Page 1

CANADA May-June 2011








Indoor gardenING expo Vancouver

British Columbia, CAN May 14-15

SAN FRancisco California, USA July 16-17

long beach california, usa october 22-23

contents May/June 2011


36 48


Locavores: Seeking a Sustainable Future


Worm Composting: Let the Worms do The Work


Plant Obesity: Choosing Higher Yields Over Healthy Crops


What is Soil?


Nutrient Management


Chelated Micronutrients


Small Spaces, Big Yields: Bloom Part 2

by Matt LeBannister

by Evan Folds

by Luis Bartolo

by Andrew Taylor

by Donald Lester

by Lee McCall


Departments 6

From the Editor

8 10 12 14 20 Letters to the Editor Simon Says MAX Facts

52 68 70 74 74

You Tell Us Max Mart Distributors Do You Know? Coming up next issue

Product Spotlight

Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011


FROM the editor th


nutrients, plant obesity, worm composting, nutrient management and soil will keep you flipping the pages until the very end. Check out the product spotlight section as many of our companies have unveiled some of the new products that they will be showcasing at the expo. Enjoy this all-new Canadian issue made especially for our Canadian readers. We look forward to seeing you in Vancouver in two weeks. What makes your garden grow? We want you to share some of your gardening secrets with our readers. E-mail “Your Best Advice” to and you could be featured in this all-new column. Keep growing and keep sending in those gardening tips!

r, BC to e v u o c n Va s the world xpo invitdeoor Garden E the In May 14-15

This month is truly cause for celebration. May marks our 13th Anniversary and our Canadian Expo in beautiful Vancouver, British Columbia—the host of last year’s world-class Olympic Games—May 14, to 15, 2011. We have chosen a great new location for our eighth Vancouver Expo at the Pacific National Exhibition Forum building, a historical location and the perfect venue for our expo. This issue offers short, fresh reads and long informative pieces that are geared to help you jump start your summer growing season in a big way. Up-to-the-minute information on chelated micro-

Jessica Raymond, Editor

contributors Donald Lester is the plant

Jose Luis Pinheiro Bartolo is the

Andrew Taylor is the manager of

Evan Folds is president of Progressive Gardens, a natural approach land care company, and Progress Earth (www.progressearth. com). With a degree in biology and religion, Evan’s interests include making sense of food production and bringing awareness to such topics as empty food, municipal water fluoridation and spiritual intolerance.

Matt LeBannister developed a green thumb as a child, having been born into a family of experienced gardeners. During his career, he has managed a hydroponic retail store and represented leading companies at the Indoor Gardening Expos. Matt has been writing articles for Maximum Yield since 2007. His articles are published around the world.

Lee McCall graduated from Johnson and Wales University with a concentration in Culinary Arts. Culinary school opened the door to research and work with hydroponics and organic production. Currently, Lee attends business school in Denver and focuses on continuing advancements with Maximum Yield and indoor gardening technology.

products manager at JH Biotech, Inc., a California based agricultural technology company with 27 OMRI certified products. Donald has a master’s degree in agronomy with an emphasis in entomology. He is an agricultural scientist with over 10 years of research experience and 50 scientific publications to his credit.


Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011

president of Biobizz Worldwide Inc., a global leader in the production of hydroponic organic fertilizers and soil mixtures. He is passionate about the organic market and providing the highest service and perfectionism that comes direct from his heart and is projected to all aspects of his life.

Flairform ( – an Australian-based manufacturing company. As an analytical chemist with qualifications in plant function and nutrition, he has over 13 years experience in product research and development, and also writes extensively on hydroponic growing techniques.

on the web Upcoming Events

Upcoming Events - Vancouver, B.C. Expo 2011 Maximum Yield’s 2011 Indoor Gardening Expo tour will be making a stop in vibrant Vancouver, British Columbia—the host of this past year’s world-class Olympic Games—May 14 to 15, 2011 at the PNE Forum. This event offers education and entertainment rolled into one. We look forward to seeing you all in Vancouver in May. Stay tuned to for more information.

The principles of crop steering—a useful technique employed by many commercial greenhouse growers that balances the vegetative growing phase with the generative phase—is examined.

Hybrid Hydroponics Indoor growers in Europe have devised a system that produces fat plants in small spaces. This hybrid hydro set-up could be the ideal system for you.

LEDs – Making Your Investment Worthwhile Spend your grow light dollars wisely with these tips that serve to help you navigate the LED maze with ease.

Connect to instantly from your Smartphone with our Quick Response (QR) Code, found on the cover of every issue of Maximum Yield. Now you can access the best products, the most in-depth articles and information and the latest news, at high speeds. Simply download the QR Code Reader software compatible with your Smartphone, scan the QR Code and your phone’s browser will automatically launch, redirecting you to It’s that simple!

Tell us what you think at We’d love to hear from you.

Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011

Maximum Yield is published bi-monthly by Maximum Yield Publications Inc. 2339A Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 Phone: 250.729.2677; Fax 250.729.2687 No part of this magazine may be reproduced without permission from the publisher. If undeliverable please return to the address above. The views expressed by columnists are a personal opinion and do not necessarily reflect those of Maximum Yield or the Editor. Publication Agreement Number 40739092 Printed in Canada


Plant Steering




Featured Articles

Connect with Maximum Yield


VOLUME 14 – NUMBER 1 May/June 2011

Linda Jesson - Lisa Lambersek - Ilona Hawser - Ashley Heppell - Christina Indseth - PRODUCTION & DESIGN Mike Linden - Daniel Peters - Tina Skujins - Jennifer Duong - ACCOUNTING - Lee Anne Veres

CANADIAN DISTRIBUTION Brite-Lite Group Biofloral Eddis Wholesale Greenstar Plant Products Inc. Hydrotek MegaWatt Quality Wholesale USA DISTRIBUTION Aurora Innovations BWGS BWGS East BWGS West General Hydroponics Hydrofarm Hydro International National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply R&M Supply Tradewinds UK DISTRIBUTION Growth Technology Hydrogarden Northern Hydroponic Wholesale Nutriculture UK AUSTRALIAN DISTRIBUTION House N Garden Futchatec Growth Technology Hydraspher

LETTERS to the editor Recipe for Success

Inspired Reading

Your magazine is a great source of information. I appreciate the diversification of articles. New to this world, I realize nutrients are a major part of your industry. I am focused on aquaponics and bioponics. I would appreciate articles on studies of nutrient deficiencies with these systems and what should be monitored and supplemented, plus suggested amounts. Some of us are not chemists so maybe a baby-step kind of approach would be ideal to bring us up to speed. I glaze over trying to read and comprehend some of the articles out there. Thanks again for all of the information that you provide.

Dear MY, I have been reading your magazine for nearly a year and I think it is great. I always look forward to getting your mag when it becomes available; I get your magazine from my local grow shop for free. I enjoy reading back issues on your website, and I was wondering if it would be possible to download your back issues. I do not have my own Internet connection, and I am limited to when I can read your mag online. If I could download your back issues I could read them in my own time. I would also like to subscribe to your magazine.

Frank Feiller is a great source for information on nutrients and deficiencies, fertilizers, additives and supplements. Our website features hundreds of articles for beginners and expert growers alike. If your questions aren’t answered, or you require more specific information, I recommend you drop Simon Hart, our resident expert, an e-mail at

It’s All About Air Great magazine! I want to grow strawberries using an aeroponic system and trust you to guide me to the information we need. Online archives, online searches, books—wherever I need to go, please help.

Yours Gratefully, Arran Griffin

Back issues of Maximum Yield are available to download on You will need to sign up (http:/ in order to download past issues.You can subscribe to Maximum Yield by visiting or by calling our office at 1-250-729-2677. Thanks for reading.

Peat Moss in the Mix I really enjoy your magazine, especially the article that Casey Jones Fraser wrote in the March/April 2011 issue titled “Soilless Salvation.” The article stirred up some questions for me. As a fellow soil grower I’m always on the lookout for a good and easy recipe. My question is regarding the peat moss mentioned in the article. Can I pick up a peat moss mix at my local garden centre? Anthony Arballo

Thanks in advance. John Gavlick

The following articles might help in your endeavour. They can all be found on under our author or article archive. • “Berry Bonanza: Growing Indoor Strawberries” by Dr. Lynette Morgan • “Aeroponic Technology Versus Premium Organic Soil Cultivation” by Lee McCall • “Water as a Substrate: Aeroponics and Aero-Hydroponics” by Noucetta Kehdi • “Advance Aeroponics” by Joshua Serpa Good luck, and let us know how you make out.

In “Soilless Salvation” I list one of the ingredients as “a peatbased mix.” That means any potting mix that is largely made up of peat moss. If you use plain peat moss, the soil will hold much more moisture than if you were to use a peat-based mix. I prefer a well-draining mix, so I don’t use plain peat moss. Another detail I would like to point out is this is not soil, but rather a soilless mix. True soil comes out of the ground, and you never know what’s in it. With a soilless mix, you can check the ingredients list. Soil is all guesswork, but there is no guessing here. With this recipe, I have tuned in perfect levels of pH, water holding and drainage. No guessing...I know exactly what’s in it! Maximum Yield Contributor: Casey Jones Fraser Maximum Yield reserves the right to edit for brevity. We want to hear from you! Write us at: Maximum Yield Publications Inc. 2339A Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 or Email us at:


Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011

SIMON says Simon, When I use plain, reverse osmosis water, my EC is zero. To water my plants, should I add a calcium/magnesium supplement? If so, how much should I add? Thanks, Matt My tap water is 30 ppm on my TDS meter. What level should I raise it to with a calcium/magnesium supplement? Thanks, Joe

These questions are so similar I will try and help both readers with one answer. Unfortunately, while both questions are straightforward, neither question has an easy answer.You’re both very lucky to be starting with good quality water. Nutrient manufacturers assume a low EC or TDS reading when suggesting application rates so all readers should strive for the best quality (lowest conductivity) water to start with. Generally this means reverse osmosis (RO) filtered water, but in some cases just exceptional tap water. Regardless, be sure that you are adding a quality base nutrient with all the essential elements present prior to considering any supplemental calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), as these two essential nutrients cannot grow plants on their own. If you are using untreated water with a dissolved solids value prior to adding nutrients, it’s imperative to get your water tested. Once you know what elements are already in suspension, you can try and tailor your additional nutrients to correspond to the inherent levels. An RO system takes away this headache. In a water system or soilless mix, a calcium-to-magnesium ratio of approximately 3:1 is standard. This is much different with outdoor garden soils where a spread of 7:1 or 8:1 is more common. For indoor gardens, providing a moderate level of calcium at 150 ppm, be sure your magnesium is at 50 ppm. Most crops will require between 50 and 300 ppm of calcium and most will fall in the middle of this range. Remember that all calcium supplements vary in the form they are delivered. Some will come from a chemical source, such as calcium nitrate. Others might provide calcium with a mineral source such as calcium carbonate or even an amino chelate (usually calcium chloride). To verify the calcium source, check the


Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011

ingredient list. If a product guarantees calcium it must declare the source. None of these inputs will be pure calcium so the adjusted EC or TDS will read higher than the actual value of calcium provided. This is a case where manufacturer suggested application rates are useful. If you want to be more specific in your adjustment, you must calculate the calcium supply based on your source input. This will vary depending on the compound used. All possible calcium inputs will also affect the pH of your solution in various ways so be sure to adjust after adding them to your reservoir and monitor for ongoing pH fluctuations. The level of calcium and magnesium will vary tremendously from plant to plant. To assess your specific requirements I suggest reviewing available university extension information or garden forums. Both will have good advice specific to your crops. Growth rate and stage of growth can have a considerable impact on the levels of Ca and Mg necessary. When adding supplemental Ca/Mg it’s important to remember that calcium is immobile so be sure to provide a consistent supply. For prolifically flowering plants such as tomatoes and peppers, an elevated supply will be essential to avoid substandard fruit development due to deficiencies such as blossom end rot. In periods of high temperature it is also possible that evapotranspiration can actually be the limiting factor in calcium supply—regardless of how much you are supplying, deficiencies can occur. In extreme cases, experiment with foliar application to try and work the nutrients directly into the leaf tissues surrounding the fruit set. Also work to decrease the daytime temperature if your plants are displaying nutrient deficiency symptoms.

