next to a wall. These products have diagnostic LEDs, are fire safe and come with a three-year warranty. For more information, visit an indoor gardening retail store.

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by Isabelle Lemay and Mélissa Léveillé

Enriching your indoor garden with CO2, (but not too much) is an important step to ensure healthy, thriving plants. Here are some tips to help you add this vital growing ingredient to your garden.

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In nature, the average CO2 proportion in the air comes close to 400 ppm (parts per million), and can largely vary depending on natural or man-made CO2 production. The air in the garden should be close to this concentration; below this limit, the photosynthesis and the growth considerably slow down and might even stop around 200 ppm or less. This situation might happen in an isolated indoor garden with no CO2 added. The plant will then consume the ambient CO2 until it’s all gone. The majority of plants will appreciate concentrations between 700 and 1,000 ppm during the daytime (light period) and around 400 ppm at night time (dark period). Why are these ideal conditions different from day to night?


“The majority of plants will appreciate concentrations between 700 and 1,000 ppm during the daytime (light period) and around 400 ppm at nighttime (dark period).“

The photosynthesis process occurs only in the presence of light. The CO2 enrichment is therefore only necessary in the presence of light and is useless, even harmful, in the dark period. To provide the plants with the optimal CO2 concentration for their growth, many gardeners turn toward CO2 enrichment. In addition to improving the yields, maintaining the recommended CO2 concentration in the air will also have the advantage of reducing the production time, accelerating flowering, improving the quality and the quantity of fruits and flowers, and may even diminish the incidence of some pathogenic fungi.

optimal CO2 concentrations for different species Not enough CO2 is harmful, but too much is just as bad. Equal or superior concentrations to 1,500 ppm are generally less effective and less profitable and can even have a negative effect on some crops. One of the most serious impacts is an overflow of CO2, which reduces the opening of the plant's pores, resulting in a reduction of the CO2 absorption and a limitation of transpiration. Transpiration is a key process for Different species’ optimal CO2 concentrations SPECIES

Recommended CO2 concentration during daytime (ppm)

Tomato

1000

Cucumber

1200

Lettuce

1000 - 1500

Rose

1000 - 1200

Poinsettia

600 - 800

vegetable-producing species because the water and nutrient absorption depends on it. Far from serving the plant’s interest, an excess in CO2 slows down the growth and, in some cases, can even cause leaves necrosis and curling or provokes flower malformations. Tomatoes and cucumbers are particularly sensitive to high CO2 concentrations. CO2 concentrations effects on plants

Concentration (ppm)

Effects

200 and less

Avoid - photosynthesis and growth interruption

Near 400

Daytime minimal recommendation Nighttime recommended concentration

Between 700 & 1000

Average concentration recommended during daytime

1500 and more

Avoid - useless, non profitable and harmful to crops

CO2 concentration's effects on plants When choosing to enrich the garden with CO2, adjusting the garden’s temperature will be necessary. In fact, the optimal temperature for the plant’s growth increases by a few degrees when the air is enriched with CO2. Consider that the plant’s metabolism works faster when it benefits from a CO2 supplement; CO2 allows plants to produce better, but to do so, they need to consume more. Every need, like water and nutrients for example, will be increased. To fully take advantage of CO2 enrichment, we have to pay attention and take care of our plants to provide them with everything they need. Maximum Yield | November/December 2013

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ianta

ris P by Ch

What’s going on beneath the surface of your garden? It’s essential to the health of your plants to ensure a vital root zone—and you can’t do that without understanding the requirements of the tiny organisms living in your garden… 34

Maximum Yield | November/December 2013


We all have it—a range of temperature and humidity that we feel most comfortable and perform most efficiently within. Plants have it, animals have it and so do bacteria. Every living thing has an optimal comfort zone. For most living things, their comfort zone can be defined as a particular combination of temperature, humidity and air—all obviously necessities for life here on Earth, but different organisms require different permutations of this formula. Bacteria are no different. They need the right combination of conditions to thrive like all living things. Despite their tiny size, bacteria are crucial to successful plant growth and under the proper conditions can accelerate and increase plant growth rate and yield. When it comes to growing plants, in fact, bacteria play a role that is out of all proportion to their size. The successful gardener will make a point of taking care of these smallest of creatures and as a result, many larger issues will take care of themselves.

What are bacteria and why do we need them? Bacteria are tiny, one-celled organisms generally about 4/100,000s of an inch wide and somewhat longer in length. What bacteria lack in size they make up in numbers. A teaspoon of productive soil generally contains between 100 million and one billion bacteria. Every grower should know the basics about bacteria and how critical the right organisms can be to successful root growth and development. As growers we are in control of our bacteria populations and the types of

“The ones your plants need to thrive—the ‘good’ bacteria—are the aerobic microbes.” bacteria we make available to our crops are governed to a large extent by the conditions we keep our plants’ roots in. Bacterial populations vary based on three primary soil conditions—moisture, temperature and aeration. We have direct control over these conditions and we need to manage them properly. A consistent root zone environment that is ideal for bacterial growth will result in a proliferation of beneficial bacteria and lead to healthy roots and plants.

Soil moisture The moistness of the soil is one of the three most important factors influencing the microbial population of your garden. Water (as soil moisture) is essential to healthy bacteria in two ways: it supplies hydrogen and oxygen and serves as a solvent and carrier of food nutrients. Beneficial microbial populations proliferate best in a moisture range of 20 to 60%. Under waterlogged conditions anaerobic microflora become active due to lack of soil aeration and the “good” aerobes get suppressed— some beneficial microbes will die out due to tissue dehydration and some

will change their forms into resting stage spores or cysts to survive adverse conditions. That’s why you shouldn’t over water your plants— the soil in your garden should remain consistently somewhere in this optimum range of between 20 to 60% moisture to promote the activity and increase of beneficial bacteria.

Soil temperature Next to moisture, temperature is the most important environmental factor influencing the biological, physical and chemical processes that govern microbial activity and populations in soil. Though some micro-organisms can tolerate extreme temperature conditions, the optimal temperature range at which beneficial soil microorganisms can grow and function actively is actually rather narrow. There are three soil temperature ranges within which micro-organisms can grow and function, which divides microbes into three groups: psychrophiles, which grow at temperatures below 10°C, mesophiles, which thrive between 10 to 45°C and thermophiles, with an optimal temperature range between 45 and 60°C.

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The comfort zone

Most soil micro-organisms are mesophilic and their optimal temperature is around 37°C. True psychrophiles are almost absent in soil and thermophiles—though present in soil—tend to behave like mesophiles. True thermophiles are found more often in decaying manure and compost heaps, where high temperatures prevail. Seasonal changes in soil temperature affect microbial population and their activity, especially in temperate regions. When temperature is low, the number and activity of microorganisms decline and as the soil warms up in spring they increase in number as well as activity. In general, the population and activity of soil micro-organisms are highest in spring and lowest in winter, but growing in a greenhouse or under controlled conditions will provide consistent soil temperatures in a managed soil environment, eliminating these extremes.

Soil temperature greatly influences the rates of biological, physical and chemical processes that take place in the soil. Within a limited range, the rates of chemical reactions and biological processes double for every 10-degree increase in temperature. Different pathogen species have different thermal limits for survival, germination and infection, so temperature can also control soil-borne diseases.

Aeration For the optimal growth of microorganisms, good aeration in the soil is essential. Microbes consume oxygen from the air found in soil and exhale carbon dioxide. The activity of soil microbes is often measured in terms of the amount of oxygen absorbed or the amount of CO2 exhaled by these organisms in the soil. Under waterlogged conditions, gaseous exchanges are hindered

and an accumulation of CO4—which is toxic to microbes—occurs in the soil air. Depending upon their oxygen requirements, soil micro-organisms are grouped into three categories: aerobic (requiring oxygen), anaerobic (not requiring oxygen) and microaerophilic (requiring low levels of oxygen). The ones your plants need to thrive—the ‘good’ bacteria—are the aerobic microbes. Using devices or management practices that provide optimal moisture, temperature and aeration conditions in your garden soil will help to foster a healthy population of beneficial bacteria and microbes, you will see healthier plants and use less water and fertiliser while achieving improved results and production. Bacteria are the most critical elements of a healthy soil and root system. Healthy soil equals healthy plants; it’s that simple. What happens below the soil surface is just as important as what happens above, and it’s all based on the health and vigour of the lowly bacteria.

“The successful gardener will make a point of taking care of these smallest of creatures and many larger issues will take care of themselves.”

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Maximum Yield USA | May 2012 Maximum Yield | November/December 2013


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Organoleptic Quality by Frank Rauscher

Which Nutrients Contribute to Good Taste?

