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AUSTRALIA March-April 2011

FREE

scissor

hands PRUNING & SHAPING PLANTS

UNPLUGGED

www.maximumyield.com

the Modern Gericke System

2011

Indoor gardenING expo Denver

Colorado, USA March 31- April 3

VANCOUVER BC, CANADA May 14-15

SAN FRancisco California, USA July 16-17

long beach california, usa october 22-23

indoorgardeningexpo.com


CONTENTS

march / april 2011

FEATURES 14

14

Plant Solutions: How to Deal With Yellowing Leaves

18

Soy: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly

26

Unplugged: The Modernized Gericke System

34

Aloe Vera: Growing and Usage

36

Pruning and Shaping Plants

38

The Ins and Outs of Hvac

by Matt LeBannister by Michael Bloch by Dr. Lynette Morgan by Therese Cressman by Andrew Taylor

by Lee McCall

DEPARTMENTS 26

4

From the Editor

4

Letters to the Editor

6

MaximumYield.com

8

Simon Says

10

MAX Facts

12

Product Spotlight

44

Retail Directory

46

Coming up in May/June

46

Do You Know?

38 Maximum Yield  | March/April 2011

3


FROM THE editor

jessica raymond

Man versus nature: the ongoing battle. Man manipulates nature. Nature adapts to changes imposed by man. In their natural environments, plants are subtly pruned by Mother Nature via changes in climate, available light and coexisting animals.When we prune our plants we take on the role of Mother Nature. Proper pruning can enhance a plant’s beauty and improve its development. Improper pruning can spell disaster for your green friends. Australian Andrew Taylor guides Maximum Yield readers through simple shaping and training tips to help ensure success for all levels of growers.The battle doesn’t end there.Two opposing hydroponic set-ups are detailed in “The Modernized Gericke System” (page 26) and “The Ins and Outs of HVAC” (page 38)—unplugged versus plugged in. Across the country, Australians are voting for eco-initiatives

in their communities. Growing food close to home, supporting fairtrade and celebrating the individuals that grow our food—the farmers and gardeners—are just a few of the top gardening news stories in Australia. To enhance your gardening knowledge, plan a trip to the USA March 31 to April 3, 2011 for the Denver, Colorado Indoor Gardening Expo. Over 300 exhibitors Jessica Raymond, Editor will be on hand touting the editor@maximumyield.com latest innovations and earth friendly grow gear. Visit www.indoorgardenexpo.com for full details on this, and other upcoming expos in Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada), San Francisco, California and Long Beach, California.

letters to the editor Connect to MaximumYield.com Instantly

Inspired Reading

What is the black and white holographic symbol on the front cover of the Maximum Yield magazines? Is it a bar code of some kind?

Dear MY, I have been reading your magazine for nearly a year and I think it is great. I always look forward to getting your mag when it becomes available; I get your magazine from my local grow shop for free. I enjoy reading back issues on your website, and I was wondering if it would be possible to download your back issues. I do not have my own internet connection, and I am limited to when I can read your mag online. If I could download your back issues I could read them in my own time. I would also like to subscribe to your magazine.

Ed Kubinski The QR (Quick Response) Code found on the cover of every issue of Maximum Yield allows you to instantly connect to www.maximumyield.com from your Smartphone. Once you have downloaded your choice of QR software to your Smartphone, simply scan the QR Code and your phone’s browser will automatically launch, redirecting you to www.maximumyield.com. Full instructions on using this feature are available on page 6.

Modern Gardening Solutions Excellent mag guys! Flipping through the latest issues, I was pleased to find some intriguing articles. The ones of particular interest to me are on microbes and microorganisms in the soil and compost concoctions. Some of the articles are quite heavy, but hydroponics is a technical process, after all; and gardening is based on science so I think of these “heavier” articles as a challenge to help me grow better and modernize my skill set. Thanks again for putting out a great publication. Matt Reed

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Maximum Yield |  March/April 2011

Yours Gratefully, Arran Griffin Back issues of Maximum Yield are available to download on http://issuu.com. You will need to sign up (http:/issuu.com/ signup) in order to download past issues. You can subscribe to Maximum Yield by visiting http://maximumyield.com/subscriptions. php or by calling our office at 1-250-729-2677. Thanks for reading.

Maximum Yield reserves the right to edit for brevity.