MAX facts

Hydroponic news, tips and trivia from around the world

Urbanizing Flower Production

For a social enterprise start-up like Olla Urban Flower Project, community is everything. The innovative plant and flower shop located in Vancouver’s Gastown continues to grow organically by word of mouth and takes strength and inspiration from community partnerships. Contact the company to find out how you can host a flower farm or market the bounty of your flowering shrubs. Visit for info. (Source:

Quick-Growing Vegetables for the Impatient Gardener All of these quick-growing vegetables are sure to satisfy even the most impatient gardener. Best of all, by adding them to your garden, you ensure that you will always have something to harvest. Mesclun Great addition to salads Radishes Project for kids Asian Greens Exotic foliage Wheat Grass Super nutritious Bush Beans Perfect for containers (Source:

Finding a Polyamine Way to Extend Tomato Shelf Life

Tomatoes spend so much time on shelves and in refrigerators that an estimated 20 per cent are lost to spoilage. (Source:

Urban Farming and the Future of Food Production

Musician turned urban farmer Curtis Stone is the owner/operator of Green City Acres, a sustainable, commercial, pedal powered urban farm, in Kelowna, British Columbia. He farms ¾ of an acre and is showing others that eating locally, organically and fossil-fuel free is not only fun, but an integral part of our future. In September 2010 he was awarded the ‘Gardener of the Year’ from the city of Kelowna’s Communities in Bloom. (Source: Photo Credit: Photographer: Andrew Barton

Curtis Stone


Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011

MAX facts

Hydroponic news, tips and trivia from around the world

Renee’s Seed Donations Make a Difference

Every year, Renee’s Garden donates seeds to a wide variety of organizations and educational programs worldwide that strive to improve social, economic and health conditions, and promote sustainable organic gardening. We also encourage retailers to donate unsold Renee’s Garden seeds to local non-profit organizations at the end of the season. Some of the fine non-profit organizations that received seed donations include: The Gimbie Adventist Hospital Garden in West Wollega, Ethiopia; Altoona Community Garden in Greensboro, NC; Museum and Science and Industry Smart Home Garden in Chicago, IL; Homeless Services Center/Page Smith Community House in Santa Cruz, CA and many more. We are pleased to share their successful outcomes. (Source:

Ultraviolet Light Boosts Carrots’ Antioxidant Value

Exposing sliced carrots to UV-B, one of the three kinds of ultraviolet light in sunshine, can boost the antioxidant activity of the colourful veggie, according to preliminary studies. The carrot investigation suggests that a moderate, 14 second dose of UV-B can boost fresh, sliced carrots’ antioxidant capacity by about threefold. The dose is energy-efficient and does not significantly heat or dry the carrots. Scientists have known for at least a decade that exposing plants to UV-B may cause what’s known as abiotic stress. That’s what probably happened with the sliced carrots. Plants respond to the stress by revving up their production of two natural enzymes, one with the tongue-twisting name of polyphenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and the other known as chalcone synthase. As production of those enzymes increases, levels of phenolic compounds—antioxidants synthesized by the enzymes—also increase. (Source:


Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011

MAX facts

Hydroponic news, tips and trivia from around the world

George Weston to Hike Food Prices

Toronto-based food processor George Weston Ltd. served notice that higher consumer prices are on the way. The company, which owns baker Weston Foods and retailer Loblaw, said it will increase prices by five per cent in order to pass on rising commodity costs. Climbing prices of key product ingredients could have a negative impact of up to $65 million this year. The prices of some of these items have shot up as much as 50 per cent in recent months. (Source:

Plants and Pets

Our gardens are places where our pets spend much of their time, but often the two do not go together. There are hundreds of commonly grown plants that are highly toxic to dogs and cats. Pets are curious, exploratory and they love chewing a large range of plant material. Just because we can eat something does not mean that it is safe for our pets. For example, Macadamia nuts, although delicious to us, are toxic to dogs. Check out these links: Plants toxic to dogs ( Plants poisonous to cats ( (Source:

Tangerine Tomatoes Surpass Reds in Preliminary Lycopene Study Ounce for ounce, heirloom tangerine tomatoes might be a better source of a powerful antioxidant called lycopene than are familiar red tomatoes. (Source:


Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011

PRODUCT spotlight

Ask for them at your local indoor gardening store.


Biofloral Introduces FloraSun HPS 1,000 Watt Bulb FloraSun is a super horticultural lamp, specially designed to provide maximal lumens to your plants from the blooming stages through to maturity. This bulb’s exclusive and innovative spectral distribution (colour repartition) makes it the most efficient product of its kind on the market. For more information visit your favourite indoor gardening shop.

Growing Accessories New From Future Harvest Development (FHD) Agrowtent – Clever Design and the Best Price on the Market Hydrotek is proud to present Agrowtent, a new modular chamber for vertical hydroponics. Agrowtent features an integrated vertical growing system that allows you to use the walls instead of soil to grow your favourite plants. Equipped with an opaque tent fabric and several new innovative features, Agrowtent makes maximum use of the light source and optimizes crop yields. Growers can double the tent’s capacity without doubling the cost of accessories. Its innovative design makes accessing plants easy, thanks to the sliding cooling tube. For more information visit an indoor gardening shop near you.

FHD square growing pots provide greater capacity for growing mediums, and fit better in flood and drain tables. These commercial greenhouse quality pots are made of durable and recyclable black polypropylene. Available in 4.5, nine and 14 litres. A 20 centimetre square saucer is available to help retain your valuable nutrients. Round saucers are also available in 20 to 36 centimetre diameters to fit most containers. Complimenting these new products is our heavy duty 1020 trays, with twice the thickness of standard 1020 trays. Available with a reusable 1020 vented dome. Order the new FHD growing accessories from your local indoor gardening shop.

Gaia Green Joins Greenstar’s Line-up Gaia Green is an exciting addition to Greenstar Plant Products’ organic fertilizer offerings. Gaia Green’s fertilizer blends are formulated using the finest organic and mineral inputs to ensure a complete balance of nutrients, resulting in the ultimate in plant vitality. All products are free of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. All Gaia Green Fertilizers are environmentally friendly, acceptable for organic certification and GMO free. Gaia Green’s top sellers include All Purpose 4-4-4, Power Bloom 2-8-4, Glacial Rock Dust and Living Soil. For more information visit your local indoor/outdoor gardening store. 20

Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011

Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011


PRODUCT spotlight

Your guide to this issue’s hottest items. Ask for them at your local indoor gardening store.

EcoPlus® Commercial Grade Water Chillers Sunlight Supply®, Inc. is pleased to announce the release of the new Commercial Grade Water Chillers from EcoPlus®. Available in 0.5, one or 1.5 HP, these chillers are energy efficient and provide optimum performance. Suitable for use with reservoirs, hydroponic systems or aquariums, the EcoPlus® Commercial Grade Chillers may be plumbed with hard PVC pipe or flexible tubing. They feature remote temperature control, a nine metre power cord and temperature memory in the event of a power failure. These chillers are friendly to those with a “set it and forget it” mentality. Visit an indoor gardening shop near you for more information.

The New NanoTech T5 Reflector by SunBlaster SunBlaster Lighting engineers used the most advanced reflective surface available for this reflector. Made possible only through the application of nanotechnology, this revolutionary reflective surface has the ability to capture lost light (99 per cent), and simultaneously convert that light into the brightest, most brilliant light we have ever produced. The metallic crystal layer within the reflective surface helps spread the T5 light across the plant canopy diffusing it deep into the plant foliage. The NanoTech T5 increases lumen availability up to 300 per cent. The NanoTech T5 Reflector is made exclusively for the New SunBlaster T5HO. Order the NanoTech T5 Reflector from your favourite indoor gardening retailer today.

Humboldt County’s Own Gravity Gravity is a unique and original Humboldt County product. Gravity is made from kelp extract that is put through a further proprietary selective extraction process. Gravity will harden and bulk up your flowers far beyond anything achievable with fertilizer alone. When used with your favourite nutrient line, Gravity and Snow Storm Ultra together will finish your plants in a way that simply can’t be duplicated with any other products. Try it and you’ll know why it’s called Gravity. Free samples are available at your local retail store.

Humboldt County’s Own Bush Master Manufactured by Emerald Triangle Products in Humboldt County, Bush Master was specially developed to speed the transition to bloom, allowing plants to put more energy into flower development for a longer flowering cycle. Growers who carefully take two or three cycles to precisely optimize Bush Master for their particular plants will see drastic increases in yields. Plus, plants will finish seven to 10 days earlier. Works well with all nutrient lines. Bush Master is extremely concentrated so a little goes a long way. Free samples and feeding charts are available at your local retail shop.


Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011

Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011


PRODUCT spotlight

Your guide to this issue’s hottest items. Ask for them at your local indoor gardening store.

Quiet and Powerful Stealth Series From Hydrotek Stealth Series filters, fans and controls are part of a highly effective air filtering system. The Airbox Stealth is the only inline filter with push/pull capability and is adaptable to any existing duct system. It features interchangeable high flow carbon filters and is 100 per cent air tight. Stealth Fans are quiet, reliable and efficient with aerodynamic cowling. Available in 10 to 30 centimetres and guaranteed for five years. The Speedmaster, a dial router speed controller, and the Timemaster, a heavy duty dual plug timer, were made for hydroponic lighting, pumps and air purification systems. For more information visit your favourite indoor gardening shop.

The New SunBlaster T5HO Lamps The new edition Sunblaster T5HO lamps have been reengineered incorporating the most advanced on-board electronics in the industry. T5HO lamps are now driven at optimum temperatures, lowering heat production and extending lamp life. These improvements ensure every SunBlaster T5HO provides maximum performance and light output. Plus, pair the new T5 High Output Lamp with SunBlaster’s NanoTech T5 Reflector and you have the most advanced T5HO lighting system available today. The end result? Bigger, healthier plants faster. Even we were amazed by their combined performance. Ask for the SunBlaster T5HO Lamps from your favourite indoor gardening store today.

Expedite Filtration With the Small Cone Kit From Boldtbags Boldtbags’ Small Cone Kit speeds up filtration with the total micron lining and tapered construction. They’re made with the same full micron spectrum as the regular Boldtbags. Available in three, four and eight bag kits, the small cones fit standard 23 litre buckets. Order Boldtbags’ Small Cone Kit from your local gardening shop today.

Sun Blaze® T5 Very High Output (VHO) Fluorescent Lighting Fixtures Sunlight Supply®, Inc. is pleased to announce the release of the new Sun Blaze T5 Very High Output (VHO) Fluorescent Lighting Fixtures. These fixtures come in four and eight lamp configurations, include wire hangers and can be installed for vertical or horizontal operation. Both fixtures offer an on/off switch for easy operation. The eight lamp model offers two on/off switches to allow the user to run four or eight lamps at one time. Free pre-installed Spectralux 6500° K VHO Lamps are included with each fixture. VHO lamps offer 7,200 lumens at 95 watts each. Visit your favourite indoor gardening shop for more information.


Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011

Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011


PRODUCT spotlight

Your guide to this issue’s hottest items. Ask for them at your local indoor gardening store.

Humboldt County’s Own Snow Storm Ultra If you like Purple Maxx/Snow Storm but you’re not interested in colour, then you’ll love Snow Storm Ultra. We discovered we really had two products in one so we separated and optimized Snow Storm. There’s absolutely no product on the market like Snow Storm Ultra, whether a sugar water or carbohydrate-based product. This is the real deal developed by real growers—a genuine Humboldt County original. Try it and see for yourself. Samples and feeding charts are available to retail stores.

Introducing the New HydroStar E-Ballast by Greenstar Plant Products HydroStar by Greenstar Plant Products is a line of value-priced import items that are high in quality and low in price. We are incredibly excited to introduce our first HydroStar product to the market: the HydroStar Electronic Ballast. This nondimming, 120/240 volt, CUL-approved ballast will run halide or sodium lamps and is programmed for a “soft-start”.This ballast features silent fanless operation, the highest quality components and a three year exchange warranty. For more information or to place an order, visit your favourite indoor garden shop.

Botanicare Launches Hydrolite™ Grow Media Amendment Botanicare’s popular nutrients and fertilizers provide commercial and urban growers with valuable, long-lasting nutrition resulting in vigorous yields. Now, Botanicare® has developed Hydrolite™, a new grow media amendment that works like a plant’s nutrient storage bank, helping manage the availability of nutrients essential for plant growth. Hydrolite is a highly porous, non-toxic and reusable aggregate grow media composed of natural crystalline structures that accelerate growth by optimizing root oxygen levels through absorption and release of nutrients as needed by plant roots. Available in four to six millimetre and 15 to 20 millimetre stones. Ask your local indoor gardening shop for Hydrolite today.

Sun System® Digital Grow Light Fixture The Sun System® Digital Grow Light Fixture is the newest addition to Sun System’s complete system line-up. This state-of-the-art digital fixture offers an integrated Galaxy® electronic ballast allowing operation of both metal halide (MH) and high pressure sodium (HPS) lamps. This proprietary Smart Volt® ballast operates at either 120 or 240 volts (120 volt cord included) and with the flip of a switch, the Sun System® Digital will run either a 250 watt or 400 watt bulb. Vented ballast housing allows for effective heat dissipation and the highly reflective aluminum insert keeps light focused where it matters most—on your plants. Visit your favorite indoor gardening or hydroponics retailer for more information. MY


Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011

Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011


Locavores: SEEKING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE by Matt LeBannister

Canadians have recently acquired a new understanding of our environment, climate change and the underlying human influence. This new understanding is changing the way we live our lives. We recycle more to offset the environmental impact of our consumption. We buy and grow organic food to stem the use of industrial fertilizers and pesticides. In addition, we’re getting on-board a groundbreaking movement that is sweeping across Canada. It’s called the locavore movement and it’s helping change what we eat and how we think of food.


Maximum Yield Canada  |  May / June 2011

Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011


Locavores: Seeking A sustainable Future


locavore is someone who chooses to eat locally grown food that is generally grown no further than 200 kilometres away.The locavore movement is not only about eating local food, but rather, it is part of a philosophy of creating a sustainable food system.This involves eating locally grown, organic and pesticide-free produce. Farmers who cater to locavores are encouraged to remain small, grow many varieties of veggies instead of mass-producing one variety and use cover crops to maintain soil quality and prevent erosion. The push to eat only locally grown foods arose from the understanding of how much fossil fuel is used for food production. Industrial farming uses fertilizers that are derived from fossil fuels. “The push to eat only locally grown foods arose from the understanding of how much fossil fuel is used for food production.” This is ruining once fertile land by allowing soil to erode. Industrial farms usually grow a large monoculture crop that can be highly susceptible to pests. As a result farmers resort to fossil fuel based pesticides, which are used from planting to harvesting.The food is then transported over far distances to reach us using ships, trains, planes and trucks.The strangest part is that we often export produce over thousands of kilometres to another country just to import the same produce from another country. In 2005 a study conducted in a downtown Toronto grocery store by Food Share found that food in a sample shopping basket had travelled on average more than 5,000 kilometres. One way to become part of the local food movement is to grow your own fruits and vegetables. Home gardens can be a great way for Canadians to enjoy the warm summer months. There are many different fruits and vegetables that can be easily grown in Canadian


Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011

backyards—beans, tomatoes, squash, raspberries, garlic and potatoes are just a few examples. The fruits and vegetables that you grow yourself can be grown according to your own standards (e.g., organic and pesticide-free) so as not to negatively affect the environment. It may also save you money and trips to the grocery store. If you are one of the many people occupying one of Canada’s cities you may think there is no space to have a garden. There are many ways one can maximize their space for gardening. People with balconies can grow their plants in pots and handwater them. Many small city backyards have been transformed by using trellises or lattice. This method allows vine-like plants to grow vertically up the surface of the trellises, thus maximizing growing space. Grow bags are another way for the gardener with little space for a garden to grow their plants vertically on any surface that receives adequate sunlight. Growing indoors is also an option, but it might be considered bad for the environment since electricity is needed to power the lights. The source of the energy must be taken into consideration. Solar panels and small wind generators are available for homeowners. There are also new LED (Light Emitting Diodes) grow lights that use a small fraction of the energy that their HID (High Intensity Discharge) counterparts. The lifespan of the new LED grow lights are two to 10 as long as HIDs. These green energy sources can be used to power indoor gardens and to heat greenhouses during the winter months. Many greenhouses are now being heated by geothermal technology that effects the environment in a very minimal way. Indoor gardening also has the added benefit of allowing the gardener to choose whether to use organic fertilizer. One can also choose not to use pesticides further reducing the amount of fossil fuels used during the growing process. Greenhouses are the way most of us manage to get local food at the supermarket during winter. Otherwise most food we “Many greenhouses are now being heated by geothermal technology that effects the environment in a very minimal way.”

Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011


Locavores: Seeking A sustainable Future

Canadians find in the grocery store are imported from distant, warmer regions where the produce can be grown outdoors year round. Another way to enjoy locally grown food during cold Canadian months is via food preservation. A variety of vegetables and fruit—such as apples, potatoes, carrots and onions—can be kept in cool storage for months. Tomatoes, apples, strawberries, raspberries, peaches and other fruit can be turned into sauces, jams and other preserves. There is also the option of freezing your homegrown or locally grown produce at the end of the harvest. Produce that is frozen soon after harvesting will maintain more of its nutritional value. The first step to becoming a locavore for most of us begins at the grocery store. Large chains mainly import their produce but many are now beginning to embrace the locavore trend by having sections with only locally grown fruit, vegetables, dairy and meat. Purchasing locally grown food at these locations sends the message to the big chains and lets them know that a sustainable food system is what is best for this country. Buying locally grown food from Canadian grocers is beneficial not only to the consumer but for the farmer. Many family farms go out of business or sell out to the real estate developers because they cannot make a living selling to wholesalers or grocers. The price of food simply does not reflect the cost of production for the average Canadian farmer, nor does it reflect the overall environmental cost of large-scale farming. The locavore movement is actually changing the face of the Canadian family farm for the better. Many family farms are now adapting to the new, environmentally conscious world and are changing they way they function. To survive and compete


Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011

“In some Cases people even purchase animals, for instance chickens, then pay for their upkeep.”

with the large monoculture farm they have had to learn new ways to make more money. One way was to get rid of expensive fossil fuel based fertilizers and pesticides, instead adopting a more cost effective, organic approach. The next move was to target different consumers. Canadian family farmers realized that the best way to make money was to cut out the middlemen (grocery stores) and sell directly to the consumers. There are a number of ways that you can get your locally grown produce directly from the farmers. One way is to frequent one of your local farmers markets. At farmers markets, farmers have stalls where they sell their produce directly to the consumer. The number of farmer’s markets is on the rise as this locavore trend takes a foothold in Canadian culture. The produce is generally fresher, tastier and healthier than anything you could find at the local large supermarket chains. There are also CSAs, Community Supported Agriculture, being set up by many farmers. These are farms or systems of farms and farmers who sell directly to consumers. The difference is that people will purchase a share in the farmer’s crops in exchange for produce each month. In some CSAs people even purchase animals, for instance chickens, then pay for their

upkeep. In return the consumer receives fresh eggs at little additional cost. Many CSAs, referred to as co-ops since they are often a system of farmers who work together, will often have standards of practice that the farmers, and produce, must meet. Giving the farmers control over how they produce their crops and animals is greatly beneficial to the consumer. Food will be produced in a way that the finished product tastes better and is healthier, all the while keeping the health of the environment in mind. Many co-ops require farmers to grow organically, without the use of pesticides, and to use cover crop and crop rotation to maintain soil quality. Animals are generally required to be free-range, organically grain or grass fed, without the use of steroids and/or antibiotics. These standards cannot be found on large farms that cater to the needs of industry, rather than the needs of the consumer. The only downside to joining a CSA is that you share in the farmer’s good and bad fortune. If there is a drought or too much rain and crop production is affected there is a good chance that the members of the CSA will not be receiving much produce in return for their payments. This is good for the farming community, who would simply be out of luck if their crops were negatively affected by the weather. One bad season can force many farmers to declare bankruptcy. The locavore movement is one that promotes and supports a sustainable food system in Canada that will ensure the protection of the environment. This cannot happen all at once. These “If we can make these few changes to our lifestyle and way of thinking, then we have already changed the future of our country for the better.”

little changes can greatly affect the future of all Canadians. No one is expected in our northern landscape to return to the diet of our settler forefathers. Continue enjoying your coffee, spices and chocolate. If we can make these few changes to our lifestyle and way of thinking, then we have already changed the future of our country for the better. MY Resources: Locavore, by Sarah Elton. Copyright 2010 Sarah Elton. HarperCollins Publishers Inc.

Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011


LET THE WORMS DO THE WORK Composting with earthworms, or vermicomposting, is great for apartment dwellers who don’t have yard space, and for homeowners who don’t want to hike through the backyard to a compost bin; and kids love keeping hundreds of wigglers for pets. There are several companies in Canada now who can sell you the bins, bedding, worms and all.


Your worms can live in a plastic bin or wooden box with plenty of air holes punched in the sides and top. Line the worm bin with nylon net to keep the small ones in. Holes in the bottom are needed for drainage, so you’ll want a tray under the bin. Some people move their worms out to a balcony or yard in warm seasons.You may find it more convenient to have several smaller, more portable units rather than one large one. The size of the box will also depend on how much space you have.


Loam or black topsoil, available from garden centres, makes particularly good bedding material. Bedding can also be shredded newspapers, soaked to soften the edges (the worms will eat this too, so avoid coloured inks and glossy paper) or a mixture of sawdust, peat, shredded leaves and soil.


Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011

Fill the bin with about a foot of bedding, about as damp as a wrung-out sponge—not soggy and not dry. With a lid on the bin and regular feeding of the worms, maintaining the correct moisture level shouldn’t be difficult.


It’s true that earthworms aren’t pets for the squeamish, but they are great little composters. You’ll want the kind of worms that are sold for fishing bait—red wigglers or brandling worms—not ordinary field worms from someone’s garden. Redworms normally live in barnyard manure piles and feed on fresh organic material. Field worms are better at digesting things that are already well decomposed and aren’t likely to survive in a worm bin on a diet of kitchen scraps.

Your valuable little redworms will live quietly in their dark box and multiply rapidly. Just bury your leftovers in their bedding after each meal. It is unlikely that you will have too much waste to compost (redworms will eat their own weight in kitchen scraps and bedding each day).The castings they produce are incredibly rich fertilizer and look like fine-textured soil. For each cubic foot of worm bin, plan on using a half pound of red wigglers (about 500 depending on their size).


Coffee grounds, vegetables and fruit are the recommended food for worms. A varied diet is important. Avoid bones, dairy products, meats, garlic and potato peelings—what doesn’t cause odours or attract insects will simply take a very long time to break down. Eggshells are essential to keep the bedding from becoming too acidic for the worms. Dry them well, crush them and sprinkle the tiny pieces over the top of the bedding.


Redworms will survive in temperatures from 5°C to 32°C but prefer it at or above room temperature. If you keep the worm bin outside in good weather, be ready to bring it in promptly when the temperature drops.

When you start to see the worms again, keep the light on them, give them another 10 minutes to go deeper still and remove the next layer of compost. Keep going in this way until the harvest is done. Then fill up the bin with fresh bedding and start again.


Some people build special worm pits to take advantage outdoors of the worms’ natural talents. To make a worm pit, all you have to do is dig a square hole a couple of feet deep and set a bottomless box over it. The compost materials and worms are tossed in here. You can keep adding organic waste as it accumulates. Keep the pile damp and dark and the worms will do the rest. Remember to harvest your compost carefully—in bright sunshine—to save the worms from an unpleasant fate. They won’t live long if they’re stranded in ordinary garden soil, dumped there with a forkful of compost. Here in New Brunswick, our climate is too extreme for redworms to survive outdoors through the winter. Some wormowners in milder areas have good luck using very deep worm pits with thickly insulated walls, but it’s risky business indeed. Better, bring the worms indoors to a bin when frost threatens. MY Article supplied by the New Brunswick Department of Environment (

Harvesting the Castings

Removing the worm-compost couldn’t be easier.You will notice that redworms hate the light; they’ll wriggle down into their bedding whenever you take the lid off the bin. Every few months—when the castings outweigh the bedding that remains—place the opened bin under a very bright light and give the worms 10 minutes to get well away from the surface.Then the coast is clear for scraping away the worm castings from the top layer.

Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011


Plant Obesity:

Choosing Higher Yields Over Healthy Crops

by Evan Folds

Researchers have known since the 1940s that an emphasis on empty fertilizers results in cheaper food that is devoid of minerals. As growers our main concern should be producing nutrientrich crops first with crop size and yield secondary. So why aren’t we growing this way? Food is not what it used to be. The limitations of language prevent us from collectively recognizing it as anything else, but a processed TV dinner does not and cannot replace living 36

Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011

whole foods. Think about it, all food was completely intact and untouched by industrialization as little as 100 years ago. Instead of being used as a tool to work within nature, modern “science” has been used as a means to outmanoeuvre her, and what an astonishing job we have done. For instance, a study of 45 corn varieties developed from 1920 to 2001 found that concentrations of proteins, oil and three important amino acids have all declined in the newer varieties.

"We may think we are being healthy when we eat our broccoli, but the calcium content of broccoli has dropped from 12.9 milligrams dry weight in 1950 to only 4.4 milligrams in 2003." Similarly, six minerals have declined by 22 to 39 per cent in 14 widely grown wheat varieties developed over the past 100 years. We may think we are being healthy when we eat our broccoli, but nutrient data shows that the calcium content of broccoli has dropped from 12.9 milligrams dry weight in 1950 to only 4.4 milligrams in 2003. (Full Study: “Declining Fruit and Vegetable Nutrient Composition,” HortScience, 2009; 44:15) The two forces at work on crops are what are called the “environmental dilution effect” and the “genetic dilution effect.” Researchers have known since the 1940s that an emphasis on empty fertilizers results in cheaper food that is devoid of minerals, but our economic system is driven by volume and shelf life, not nutritional value. We cannot see nutrient density in food, so a bushel of corn fortified with more minerals than the next bushel sells for the same or less as the empty corn right next to it and further down the spiral we go. The economic incentive associated with the volume of food produced trumps the reason we are actually growing the food in the first place.

The genetic dilution effect is a result of the environmental dilution effect. Farmers and plant breeders caught up in a system that pays them for the amount of physical food they produce develop high-yielding varieties without a primary focus on nutrient density. In most modern fruits and vegetables around 80 to 90 per cent of the dry weight are carbohydrates, much higher than it should be relative to the amount of protein. Dr. William Albrecht provides evidence for the importance of this in his book “Soil Fertility & Animal Health.” The human coercion of food has occurred on so many different levels that it leaves no smoking gun. However, there are examples that serve to illustrate our misguided ways. One reason our food is empty is an overemphasis of elements such as nitrogen (N) or potassium (K), which both give a strong growth and yield response, at the expense of elements such as calcium (Ca) or phosphorous (P). In order to grow strong bones and teeth we need high levels of Ca and P, not high levels of N and K. In his landmark book “Nutrition and Physical Degeneration,” Weston Price proved that traditional diets had five times the Ca and P as a modern diet of industrially-grown processed foods, resulting in significant reductions in dental decay and developmental abnormalities. Consider this: a plant has a limited reservoir of potential to take up nutrition. In the same way that the negatively charged soil has a finite ability to hold onto cations (or + charged elements, see ‘cation exchange capacity’) a plant is also restricted in its ability to take up only a certain volume of positively charged elements.You can’t fit 23 litres of water in a 4.5 litre bucket can you? Ca is taken up far slower than K by plants. In an experiment with alfalfa it was found that the Ca:K ratio of 32:1 in the soil resulted in only a 3:1 ratio in the plant and it turns out that plants can take up more K than they need for optimum yields and nutrient density. When this happens it doesn’t leave room for the other cations (Ca+, Mg+, Na+, Cu+, Zn+, Fe+, trace+, etc.). Similarly, the major anions (- charged elements) appear to have the same sum-total limits on anion saturation, so P uptake is equally manipulated by the overuse of nitrate (NO3-) based fertilizers common in gardening and farming. The result is empty food. We’ve established that it is necessary to provide plants a broader range of mineral elements in order for them to attain a higher nutrient density and be the vitamin they are designed to be, but it turns out the picture is much larger. Complete nutrition is not only important in regards to the plant itself, it involves an ecosystem. In fact, by focusing on the plant at the expense of the ecosystem, we sell short all of the varying means of symbiotic assistance plants have available to them, namely the help of micro-organisms. Micro-organisms are vital to our existence, not only in building soil and helping to produce our food, but in helping us Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011


Plant Obesity: Choosing Higher Yields over Healthy Crops

"Traditional diets had five times the calcium and phosphorous as a modern diet of industriallygrown processed foods." digest our food and protecting us from disease from enemy microbes, same as they do for plants. A teaspoon of good compost will easily have over a billion organisms and, similarly, a human not taking antibiotics has more foreign cells from micro-organisms in and on our bodies than we do human cells. It has been determined that plants actually use upwards of 40 elements, much more than the 16 or so we have defined “essential,” but the idea of “essential nutrients” does not apply at all to microbes; they utilize literally all of them. For instance, it has been established that over half of the energy a plant creates for itself is exuded though its roots to attract specific microbes via what are called exudates. This means that when there are specific mineral deficiencies or pathogenic organisms present in and around plants they have the ability to attract the specific microbes necessary to aid them in the deficiency or disease. All of this intelligence is lost when we are not considering microbiology in regards to plant growth. Even if we are actively encouraging the biology in our plant growing situations, we are limiting the potential of this biological response by not allowing the microbes all of the physical elements to work with. A plant may only use 40 elements, but the microbes that protect and help it eat use every single element to manifest the amino acids, hormones, enzymes and various metabolic compounds that allow it to perform its duty. This concept can be proven by doing a simple experiment brewing compost tea. Conduct a side-by-side experiment using a biologically balanced compost with a food source such as fish emulsion, kelp or molasses. Expose these ingredients to oxygen by using an air stone in each bucket using similar amounts of water. After setting up the experiment and ensuring that the exact same ingredients are used in both variables, include one tablespoon per 23 litres of water of a biodynamically enhanced micronutrient in one container and not in the other. After only 38

Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011

a couple of hours you will be able to see the enhanced biomass in the micronutrient-treated solution with the naked eye. The organisms can simply do more of what they want to do given all of the means to do it. Consider that micro-organisms use each element as a primer to carry out the communication delivered from its genetic code and to build the compounds necessary for them to do their work (and to benefit your plants).