One of the most crucial elements in deciding how good your crops will taste is sulfur—but only if it is delivered to your plants in a form they can use… 38

Maximum Yield | November/December 2013


When we are considering how to improve our crops, one of our main concerns is that we want them to taste absolutely fantastic—sweet or tart, but never bland. To better understand the science behind this, let’s examine what it is that the roots actually take up. For example, if we want our fruits or veggies to taste sweeter, we might think that we should add sugar to our nutrient formulations—but would this actually work? Providing an optimal supply of all the nutrients plants require is the best way to ensure good flavour. What these nutrients are and what level is optimal is the question—let’s take sulfur, for example. Sulfur is especially important, as it forms organic compounds within the plant that ultimately contribute to the flavour of the crops produced. Some soils are deficient in sulfur and you can address this by adding organic material like compost. Potting soil is generally rich in organic material, but the level of available sulfur can vary greatly. Adding straight elemental sulfur has negative tradeoffs and this form of sulfur is extremely slow in becoming useful for your plants. When too much sulfur is added to a soil, the pH can become too low—most plants prefer a pH of between 5.5 and 6.0. If you are growing tomatoes, the optimum pH for that plant is slightly higher, around 6.5 to 6.8. Sulfur is a structural sub-component of amino acids, proteins and many micronutrients and is essential to the production of chlorophyll. Magnesium sulfate, for instance, is a chemical compound containing magnesium, sulfur and oxygen. Epsom salts are a form of this compound and are often used in nutrient formulas to promote rose blooms. Many of the micronutrients your plants

need are delivered in this sulfate form to make them more available to the plant for uptake and also to add sulfur as a flavour enhancer. Sulfur is not very mobile within the plant and a lack of sulfur can be responsible for a number of plant health issues: poor photosynthesis, poor nitrogen fixation in legumes, poor conversion of nitrates into ammonium and proteins, and retarded formation of storage proteins in developing seeds. We apply lots of potassium to our plants to keep them strong, but this nutrient actually exacerbates sulfur loss. Stunted plants and uneven crop development are often the result of low sulfur levels, which can aggravate nitrate toxicity as well. The visual symptoms of a sulfur deficiency can look like general chlorosis—similar to a nitrogen deficiency—except the young leaves stay yellow over time and leaflet yellowing is general and uniform rather than varying throughout. Plant roots take sulfur up as sulfate, which is another reason why the best way to apply sulfur to the soil is in the form of sulfates. Copper sulfate, ferrous sulfate, manganese sulfate (not to be confused with magnesium) and zinc sulfate are all excellent nutrient supplements to enhance flavour in your veggies. Sulfur is as important to a plant as nitrogen. Most growers pay plenty of attention to nitrogen for their crops, but don’t realise that sulfur is essential for plants to be able to use that nitrogen. Without sulfate amino acids, proteins can’t be built and plants won’t grow. Sulfur content is lost by leaching from the soil and through anaerobic volatilisation, which happens when

soil is kept too wet and insufficient oxygen is available. Because both nitrogen and sulfur are building blocks of proteins, an insufficiency of either one will cause a shortage of chlorophyll, which will in turn result in the plant being unable to convert sunlight into energy. A lack of sulfur or nitrogen will also cause an inadequate supply of the enzyme rubisco, which changes carbon dioxide into sugar. It sounds odd, but if you want really sweet veggies you’ll have to make sure they’re getting enough sulfur in their diet! Good soils are actually full of life. The unseen microbial organisms in the soil are responsible for the continued good health of your plants. The release of organic sulfur from soil humus is slow and its benefit to plants is limited—mineralisation is where sulfur is converted by these beneficial microbes to plant-accessible sulfates. Here is where a potential conflict can get started. Too much straight elemental sulfur is antibacterial and can actually sterilise the soil to a degree—elemental sulfur is often used to sterilise injuries on succulents in order to halt the development of disease. So even though you need to have a good level of sulfur in your soil, you also need to be careful about over-application or you will undo the very process that you want to occur—mineralisation. Poor organic matter, soil humus and low microbial activity (common with pH levels that are either too low or too high) will decrease the amount of sulfur available to your plants. Using a nutrient formula with plenty of pre-mineralised sulfates is

Maximum Yield | November/December 2013

39


organoleptic Quality

“Copper sulfate, ferrous sulfate, manganese sulfate (not to be confused with magnesium) and zinc sulfate are all excellent nutrient supplements to enhance flavour in your veggies.”

one safe way to deal with this conundrum. Elemental sulfur can only be plant-available after a long breakdown period (often several years). To produce sulfuric acid, elemental sulfur requires an initial phase of microbial oxidation. The microorganisms that produce this elemental sulfur oxidation need most of the same nutrients that the plants need, plus a few more. The oxidising bacteria are mostly aerobic—which means they need plenty of soil oxygen to stay healthy and reproduce. When you water your plants too often you create soil with insufficient oxygen, which can definitely impede this vital process. The breakdown of elemental sulfur is a slow process even under ideal conditions. The primary minerals—calcium, sulfur, manganese, magnesium, copper, iron, boron and zinc— are in general all players in the quest for superior taste. Finding a plant nutrient that provides these in sulfate form can be a real game changer if you are interested in maximising organoleptic (taste) quality and plant health while keeping the process of growing as simple as possible. Indoor grows are often done in potting soils. While rich in organic matter, these soils also exhibit rapid draining characteristics and this can make them susceptible to sulfur deficiency. Keeping your soil microbes alive and healthy is one way to help this organic matter convert to sulfates. Complete soil tests can give you an idea of the amount of sulfur that is available for your plants, but it is still generally difficult to determine how much additional sulfur is needed. Regular additions of mineral sulfates can be another way to keep ahead of this issue. Find and use a plant nutrient formula that provides a complete spectrum of nutrients, including micronutrients. If you can also find one that uses the sulfate form of the micronutrients, you will be on your way to a better-tasting crop. 40

Maximum Yield | November/December 2013


Battle of the Bugs: A Guide

to

Beneficial Insects by

There

Eric Hopper

are few things as troubling as discovering an insect infestation in an otherwise flawless garden. Once discovered, a grower must immediately launch a counter-attack to get rid of those harmful bugs. Here’s a look at one environmentally friendly weapon in the anti-pest arsenal...

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Maximum Yield | November/December 2013


Nothing disturbs the production of a flourishing garden or the disposition of a horticulturalist like pests. These nasty buggers can wreak havoc on a plant’s ability to perform while frustrating the gardener into a frenzy of despair. Most gardeners’ first reaction is to buy an insecticide. Don’t get me wrong, there are some great insecticides on the market; however, before you reach for that can of poison, consider recruiting some beneficial insects to do the job for you.

“For

every pest, there is at least one predatory counterpart that can be introduced into a garden to naturally battle the bothersome bugs.”

Beneficial Insects in Nature Horticulturalists who have grown plants both indoors and outdoors notice a difference in terms of pest issues, in that indoor infestations are generally much more destructive and overwhelming than outdoor pest problems. The reason for this is nature’s natural predators. Indoor gardens are safe havens for pests, whereas pests in outdoor gardens are subject to predatory bugs, birds and other critters that keep their populations in check. Some insect predators are actually drawn to plants by pheromones produced by the pests or the plant itself. Nature is a diverse and powerful force that provides balance in all ecosystems. This balance can be used to a gardener’s advantage: for every pest, there is at least one predatory counterpart that can be introduced into a garden to naturally battle the bothersome bugs. Here are a couple examples:

Beneficial Insect:

the three species of predatory mites listed above are the most effective at treating a spider mite problem. Most insect suppliers will offer a combination of these three predator mites in one package. This is helpful because they all reproduce in slightly different environmental conditions. In introducing all three predator mites simultaneously, the hope is that at least one of the species will find the garden’s environment suitable for reproduction. Of the three, Mesoseiulus longipes is probably the most suitable for an indoor garden. They have the widest range of preferable humidity and temperature, but, most importantly, they find lower humidity

levels—which are generally found within indoor gardens—suitable for reproduction.

Beneficial Insect:

Spider mite destroyers

(Stethorus punctipes)

Pest Insect: Spider mites The spider mite destroyer is another excellent defense against the infamous spider mite. These tiny beetles are related to the ladybug and feed specifically and exclusively on spider mites. Spider mite destroyers are best used in conjunction with the predator mites due to a long establishment time. These tiny workhorses will eat around 50 spider mites a day and adult females

Predator mites

(Phytoseiulus persimilis, Mesoseiulus longipes and Neoseiulus californicus)

Pest Insect: Spider mites Most gardeners would agree that the worst-of-the-worst pest is the spider mite. This is especially true in indoor gardens or greenhouse environments, where entire crops can be wiped out in a matter of days. There are some effective predatory insects that can be used to combat these relentless bugs and

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Battle of the bugs

Predator nematodes

or fungus gnats appear, predatory nematodes should be watered into the medium. Most beneficial insect suppliers sell a combination of both Steinernema and Heterorhabditis nematodes because they work at different depths in the soil. Combined with sticky traps to catch adults, predatory nematodes are an effective and non-toxic option for completely eradicating a thrip or fungus gnat problem.

(Steinernema nematode and Heterorhabditis nematode)

Beneficial Insect:

will lay up to 15 eggs a day. The total life cycle (from egg to adult) of a spider mite destroyer is around 18 days, with a total lifespan of about eight weeks. When established, spider mite destroyers will reproduce at a rate that is fast enough to destroy a spider mite infestation, hence their appropriate name.