We want to hear from you! Write us at: Maximum Yield Publications Inc. 2339A Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 or Email us at: editor@maximumyield.com


Maximum Yield  | March/April 2011

5


Coming up on the Web Upcoming Events

Get set for the Denver, Colorado Indoor Gardening Expo set for the end of this month, March 31 to April 3. You’re invited to attend Sunday, April 3 from noon to 5 p.m. Admission is $10 and no registration is required. An interactive floor plan— featuring exhibitor bios and links to your favourite company’s websites—is available on indoorgardenexpo.com

Controlling Salt Buildup

Salt buildup is a common occurrence in hydroponic solutions and soilless systems, which can be serious and even fatal for plants. Luckily there are a number of easy options to correct the problem that growers of all skill levels can implement.

The Pythium Predator

Do you run and cower when you hear the word Pythium? You’re not alone. This plant plague can strike at any time leaving behind wilted leaves and brown roots. By understanding how and why it spreads, you will more easily be able to control and eventually prevent this devastating disease.

Hairy Root Tissue Culture and the Future of Horticulture

Since the dawn of agriculture, humans have controlled and experimented with plant species. The modern techniques of tissue culture assist with cultivation and micropropagation of plants by the millions, as genetic clones. Connect to MaximumYield.com instantly from your Smartphone with our Quick Response (QR) Code, found on the cover of every issue of Maximum Yield. Now you can access the best products, the most in-depth articles and information and the latest news, at high speeds. Simply download the QR Code Reader software compatible with your Smartphone, scan the QR Code and your phone’s browser will automatically launch, redirecting you to www.maximumyield.com. It’s that simple!

Tell us what you think at editor@maximumyield.com. We’d love to hear from you.

Dr. Lynette Morgan holds a B. Hort.

Andrew Taylor is the manager of

Matt LeBannister developed a

Lee McCall graduated from

Tech. degree and a PhD in hydroponic greenhouse production from Massey University, New Zealand. Lynette is a partner with SUNTEC International Hydroponic Consultants and has authored five hydroponic technical books. Visit www.suntec.co.nz/ consultants.htm and www.suntec. co.nz/books.htm for more information. green thumb as a child, having been born into a family of experienced gardeners. During his career, he has managed a hydroponic retail store and represented leading companies at the Indoor Gardening Expos. Matt has been writing articles for Maximum Yield since 2007. His articles are published around the world.

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Maximum Yield |  March/April 2011

G A R D E N I N G

VOLUME 8 – NUMBER 6 MARCH/APRIL 2011 PRINTED IN AUSTRALIA Maximum Yield is published bi-monthly by Maximum Yield Publications Inc. 2339A Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 Phone: 250.729.2677; Fax 250.729.2687 No part of this magazine may be reproduced without permission from the publisher. If undeliverable please return to the address above. The views expressed by columnists are a personal opinion and do not necessarily reflect those of Maximum Yield or the Editor. Publication Agreement Number 40739092 PRESIDENT/PUBLISHER - Jim Jesson GENERAL MANAGER - Don Moores BUSINESS MANAGER - Linda Jesson EDITOR - Jessica Raymond jessica@maximumyield.com

Featured Articles

contributors

I N D O O R

Flairform (www.flairform.com) – an Australian-based manufacturing company. As an analytical chemist with qualifications in plant function and nutrition, he has over 13 years experience in product research and development, and also writes extensively on hydroponic growing techniques. Johnson and Wales University with a concentration in Culinary Arts. Culinary school opened the door to research and work with hydroponics and organic production. Currently, Lee attends business school in Denver and focuses on continuing advancements with Maximum Yield and indoor gardening technology.

ADVERTISING SALES 250.729.2677 Linda Jesson - linda@maximumyield.com Lisa Lambersek - lisa@maximumyield.com Ilona Hawser - ilona@maximumyield.com Ashley Heppell - ashley@maximumyield.com Christina Indseth - christina@maximumyield.com PRODUCTION & DESIGN ads@ads.maximumyield.com Daniel Peters - daniel@maximumyield.com Tina Skujins - tina@maximumyield.com Mike Linden - mike@maximumyield.com Jennifer Duong - jennifer@maximumyield.com ACCOUNTING - Lee Anne Veres leeanne@maximumyield.com AUSTRALIAN DISTRIBUTION Dome Garden Supply Futchatec Growth Technology Holland Forge House N’ Garden Hydrogarden Hydraspher UK DISTRIBUTION Growth Technology Hydrogarden Northern Hydroponic Wholesale Nutriculture UK CANADIAN DISTRIBUTION Brite-Lite Group Biofloral Eddis Wholesale Greenstar Plant Products Inc. Hydrotek MegaWatt Quality Wholesale USA DISTRIBUTION Aurora Innovations BWGS BWGS East BWGS West General Hydroponics Hydrofarm Hydro International National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply R&M Supply Tradewinds

Michael Bloch is the owner and editor of GreenLivingTips.com, an online resource powered by renewable energy. The site offers a wide variety of earth friendly tips, green guides, advice and environment-related news to help consumers and businesses reduce costs, consumption and environmental impact.