"Complete nutrition is not only important in regards to the plant itself, it involves an ecosystem."

In all reality, no organism can carry out their true genetic expression without all the tools necessary to carry out the communication. What if you hired someone to build your house and only gave them half the tools? If they could build the house at all, it will take them a heck of a long time! Big picture, any living organism, including humans, cannot operate at maximum efficiency without access to all of the physical elements. Cells are the bottom line in life. When we operate on the level of mere “essential nutrients” we are feeding them fast food. This doesn’t kill them, as it doesn’t kill us, but we are selling ourselves short. Trace elements govern the potential of health for living organisms

and all of them are needed for health. of it. The hydroponics community is In short, gardening without all possible awash in stimulants and amendments elements designed to at our make plants “The hydroponics community disposal grow bigger/ is awash in stimulants and is degenstronger/ amendments designed to make eration and faster, but plants grow bigger/stronger/faster, it’s time we the result of pest in- but it’s time we take a look at plant take a look at festations, growth from a plants perspective.” plant growth from a plants weeds in perspective. An obese plant may give our landscapes and disease. Everyone knows that health is derived us a higher yield, but in the end is it working in our favour? MY from what you eat, not how much

Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011



Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011

New T-Nou Spread

Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011


by Luis Bartolo

"The development of soils by man (agriculture) is one of the most influential factors of why soils differ regionally."


Maximum Yield Canada  |  May / June 2011

Soil is one of the three major natural resources, alongside air and water. It is a marvelous product of nature and without which there would be no life. Soil is made up of three main components—minerals that come from rocks, organic matter, which is the remains of plants and animals that use the soil and the living organisms that reside in the soil. The proportion of each of these is important in determining the type of soil that is present. But other factors such as climate, vegetation, time, the surrounding terrain and even human activities (e.g., farming, grazing or gardening) are also important in influencing how soil is formed and the types of soil that occur in a particular landscape. Soil can form from the rocks below or from rocks a very long distance away, perhaps being carried by wind or water.The glaciers of the last ice age acted as giant bulldozers pushing huge amounts of soil along as they grew and dropping the soil as they melted. Soils of the world Did you know that there are thousands of different types of soil across the world? In this section you will find out about the main reasons why soils differ regionally, as well as soil mapping and the numerous attempts that have been made to classify them. Why do soils differ? There are numerous reasons why soils differ regionally.The most influential factors include the parent material (the rocks from which the soil has come), the climate and terrain of the region, the type of plant life and vegetation present and, of course, human influence. Parent material - this refers to the original underlying rock upon which the soil formation takes place. Essentially, the nature of parent rock in a particular region will affect the type of soil that eventually develops. For example, in an area of mainly sandstone, the soil formed due to the weathering of the rock is likely to be well-drained, course and sandy.

Climate – The world consists of a broad range of climatic regions, each with its own specific type of soil. A common example of this is tundra soil, which tends to occur mainly in northern-hemisphere areas such as the Arctic and Scandinavia, where the climate is often cold.The organic materials here do not break down easily and peat tends to form. In contrast, red and grey ‘desert’ soils, which are found only in hot, arid regions, such as Africa and the Middle-East, contain very small amounts of organic material because it is rapidly oxidized under the warm conditions.These soils tend to leach less than the tundra soils. Terrain – this is another important factor in soil development. Areas with many slopes in the land tend to have more freely drained soils, as water can run off or percolate more rapidly. In contrast, regions with mostly flat areas of land can often be waterlogged, because of the lack of gradient to promote lateral or sideways flow. Plants – The type of plant life and vegetation obviously varies according to a region’s climate and other factors. Plants also have a strong influence on soil development; they take up nutrients from the ground, whilst adding organic material to the soil surface.

Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011


What is Soil?

Humans – We should not forget the influence of man who has managed the land over the last few thousand years. Agriculture, in particular, has had a big influence on developing the soils we see today. Soil Classification Over the years, there have been numerous attempts to give names to soils and to group them into natural classes, in much the same way as plants are named and classified. Classification is important in order to allow comparison between the soils of different regions, and to facilitate information transfer and organization of the growing knowledge about the main types of soil that occur around the world. The first true soil classification was produced in the second half of the 19th century by Dokuchaiev in the USSR. Dokuchaiev suggested a theory of ‘zonal soils’, where soil types came from clearly defined geographical and climatic locations. In 1953, Kubiena produced a system of classification that proved to be popular and is still widely referred to. His system consisted of five main soil groups (and many sub-groups), arranged according to specific horizon classes, as well the type of humus present. Influenced by Kubiena’s ideas and other previous classifications, two international soil classifications have been developed since the 1960s, the American ‘Seventh Approximation’ classification system published in 1960, and the Food and Agriculture Organization classification in the 1970s.

A SOIL PROFILE Horizons 0” O 2”

A 10”



C 48”

These have been many attempts to provide a unifying classification as a basis for technology transfer, but this has been hindered by the use of new, often complex terminology for describing soils. For example, the American class names in their system include the terms ‘entisols’, ‘inceptisols’, ‘aridisols’, ‘mollisols’, ‘spodosols’, ‘alfisols’, ‘ultisols’, ‘oxisols’ and ‘histosols’, which to the layman may not mean very much. Although the American and FAO systems are widely discussed and referred to, many countries still use their own national classification systems by preference. It is incredible to think that there is still so much that is unknown about soil types, and that new discoveries are continuously being made all the time. Unfortunately, there is still no universal standard for soil classification, although the recent World Reference Base (WRB) for soils may address this in the future. Soil and the Economy Soil plays a crucial role in the economy of countries. Farming and agricultural industries are probably the most reliant upon soil, particularly in respect to crop production, which has risen dramati-

"Although the American and FAO systems of soil classification are widely discussed and referred to, many countries still use their own national classification systems." 44

Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011

cally in the last 50 years in order to cope with the demands of an equally rapidly growing global population. The demand for more crops has increased the demand for plant nutrients in the form of fertilizers. For a long time, many farms relied on animal manure for this. However, most farms in the west now use artificial fertilizers, because it allows for more control over which nutrients should be applied to the soil and when. In the developed countries of the world it has been possible to increase the productivity of soils immensely because of the introduction and development of such fertilizers For example, the use of nitrogen fertilizers has increased 15-fold in the UK in the last 50 years, and over the same period yields of some crops have trebled. Research conducted into crop growth, and how soils release nutrients to plants, has enabled farmers to use suitable and

"A single teaspoonful of soil contains over four billion micro-organisms, which is more than half of the planet’s entire human population."

better adapted fertilizers for different crops and soils, and thus add to the fertility of their soils. There are many other economic land uses that are dependent on the soil, particularly forestry. Trees are usually longer term ‘crops’ in which an important relationship is built up with the soil to establish a nutrient balance. Organisms in the Soil It is hard to believe that a single teaspoonful of soil contains over four billion micro-organisms, which is more than half of the planet’s entire human population. Can you even begin to imagine how many you would find in a garden, or even your nearest park? Soil is populated by an amazing variety of living creatures, ranging from tiny microbes such as bacteria and fungi (microbeasts), to smaller insects such as centipedes and other animals such as worms (minibeasts) and larger animals such as moles and rabbits. Many of these organisms have very important functions. For example, certain microbes can break down resistant organic matter such as lignin, or chemicals such as toxins and pesticides. Others perform a similar process on minerals, thereby releasing nutrients for the plant.

Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011


What is Soil?

Bacteria, an essential group of soil micro-organisms, are responsible for much of the decomposition of organic material in soils. They are usually present in top soils in very large numbers and play an important role in converting more inert forms of nitrogen to ones that can more readily be taken up by plants. Earthworms are another vital species, because they help in the decomposition of organic matter in the soil, as well as improving vital functions such as aeration, water infiltration and drainage. In fertile soils they can number two million per hectare or more. When it rains, worms will come to the surface so they don’t drown. Go and look! Soil and Water There is an important link between soils and water, the quality of our water being closely linked to the quality of the soils. Water in the soil supplies plants and animals, but acts also to transport nutrients and other important substances from the soil to plants and microbes. However, too much water can have damaging consequences. For example excessive rainfall can result in problems like soil erosion, and can waterlog plants and vegetation thus depriving their roots of air. Thankfully, certain properties of soil can reduce the possibility of this happening. There are several stages in the interaction of water with soil. Firstly, it enters the soil through a process known as infiltration. The higher the rate of infiltration, the more water is soaked up

"Soil is a great preserver of artifacts, protecting them for thousands of years and providing an important source of information about past climate."

by the soil, and will be available to plants. Also, less water will run off the surface, eroding the soil and washing away nutrients. Secondly, water is stored in the soil and released when required by plants. Following this, drainage (percolation) of the water occurs when there is too much for the soil to cope with. The excess water drains freely out of the soil, taking with it dissolved and suspended material in a process known as leaching. Soils can vary greatly in their ability to perform these functions. Pollutant Control Another amazing feature of soil is the way it acts as a filter against many forms of harmful substances (pollutants). Research by soil scientists has shown that soil can have a major role in the transport of pollutants. Water in soil can transport


Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011

substances such as nitrate, phosphorus and pesticides to water sources such as rivers, and whilst they are important to soil and plant life, these materials are generally considered harmful to humans and wildlife when they exceed certain quantities. However, soils can also modify the impact of pollutants. For example, in wet conditions soil nitrate is converted into nitrogen gas, where it can be safely released into the atmosphere. Similarly, pesticides can be broken down into harmless substances by certain micro-organisms present in the soil. Phosphates are mostly filtered naturally during drainage of water (percolation), as they become tied to soil particles, and are trapped in the soil. Soil is also effective at filtering urban pollutants like oil and metals. Oil in particular is an organic substance, which soil microbes can break down into carbon dioxide and water. Metals such as lead from petrol, however, cannot be broken down in such a manner, but the soil can often retain them until they can be absorbed into plants, which can then be disposed of safely. Soil and Archaeology Soil is very important for archaeologists, because it provides a source of information about past climate, vegetation and animals (ecofacts), as well as man-made artifacts such as ancient metal tools, coins, etc. Soil can preserve all kinds of things for thousands of years. However, its ability to do this depends on the soil conditions, especially the amount of water present in the soil throughout the time the items are buried. Waterlogged soils are particularly good at preserving objects, because they contain very little dissolved oxygen, which is needed by the soil organisms responsible for decay. Searching for ‘ecofacts’ such as plant and animal remains is a useful means of reconstructing how the ecology and environment of the surrounding land may have once been, and how it has changed. Fossilized snails and insects are particularly good for estimating past climate, whilst preserved pollen grains and seed can reveal which plant species made up the natural vegetation. Additionally, soil and crop marks (best visible from the air in dry weather) are good indicators of past use of the land. These markings generally appear due to different levels of crop growth caused by buried structures such stone-walls and refilled ditches. MY

Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011


by Andrew Taylor

Nutrient Management In addition to following proper dosing guidelines and controlling pH, EC, etc., it is important to control the nutrient’s environment.

"It is common to blame the nutrient for poor growth, however, in most cases, the true cause is poor hygiene practices."

Nutrient temperature It can be beneficial to maintain the nutrient solution temperature within a range of 20 to 25°C.This will usually be achieved if the air temperature is controlled. Still too cold? A cold nutrient solution (or cold roots) can lower nutrient uptake. If nutrient temperature remains excessively low, a water heater can be used (figure one). Too hot? Hot nutrient can cause disease and suppressed nutrient oxygen levels. Small tank volumes can be maintained by placing frozen water bottles directly into the nutrient solution. However, for convenience (or larger tanks), a water-chiller may be required. Figure one: In either situation, burying Water heaters (left) are useful for heating nutrient in winter. tanks underground will In summer, 'water-chillers' provide insulation against (right) are effective for extreme temperatures. cooling. These items can be thermostically controlled.


Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011

Nutrient disinfection It is common to blame the nutrient for poor growth results. However, in many cases, the true cause is poor hygiene practices, especially the failure to regularly disinfect the nutrient solution. To prevent disease ingress (figure two), the nutrient solution, medium and roots should be regularly sterilized.

Figure two: Root browning is a typical symptom of the root diesase 'Pythium'.

Nutrient Management

Sterilizing agents must yield a residual chemical when dissolved in the working nutrient solution so that the entire system is treated each time plants are watered. Historically, chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochlorite and monochloramine are used for this purpose. However, monochloramine has the advantage of possessing a long half-life, is gentle on roots and is compatible with the majority of organic mediums and growth promotants. Oxygenation (Aeration) of nutrient Plants consume oxygen via their roots for the process of respiration. For this to occur, the oxygen must be dissolved in the nutrient solution. This is achieved via aeration. Aeration methods: As seen with stagnant water, simply exposing a body of water to air does not aerate it. System design generally determines how much oxygen becomes dissolved in the nutrient. Maximum aeration is achieved by breaking the water up into as small a particle size as possible via a tumbling treatment (e.g., waterfall or fountain). In hydroponic systems, aeration can be achieved by: • •

Delivering the nutrient solution via spray jets. Design the hardware (for re-circulating systems only) so that the nutrient splashes into the reservoir when it returns from the roots.