Beneficial Insect:

Pest Insect:

Whitefly parasites

Thrips or fungus gnats Besides being a huge nuisance, thrips and fungus gnats have something else in common: they both rely on soil or other growing mediums for a portion of their life cycle. A great way to treat any pest insect that lives a portion of their life cycle in the medium is to use predatory nematodes. Predatory nematodes are tiny worm-like creatures that feed on the eggs and larvae of soil-borne insects. As soon as any signs of thrips

(Encarsia formosa) or Whitefly predators (Delphastus pusillus)

Pest Insect: Whiteflies Whiteflies are one of the easiest pest insects to identify. If you have an abundance of tiny white bugs, you guessed it, they’re whiteflies. Whiteflies themselves do little damage to the plants and are more of an annoyance than anything. When left untreated, however, the honeydew that the whiteflies deposit on the plants will eventually

“General

predatory insects are insects that feed on a variety of pest insects.”

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Maximum Yield | November/December 2013

grow a pathogenic black mould that is detrimental to the plants. Whitefly parasites are a grower’s best defense against these annoying buggers. A whitefly parasite deposits its eggs in developing whitefly pupae. When the egg hatches a whitefly parasite comes out instead of a new generation of whiteflies. This cycle continues until the whiteflies have been eradicated. Whitefly parasites work best on greenhouse whiteflies (the most common variety), but also work well on sweet potato whiteflies and other whitefly varieties. If you have a sweet potato whitefly problem, it could be beneficial to use whitefly predators. These beneficial warriors consume 200 to 800 whitefly eggs per day and prefer the eggs of sweet potato whiteflies (but are generally less effective on greenhouse whiteflies).


When the eggs hatch, the tiny larvae will search and destroy, traveling up to 30 metres to find their first meal.

“Aphid

parasites lay their eggs inside living aphids, essentially destroying the aphid internally until they hatch from the remaining insect carcass.”

Beneficial Insect: Praying mantis

(Tenodera sinensis)

Pest Insect: Thrips, aphids,

whiteflies, fungus gnat, mealy bugs and spider mites The praying mantis is the ultimate opportunist insect. These awesome bugs will eat anything they can catch. Praying mantis egg sacks can be hung within the garden’s environment to promote hatching. When the egg sack hatches, more than 100 miniature mantises will release their carnage on any and every pest insect they encounter. The tiny warriors will grow into adults over a three to four month period. Mantises are elusive creatures, so don’t be surprised if you don’t see many after they hatch. A praying mantis will wait patiently, sometimes for hours, until an appetizing insect wanders by. Then, the mantis will pounce on its prey and devour it. Adult mantises are often very territorial and a single adult mantis can claim a fairly large area as its exclusive hunting grounds. Also, mantises feed entirely on other insects making them a great choice for any enclosed garden space.

times throughout the plant’s life cycle. Another choice for an aphid problem is aphid parasites, which act as an effective control and preventative measure. Aphid parasites lay their eggs inside living aphids, essentially destroying the aphid internally until they hatch from the remaining insect carcass.

Beneficial Insect: Aphid predators

(Aphidoletes aphidimyza) or Aphid parasites (Aphidius matricariae)

Pest Insect: Aphids Gardeners with greenhouses or indoor gardens find aphid predators extremely effective against aphid infestations. A single release of aphid predators is usually sufficient to establish a population, but it can be advantageous when experiencing large aphid problems to release aphid predators a few

General Predatory Insects in nature General predatory insects are insects that feed on a variety of pest insects. These opportunist bugs are some of the most common and most effective insects released in gardens for biological control. Below are a few examples:

Beneficial Insect: Green lace-

wing larvae (Chrysopa rufilabris) Pest Insect: Thrips, aphids, mealybugs and whiteflies

Adult green lacewings feed on nectar and pollen, but their larvae are ferocious predators that feed on a variety of pest insects. Green lacewing larvae are true opportunists and will feed on any insect, larvae or egg that they can inject with their paralyzing venom. These tiny creatures suck the life out of helpless pest insects at an extremely fast rate. Most beneficial insect suppliers will provide green lacewing eggs, which can be distributed evenly throughout the plants.

Beneficial Insect: Ladybirds (Hippodamia convergens)

Pest Insect: Thrips, aphids, whiteflies,fungus gnat, mealy bugs and spider mites Of all the beneficial insects available to gardeners, none are as versatile or popular as the ladybird. Don’t let their reputation as a cute and cuddly insect overshadow their destructive power. Ladybirds are actually tiny beetles who, like the mantis, feed only on other insects.

Maximum Yield | November/December 2013

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Battle of the bugs

“The

implementation of beneficial insects offers a naturalistic approach to solving the ongoing pest insect problems associated with horticulture.”

A ladybird’s favourite snack is aphids, but these opportunists will eat virtually any insect they can fit into their tiny jaws of death. Ladybirds eat thousands of insects in their lifetime, which is about one year. Another great thing about an established ladybirds population is that the larvae are just as carnivorous as the adults. The little larvae resemble tiny alligators and will feed on pest insects’ eggs and larvae. In outdoor gardens, however, ladybirds tend to fly away to their preferred food source, so getting them to establish on the plants can be a little tricky. A sugar water solution can be sprayed on the ladybirds to stick their wings together for a few days. This is generally long enough to get them to establish on an outdoor crop. Ladybirds can also be stored at under 10ºC—where they’ll enter a dormant stage—for multiple weeks at a time. This allows a gardener to release adult birds intermittently in their garden while storing the remaining birds in a refrigerator.

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Maximum Yield | November/December 2013

In some cases, ladybirds that are released intermittently will establish and reproduce better than those that are released all at one time.

Beneficial Insect: Pirate bugs (Orius insidiosus)

Pest Insect: Thrips, aphids and spider mites Pirate bugs are good to try when other treatments have failed. These beneficial insects feed on thrips, aphids and even spider mites. They feed on multiple stages of pest insects life cycles (eggs, larvae and adults), making them a popular choice for thrip and spider mite control. However, the adult pirate bugs will also bite humans—beware of this if you release a large population. Their bite is harmless, but annoying just the same. The implementation of beneficial insects offers a naturalistic approach to solving the ongoing pest insect problems associated with horticulture. There are many advantages to such biological control methods,

but the largest advantage is probably the removal of pest insects’ resistance. Any grower who has used chemical insecticides over a period of time only to see the pest become immune will attest to the ongoing anguish of that battle. However, an insect cannot build a resistance to being eaten. By using nature’s solutions, a grower can save their crops from devastation, relieve their frustration and feel good knowing they aren’t contributing to the creation of resistant, “super” bugs.


Maximum Yield | November/December 2013

47


Collective

Growing by Raquel Neofit

Community gardens are becoming more and more popular across the country. Raquel Neofit visited a couple to find out how to get growing on a communal scale.

Community garden projects, plots of land gardened collectively by a group of people, are on the rise in Australia and many people are discovering the benefits of building a sustainable urban vegetable patch where the entire community can come together and learn the value of gardening, the advantages of producing their our own food and how sharing a common interest can be the lifeblood of a connected community. Urban agriculture and local food initiatives are becoming so popular, some gardens even have wait-lists to obtain a private plot. A community garden can consist of anything from a raised garden bed on your nature strip containing herbs for your neighbours to a large block of land. I headed out to a couple of different Victorian community garden projects to get the lowdown on the harvest ground.

48

also emotional and educational benefits to consider—a community garden is a place for people of all ages and cultures to come together, develop friendships and learn about their community, the people who inhabit it and the world of gardening.

Establishing a Community Garden There are quite a few factors to consider if you want to build a community garden: • It’s important to put time and effort into creating an impressive plan to submit to council. Make sure you address the benefits to your community and issues that really matter to your council—you can find these by exploring their website.

The Benefits

• Be flexible on the location of your garden— your local council will inevitably decide which land you will be given. Resistance is futile!

Apart from the obvious benefits of fresh, seasonal produce and the satisfaction knowing you have grown it locally, organically and in a carbon friendly manner, there are

• Apply for community grants—especially sustainability grants. Unless you are lucky enough to source contributions, things will get expensive.

Maximum Yield | November/December 2013

Willow, Maddison, Katya and Chloe enjoying the first harvest festival at the Chelsea Community Garden.>


• Tour established gardens. Most people are happy to share knowledge, tips and even their pre-established rules. • Check out communitygardens.org.au or cultivatingcommunity.org.au for all the information you need to know about starting a community garden.

Money Matters Set-up isn’t an easy financial feat, but if you plan your project carefully, you shouldn’t have any trouble obtaining funds. Land is your biggest hurdle, but this is where your local council comes in. Then you need to consider fencing, water tanks, paths and borders, planters, equipment, sheds, plants, security, workforce, soil preparation and fertilisation—all of which costs money and all of which can be covered by a grant or generous local businesses. Check out local and state councils, financial institutions (the Bendigo Bank supports local community projects), major retailers (think Bunnings) and sustainable living organisations. Approach anyone who is willing to offer grants or donations.

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“A community garden is a place for people of all ages and cultures to come together, develop friendships and learn about their community, the people who inhabit it and the world of gardening.”

Collective Growing

Selling produce grown at a community garden.