Become a Maximum Yield contributor and have your articles read by 250,000 readers throughout USA, Canada, UK and Australia. Maximum Yield is the largest free-to-consumer indoor gardening magazine in the world. Every issue is available on maximumyield.com, which has thousands of unique visitors monthly.


Maximum Yield  | March/April 2011

7


SIMON says

Simon, When I use plain, reverse osmosis water, my EC is zero. To water my plants, should I add a calcium/magnesium supplement? If so, how much should I add? Thanks, Matt My tap water is 30 ppm on my TDS meter. What level should I raise it to with a calcium/magnesium supplement? Thanks, Joe

These questions are so similar I will try and help both readers with one answer. Unfortunately, while both questions are straightforward, neither question has an easy answer.You’re both very lucky to be starting with good quality water. Nutrient manufacturers assume a low EC or TDS reading when suggesting application rates so all readers should strive for the best quality (lowest conductivity) water to start with. Generally this means reverse osmosis (RO) filtered water, but in some cases just exceptional tap water. Regardless, be sure that you are adding a quality base nutrient with all the essential elements present prior to considering any supplemental calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), as these two essential nutrients cannot grow plants on their own. If you are using untreated water with a dissolved solids value prior to adding nutrients, it’s imperative to get your water tested. Once you know what elements are already in suspension, you can try and tailor your additional nutrients to correspond to the inherent levels. An RO system takes away this headache. In a water system or soilless mix, a calcium-to-magnesium ratio of approximately 3:1 is standard. This is much different with outdoor garden soils where a spread of 7:1 or 8:1 is more common. For indoor gardens, providing a moderate level of calcium at 150 ppm, be sure your magnesium is at 50 ppm. Most crops will require between 50 and 300 ppm of calcium and most will fall in the middle of this range. Remember that all calcium supplements vary in the form they are delivered. Some will come from a chemical source, such as calcium nitrate. Others might provide calcium with a mineral source such as calcium carbonate or even an amino chelate (usually calcium chloride). To verify the calcium source,

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Maximum Yield |  March/April 2011

check the ingredient list. If a product guarantees calcium it must declare the source. None of these inputs will be pure calcium so the adjusted EC or TDS will read higher than the actual value of calcium provided. This is a case where manufacturer suggested application rates are useful. If you want to be more specific in your adjustment, you must calculate the calcium supply based on your source input. This will vary depending on the compound used. All possible calcium inputs will also affect the pH of your solution in various ways so be sure to adjust after adding them to your reservoir and monitor for ongoing pH fluctuations. The level of calcium and magnesium will vary tremendously from plant to plant. To assess your specific requirements I suggest reviewing available university extension information or garden forums. Both will have good advice specific to your crops. Growth rate and stage of growth can have a considerable impact on the levels of Ca and Mg necessary. When adding supplemental Ca/Mg it’s important to remember that calcium is immobile so be sure to provide a consistent supply. For prolifically flowering plants such as tomatoes and peppers, an elevated supply will be essential to avoid substandard fruit development due to deficiencies such as blossom end rot. In periods of high temperature it is also possible that evapotranspiration can actually be the limiting factor in calcium supply—regardless of how much you are supplying, deficiencies can occur. In extreme cases, experiment with foliar application to try and work the nutrients directly into the leaf tissues surrounding the fruit set. Also work to decrease the daytime temperature if your plants are displaying nutrient deficiency symptoms.


Maximum Maximum Yield YieldAustralia | November/December Australia | September/October 2010

9


MAX

facts

hydroponic news, tips and trivia from around the world

$55 Million South Australian Glasshouse – Stage 2 _______ A $25 million expansion of Australia’s largest truss tomato glasshouse is nearing completion. Stage 2 of the d’VineRipe world-class facility at Two Wells, north of Adelaide, South Australia, will culminate in a $55 million-plus glasshouse operation spanning some 17 hectares with the capacity to produce up to 10,000 tonnes of tomatoes a year. The entire operation is expected to be the second largest of its kind in Australia, incorporating the most technologically advanced techniques including: electronic climate control systems, leading-edge infrastructure, water-efficient irrigation and innovative bulk and pre-packing lines. Up to 100 new jobs will be created to operate the glasshouse and packing house, taking the total seasonal workforce to between 180 and 200. d’VineRipe currently produces specialty tomatoes, including Romatherapy® baby roma tomatoes, Il Bello Rosso™ baby roma tomatoes, Saladette® truss tomatoes and d’VineRipe™ truss tomatoes. (Source: www.hydroponics.com.au)