In either case though, it is critical to ensure that the air is well ventilated where the aeration occurs. Otherwise that air will quickly become depleted of oxygen or stale (figure three). An air stone and air pump can also be used. Air stones have the added advantage of promoting circulation of the nutrient reservoir to ensure it is evenly mixed (figure four). Make sure to position the pump in a well ventilated area.

Figure three: A 'raised' lid permits airflow within the reservoir whilst still preventing light and dirt ingress and evaporation. Airflow helps prevent stale air and fungus/moulds.

Figure four: Air stones are a reliable method of ensuring oxygen levels are adequate.


Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011

"Air must be well ventilated for aeration to occur; otherwise it can quickly become stale."

Note: Oxygen also aids in keeping the nutrient sterile due to its mild disinfecting properties. To support optimum plant growth, a nutrient solution generally requires a minimum oxygen concentration of around three milligrams per litre. It is generally noted that super-oxygenation fails to deliver improved growth result. Also, there is a common belief that high temperatures cause oxygen levels to become inadequate. However, water can hold seven milligrams per litre of oxygen when at 40ºC. Growth problems at higher temperatures could be attributed to photorespiration, increased bacteriological activity, etc. Because new roots are the main supply path for oxygen, if new root growth is restricted then oxygen supplies will be restricted. Hence, when selecting pots/channels, ensure they will accommodate the likely root volume of the plants when at full maturity. Failure to do so may prevent the plants from reaching maturity. Minimize exposure of nutrient and roots to light Light will accelerate the growth of algae and pathogens. Further, some brands of chelated trace elements can decompose from exposure to UV light, which causes them to become unavailable for root up-take. Therefore, minimize exposure to light as much as possible by placing a lid on the nutrient reservoir, and other regions of the system where nutrient is exposed to direct light. However, in achieving this, ensure the design allows adequate ventilation of air otherwise this air will become humid and susceptible to disease. For example, when placing a lid on the reservoir, have it in a raised position so that air can freely enter and exit (figure three). MY

Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011



Russ Cunnington, marketing representative for Future Harvest Development, highlights the advantages of the SunBlaster HO T5 and NanoTech Reflector combo and offers his advice for the ideal hydro grow set-up for beginners. Maximum Yield (MY): What products in the Future Harvest Development line are you most excited about right now and why? Russ Cunnington: Right now we are designing and testing a number of products that we are excited about; unfortunately we have to keep a hush on those for now.What we can talk about are our newest releases like the new T5HO and NanoTech T5 reflector— wow talk about light. Also new is our growth regulator,The Hammer. If you want to control the vertical growth of your plants and divert that energy into extreme lateral growth, you must try The Hammer. This product rocks in all kinds of applications and is ideal for closet, tent and growbox users. Our new line of plastics is proving to be very


Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011

successful—square pots, saucers and 1020 heavy duty trays and domes are already in high demand, and it’s going to get better as we add lighting options to this lineup.The next 12 months are going to be exciting for FHD with a planned FHD Retail Partner expansion program. MY: What makes the new SunBlaster HO T5 and NanoTech Reflector the ideal duo? Russ: Honestly, even we were blown away by their combined performance. Our SunBlaster crew has been working diligently on this project for a while now. We reengineered our T5HOs to accommodate this reflector with our built-in receiving channel. The reflector simply snaps onto our new Sunblaster T5HO. It is the only reflector in the industry that can do so. By positioning the reflector between the lamp and the ballast we are utilizing all the available light that is wasted in other types of reflectors. The real advantage to the NanoTech Reflector is its superior reflective surface, designed using nanotechnology. The reflector incorporates a metallic crystal layer within its four layer

construction that creates a higher quality light with improved brightness that plants just love. We also improved the performance of the T5HO and the lamps making them run more efficiently by incorporating improved technology that allows them to run at maximum output while reducing heat and extending lamp life—more of what you want and less of what you don’t. We call them the ideal duo because they were truly made for each other. MY: What tools and resources do you offer growers to help them achieve their very best yield? Russ: Our success is based on our experience, and we have a lot of experience. For over 20 years now we have been bringing new and innovative solutions to the hydroponic industry, increasing the ability of novice growers and storeowners alike to become successful in the most exciting of times.We have grown up in this industry, and wouldn’t have it any other way.We know what it takes to be successful in this industry, and have a proven track record of doing the same for others. Both growers and retailers alike can put this vast experience and knowledge to work for them by choosing to purchase any FHD product, or get involved with any of our retail, wholesale or distribution opportunities. MY: In your opinion, what is the ideal hydroponic grow room set-up for a beginner? Russ: The best hydroponic set up for the beginner is the one they feel most confident with, and is fully supported by the retailer and the manufacturer that sold it to them. Every grower is different; some can do amazing things right out of the gate, others, not so much. At FHD we provide a wide variety of growing solutions and products, all skill levels are supported and virtually any size application. MY: What strategies has FHD implemented to lessen their environmental impact on our planet? Russ: Our FHD head offices both here and in Europe are fully lit using CFL lighting. Not only do we feel this is the most energy efficient means of providing light for our work environments,

it is also the healthiest light we can provide to benefit our employees’ health. Plants aren’t the only ones who benefit from our lighting; it’s the best light for people to live and work under as well. MY: How does FHD support local causes and community building? Russ: FHD empowers our communities by helping our customers and storeowners alike become successful. The more successful our customers become, the more they contribute to their local economy, and everybody wins. FHD helps support a group of charities and organizations in our local area that help people find health, happiness and freedom in their lives. MY: What can growers expect from FHD in the future? Russ: Growers can expect high quality products that perform better than promised at reasonable prices. Growers and retailers can feel confident when they buy an FHD product that they bought it from someone who cares, and wants them to be successful. MY Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011



Micronutrients by Donald Lester

Agricultural scientist Donald Lester details the benefits of highly efficient chelated micronutrients— that aid in enhanced plant growth and greater yields—and defines the various types to help you choose the very best option for your indoor garden. Plants need the essential nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium— the N-P-K on fertilizer labels—in large amounts, so these are referred to as macronutrients. Plants also need essential micronutrients (also known as trace minerals) such as calcium, zinc, magnesium, iron and manganese. Micronutrients come in many different forms that affect their solubility (i.e., dissolvability) in water and their uptake and usage by plants. Micronutrients commonly react with other chemicals and get “tied up” or precipitate in the soil. Once this happens the micronutrients are insoluble in water and will not be absorbed or used by the plant, at least not until microorganisms or weather breaks them down into a usable form. So, you could literally add a lot of one micronutrient to the soil but the plant will use only a small amount. A good example of this phenomenon can be seen with the soft mineral gypsum. Every year growers apply gypsum to their fields by the ton, but since it is not very soluble in water only a very small amount of calcium is available to the plant. It takes a long time for soil microbes and weather to break down these compounds so that plants can use them. Foliar applications do not suffer from this phenomenon (table one). 54

Maximum Yield Canada  |  May / June 2011

Photo by Dennis Tasa

Fertilizer manufacturers produce several different forms of micronutrients such as salts, oxides and chelates.The chelated micronutrients are becoming popular because of their high efficiency. Knowing a bit about the various types of chelated micronutrients can help you choose the one that is right for you.

What is a chelate? Chelation is a term that describes an encapsulation process.A mineral, like calcium for example, reacts with another material to form a protective shell around the desired mineral or metal (in this case calcium).The word chelate derives from the Greek word “chel”, meaning a crab’s claw, and refers to the pincer-like manner in which the mineral is bound. Some chelating chemicals are shaped like a letter ‘C’ and surround the mineral with just one molecule.This type of binding is called a “complex”.When two molecules of the same material surround a mineral it is known as a chelate. It is important to note that some minerals, like boron or molybdenum, have only one chemical bond and are thus limited to forming only a complex. Strictly

Gypsum, a soft mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, is only mildly water soluble, so only small amount of calcium becomes available to plants.

speaking, boron and molybdenum cannot be chelated minerals but they are often presented and sold in the market as chelated minerals. Chelates need a “glue” to hold the protective shell in place. Some chelates use sodium for this purpose, but adding sodium can be detrimental to plants. In general the amino acid chelates use organic acids like citric acid. There is an important

Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011


Chelated Micronutrients






Zinc (ZnSO4)

annual crops



Lingle & Holmberg (1956)

Phosphorus (H3PO4)

beans, tomatoes



Wittwer, et al. (1957)

Iron (FeSO4)

grain sorghum



Withee & Carlson (1959)

Magnesium (MgSO4)

grain sorghum



Krantz (1962)

Magnesium (MgSO4)



50 to 100

Johnson, et al.(1957, 1961)

Table 1. Relative amounts of nutrient needed for comparable effect in the plant, by method of application.

distinction to be made attribute once EDTA is in the plant. EDTA binds tightly. In here about the use fact, when people have heavy metal poisoning EDTA is injected of the word organic. into their bloodstream to chelate the metals and filter them In chemistry the out. Obviously patients do not want EDTA releasing heavy term organic means metals back into their body prematurely. In addition, EDTA can the material contains solve one plant nutrient deficiency and at the same time cause carbon. In the organic another. EDTA has something of a separation anxiety, it must foods world the term organic always hold on to something. For example, iron EDTA will cure refers to foods produced without iron deficiency in plants, but in order for the EDTA to release pesticides, synthetic substances, sewage the iron it must hold onto something else. Often EDTA will products and other restrictions. take up manganese in order to release the iron, thus causing a Chelates are molecules with a neutral charge, which is very manganese deficiency. Furthermore, EDTA is known to take important. Micronutrients normally have an electrical charge on calcium from cell walls in both plants and people. them. For example, calcium For this reason people put on and magnesium are both EDTA are often instructed to take “Some materials applied to leaves calcium supplements as well. Plants +2 charge. Soil is generally do not enter the tissues but innegative in charge, especially losing calcium in this manner clay soils. This means that (primarily from their cell walls) stead remain stuck to the leaf calcium and magnesium visually manifest the loss as wilting. surface like house paint.” will likely react with the soil Another category of chelate is and be insoluble and not the amino acid chelates. There are available for plants to use. Moreover, since they are the same 20 amino acids. Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. charge, calcium and magnesium compete with each other for Amino acids are moderately strong chelating agents. Once entry into the plant. Pores on the leaves of plants (also known as inside the plant the mineral is released and the left over amino stomates) are negatively charged, so positively charged molecules acids that formed the protective shell are used by the plant as a trying to penetrate the plant get tied up at the stomate entrance source of water soluble nitrogen. After all, amino acids are thus slowing absorption. But the interaction with chelates is building blocks in cell machinery. Everything is used, very different. The neutral charge of chelated minerals allows nothing is lost. Conversely, EDTA is a synthetic them to enter the stomates unimpeded. Research into nutrient molecule, and plants do not naturally use uptake has shown that some materials applied to leaves do not EDTA. It’s sort of like trans fat; the human enter the tissues but instead remain stuck to the leaf surface like body doesn’t know what to do with it. house paint. Subsequent chemical analysis of these tissues would Amino acid chelates are generally show similar nutrient levels as those tissues that had nutrient systemic in the plant meaning penetration. In light of this oversight researchers now apply they move and travel to where nutrients to the leaves and then analyze the fruits to measure the they are needed. They amount of nutrient movement inside the plant. can do this because There are several types of chelates. One of the most common amino acids are forms is Ethylene Diamine Tetraacetic Acid (EDTA), which recognized by has been on the market for years. EDTA is a large synthetic molecule that binds very tightly to minerals and resists chemical interactions—desirable characteristics for chelates used in the soil. But this strong bonding characteristic can be a negative


Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011

Chelated Micronutrients

the plant as building blocks and are used in nearly every tissue in the plant. Amino acid chelates are available as liquids or powders and generally available for use in organic food production. Glycine chelates (also known as glycinates) are a subset of amino acid chelates. Glycine is the smallest amino acid and it is often used as a chelating agent. Since glycine is small it makes a small final product that passes through leaf pores (stomates) more easily than other larger molecules, thus enhancing plant uptake. And don’t forget, glycine chelates have glycine which is an amino acid. When the glycine is separated from the mineral in the plant, the plant uses the glycine. Glycine chelates are sometimes used in wine production because they supply not only the desired nutrients, but the glycine also supplies Yeast Available Nitrogen (YAN). This means that the yeast can break down the glycine and use the nitrogen in the formation of its cell walls. Because chelates enter the plant easily they are extremely useful for quickly correcting nutrient deficiencies. As a rule chelates are very safe for the plant. The amino acid chelates (glycine chelates included) require large amounts of product to be applied in order to be toxic to plants. But care must be taken to avoid phytotoxicity or burning of plant tissues with EDTA.

Desirable Characteristics

Undesirable Characteristics

Formulation is safe for plants

Formulation is prone to burning

Does not promote other deficiencies

Needs ion replacement to release micronutrient

Readily available to the plant

Slow uptake

No sodium

Contains sodium

Organic certification

Not organically certified

Using amino acid chelated micronutrients Good things in small packages Glycine chelates (also known as glycinates) are a subset of amino acid chelates. Since glycine is small it makes a small final product that passes through leaf pores (stomates) more easily than other larger molecules, thus enhancing plant uptake.