Community Garden Etiquette • Put in so you can take out—pitch in and pull some weeds or plant something. • Don’t touch other people’s private plots without invitation. • In communal areas, don’t take more than your fair share. • Participate in working bees so everyone shares the workload. • Get to know everyone and make some new friends.

Chelsea Community Garden The Chelsea community garden began in 2008 as a project from sustainable living group Earth Carers and is a prime example of the need for flexibility. The Thames Promenade site wasn’t Robin, Gill or Nigel’s first choice, so when the council offered it up they had to head back to the drawing board and redesign their original plans. In August 2009, planting began. Council supplied the land for $100 a year and even fenced the property. The massive, 90,000-L water tanks were purchased with a neighbourhood sustainable living grant—vital because the property does not have access to running water. The garden is comprised of a large community space dubbed the horseshoe, private plots and a chicken coop. For $20 a year, you get access to the horseshoe or for $50 per year, you can have a private plot.

They were lucky to attract the attention of the Green Core Trainees—a state and local council initiative to get youth out working—at the beginning of their project, and within a week, 12 people turned up armed and ready and began building the plots and pathways. This energetic group has included a variety of plants and growing techniques in the garden. They love learning about produce grown in the home towns of their multicultural members and are incorporating permaculture practices. They mix food and flowers to attract beneficial insects and have teamed up with a local animal shelter for free manure. Robyn and Gill recommend networking when you’re trying to get grants and approval for new projects. Seek advice from the people who have gone before you and explore the council’s website, speak in their language and address goals that are important to them and the concerns of the local community. Attention to detail matters to those who hold the purse strings.

Parkmore Shopping Centre Keysborough, Victoria On the rooftop car park at Parkmore Shopping Centre is a delightfully fenced, shade-clothed community garden area. Inspired by the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Foundation, this year they are branching out to include more diverse community initiatives. The project’s PR manager, Jodie, says it’s a community space for people to come and enjoy. Thursdays they offer Fresh Food Fast, a market day with a roving kitchen cooking in-season recipes with fresh herbs and produce available in the community garden. Large planter boxes are placed throughout the shopping centre with free seasonal recipes available. You will also find beautiful olive, orange and lemon trees paired with oregano plants and an assortment of herbs throughout the centre.

< A member of Chelsea Community Garden’s scarecrow population. 50

Maximum Yield | November/December 2013


When Chris, an English expat, discovered she was moving to the other side of the world without knowing a single soul, she jumped online and discovered the Chelsea Community Garden, shot through an email, applied for membership and instantly found a group of new friends she shared a common interest with. “We raise awareness through many different avenues. It helps being on a main road and through that we have been asked to talk at many different schools and community centres and to give advice on new community gardens in other areas.”

-Robin

“The best thing about community gardens is sharing knowledge. We’ve all been gardeners for a long time so we all know different little tricks—and gardeners are very good at giving out advice!”

-Gill

Jenny and her daughter Katinka are members of the Chelsea Community Garden. “We love coming down here, we come down twice a week, and it’s how I got Katinka to eat tomatoes. There is real pride in growing something yourself.”

-Jenny and Katinka Maximum Yield | November/December 2013

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Bonsai

Growers know

Growing Beautiful

by Raquel Neofit

The Japanese art form of bonsai cultivation is taking off around the world. Raquel Neofit catches up with one bonsai grower who is bringing the secrets of growing the perfect specimen to the masses in Australia.

Meet Glen Howarth, or Glenno to his mates. Of all the things in the world this true-blue, straight-talking Aussie could have chosen to do with his life, he jumped head first into the world of bonsai cultivation. But as it turns out, he is kicking goals left, right and centre. Based in Australia’s sunny state of Queensland, Glen has become the go-to guy for all matters bonsai, developing complete landscaping packages, smaller species for pots and no-nonsense workshops to kick-start any novice’s journey into this tree cultivation method that originated in Japan but is quickly gaining in popularity elsewhere in the world. Regarded as a bonsai growing legend by his friends, family and clients, this self-taught bonsai grower is gaining attention throughout the bonsai growing community for all of the wrong reasons. You see, traditionally bonsai cultivators like to keep their methods confined to the higher ranks of industry insiders, but Glen believes that everyone should have access to the secrets of growing a perfect specimen, and according him, it’s a lot easier than we might think!

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Maximum Yield | November/December 2013

First of all, Glenno tells me that if you treat your bonsai well, in return for your efforts, the plants will grow hard—really hard. You just need to pay a little attention to what’s going on around you: how the plant is growing and what the weather is doing, for example. Just like most other plants, if it’s a scorching hot day and you are feeling the heat, then your bonsai tree is feeling the heat, too. So adjust the quantity of water you feed it. If it’s planted in a pot outside, move it to a position where it can take shelter in the shade for a while. Engage in some good old common sense and your endeavour will be as easy as some of the most famous words ever spoken­—wax on, wax off … Glen goes on to discuss the bonsai’s growing media. Soil is the perfect home for a bonsai, but it does need to be mixed and adjusted to suit the environment and climate you are growing them in.


This is where a little help from the Mr. Miyagi of Aussie bonsai growing comes in handy, in the form of a no-nonsense, cut-to-the-chase workshop run by this straight-talking master of miniature bushes. In one afternoon, he’ll teach you all the ins and outs of where, how and what to grow. You may even leave with a little of the why thrown in for good measure too. And by the way, yes, he does get many cocky references to Mr. Miyagi (of the Karate Kid movies), many probably much wittier than mine, but I couldn’t help myself, for better or worse, it just had to be done! For information on planning a bonsai garden or joining one of Glen’s workshops, email him at gcbonsai@gmail.com

Bonsai is a Japanese art form that uses miniature trees grown in containers. The Japanese have been cultivating bonsai for more than a thousand years. The original tradition of bonsai culture had no purpose other than pleasure and contemplation for the owner and gentle exercise and a creative outlet for the cultivator. The idea behind the art of bonsai is to use certain techniques to prune your miniature tree or shrub so that it imitates larger varieties of the same plant. Cultivation techniques include potting, defoliation, pruning, root reduction and grafting to achieve a stunted growth, so you need to choose a tree or shrub that will respond well to constant pruning and handling. Your plant choice can be almost any wooded perennial tree or shrub with characteristics that will suit a manual stunting of growth while remaining pleasant to look at.

Maximum Yield | November/December 2013

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you tell us

®

®

Solis Tek, Inc is providing the indoor growing industry with innovative horticultural lighting products. Co-founder Alvin Hao shares some information about the company’s current line of products and technologies, as well as a bit about what new technologies customers can expect to see in the near future. Tell us about how your company got started. Sensing an innovation stagnancy within the hydroponics industry, Alvin and Alan saw an opportunity to improve upon products that had remained the same for years. Using Alvin’s vast understanding of the horticulture industry and Alan’s extensive networking capabilities in sourcing and manufacturing, this match-made-inheaven has produced software-based technologies that have changed industry standards for manufacturing digital ballasts. Some of these technologies include (but are not limited to) Ignition Control, Sense Smart and the introduction of the Matrix LCD ballast.

What is your company’s philosophy? We strive to stay on top with constant technological innovations and improvements. We refuse to compete solely on pricing; instead we aim to provide the customer with elite products and solidify our position as one of the industry’s best. 54

What products are you best known for and in which countries do you do business? We are best known for our Ignition Control technology, Sense Smart safety checks and Matrix LCD digital ballast. These special features and products have essentially helped to standardise the industry. Our next highly anticipated venture, the HILED panel, will be unveiled soon. Currently, our products can be purchased in Australia, Europe, Canada, and in the United States. In Australia and New Zealand, we distribute through Way To Grow Pty Ltd., a wholesale hydroponic distribution company based in Chester Hill, New South Wales. “Our association with Solis Tek has seen our business expand rapidly in the past three years as our customers now recognise that Solis Tek is the best digital lighting system on the market,” says Brett Henry, Way To Grow managing director.

What should the beginner gardener know about your products? The novice gardener must first realise

Maximum Yield | November/December 2013

that lighting is one of the most critical components to ensure a successful indoor garden because the quality of the light will directly affect the end product. One of our most valuable accomplishments is our less than 0.5% return rate, saving the end user the headache of wasting time and money on inferior products that are more likely to fail prematurely. Gardeners of all skill levels can happily anticipate a constant flow of new products and technologies from Solis Tek.

You have quite the list of testimonials on your website. What kind of feedback do you get most frequently from growers? Much of the feedback is in regards to our No. 1 quality--our low return rates. Other testimonials speak of the higher yields experienced when using our matched systems. Many customers also appreciate the fact that we provide the right tools such as different colour options for our MH lamps, which are capable of providing more UV spectrum than any other lamp on the market.