2012 Announced as Australian Year of the Farmer _________________________ The importance of the rural sector to all Australians and to the Australian economy will be celebrated in 2012 through an Australian Year of the Farmer (AYOF). The year will focus on the essential role Australian farmers and growers play in providing for our everyday needs. Australian Year of the Farmer has been supported by $160,000 in seed funding from the Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. This funding is in addition to $125,000 combined contribution from the State and Territory Governments. The AYOF is being planned and delivered through a not-for-profit incorporated company established specifically for the purpose. (Source: www.hydroponics.com.au)

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Maximum Yield |  March/April 2011

Australian Fairtrade Sales Triple __________ Australia continues to be one of the world’s fastest growing markets for Fairtrade Certified products with sales tripling in just 12 months to over $120 million in 2010, Fairtrade Australia & New Zealand (Fairtrade ANZ) announced. Fairtrade ANZ CEO Stephen Knapp said the outstanding sales growth was matched by a significant jump in Australian consumer awareness of the Fairtrade Label—rising from 23 per cent in September 2009 to 37 per cent in November 2010. Knapp said the substantial growth in sales of Fairtrade Certified products reflects the increasing importance Aussie consumers place on the ethical and sustainable sourcing of the products they consume and use every day. (Source: www.ausfoodnews.com.au)


Hydroponic Garden Keeping Remote Workers Healthy ____________ We all know the importance of eating two fruit and five vegetable servings every day. However, when you live in a remote community a few hundred kilometres from the nearest town, how can you get the fresh produce you require? Out by Arlparra, about 250 kilometres north-east of Alice Springs, local Ernie Polley has found an easy solution. He and wife Kerry Kasmira have set up their own hydroponic vegetable garden in a small tin shed out the back of their house. Mr. Polley says the initial idea came from when they lived in, what he described as, an “even more remote” community than Arlparra. He says he was surprised to find out how many different vegetables he could successfully grow using hydroponics. They grow basil, parsley, chives, silver beet, tomato and beetroot, and have successfully grown carrots, beans, peas and salad veggies. (Source: www.abc.net.au)

Growing Food in Greener Cities ___ The challenge in dealing with the growth of cities and our population’s increase is to steer urbanization from its current, unsustainable path, towards greener cities that incorporate urban and peri-urban horticulture. Growing fruit and vegetables in and around cities increases the supply of fresh, nutritious produce and improves the urban poor’s economic access to food. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has provided tools, seeds and training to establish thousands of school gardens in more than 30 countries. FAO has also helped governments promote irrigated commercial market gardening on urban peripheries, simple hydroponic micro-gardens in slum areas and green rooftops in densely populated city centres. To ensure the quality and safety of produce, 450 growers’ associations were trained in good agricultural practices, including the use of organic fertilizer and bio-pesticides.

New and Crazy Genetically Modified Foods ___ According to Sustainable Table, about 200 million acres of farmland worldwide are now used to grow genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The most common GMO crops are soybeans, which represent 63 per cent of all GMO crops, corn at 19 per cent, cotton at 13 per cent and canola at five per cent. None of the following have been approved yet by the FDA, but with what we’ve seen so far, who’s to say that they won’t be in the future. 1. “Super Chicken Eggs” produce compounds that can fight a range of diseases from diabetes, to viruses to tooth decay. 2. “Non-Browning Apples” are missing the gene that produces the enzyme polyphenol oxidase. 3. “Fast-Growing Salmon” do not grow larger than regular salmon; they just achieve their size in 16 to 18 months rather than three years. 4. “Hyper-Producing Seeds” have an altered command gene that tells the plants when and how many flowers to generate. 5. “Enviro-Pigs™” are modified to produce 65 per cent less phosphorous in their poop and urine. (Source: http://planetgreen.discovery.com)

(Source: www.ausfoodnews.com.au)

Maximum Yield  | March/April 2011

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PRODUCT spotlight

Your guide to this issue’s hottest items. Ask for them at your local indoor gardening store.