Amino acid chelates are especially suitable for greenhouse and hydroponics systems because they are usually certified organic, readily available for uptake by plants by both roots and foliage and generally are not phytotoxic. For example, in aquaponic systems where fish are integrated into the hydroponics system it is important that nothing synthetic enter the tissues or meat of the fish. Therefore, the use of organic materials is an obvious choice, and the amino acid chelates can be applied directly to the foliage or to the nutrient solution for immediate correction of nutrient deficiencies. When shopping for chelated minerals look for the characteristics listed in the table below. MY


Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011

Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011


s e c a p S m al l S

s d l e i Y Big Bloom by Lee McCall


Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011


“Fish emulsion is...used in this cocktail, which adds select proteins to the diet, “greens” the foliage and increases soil fertility.” The Small Spaces, Big Yields Veg series documented all growth characteristics of two specialty tomato strains— Early Girl and Sugar Baby tomatoes—from germination to pre-flowering. The garden is flourishing under 1,000 watts comprised of 60 per cent high pressure sodium and 40 per cent metal halide. Relative humidity levels are slightly above average at 52 per cent and daytime temperatures are averaging between 24 to 26°C. Leaf transpiration is evenly paced due to the adequate amount of humidity in the air. Week 8, Day 50: For the initial transition from vegetative growth into the bloom phase, the light cycle is reduced to 12/12.The hydroponic plants get a base feeding of micro, grow and bloom, followed by the metabolism boosting catalyst used in the vegetative regimen. Derived from plant, marine and mineral extracts, this organic enhancer contains crucial building blocks in the plant’s food pyramid, helping expedite nutrient assimilation through humic acids, stimulate foliar development and offer root system protection from Bacillus subtilis species. A carbohydrate source derived from raw cane sugar, malt extract and molasses is rich in L-amino and organic acids.This sugary source will increase yields by adding weight to fruit and flower sites, and stimulate essential oil production. A special enzyme formula increases absorption rates between roots and food. Enzymes help the plant digest the available

Grow room ducts are strategically placed for optimal ventilation.

The Sugar Baby soil specimen shows pre-flowers days before bloom.

nutritional elements faster. Biologically active compost solution is added in every other reservoir change to encourage healthy microbial activity and promote intense root development and sustainability.The soil plants will maintain their vegetative growth nutrient regimen for an additional seven days to help make-up for the delay experienced in the initial transplant. Week 9, Day 57: The soil plants, although younger than their hydroponic sisters, will now take on a bloom food regimen as well since they are also producing pre-flowers. The Early Girl soil specimen is exhibiting the fastest growth rates of all the plants in the garden with the healthiest and densest foliage in terms of colour and structure, and is yielding the most initial flowering sites. Additionally, the flowering sites are stacked closer together leaving less space between internodes.

Ten days after the soil transplant; 15 days after the hydroponic transplant.

Specialized reflector specifically engineered to distribute light into a square footprint for ultimate canopy penetration.

Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011



Microbial activity is visually active in both experiments. In the drip buckets, a vast network of healthy white roots has engulfed the top layer of hydroton covering the silica stone. The density of oxygen produced from the hydroponic operation fuels the microbes present from the compost tea and beneficial inoculants. In the soil plant containers, small feeder roots will appear from the fabric walls, but as the technology intends these roots are air-pruned, which encourages heavier lateral branching. Water consumption between the two soil plants is also different making it twice as much work to mix nutrients and apply feedings at different intervals. Every 48 hours approximately 14 The Early Girl shows pre-flowers just days before bloom. litres of nutrient solution are consumed by Food wise, the bloom counterpart to the Early Girl soil plant sitting in 23 litres of the vegan grow base nutrient is used organic mix. The Sugar Baby is slower to feed for the soil plants transitional feeding. probably due to the evident leaf curl disease Lateral root growth on the hydroponic Early Girl. Organic calcium and magnesium is negatively affecting nutritional uptake. added in to boost the flowering potential and deter cal-mag deficiencies early on when fruit set starts to take place. Fish Week 11, Day 71: emulsion is also used in this cocktail, which adds select proteins The plethora of pre-flowers has now evolved into miniature to the diet, “greens” the foliage and increases soil fertility. Kelp green fruits. Surprisingly, the diseased Sugar Baby growing in should always accompany these ingredients. Seaweed provides the drip bucket is the first plant to show a distinct swell in fruit stress reducing agents that help the transitional phase from size. Compared to the Early Girl fruits—which are around the veg to bloom. Copious amounts of vitamins, auxins and trace size of large marbles—the Sugar Baby fruits are approximately elements are available through the use of kelp, which encourages 0.5 centimetres in diameter. The number of fruits per plant is vigorous growth, healthy roots and combats nutrient deficiency. fairly equal and the addition of the bloom boosters appears The same enzyme used in the hydroponic nutritional regimen is to have had a positive effect since added a week prior. This used in the organic soil. This helps keep the soil free of excessive garden is progressing nicely and at a quick rate. The consistent fertilizer deposits and breaks down dead plant matter in the root use of enzymes are keeping the root zone clean and helping zone. Beneficial fungal and bacterial colonies thrive since only the plant digest the available buffet of food in the rhizosphere. non-chlorinated water is used for feedings, and fresh compost The assortment of carbohydrates derived from malt syrup, solution is added once every two feeding cycles. plant grade molasses and raw cane sugar will encourage flavour profiles and bulking. Week 10, Day 64: Fruit sites have emerged from multiple locations all over the Week 12, Day 78: garden and the yellow blooms are fully open and awaiting The Early Girl fruits on the hydroponic specimen have swollen pollination. At this point both strains will take on bloom booster to what appears to be a maximum capacity threshold for the size additives to promote heavier, tastier yields. The high ratios of and density of the fruit. Only days out from harvest, the flesh is phosphorous and potassium present in both nutrient solutions very firm but still green with no signs of rot. There are a total are intended to increase bio-mass of the fruits, stimulate essential of nine uniform fruits on the hydroponic Early Girl plant, each oil production and encourage heavier concentrations of bud sets. ranging around 10 centimetres in diameter, which should make The drip buckets receive a synthetic 0-10-10 booster to fuel the it to the final harvest. All of the fruit on this particular strain has immense appetite of the flowering plants. For the organic soil, developed the unique ribbed shape that many heirloom varieties I’ve chosen a vitamin and mineral rich .5-.1-1 formula derived exhibit over many on-the-vine varieties. The Sugar Baby fruits from plant protein hydrolyslate, rock phosphate and sea kelp. are also slightly ribbed, which is unique for a cherry variety. The bloom supplements accompany the original menus for This physical trait is an added bonus and might indicate a higher both soil and hydroponics. The hydroponic base formula of quality of genetics from the specimen. grow, micro and bloom, also referred to as “green, brown and The Early Girl root mass is vibrant and aggressive, branching pink,” has been customized to a 1-2-3 ratio. Although a full out across the top of the hydroton like a thick network of live spectrum of nutritional elements are available, phosphorous and trellis netting. Even after several months of exposure to ambient potassium dominate both soil and hydroponic solutions to fuel air, the structure of the root mass on top is still healthy, white the demand for flowering production. Calcium and magnesium and dense indicating that water and nutrient uptake is prolific play an intricate role in plant development. throughout the core of the plant. Unfortunately, the Sugar Baby


Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011

Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011



amount added per 4.5 litres of feed water. Enzymes continue to be Early Girl in soil displays strong structure. added into the mixture to enhance the breakdown of nutrients and digestion of dead root material along with a pineapple infused carbohydrate supplement. These enzymes not only speed up the nutritional assimilation process, but are largely responsible for promoting a clean root environment. Week 13, Day 85: Like clockwork, the fruits in the hydroponic buckets exhibit a beautiful sheen of orange and red. The ripening additive in conjunction with the base nutrition has completely taken hold of the fruit only days after the initial introduction. The organic soil Early Girl plant is not exhibiting any changes in fruit colouration, but I decide to implement a thorough seven day flush using only enzymes for the first four days and plain water for the last three. Drain-to-waste is very important when implementing a clean water flush so as not to re-introduce plant waste back into the system. For the hydroponic specimens, I will have to change the water daily to ensure the plants are thoroughly cleansed of excess nutrient salts and waste. roots have not done as well due to the lack of shaded protection offered by healthy foliage. Since the leaf development is sparse, the 1,000 watts of light from the sodium and halide above penetrates the weak Sugar Baby canopy causing algae to grow on overly-saturated portions of the root mass and hydroton. The Early Girl soil plant remains the healthiest and more vigorous plant in the entire garden. This plant has easily double the amount of fruit compared to its hydroponic sister, but they are smaller in size. The organic nutrient schedule seems to have more of a time-released effect on the crop metabolism opposed to the force fed mineral nutrients on the hydroponic side. Between the two Early Girl plants, nine litres of nutrient solution is consumed and transpired every single day. The organic soil Sugar Baby will end up the smallest of all the plants in the garden, and similar to the Early Girl scenario, its hydroponic sister is thriving in terms of comparative fruit size but lacks the quantity of sites of the soil plant. Between these two plants, much less water is needed. It takes almost four days for nine litres to be consumed. I have slightly tweaked the nutrient schedule starting week 12 to focus on even fruit ripening and in an attempt to turn all of the green fruits to the delicious supple red colour. The 1-2-3 ratio of grow, micro and bloom is drastically reduced to a lower EC level so more breathing room is available for the addition of a special bloom boosting dry formulation. The 2-45-28 recipe packs a powerful punch to facilitate even ripening, stimulate essential oil production and add extra fruit weight. The strong concentration of the powdered additive easily dissolves into the nutrient solution without clumping and jacks the parts per million (PPM) up with only a minute


Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011

Week 14, Day 92: Almost 100 days after a seemingly failure of a seed germination, a plethora of ripe red fruits are ready for harvest. Unfortunately as expected, the healthiest plant in the garden with the most fruit refuses to ripen as quickly as the other three, and thus will not be included in the final outcome of this extensive series, however, there is plenty of fruit from the other plants. The flush was extended by an extra week to ensure a more flavourful crop. This trial was one of the best grows I have ever completed. Despite the one strain that gave me problems, I was still able to walk away with over 10 pounds of fruit from two sickly Sugar Babies and one beautiful Early Girl. Thank you for taking the time to follow this study and happy growing. MY

Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011




Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011

Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011


MAXIMUMdistributors YIELD ALBERTA Double AA Garden Supplies Ltd. Bay 9 2820 Centre Avenue Calgary, AB T2A 7P5 403-273-9188 IncrediGrow Garden Centre 103-7500 MacLeod Trail SE Calgary, AB T2H 0L9 Garden Centre 403-255-0740  Quick Grow 1-1204 Edmonton Trail Road NE Calgary, AB T2E 3K5 877-426-4769 Smart Grow 2422 - 23 Avenue, NE Calgary, AB T2E 8J4 403-236-9999 Twins Greenhouse 13 - 2235 30th Avenue, NE Calgary, AB T2C 7C7 403-273-2881 Hydro-Lite 12249 Fort Road Edmonton, AB T5B 4H7 780-477-7860 Niloc Wholesale Inc. Box 82008 Yellowbird RPO Edmonton, AB T6J 7E6 780-885-4769 Fusion 5 Organic Gardens Inc. PO Box 5821, 120B 1 Street, SW High River, AB T1V 1P3 866-652-2594 BRITISH COLUMBIA Interior Gardener’s Supply 221 - 1 McDermid Road, Box 1257 100 Mile House, BC V0K 2E0 250-395-3399 A.R.I. Research 120 - 4111 Hastings Street Burnaby, BC V5C 6Y7 604 433 6067 Jon’s Plant Factory 3925 East Hastings Burnaby, BC V5C 2H8 604-294-3000 Solar Greenhouse and Hydroponic Supply 4752 Imperial Street Burnaby, BC V5J 1C2 604-438-7244 Hygro Gardening Supplies Inc. 1791 Tamarac Street Campbell River, BC V9W 5Y7 250-286-0424 Canadian Garden Supply 1730 Highway 3 Castlegar, BC V1N 4W1 250-304-2911 Sun Beam Central 3444 River Road Chemainus, BC V0R 1K4 250-246-1379 Chilliwack Indoor Garden Centre Ltd. 311 - 44500 South Sumas Road Chilliwack, BC V9R 5M3 604-824-2944 Valley Indoor Geenhouse Supplies 103 - 44195 Yale Road West Chilliwack, BC V2R 4H2 877-702-1169 Art Knapp 2855 Wentworth Road Courtenay, BC V9N 6B7 250-334-3024 Just-N-Tyme Greenhouse and Hydroponics Supply 1094 McKenzie Avenue Courteney, BC V9N 3C5 250-703-0476 Pacific NW Garden Supply 1139B Industrial Road 3 Cranbrook, BC V1C 5E3 250-489-4761 Cowichan Hydroponic Supplies 4 - 2955 Jacob Road Duncan, BC V9L 6W4 250-746-0244

Your Plant’s Personal Trainer


Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011

Duncan Plants & Ponics 6512 Bell McKinnon Road Duncan, BC V9L 6C1 250-746-5591 Better Than Nature Enderby 1900 George Street Enderby, BC 250-838-5502 Growing Solutions Box 650, 1150 Bowlby Road Errington, BC V0R 1V0 250-248-1101 Kamloops Sunshine Gardens Greenhouse Superstore 5 - 1744 Kelly Douglas Road Kamloops, BC V2C 5S4 877-372-2270 Room 2 Grow 901 Laval Crescent Kamloops, BC V2C 5P4 250-372-3663 West Coast Gardens Equipment and Supplies 113 - 805 Notre Dame Kamloops, BC V2C 5N8 250-851-2992 Better Than Nature Kelowna 725B Evans Court Kelowna, BC V1X 6G4 250-868-8978 Oasis 12 - 1771 Cooper Road Kelowna, BC V1Y 7T1 250-763-4769 Pacific NW Garden Supply Unit C1 - 1810 Kyle Court Kelowna, BC V1Z 3Z4 250-769-4791 Sal’s Indoor Garden Supplies & Hydroponics 187 Asher Road Kelowna, BC V1X 3H5 778-753-5549 BC Hydroponics 3 - 20092-93A Avenue Langley, BC V1M 3Y4 604-888-5716 Green Earth Garden Supplies Unit 5, 19300, Langley Bypass Langley, BC V3S 6K2 604-532-7106 GreenStar Plant Products Inc. 9430 198 Street Langley, BC V1M 3C8 604-882-7699 Excel Air Systems 200 - 20170 Stewart Crescent Maple Ridge, BC V2X 0T4 604-728-0757 Pacific NW Garden Supply 109 - 20110 Lougheed Highway Maple Ridge, BC V2X 2P7 Planting Plus Greenhouse Supplies and Hardware 22394 Dewdney Truck Road Maple Ridge, BC V2X 3J2 604-466-5949 Triple Tree Nursery 20503 Lougheed Highway Maple Ridge, BC V2X 2P9 604-465-9313 Nutty Zone 5 & 6 - 33201 London Avenue Mission, BC V2V 4P9 604-814-2223 Long Lake Nursery Hydroponic Supply 4900 Island Highway, North Nanaimo, BC 250-758-5012 Progressive Growth 41 - 1925 Bowen Road Nanaimo, BC V9S 1H1 800-405-4769 Tridon Hydroponics 12 - 1708 Bowen Road Nanaimo, BC V9S 1G9 250-755-1900