Tell us about Total Harmonic Distortion, Ignition Control and SenseSmart technologies. When different waveform distortions come together in a power supply, total harmonic distortion (THD) occurs. THD in the power system can distort voltages and overload equipment. Thus, it is important to understand not only THD but also how the electrical and power system will react to the harmonics. This measurement of THD present in the bulb and ballast defines the ration of the sum of powers of all components of the fundamental frequency. The lamp’s waveforms, power currents and operating frequency depend on the lamp, ballast type, power conditions, lighting controls and temperatures. A lesser THD ballast such as Solis Tek provides allows the components in a digital lighting system to produce a higher-quality digital signal by reducing the harmonic distortions added by the ballast itself. It is important to recognise that all electronic ballasts have a different level of THD. At Solis Tek, core and coil ballasts are tested at 16% output THD and have a recorded 14% output THD reading.

Our Ignition Control feature allows the consumer to plug in a chain of ballasts ranging from two to upwards of 100 at a time and there will never be more than one ballast firing at a time. This feature helps to avoid any huge current draws in power, which are often the cause of circuit breaker malfunction. Our Sense Smart technology helps alleviate concerns about multiple ballasts firing at the same time by doing a three-second system check, which allows one millivolt of energy to circulate the closed loop between ballast and lamp, checking for any one of the following : open output, end of lamp life, hot lamp, over/ low voltage, high/low temperature, thermal, overflow current or short circuit. If any of the above were to occur, our ballasts would not fire as a standard precaution.

What makes your technology unique? We would prefer not to see the technology itself as being unique, but rather that we are pioneers in the hydroponics industry because we are the first to introduce and perfect such components. By leading in research and application of said technologies, Solis Tek is unique.

Is there anything happening at the R&D stage that you’re at liberty to tell us about? We are working on several different versions of the notorious LED product to introduce a new, game-changing LED technology.

What else should people know about Solis Tek? We are looking to better the industry through our innovative new technologies and educating consumers as to how to use our products to the maximum efficiency. We seek to eradicate inefficiency and promote Solis Tek products as the standard for quality.

Maximum Yield | November/December 2013

55


talking shop

Andrew, Deb, Bernie and Rod - Mornington Store

AT A GLANCE

Green Acres Hydroponics

Company: Green Acres Hydroponics Owners: Andrew Clifford Rodney Fischer Employees: Jake Jenkins Manager Bernard Simm sales Deb Clifford Accounts

The future of Green Acres Hydroponics in Tasmania is looking, well, green. Since owners Rodney Fischer and Andrew Clifford opened the first shop in 2009, business has been steadily increasing and they opened a second shop earlier this year. Read on to learn more about how the partners plan to stay a success story.

Location: 46-48 Binalong Rd, Mornington, Tasmania 7018 Phone: 0362 27 2397 Web: greenacreshydroponics.net E-mail: sales@greenacreshydroponics.com.au Company Motto: “For all Your Hydroponics Needs”

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Before opening Green Acres Hydroponics about four years ago, Rodney Fischer was a part owner in a rendering business with many years experience in the building trade and Andrew Clifford was part owner of a steel fabrication business in Adelaide, with 20 years of experience in sales and marketing.

Andrew, who runs the business side of things, and Rod, who looks after sales and the technical side of the company, have a passion for gardening, both indoors and outdoors. The partners felt they could better embrace this passion by starting a hydroponics retail company. The first store opened in May of 2009 on Hobart’s Eastern Shore in Mornington—the only shop on the Eastern Shore—and sales have been steadily increasing ever since. The second store opened last April in Kingston,


south of Hobart, becoming the only hydroponic shop in the southern part of Tasmania. The response to the Kingston shop has been fantastic, and every month sales and customer base keep increasing because of the extensive product range, fair pricing and friendly, helpful advice. With the opening of the second store, Green Acres now has five employees. Besides the two owners, Jake Jenkins runs the Kingston branch; Bernie Simm works at the Mornington branch; and Deb Clifford works part-time doing accounts. When Andrew and Rod opened the first store in Mornington, the partners struggled with lack of recognition within the industry; insufficient stock supply and cash flow; getting the Green Acres name into the marketplace; and ensuring customers found their store. They responded to these challenges by listening to customers’ wants and needs, putting all profits back into the business, exploring where best to advertise and how best to service customers, and keeping on top of the changing hydroponic market.

Jake Jenkins - Kingston Store

The partners continue to increase market share by ensuring they have the right products that are of good quality and the right price, and most importantly, great customer service and advice. They were able to communicate this to customers through the website, TV and radio advertising, the YellowPages and other media outlets, street signage, Facebook, the Green Acres Van, and word of mouth.

Bernie (left), Rod (middle), Andrew (right) - Mornington Store

What makes Green Acres Hydroponics unique is that with two branches, if one shop ever runs out of stock, staff can always get it from the other shop in less than 30 minutes. Other factors that set the business apart include a website full of helpful information and pricing; great customer service (something the staff pride themselves on), grow charts, help sheets and expert advice to help the beginner through to the expert, from start to finish. Green Acres also has fully operational growrooms, excellent store displays and regular in-store specials. The company philosophy is to keep developing and improving, and to ensure customers receive the information and friendly service needed to achieve great results in their growrooms. Green Acres only stocks the best brands and good quality products. Main product lines include: House & Garden, Canna, Nutrifield, Cyco, Rock, General Hydroponics and many more in the nutrient and additive range. The business also carries Can Fan and Filters, Bluelab products, good quality tents, Trimpro’s, Funk Fighter Bags, Detox Range and much more. They are the only Tasmanian stockist of Turbo Klone products. Green Acres distributes throughout Tasmania, South Australia and other parts of Australia and over the last year, the business has increased sales staff from three to five people and sales have increased by 40%. Major successes so far include the fantastic sales growth, the ever-increasing customer

base, becoming market leaders in Tasmania and being the only shop in Tasmania with two stores. To be successful in this industry, Andrew and Rod believe that one has to listen to the customers, create good relationships with suppliers, stock a diverse range of high-quality products that are well-priced, have great, working displays and, most importantly, provide good product knowledge. The company philosophy is to keep developing and improving, and to ensure customers receive the right information and friendly service to achieve great results in their growrooms. Andrew and Rod do a lot of research and development on new product lines, are continually upgrading their hydroponics knowledge and shop displays, and keep the focus on building the customer base and increasing stock holdings at both shops. They are quick to note that all this can only be achieved with good sales staff, which they are lucky to have.

Inside Green Acres.

Interest in hydroponic growing is on the rise worldwide, especially in Australia. With water shortages and ever-increasing populations and pollution levels, people are turning to this gardening method for growing their fruits, vegetables and other plants. Not only will you have a sense of pride in what you grow, but you also save time, space and water, say Andrew and Rod, adding they believe students should be learning about hydroponics in school so that everyone can benefit from this exciting industry.

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DO YOU KNOW?

2. 3.

1.

Whiteflies are one of the easiest pest insects to identify. If you have an abundance of tiny white bugs, you guessed it, theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re whiteflies. Whiteflies themselves do little damage to the plants and are more of an annoyance than anything.

Beneficial microbial populations proliferate best in a moisture range of 20 to 60%.

Magnesium sulphate is a chemical compound containing magnesium, sulfur and oxygen. Epsom salts are a form of this compound and are often used in nutrient formulas to promote rose blooms.

For most living things, a comfort zone can be defined as a particular combination of temperature, humidity and air.

5. To produce sulfuric acid, elemental sulfur requires an initial phase of microbial oxidation. The micro-organisms that produce this elemental sulfur oxidation need most of the same nutrients that the plants need, plus a few more.

6.

7.

In nature, the average CO2 proportion in the air comes close to 400 ppm (parts per million).

When planning a community garden, be flexible on its location because your local council will inevitably decide which land you will be given.

The original tradition of bonsai culture had no purpose other than pleasure, contemplation for the owner, gentle exercise and a creative outlet for the cultivator.

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8.


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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors AUSTRALIA ACT South Pacific Hydroponics #2 - 84 - 86 Wollongong St., Fyshwick ACT 2609 (02) 6239 2598 South Pacific Hydroponics 70 Oatley Court, Belconnen ACT 2617 (02) 6251 0600

NEW SOUTH WALES

Home Harvest 423 Princess Highway, Rockdale NSW 2216 (02) 9567 8841

Northern Lights Hydroponics 6/46 Through Street South Grafton NSW 2460 9-165-276-719 growzone@live.com.au

Hyalite Moorebank 6/376 Newsbridge Road, Moorebank NSW 2170 (02) 9824 3400

Northern Nursery Supplies Pty Ltd 14-16 Nance Road, Kempsey NSW 2440 (02) 6563 1599

Hyalite Villawood 2/21 Birmingham Avenue, Villawood NSW 2163 (02) 9723 7199

Nowra Hydro 68 Bridge Road, Nowra NSW 2541 (02) 4423 3224

Hydro Masta 100 Station Road, Seven Hills, Sydney NSW 2147 (02) 8812 2845

Nutriflo Hydroponic Systems 19/5 Daintree Place, Gosford West NSW 2250 (02) 4323 1599

ASE Hydroponics Factory 10/45 Leighton Pl., Hornsby NSW 2077 (02) 9477 3710

Hydro Masta Pty Ltd 76 Beecroft Road, Epping NSW 2121 (02) 9869 3011

Parkview Plants 250 Princess Highway, Nowra South NSW 2541 (02) 4423 0599

Ballina Hydro 3 Ray O’Niell Crescent, Ballina NSW 2478 (02) 6686 7321

Hydro Net 2/14 Aific Street, Long Jetty NSW 2261 (02) 4334 6955

Brunswick Hydro & Aquarium Supplies 19 Booyun Street, Brunswick Heads NSW 2483 (02) 6685 1552

Hydro Place 1/68 Nelson Street, Wallsend NSW 2287 (02) 4965 6595

Criscete Hydroponics and Organics Unit 2/15 Kam Close, Morisset, NSW 2264 (02) 4973 5779

Hydro Shop and Reptile Supplies 2/390 The Esplanade, Warners Bay NSW 2282 (02) 4958 1489

ABC Aquaculture 54 Wahroonga Road, Kanwal NSW 2259 (61) 2 4393 3131

Dr. Van Der Bloom’s Hydroponics Supplies 5/5 Forge Drive, Coff’s Harbour, NSW 2450 (02) 6651 9992 Dubbo Hydro & Tobacconist 42c Victoria Street, Dubbo West NSW 2830 (02) 6885 1616

Hydro Shop Pty Ltd Unit 1/5-7 Channel Road, Mayfield West NSW 2304 (02) 4960 0707 Hydro Supplies 57 Flinders Street, Darlinghurst NSW 2010 (02) 9326 0307

Ezi Grow Hydro 177 Mt Druit Road, Mt Druitt NSW 2770 (02) 9832 1610

Hydro Wise B/385 The Entrance Road, Long Jetty NSW 2261 (02) 4333 5700

Ezi Grow Hydro 1B/340 Windsor Street, Richmond NSW 2753 (02) 4588 5826

Hydroponics Grow All Year 14 Fitzmaurice Street, Wagga Wagga NSW 2650 (02) 6921 5911

Ezi Grow Hydro 56 Fish Parade, Bathurst NSW 2795 (02) 9832 1610 Ezi Grow Hydro - Head Office 18 Part Street, Eglinton NSW 2795 (02) 6337 1485 Favgro Hydroponics Growers 107 Glenella Road, Batehaven NSW 2536 (02) 4472 7165 Felanza - Hydroponics 140 Princess Highway, Arncliffe, NSW 2205 (02) 9556 1494 General Hydroponics 7/14 Sunnyholt Rd., Blacktown NSW 9676 (02) 9676 8682 Grow Australia Factory 1/5 Sefton Road, Thronleigh NSW 2120 (02) 9473 5000 Grow Your Own Unit 6/34 Alliance Ave, Morisset NSW 2264 (02) 4973 5179 Happy Grow Hydro 15/The Crescent Street, Penrith NSW 2750 (02) 4732 2870

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Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Hygrow Horticulture (Greenlite) 252 Oxford Street, Bondi Junction NSW 2022 (02) 9369 3928 Indoor Sun Shop 745 Victoria Road, Top Ryde NSW 2112 (02) 9808 6511 Indoor Sun Shop Unit 2/109 Junction Road, Moorebank NSW 2170 (02) 9822 4700 International Fans PO Box 120, St. Mary’s NSW 2760 (02) 9833 7500 Kyper’s Tools and Hydroponics Stuart & Tincogan Sts, Mullumbimby NSW 2482 (02) 6684 4928 Lismore Hydro 1/106 Canway Street, Lismore NSW 2480 (02) 6621 3311 Lismore Hydroponics rear of 28 Casino St., South Lismore, NSW 2480 (02) 6621 3311

Port Pumps and Irrigation 20 Uralla Road, Pt Macquarie NSW 2444 (02) 6581 1272 Quik Grow 510a Great Western Hwy., Pendle Hill NSW 2145 (02) 9636 7023 Quick Grow 823 King Georges Road, S. Hurstville NSW 2221 (02) 9546 8642 Quik Grow Pty Ltd 490 Parramatta Road, Petersham NSW 2049 (02) 9568 2900 Simple Grow Hassall Street & Windem, Wetherill Pk NSW 2164 (02) 9604 0469 Tweed Coast Hydroponics 2/58 Machinery Dr., Tweeds Head South NSW 2486 (07) 5524 8588

D-Bay Hydroponics Shop 5/404 Deception Bay Road, Deception Bay QLD 4508 (07) 3204 8324

Tumbling Waters Hydroponics 2 Clarkes Track, Malanda QLD 4885 (07) 4096 6443

Harvest Time Hydroponics Shop 3/146-148, Findon Road, Findon SA 5023 (08) 8244 0222

E.T. Grow Home Unit 1/4 Windmill Street, Southport QLD 4215 (07) 5591 6501

Walsh’s Seeds Garden Centre 881 Ruthven Street, Toowoomba QLD 4350 (07) 4636 1077

Hindmarsh Hydroponics 39a Manton Street, Hindmarsh SA 5095 (08) 8346 9461

Eye Lighting Australia Pty Ltd PO Box 306, Carole Park QLD 4300 (07) 3335 3556 Green Power Hydroponics 2/80 Beerburrum Road, Caboolture QLD 4510 (07) 5428 1133 Grow Hydro 22 Mining Street, Bundamba QLD 4304 (07) 3816 3206 H2 Gro Pty Ltd 2 Sonia Crt., Raceview QLD 4305 (07) 3294 3253 Hyalite Varsity 5/11 John Duncan Crt., Varsity Lakes QLD 4227 (07) 5593 7385 Hydroponic Roots & Shoots Lot 3 Herberton Road, Atherton QLD 4883 (07) 4091 3217 Hydroponics & Garden Supplies 93 Cook St., Portsmith QLD 4870 (07) 4035 5422 Hydroponics Today PO Box 785, Stanthorpe QLD 4380 (07) 4683 3133 Indoor Solutions Unit 2 / 79 Oxford Tce., Taringa QLD 4068 J&K Hydroponics 387 Progress Rd Wacol QLD 4076 +61 (07) 3271 6210

Uncle Wal’s Gardenland 31 Crescent Avenue, Taree NSW 2430 (02) 6550 0221

KY Garden 3/31 Argyle PDE, Darra Brisbane QLD 4076 (07) 3375 9098

Home Grown Aquaponics 13/8a-8b Hartley Drive, Thornton NSW 2322 (02) 4028 6388

Nerang Hydroponic Centre 27 Lawrence Drive, Nerang QLD 4211 (07) 5527 4155

Westside Lighting & Electrical (Ezi Range) PO Box 274, Mascot NSW 1400 1 800 661 475

North Queensland Hydro Supplies Shop 2B/20-22 Fleming St., Townsville QLD 4810 (07) 4728 3957

Wollongong Hydroponic Center 318 Crown Street, Wollongong NSW 2500 (02) 4225 8773

NORTHERN TERRITORY Katherine Hydroponics Centre 17 Rundle Street, Katherine NT 0850 (08) 8972 1730

QUEENSLAND A Happy Medium Hydroponics Unit2/10 Central Court, Browns Plains QLD 4118 (07) 3809 3322 Allgrow Hydro 13 - 58 Bullock Head St., Sumner Park QLD 4074 (07) 3376 7222 Aquatic Oasis Unit 2/33 Smith Street, Capalaba QLD 4157 (07) 3245 7777 Billabong Hydroponics Lot 1, Billabong Court, Childers QLD 4660 (07) 4126 3551

Maximum Yield | November/December 2013

Northern Hydroponics 383 Mulgrave Road, Cairns QLD 4870 (07) 4054 5884 Pioneer Hydroponics 194 Doyles Road, Pleystowe QLD 4741 (07) 4959 2016 SA Hydroponics Shed 3, 1191 Anzac Avenue, Kallangar QLD 4503 (07) 3285 1355 Simply Hydroponics Gold Coast 42 Lawrence Drive, Nerang QLD 4211 (07) 5596 2250 Slacks Creek Hydroponics #13/22 Allgas St. Slacks Creek QLD 4217 (07) 3299 1397 Sunstate Hydroponics 1137 Ipswitch Road, Moorooka QLD 4105 (07) 3848 5288

SOUTH AUSTRALIA ------------------------------------------

Advanced Garden Supplies Advanced Garden Supplies 3/8 Bredbo St Lonsdale S.A. 5160 (08) 8382 1191 -----------------------------------------Amazon Aquariums & Gardening Unit 5, 16 Research Road, Pooraka SA 5095 (08) 8359 1800 Ascot Park 753 Marion Road, Ascot Park SA 5043 (08) 8357 4700 Barry’s Hardware Saints & Main North Rd., Salisbury Plains SA 5109 (08) 8281 4066 Bolzon Home & Garden 103 Tolley Road, St Agnes SA 5097 (08) 8265 0665 Chocablock Discount Variety Store 15-17/1220 Grand Junction, Hope Valley SA 5090 (08) 8396 3133 Complete Hydroponics 1581 Main North Road Salisbury East SA 5109 (08) 8258 4022 Country Hydro 434 Saddleback Road, Whyalla SA 5600 (08) 8645 3105 D & W Dependable Hardware 45B Kettering Road, Elizabeth South SA 5112 (08) 8287 6399 Festive Hydro 2 Kreig Street, Evanston Park SA 5116 (08) 8523 5100 Fulham Gardener Nursery 597 Tapleys Hill Road, Fulham SA 5024 (08) 8235 2004 Futchatec Distribution 4 Symonds St. Royal Park, 5014 (08) 8447-1122 Glandore Hydroponics 644 - 646 South Road, Glandore SA 5037 (08) 8371 5777 Greener than Green 52 - 54 Cliff Avenue, Port Noarlunga South SA 51 (08) 8386 2596 Greenhouse Superstore Lonsdale 35 to 37 Aldenhoven Road SA 5160 (08) 8382 0100