Vancouver Island Garden Supply Ltd. 4770 Wellington Rd Nanaimo, BC V9T 2H3 250-585-8881 Kootenay Grower’s Supply Nelson 721-G Front Street Nelson, BC V1L 4B8 250 353 1887 Pacific NW Garden Supply Unit 14- 104 Silica Street Nelson, BC V1L 4M1 250-354-4767 Buckerfields 587 Alberni Highway Parksville, BC V9P 1J9 250-248-3243 Sundogz Garden Supply & Hydroponics 30 - 1365 Old Alberni Highway Parksville, BC V9P 2B8 250-954-2046 Better Than Nature Penticton 101 - 78 Industrial Avenue, West Penticton, BC V2A 6M2 250-770-8978 Advanced Wholesale Superstore 406 - 1952 Kingsway Avenue Port Coquitlam, BC V3C 6C2 604-945-0174 Aurora Lighting 750 3rd Avenue Prince George, BC V2L 3C5 250-564-9888 Backwoods Hydroponic & Garden 10590 Carlson Road Prince George, BC V2K 5E5 250-963-9541 PG2 1798 Nicholson Street Prince George, BC V2N 1V6 250-612-4769; 1-888-817-4769 Skytek Indoor Solutions 833 4th Avenue Prince George, BC V2L 3H5 1-800-975-9835 Spruce Capital Feeds 1694 Quinn Street Prince George, BC V2N 1X3 250-564-6010 Omega Garden Inc. 1695 Peligren Place Qualicum Beach, BC V9K 2S3 250-752-1301; 888 976 6342 Garden Effects 200-2288 #5 Road Richmond, BC V6X 2T1 604-214-6620 Pacific Rim Indoor Garden & Lighting 170- 12111 Bridgeport Road Richmond, BC V6V 1J4 604-232-4468 Natural Choice Garden Centre, The 5500 48th Avenue, SE Salmon Arm, BC V1E 1X2 250-832-7151 S.A. Ecoline Products Ltd. 5671 Auto Road, SE Salmon Arm, BC V1E 4S1 250-833-4769 Nico’s Nurseryland 830 - 28th Street, NE Salmon Arm, BC V1E 2S7 250-804-2004 Mylo’s 3837 Squilax Anglemont Hwy Scotch Creek BC V0E 1M0 250-955-0525 Green & Clean Energy Co. Ltd. 2875 Cudlip Road Shawnigan Lake, BC V0R 2W0 250-732-7224 Happy Acres Greens & Backroad Hydroponics Equipment 2058 Cambie-Solsqua Road Sicamous, BC V0E 2V0 250-836-3878

Kootenay Bubble Refinery PO Box 81 Slocan Park, BC V0G 2E0 250-226-7753 Garibaldi Nurseryland & Florist 38917 Progress Way, Squamish Industrial Park Squamish, BC V0N 3G0 604-892-3892 Coastal Growers Supply 103 - 12824 Anvil Way Surrey, BC V3W 8E7 604-599-1778 Fat Eddie’s Systems 108 - 18760 96th Avenue Surrey, BC 604-888-2419 Garden King Supplies 7533 135 Street, Unit 109 Surrey, BC V3W OM8 604-598-1912 Pacific NW Garden Supply 15374-103A Avenue Surrey, BC V3R 9V8 604-588-4769; 800-443-4769 Warehouse Garden Supplies & Hydroponic 109 - 8173 128 Street Surrey, BC V3W 4G1 604-543-3177 A+ Gardening Supplies 1450 Venables Street Vancouver, BC V5L 2G5 604-876-4769 BN Garden Supply 4493 Boundary Road Vancouver, BC V5R 2N3 604-431-2977 Double AA Garden Supplies Ltd. 2908 Commercial Drive Vancouver, BC V5N 4C9 604-876-8837 Pacific NW Garden Supply 2137 East Hastings Street Vancouver, BC V5L 1V2 604-254-4765 Vancouver Garden Supply 4894 Fraser Street Vancouver, BC V5V 4H5 604-879-8167 Advanced Garden Supplies 7979 Aspen Road Vernon, BC V1B 3M9 250-545-9545 AJs Pets & Things 3219 - 31st Avenue Vernon, BC V1T 2H2 250-549-3222 Better Than Nature Vernon 3506 25th Avenue Vernon, BC V1T 1P4 250-260-4466 Northern Lights Greenspace 3 - 2706 45th Avenue Vernon, BC V1T 3N4 250-558-4757 Indoor Jungle 2624 Quadra Street Victoria, BC V8T 4E4 250-388-5611 Mr. Fertilizer 9 Burnside Road, West Victoria, BC V9A 1B2 250-381-4644 Progressive Growth 111 - 1790 Island Highway Victoria, BC V9B 1H5 250-391-9519 Sunwest Garden Supply 2035 Unit B Louie Drive Westbank, BC V4T 1Y2 250-768-1636 Good Guys Gardening Center 250 McKenzie Avenue, South Williams Lake, BC V2G 1C6 250-392-2069

Trees Company Nursery & Garden Supplies G9 C17 RR1, 7030 Powell Road Winlaw, BC V0G 2J0 250-226-7334 MANITOBA All Grow Distributors 410 Madison Street Winnipeg, MB R3J 1J1 204-231-1694 Better Than Nature Winnipeg 2B - 2 Donald Street Winnipeg, MB R3L 0K5 204-453-3032 Gro Pro International Hydroponics 101-904 Porthee Avenue Winnipeg, MB R3G 0P4 204-956-1389 Kleen Gro Hydroponics 218 Osbourne Street South Winnipeg, MB R3L 1Z3 204-475-7096 My Two Sons 2 - 2055 McPhillips Street Winnipeg, MB R2Y 3C6 204-339-3489 Nature’s Nutrition 1819 Portage Avenue Winnipeg, MB R3J 0G4 204-889-2979 Northern Lights Hydroponics 129 Regent Avenue East Winnipeg, MB R2C 0C2 204-415-5106 Ready Set Grow! 375 Henderson Highway Winnipeg, MB R3C 2H2 204-668-GROW NEW BRUNSWICK Dieppe Hydroponics 988 Champlain St. Door #3 Dieppe, NB E18 1P8 506-384-4769 Craft N’ Grow 60 Micmac Road Eel Ground, NB E1V 4B1 506-624-9317 Ultimate Hydroponics PO Box 1191 Hampton, NB E5N 8H2 506-639-5948 Scott’s Nursery Ltd. 2192 Route 102 Highway Lincoln, NB E3B 8N1 506-458-9208 Atlantic Hydroponics & Greenhouses Inc. 42 Brandon Street Moncton, NB E1C 7E8 506-858-0158 Jardins Notik Gardens 798 Gray Road St-Charles, NB E4W 4N9 506-876-9100 21st Century Gardening 20 Bayside Drive St. John, NB E2J 1A2 506-657-9982 NOVA SCOTIA Den Haan’s Garden World 12688 Highway 1, Brickton Annapolis County, NS B0S 1M0 902-825-4722 Woodland Farm Nursery 3544 Highway 1, Annapolis Royal, NS B0S 1A0 902-532-7617 S&L Worx Hydroponics 135 Main Street, Unit 14 Dartmouth, NS B2X 1R6 902-434-GROW (4769) Sweetleaf Smoke Shop and Hydroponics 3132 Isleville Street Halifax, NS B3K 3Y2 902-454-6646

Plant Manager Gardening 12 Industrial Drive, Richmond County Industrial Park Lennox Passage, Cape Breton, NS  B0E 1V0 902-345-2112 Steve’s Hydroponic Headquarters 131 Sackville Drive Lower Sackville, NS B4C 2R3 902-865-7764 Greenfield Grow & Brew 69 Wilson Mountain Road Murray Siding, NS B6L 4N7 902-897-6568 Woodin Nickel Hydroponics 3393 Central West, Highway 4 Pictou County, NS BOK 1H0 902-695-7640 ONTARIO Canadian Hydrogardens Ltd. 1330 Sandhill Drive Ancaster, ON L9G 4V5 905 648 1801 Homegrown Hydroponics Inc. 521 Dunlop Street West Barrie, ON L4N 9W4 705-721-8715 Homegrown Hydroponics Inc. 5386 Greenlane Road Beamsville, ON L0R 1B3 905-563-6121 BMA Hydroponics 404A Maitland Drive, Unit 2 Belleville, ON K8N 4Z5 613-967-9888 D&M Gardens 2961 Main Street Blezard Valley, ON P0M 1E0 705-897-3727 Home Hydroponics 289 Rutherford Road, South 22 Brampton, ON L6W 3R9 905-874-GROW In-Home Gardens 279 Colborne Street Brantford, ON N3T 2H3 519-754-9090 Homegrown Hydroponics Inc. 79 Woolwich Street South Breslau, ON N0B 1M0 519-648-2374 AKA The Indoor Gardener 3014 Highway 29 Brockville, ON K6V 5T4 613-342-2700 Indoor Harvest 3040 New Street Burlington, ON  L7R 1M5 289-337-9169 J & C Hydroponics 343 Elgin Street, Unit A Cambridge, ON M1R 7H9 519-622-9969 Pro Grow Indoor Garden Supplies 1710 Bishop St. Unit 2 Cambridge, ON N1T 1T2 519-624-7692 Hydrogarden 1122 Paul Street Cornwall, ON K6H 6H5 613-360-6996 Agrogreen Canada Inc. 1938 Hwy #20, RR#1 Fonthill, ON L0S 1E6 866-650-1136 Diatomite Canada 1938 Hwy #20, RR#1 Fonthill, ON L0S 1E6 866-650-1136 Northern Lights Green Supply 1938 Highway 20 (at 406), RR 1 Fonthill, ON L0S 1E6 905-892-3743 Brite-Lite Indoor Garden Centre 1677 Cyrville Road, Meadowbrooke Plaza Gloucester, ON K1B 3L7 613-842-8999

Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011


MAXIMUMdistributors YIELD Happy Hydroponics 68 Princess Street Hamilton, ON L8L 3K9 905-545-8434 Garden Depot 605 Justus Drive Kingston,ON Canada K7M 4H5 613-384-8882 Brite-Lite Indoor Garden Centre 1659 Victoria Street, North, Unit 6 Kitchener, ON N2B 3E6 888-670-0611 AKA The Indoor Gardener 207 Exeter Road, Unit D London, ON N6L 1A4 519-652-4224 Best of Hydroponics 360 Richmond Street London, ON N6A 3C3 519-858-1533 Ontario Growers Supply 1540 Fanshawe Park Road West London, ON N6H 5L8 519-641-3992 Vantage Hydroponics 1 Adelaide Street North London, ON N6B 3P8 519-451-4769 Markham Hydroponics 95 Royal Crest Court 18 Markham, ON L3R 9X5 905-305-0698 Nature’s Garden Supplies 24-340 Don Park Road Markham, ON L3R 1C5 905-470-7887 All Seasons 1000 Dundas Street East Mississauga, ON L4Y 2B8 905-848-2619 Green Thumb Hydroponics 3075 Ridgeway Drive, 25 Mississauga, ON L5L 5M6 Hydro Culture Emporium Inc. 150 Robertson Rd Unit 22 Nepean, ON K2H 9S1 613-715-9472 Second Nature Hydroponics 4 - 2133 Royal Windsor Drive Mississauga, ON L5J 1K5 905-403-4769

Nature’s Elements Box 119 500 Mill Street Neustadt, ON N0G 2M0 519-799-5323 Yield of Dreams Hydroponics 559 Steven Court 12 Newmarket, ON L3Y 6Z3 877-778-7960 Green Kingdom Hemp 1103 Cassells Street North Bay, ON P1B 4B3 705-494-7169 Brite-Lite Indoor Garden Centre 4373 Steeles Avenue West North York, ON M3N 1V7 416-663-2999 Supply For You 3615 Weston Road, Unit 6 North York, ON M9L 1V8 416-741-8062 All Grow Hydroponic 391 Marwood Drive, Unit 14 Oshawa, ON 866-606-4723 Paradise Gardens Hydroponics 2158 Chiefswood Road Oshweken, ON N0A 1M0 519-445-2275 Ontario Hydroponics 103015 Grey Road 18 Owen Sound, ON N4K 5N6 519-372-1144


Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011

Envirotex P.O. Box 21069 Paris, ON N3L 4A5 519-442-1237 Peterborough Hydroponic Center 347 Pido Road, Unit 32 Peterborough, ON K9J 6X7 705-745-6868 Sweet Hydroponic Gardens 776 Bruce Street Renfrew, ON K7V 3Z8 613-433-9600 Bluewater Hydroponics 1173 Michener Road, Unit 12 Sarnia, ON N7S 5G5 519-337-7475 Planetary Pride 372 Queen Street East Sault Ste Marie, ON P6A 1Y7 1-888-215-8970 Indoor Gardens Canada 2952 Thompson Road Smithville, ON L0R 2A0 905-957-6969 Green And Clean 761 Barrydowne Road Sudbury, ON P3A 3T6 800-246-5503 Northern Hydroponics 236 Simpson Street Thunder Bay, ON P7C 3H4 807-623-3666 Greenthumbs Garden Supply 338 Kingston Road Toronto, ON M4L 1T7 647-345-GROW (4769) Grow It All Hydroponics Inc. grow it all 165 Geary Avenue, Unit 3B hydroponics for everyone Toronto, ON M6H 2B8 416-588-9595 Homegrown Hydroponics Inc. 26 Meteor Drive Toronto, ON M9W 1A4 416-242-4769 Hydrotech 2436 Kingston Road Toronto, ON M1N 1V2 416-267-4769 Jungle Hydroponics 2215 Gerrard Street East Toronto, ON M4E 2C8 416-699-0861 Toronto Hemp Company 665 Yonge Street Toronto, ON M4Y 1Z9 416-920-1980 Grower’s Choice Hydroponics 1621 McEwen Drive 14 Whitby, ON L1N 9A5 905-725-GROW Northern Lights Hydroponics 2690 Oulette Ave Windsor, ON N8X 1L7 519-254-4015 Urban GreenHouse Hydroponics & Aguaculture 7635 Tecumseh Road E. Windsor, ON N8T 3H1 519-944-8444 Ozone Environmental Technologies 361 Rowntree Dairy Road Unit 4 Woodridge, ON L4L 8H1 905-264-6618 QUEBEC Un Monde Sans Terre 565 Beausejour Alma, QC G8B 5V3 418-480-3274 Hydro-Tonyque 761 Avenue Gilles Villeneuve Berthierville, QC J0K 1AO 450-836-8088 Plant-O-Maxx 3169 Blais, Boisbriand, QC, J7H 1H2 514-968-7799

Gerard Bourbeau & Fils Inc. 8285, 1 re Avenue Charlesbourg, QC G1G 5E6 418-623-5401 Les Grands Jardins Lavel 2900, Boul. Cure-Lavelle Chomedey, Laval, QC H7P 5S8 250-729-2687 Simplement Vert 8B Georges-Gagne Delson, QC J5B 2E1 514-913-8378 (VERT) Hydrosphere 2000 2400 rue Canadian, Suite 104 Drummondville, QC J2C 7W3 819-478-9791 Les Serres Binette Inc 2568 Boul. Mercurre Drummondville, QC J2A 1H2 819-478-7195 Pablo Jardinage Drummondville 2080 Joseph St-Cyr Drummondville, QC J2C 8V6 819-475-2525 Les Entreprises Fernand Pigeon Inc. 174 Beaudoin Nord Durham-Sud, QC J0H 2C0 819-858-2777 Hydromax Gatineau 3-1695 Atmec (porte 6) Gatineau, QC J8P 7G7 819-663-7470 Naturexpert Inc. 828 Chemin du Sixième Rang Gatineau QC J8R 3A4 Jardinages Gilles Robert Inc. 574 St-Hubert Granby, QC J0H 1Y5 450-375-3441 Méristème Hydroponique 871 Dufferin Granby, QC J2G 9H8 450-991-1514 Jardinage d’intérieur Huntingdon 72 Dalhousie Huntingdon, PQ J0S1H0, Canada 450-322-6079 Hydroponique Plus Inc. 405 - 18 Avenue Lachine, QC H8S 3R1 514-634-3677 Biofloral 675 Montee, St. Francois Laval, QC H7C 2S8 877-38-HYDRO Brite Lite Hydroponics 940 Bergar, Laval, QC H7L 4Z8 450-669-3803 Espace Culture Boutique 17 boul. Ste-Rose Est Laval, QC H7V 3K3 450-622-2710 Fernand Corbeil Produits Horticoles - Horticultural Products 17 boul. Ste-Rose Est Laval, QC H7L 3K3 450-622-2710 Hydro Times 1533 Boulevard Cure Labelle Laval, QC H7V 2W4 450-688-4848 Hydromax Laval 295 Boulevard Curé Labelle Laval, QC H7L 2Z9 450-628-8380 Qué-Pousse - Laval 940 Bergar Laval, QC H7L 4Z8 450-667-3809 Point De Vue 880 chemin St-Féréol Les Cèdres, QC J7T 1N3 450-452-2878 / 1-877-510-2991

Hydro Rive-sud 4721 Boulvard de la rive sud Levis, QC G6W 1H5 418-835-0082 Boutique Grunge 364 rue Sherbrooke Magog, QC J1X 2S1 819-847-4141 Hydromax Mont-Laurier 388 Rue Hebert Mont-Laurier, QC J9L 2X2 888-609-4476 Hydroculture Guy Dionne 8473 - 19th Avenue Montreal, QC H1Z 4J2 514-722-9496 Hydro Expert 12752 Industriel Montreal, QC H1A 3V2 514-624-3091 B&S Electrique Inc. 2240 Pitt Street Montreal, QC H4E 4H1 514-931-3817 Distribution De la Plante 5498 Hochelaga Suite 910 Montreal, QC H1N 3L7 514-255-1111 Hydromax Montreal 9300 Lajeunesse Montreal, QC H2M 1S4 514-381-0111 Hydromax St-Henri 3522 Notre-Dame Montréal, QC H4C 1P4 514-481-3939 International Hydroponique 5478 Hochelaga St Montreal, QC H1N 3L7 514-255-2525 Momentum 11289 London Avenue Montreal, QC H1H 4J3 888-327-4595 Pousse Magique Atwater 3522 Notre-Dame, ouest, Montreal, Qc H4C 1P4 514-481-3939 Qué-Pousse - Montreal 2215 Walkley Montreal, QC H4B 2J9 514-489-3803 Summum Bio Teck 2100 Ontario Est Montreal, QC H2K 1V5 866-460-2226 Univert 4 Saisons 2100 Ontario Est Montréal, QC H2K 1V5 514-527-2226 Vinexpert De L’Est 6384 Beaubien est Montreal, QC H1M 3G8 514-354-8020 XXXtractor Inc. 1228 St. Marc Montreal, QC H3H 2E5 514-931-4944 Qué-Pousse - Mont. Tremblant 462 Montée Kavanagh Mont-Tremblant, QC J8E 2P2 819-429-6145 MegaWatt Hydroculture 636 Route 364 Morin Heights, QC J0R 1H0 450-226-2515 Fleuriste Savard Inc. 1833 boul. Louis-Frechette Nicolet, QC J3T 1M4 819-293-5933 Qué-Pousse - Point-Claire 1860D Sources Blvd Pointe-Claire, QC H9R 5B1 514-426-5057 Boutique Echologik 829, cote d’Abraham Quebec, QC G1R 1A4 418-648-8288

Boutique Echologik 790 St - Jean Quebec, QC G1R 1P9 418-648-2828 échologik 798 St Jean Québec, QC G1R 1P9 418-648-2828; 418-648-8288 Hydroculture Guy Dionne 1990 Cyrill-Duquet Local 150 Québec, QC G1N 4K8 418-681-4643 Pousse Magique 515 rue Lanaudiere Repentigny, QC J6A 7N1 450-582-6662 Fred Lamontagne Inc. 356 Chemin du Sommet Est, Rimouski, QC G5L 7B5 418-723-5746 Qué-Pousse - Sherbrooke 4394 Bourque Rt. 112 Rock Forest, QC J1N 1S3 819-563-0353 Hydro Plus 149 avenue Principale A Rouyn Noranda, QC J9X 4E3 819-762-4367 Qué-Pousse - St-Jerome 709A 14e Avenue, Sud Saint-Antoine, QC J7Z 4B8 450-436-3803 Rap Hydroponique 5700, rue Martineau Local 7 Saint-Hyacinthe, QC J2S 8B1 450-768-5188 Culture Uni Vert 36 rue de Martigny E Saint-Jérôme, QC J7Z 1V4 Comptoir Richelieu Inc. 350, du Collège Sorel-Tracy, QC J3P 6T7 800-363-9466 Ferme Florale Inc. (Botanix) 2190 Blvd. Laurier (route 116) St. Bruno de Montarville, QC J3V 4P6 450-653-6383 Hydrobec 2145 Lavoisier Suite 4 Ste-Foy, QC G1N 4B2 418-687-1119 Chanvre du Nord Inc. 38 DeMartigny est St-Jérome, QC J7Z 1V4 866-565-5305 Hydro Sciences 4800 de la Cote-Vertu Blvd. Saint-Laurent, QC H4S 1J9 514-331-9090 Pablo Jardinage Shawinigan 5023 Boulevard Royal Shawinigan QC J9N 6T8 819-731-9766 Sherbrooke Hydroponique 3545 King Est, Sherbrooke, QC J1G 5J4 819-829-9299 Plant-T-Plantes 3439 boulevard Fiset Sorel-Tracy, QC J3P 5J3 450-780-0008 Qué-Pousse - St-Constant 6264 Route 132 Ste-Catherine, QC J0L 1E0 450-635-4881 Benoit Dupuis Extincteurs Inc. 2503 Victoria Street Ste-Julienne, QC J0K 2T0 450-831-4240

Hydroponique 2000 84 Boul. Curé Labelle Ste-Therese, QC J7E 2X5 450-971-0726 Pépinière Eco-Verdure 965 Boul. Sauvé St-Eustache, QC J7R 4K3 450-472-6474 Amazonia Hydroponique 394 Boulvard Arthur-sauve St. Eustache, QC J7R 2J5 450-623-2790 P.P.M. Hydroponique 504 Rue du Parc St. Eustache, QC J7R 5B2 450-491-2444 Hydrotek 12300 Rue de l’avenir St. Janvier, QC J7J 2K4 St-Jean Hydroponique 747 rue St-Jacques St-Jean-Sur-Richelieu, QC J3B 2M9 450-346-9633 Hydromax Terrebonne 1674 Chemin Gascon Terrebonne, QC J6X 4H9 450-492-7447 Hydromax Trois-Rivières 6157 rue Corbeil Trois-Rivières Ouest, QC G8Z 4P8 819-372-0500 Pablo Jardinage Intérieur 2 Des Ormeaux Suite 500 Trois-Rivières, QC G8W 1S6 819-693-6000 Rap Hydroponique 326 Rue Vachon Trois-Rivières QC G8T 8Y2 819-376-5959 Hydromax Val-David 895 route 117 nord Val-David, QC J0T 2N0 888-320-0129 Val d’Or Hydroculture 1261 3e Avenue Val d’Or, QC J9P 1V4 Horticulture Piégo 228 Pierre Bertrand Sud Vanier, QC G1M 2C4 418-527-2006 Qué-Pousse - Vaudreuil-Dorion 3666-D, boul. Cité des Jeunes Vaudreuil-Dorion, QC J7V 8P2 450-424-0306 Centre Jardin Denis Brodeur 15 Nord C.P. 658 Waterloo, QC J0E 2N0 Sonador Horticulture Inc. 819-479-2941 SASKATCHEWAN Busy Bee Upholstery Box 811, 134 5th Avenue East Gravelbourg, SK S0H 1X0 306-648-3659 B&B Hydroponics and Indoor Gardening 1404 Cornwall Street Regina, SK S4R 2H7 306-522-4769 Waterboy Supply 401 Dewdney Avenue East Regina, SK S4N 4G3 306-757-6242 YUKON, NUNAVUT and NORTHWEST TERRITORIES Porter Creek Indoor Garden Centre 1307 Centennial Street Whitehorse, YT Y1A 3Z1 867-667-2123


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Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011


DO YOU know?

soft mineral gypsum—composed of calcium sulphate 1 The dehydrate—is not very soluble in water so when it is applied, only a small amount of calcium is available to the plant. study of 45 corn varieties developed from 1920 to 2001 2 Afound that concentrations of proteins, oil and three important amino acids have all declined in the newer varieties.

exposing a body of water to air does not aerate it. 3 Simply Maximum aeration is achieved by breaking the water up into as small a particle size as possible via a tumbling treatment (waterfall, foundation). early indication that fruit development will be prolific 4 An compared to the other plants is flowering sites are stacked closer together leaving less space between internodes.

chemistry the term organic means the material contains 5 Incarbon. In the organic foods world the term organic refers to foods produced without pesticides, synthetic substances, sewage products and other restrictions. first true soil classification was produced in the second 6 The half of the 19 century by Dokuchaiev in the USSR; he th

suggested a theory of zonal soils.

emulsions can add select proteins to a plant’s diet, 7 Fish green the foliage and increases soil fertility. Cold-processed Ascophyllum nodosum (kelp) should always accompany these ingredients.


Maximum Yield Canada | May / June 2011

COMING UP IN July - August 2011

Insect Invasion

Insects can destroy a crop in a relatively short period of time if the grower is not prepared for the onslaught. Know what to look for and how to defend your garden.

GMO vs Selective Breeding

Find out the difference between Genetically Modified (GM) crops and selective breeding, the dangers of GM crops and how they actually work against nature.

Atmospheric Excellence: If Plants Could Talk

Because we may not always know what our plants need during the crucial grow and bloom phases of life, Hans Kersbergen delves into controlling climate conditions in this no-nonsense article.

Root Chillin’

Heat caused by intense light, small spaces and limited air exchange can contribute to heat buildup in your plants’ root zones. Stay in control with these chillin’ tips.


Talking Shop, latest industry news, tips and trivia from around the world, your letters, event updates and more. Maximum Yield Canada (July/August) will be available July 1 for FREE at select indoor gardening retail stores across Canada, and on Subscriptions are available at

Maximum Yield Canada May June 2011  

Hydroponics gardening resources by Maximum Yield, a free how-to hydroponics gardening and indoor gardening bi-monthly magazine that is distr...

Maximum Yield Canada May June 2011  

Hydroponics gardening resources by Maximum Yield, a free how-to hydroponics gardening and indoor gardening bi-monthly magazine that is distr...