Sunstate Hydroponics 67 Aerodrome Road, Maroochydore QLD 4558 (07) 5479 1011

Greenhouse Superstore Royal Park 4 Symonds St. Royal Park SA 5014 (08) 8447 5899

The Hydroponic Warehouse Shop 3/73 PIckering Street, Enoggera QLD 4051 (07) 3354 1588

Ground-Up Service Nursery 3 Copinger Road, Pt. Pirie SA 5540 (08) 8264 9455

Highland Grow & Flow 14/1042 Grand Junction Road, Holden Hill SA 5088 (08) 8395 4455 Hong Kong Hydro 13 Research Road, Pooraka SA 5095 (08) 8260 2000 Hydro Heaven Kane Motors-Hunt Road, Mount Barker SA 5251 (08) 8391 1880 Hydro Sales & Service 1 Salisbury Crescent, Colonel Light SA 5041 (08) 8272 2000 Hydro Technics 321 South Road, Croydon SA 5008 (08) 8241 5022 Hydro Warehouse 181 Seacombe Road, South Brighton SA 5048 (08) 8377 1200 Hydro World 40 Folland Avenue, Northfield SA 5085 (08) 8262 8323 Koko’s Hydro Warehouse Unit 2/2 McGowan Street, Pooraka SA 5095 (08) 8260 5463 Larg’s Bay Garden Supply 239 Victoria Road, Largs Bay SA 5016 (08) 8242 3788 Martins Road Hydro # 5- 353 Martins Road, Parafield Gardens SA 5107 (08) 8283 4011 Mitre 10 Drive In 152 Hanson Road, Mansfield Park SA 5012 (08) 8445 1813 New Age Hydroponics 135-137 Sir Donald Bradman Dr., Hilton SA 5033 (08) 8351 9100 Owen Agencies 17-19 Railway Terrace, Owen SA 5460 (08) 8528 6008 Professional Hydro 4/522 Grange Road, Fulham Gardens SA 5024 (08) 8353 0133 Professional Hydro Shop 5/645 Lower North East Road SA 5075 (08) 8365 5172 Professional Hydroponics 113 Maurice Road, Murray Bridge SA (08) 8532 3441 Seaton Hydroponics 129 Tapleys Hill Road Seaton SA 5023 (08) 82682636 Soladome Aquaculture & Hydro 44 Chapel St., Norwood SA 5067 (08) 8362 8042 South Coast Hydroponics 6/25 Gulfview Road, Christies Beach SA 5165 (08) 8384 2380 State Hydroponics 174 Semaphore Road, Exeter SA 5019 (08) 8341 5991


Tea Tree Gully Hydro 32 Famechon Cresent, Modbury North SA 5092 (08) 8264 9455

Barb’s Hydro and Nursery 15 Wallace Avenue, Interverloch Vic 3196 (03) 5674 2584

Two Wells Hardware 86 Old Port Wakefield Road, Two Wells SA 5501 (08) 8520 2287

Bayside Hydroponics 5/9 Rutherford Road Seaford, VIC 3198 (03) 9775 0495

Urban Grow Solutions 1/111 Main Sth Rd, O’Halloran Hill, S.A 5189 (08) 8322 0040

Belgrave Hydroponics 5/ 60-68 Colby Drive, Belgrave Heights Vic 3160 (03) 9754 3712

West Garden Centre Peachey Road, Elizabeth West SA 5113 (08) 8255 1355

Brew ‘N’ Grow 4 - 479 Nepean Highway, Edithvale Vic 3199 (03) 9783 3006

TASMANIA

Casey Hydro 12 The Arcade Street, Cranbourne Vic 3977 (03) 5996 3697

Advanced Hydroponics 26 Mulgrave Street, South Launceston Tas 7249 (03) 6344 5588 Aqua Hydroponics Rear 45 Burnett St. New Norfolk Tas 7140 (03) 6294 9233 Ezy Grow 625 East Derwent Highway, Lindisfarne Tas 7015 (03) 6243 9490 Garden World 717 West Tamar Highway, Legana Tas 7277 (03) 6330 1177 ------------------------------------------

Green Acres Hydroponics 46-48 Bingalong Road, Mornington, TAS 7018 (03) 6245 1066 sales@greenacreshydroponics.com.au -----------------------------------------Growers Choice 225 Main Road, Derwent Park Tas 7009 (03) 6273 6088

Casey Hydro 78 Spring Square, Hallam Vic 3803 (03) 9796 3776 Chronic Hydroponics 31 Anderson Street, Templestowe Vic 3106 (03) 9646 8133 Complete Garden Supplies 580 Ballarat Road, Sunshine Vic 3020 (03) 9311 9776 Discount Hydroponics 18 Princes Hwy. Doveton VIC 3177 (03) 9792 2966 Echuca Hydroponic Nursery & Supplies 23 Ogilvie Avenue, Echuca Vic 3564 (03) 5480 2036 Echuca Pump Shop 128 Ogilvie Avenue, Echuca Vic 3564 (03) 5480 7080 Excel Distributors Pty Ltd 2/41 Quinn Street, Preston Vic 3072 (03) 9495 0083

------------------------------------------

Hydroware 1/54 Lara Way, Campbellfield, Vic, 3061 (03) 9357 8805 -----------------------------------------Hyalite Airport West Unit 4/504-506 Fullarton Road, Airport West 3042 (03) 9331 5452

Supply Net International P/L PO Box 171, Highbury Vic 5089 (88) 264-3600

Hydroponic Central 110 Dynon Road West Melbourne Vic. 3003 (03) 9376 0447

The Hydroponic Connection 397 Dorset Road, Boronia Vic 3155 (03) 9761 0662

Indoor Garden Company 29 Glasgow Street, Collingwood Vic 3066 (03) 9416 1699 Impact Distribution PO Box 2188, Salisbury Downs 5108 (08) 8250-1515 JB Lighting 492 - 500 Neerim Road, Murrumbeena Vic 3163 (03) 9569 4399 Just Hydroponics Deer Park Unit 11 29-39 Westwood Drive, Deer Park, VIC 3023 (03) 8390 0861

Global Hydroponics 10 Knight Avenue, Sunshine Vic 3020 (03) 9356 9400

Tas Hydroponic Supplies 99 Lampton Avenue, Derwent Park Tas 7009 (03) 6272 2202

Greenleaf Hydroponics 9a Church Street, Traralgon Vic 3844 (03) 5176 0898

Living Jungle 345 Sommerville Road, Footscray West Vic 3012 (03) 9314 0055

Greenleaf Hydroponics Factory 7, Industrial Park Drive, Lilydale Vic 3140 (03) 9739 7311

Melton Hydroponic Supplies 18/10 Norton Drive, Melton Vic 3194 (03) 9746 9256

AAA Lush Hydroponics 2-4 The Arcade, Junction Village, Melbourne Vic 3972 Albury Hydroponics/ Cappers Hydroponics 62 Thomas Mitchell Drive, Springvale Vic 3171 61 (02) 6024 4029 All Seasons Hydroponics 3 Springvale Road, Springvale Vic 3171 (03) 9540 8000 Banksia Greenhouse and Outdoor Garden 530 Burwood Highway, Wantirna Vic 3152 (03) 9801 8070

Growlush Australia 830-850 Princes Highway, Springvale, Vic, 3171 (03) 9546 9688 www.growlush.com -----------------------------------------Holland Forge Pty Ltd. 5 Hi-tech Place, Rowville Vic 3178 (03) 9764 1372

Sunlite Hydroponics 1/104 Shannon Avenue, Geelong West Vic 3281 (03) 5222 6730

Hyalite Westend 3 Third Avenue, Sunshine Vic 3020 (03) 9311 3510

Organic Garden Supplies 17 Don Road, Devonport Tas 7310 (03) 6424 7815

Grow 4 XS Rear 24 Simms Road, Greensborough Vic 3088 (03) 9435 6425 ------------------------------------------

Hydroponica 317 Guildford Road, Maylands WA 6051 (08) 9371 5757

Sunray Hydro 157 Tenth Street, Mildura Vic 3500 (03) 5023 6422

Gardensmart 810-834 Springvale Road, Keysborough Vic 3173 (03) 9769 1411

VICTORIA

Simply Hydroponics Epping 10 Dilop Drive, Epping Vic 3076 (03) 9408 4677

Hyalite Global 10 Knight Avenue, Sunshine North Vic 3020 (03) 9356 9400

Hydroponic World 322 Bass Highway, Sulphur Creek Tas 7316 (03) 6435 4411

GreenLite - Ringwood 291 Maroondah Highway, Ringwood Vic 3134 (03) 9870 8566

Hydroponic Warehouse Unit 7/627 Wanneroo Road, Wanneroo WA 6065 (08) 9206 0188

Simply Hydroponics Pakenham Factory 6/3-11 Bate Close Pakenham, Victoria 3810 (03) 5940 9047

F.L.O.W. Plants and Environments 66B Chapel Street, Windsor Vic 3181 (03) 9510 6832

The Hydroponics Company 289 Hobart Road, Kings Medow Tas 7428 (03) 6340 2222

Simply Hydroponics 5/ 411-413 Old Geelong Rd., Hoppers Cros. 3029 (03) 9360 9344

Hyalite Bayswater 4/19 Jersey Road, Bayswater Vic 3153 (03) 9720 1946

Hydroponics Systems 131 Main Rd, Moonah, TAS 7009 (03) 6278 3457

The Hydroponic Company 69 Charles Street, Moonah Tas 7009 (03) 6273 1411

Hydroponic Solutions 1/1928 Beach Road, Malaga WA 6090 (08) 9248 1901

Shepparton Hydroponics 87A Archer Street, Shepparton Vic 3630 (03) 5831 6433

Just Hydroponics Hoppers Crossing 3/8 Motto Court Hoppers Crossing, 3029 (03) 8742 2830 Latrove Valley Home Brew Supplies PO Box 802, Morwell Vic 3804 (03) 5133 9140

Midtown Hydroponics Factory 1, 821B Howitt St., Wendouree Vic 3355 (03) 5339 1300 One Stop Sprinklers 1 Burwood Highway, Wantirna Vic 3152 (03) 9800 2177 Pam’s Home Brew & Hydroponics 61 McArthur Street, Sale Vic 3850 (03) 5143 1143

Isabella’s Hydroponics 66 Jambanis Road, Wanneroo WA 6065 (08) 9306 3028 Johnson’s Nursery Garden Centre 30 Blencowe Road, Geralton WA 6530 (08) 9921 6016 Neerabup Organic & Hydroponic Supplies Unit 1, 21 Warman St. Neerabup WA 6031 (08) 9404 7155 One Stop Hydroponics 947 Beaufort Street, Inglewood WA 6052 (08) 9471 7000

Waterworks Hydroponics Unit 1, 5 Brand Drive, Thomastown Vic 3074 (03) 9465 1455

Perth Hydroponic Centre Shop 4, 171-175 Abernathy Road, Belmont WA 6104 (08) 9478 1211

WESTERN AUSTRALIA

Reptile and Grow Store Unit 7 - 117-119 Dixon Road, Rockingham WA 6168 (08) 9527 2245

Accent Hydroponics Unit 2/141 Russell Street, Morley WA 6062 (08) 9375 9355

Richo’s 4 Hydro Unit 7/22 Franklin Lane, Joondalup, WA 6027 (08) 9301 4462

Aqua Post Unit 2B 7 Yampi Way, Willetton WA 6155 (08) 9354 2888

Southwest Hydroponics Lot 29, Pinjarra Road, Mandurah WA 6210 (08) 9534 8544

Aquaponics Lot 12 Warton Road, Canning Vale WA 6155 1800 640 222 Bunbury Alternate Growing Supplies 8/13 Worcestor Bend, Davenport, WA 6230 (08) 9725 7020 Creative Hydroponics 1/95 Dixon Road, Rockingham WA 6168 (08) 9528 1310 Great Southern Hydroponics Shop 1, 21 Hennessy Road, Bunbury WA 6230 (08) 9721 8322 Greenfingers World of Hydroponics Albany Hwy & Kelvin Rd., Maddington WA 6109 (08) 9452 0546 Greenfingers World of Hydroponics Unit C 14-16 Elliot Street, Midvale WA 6056 (08) 9274 8388 Greenlite Hydroponics 4/91 Wanneroo Road, Tuart Hill WA 6060 (08) 9345 5321

Palms & Plants 175 Salisbury Highway, Salisbury S.A. 5108 (08) 8285 7575

Growsmart Hydroponics 47768 South Coast Highway, Albany WA 6330 (08) 9841 3220

Prestige Hydroponics Pty. Ltd. S 2.10 Level 2, 343 Little Collins St. Melbourne VIC Australia 3000 61 4 187 81083

Hydro Nation 41A Rockingham Road, Hamilton Hill WA 6163 (08) 9336 7368

The Grow Room 1/1451 Albany Highway, Cannington WA 6107 (08) 9356 7044 The Great Indoors Unit 1/25 Gillam Dr. Kelmscott WA 6111 (08) 9495 2815 Bloem PO Box 1816, Subiaco WA 6008 (08) 9217 4400 The Watershed Water Systems 150 Russell Street, Morley WA 6062 (08) 9473 1473 The Watershed Water Systems 2874 Albany Highway, Kelmscott WA 6111 (08) 9495 1495 The Watershed Water Systems 1/146 Great Eastern Highway, Midland WA 6210 (08) 9274 3232 Tru Bloomin Hydroponics 7/36 Port Kembla Dr. Bibra Lake, WA 6163 (08) 9434 5118 Water Garden Warehouse 14 Drake Street, Osborne Park WA 6017 (08) 9443 7993

NEW ZEALAND Easy Grow New Lynn 3018 Gt North Rd New Lynn, Auckland (09) 827 0883 Easy Grow Manukau 15/69 Wiri Station Road, Manukau, Auckland (09) 263 7560 Guru Gardener 14 Molesworth St., New Plymouth (06) 758 6661 Otaki Hydroponics 1083 S.H. 1 South Otaki (06) 364 2206 House of Hydro 221 Waiwhetu Rd., Lower Hutt Wellington Pet and Garden 10 Fitzgerald Ave., Christchurch (03) 377 2507 Grow and Brew 14a Flexman Place, Silverdale Auckland (09) 426 2095 Green Day Hydroponics Cnr of Maunganui Rd & Tawa St., Mt Maunganui (07) 575 4090 Switched on Gardener Number 189 (Lower) Dent Street, Whangarei (09) 438 0223 Switched on Gardener Unit 159 Central Park Drive, Henderson (09) 837 1210 Switched on Gardener Unit 1/60 Ti Rakau Drive, Pakuranga (09) 576 0296 Switched on Gardener Number 1c Sunshine Ave, Hamilton (07) 850 8351 Switched on Gardener Number 513 Heretaunga Street West, Hastings (06) 876 7885 Switched on Gardener Number 62 Kaiwharawhara Road, Wellington (04) 472 5265 Switched on Gardener Unit 7/67 View Road, Glenfield (09) 443 0106 Switched on Gardener Number 1 Rata Street, New Lynn (09) 826 4444 Switched on Gardener Number 57 Cavendish Drive, Manukau (09) 263 4336 Switched on Gardener Number 427 Cameron Road, Tauranga (07) 579 9840 Switched on Gardener Number 1060 Fergusson Drive, Upper Hutt (04) 526 3913 Switched on Gardener Number 3 Pascoe Street, Nelson (03) 546 4769 Switched on Gardener Number 9 Buckley Road, Linwood (03) 381 0937 Switched on Gardener Number 143 Tuam Street, Christchurch CBD (03) 374 5682 Switched on Gardener Number 313 King Edward Street, Dunedin (03) 456 1980

Maximum Yield | November/December 2013

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COMING UP IN January/February Mastering Media Today’s consumer has more growing media choices than ever before, like rockwool, coco coir, peat, perlite, soil and more. Each medium comes with pros and cons, so the fundamental question is, how often do you plan to check on your plants?

Growing on the Edge It always feels like you’re standing on the brink of a new adventure when you consider bringing a new companion into your home—even if that new friend is a windowsill plant! Karen Wilkinson provides a crash course on how to get started growing on the edge.

Managing Excessive Heat Letting a crop cook and fry under extreme temperatures is stressful for both the growers and the plants, so planning for mid-summer heat is well worth the effort. The first line of defense for any grower battling climatic extremes is to know the environment, both inside and out. Maximum Yield September/October will be available in September for free at select indoor gardening retail stores across the country and on maximumyield.com Subscriptions are available at maximumyield.com/subscriptions

COMING UP ON THE WEB Announcing Our 2014 Indoor Gardening Expo Lineup Now that the final stop in our highly successful 2013 Grow Like a Pro Indoor Gardening Expo Tour has wrapped up in Long Beach, California, we’re pleased to announce next year’s expo dates. We’ve got four exciting locations stretching from coast to coast in the United States: Seattle, Washington (April 5 and 6); Novi, Michigan (May 31 and June 1); San Francisco, California (July 26 and 27); and Boston, Massachusetts (Oct. 18 and 19). Stay tuned to indoorgardenexpo.com for details so you can plan your 2014 vacation.

Meet the Team Throughout 2013 there have been a few changes at the Maximum Yield office, including the addition of some great people to the team. To learn more about our current roster, check out maximumyield.com/about-us

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Maximum Yield | November/December 2013

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Maximum Yield NZ Nov/Dec 2013