Botanicare Launches Hydrolite™ Grow Media Amendment __________________________ Botanicare’s popular nutrients and fertilizers provide commercial and urban growers with valuable, long-lasting nutrition resulting in vigorous yields. Now, Botanicare® has developed Hydrolite™, a new grow media amendment that works like a plant’s nutrient storage bank, helping manage the availability of nutrients essential for plant growth. Hydrolite is a highly porous, non-toxic and reusable aggregate grow media composed of natural crystalline structures that accelerate growth by optimizing root oxygen levels through absorption and release of nutrients as needed by plant roots. For samples of Hydrolite, please ask at your local hydroponic shop.

CubeCap® Introduces the Long Awaited 15 Centimetre Square DripCap® ____________

Introducing FloraKleen From General Hydroponics Europe ____________________

The new Grodan-approved 15 centimetre square DripCap® minimizes algae and algae related problems while saving water and nutrients. It hosts a list of other attributes like a new “one size fits all” hose holder, which accommodates four millimetre to 7.6 millimetre diameters. A new innovative drip technology allows for an even saturation of the growing medium promoting larger root mass and yields with more uniformity. For more information visit your favourite indoor gardening retail store.

General Hydroponics FloraKleen is a salt-clearing solution that is formulated to remove fertilizer residue and salts that can accumulate in hydroponic systems, growing media and potting soils. FloraKleen is not enzymebased and can be used at any time throughout the plant’s life. FloraKleen reduces plant stress from excess and imbalanced nutrients and breaks nutrient bonds that attach fertilizer salts to growing media, also correcting nutrient lock-out. It also nourishes the microbial life in the substrate. It’s highly concentrated and economically priced. Visit your local indoor gardening shop for more information.

Titan Controls® Flo-N-Gro™ ___________________________________________________ Introducing the Flo-N-Gro™ 12 site growing system from Titan Controls®. This innovative hydroponic system comes with a 250 litre reservoir, 12 – 18 litre grow sites and 12 – 14 litre 360° mesh aeration inserts that promote lateral root growth and oxygen exchange for your plants. This complete system also includes the Titan Controls® solid state Oceanus 1 Flo-N-Gro Controller, two Maxi-Jet 1,000 pumps and all the necessary tubing and fittings to build your system. Easy to use and simple to understand, the Flo-N-Gro 12 site system makes growing plants fun! Visit your local indoor gardening shop for more information.

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Titan Controls® Helios 9™ and Helios 10™ _ The latest lighting controllers from Titan Controls® are here. The Helios 9™ is a four light timer with a built-in 30 amp breaker and will run up to 4,000 watts of light, while the Helios 10™ is an eight light timer with a built-in 50 amp breaker and will run up to 8,000 watts of light. Both models feature the Apollo 8™ - 24 hour timer offer multi-tap universal outlets that will accept either a 120 volt or 240 volt ballast cord set. Visit your favourite indoor gardening shop for more information.

Sun System® Digital Grow Light Fixture ____ The Sun System® Digital Grow Light is a state-of-the-art digital fixture that operates both metal halide and high pressure sodium lamps. This proprietary Smart Volt® ballast operates at either 120 or 240 volts, and with the flip of a switch, the Sun System® Digital will run either a 250 watt or 400 watt bulb. Vented ballast housing allows for effective heat dissipation and the highly reflective aluminum insert keeps light focused where it matters most—on your plants. Visit an indoor gardening shop near you for more information.

Maximum Yield  | March/April 2011

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Plant Solutions:

How to Deal With Yellowing Leaves Yellow leaves giving you the blues? Matt LeBannister sheds some light on the condition. Consider the following nutrient deficiencies to cure this common plant ailment. by Matt LeBannister

Plants are complex organisms that require certain environmental

and nutritional conditions to survive. Given the right levels of sunlight, air temperature, root zone temperature, pH and nutrients, plants will not just survive, but thrive. With all the advances in indoor gardening it is now possible for every indoor gardener to totally regulate all aspects of a plant’s growing environment and nutrient intake. If any aspect of this sensitive system is allowed to go out of sync, however, problems can arise. If the EC or nutrient levels get too high or low, for example, or the pH moves out of the plant’s optimum level, plants can develop yellow leaves. Usually, though, yellowing leaves are a result of a deficiency in any one of a number of specific nutrients.

The most common cause of yellowing leaves in plants is a nitrogen deficiency. Nitrogen is a mobile macronutrient that is needed for the production of chlorophyll. Plants deficient in nitrogen will be unable to produce enough chlorophyll, causing leaves to yellow. The symptoms will begin with the older leaves closest to the base of the plant. This is because the plant is sending what little nitrogen it has to the newest growth at the top of the plant. The leaves will begin to yellow in between the veins and this will spread to the whole leaf—if the problem is not corrected, the leaf will die and fall off. Other symptoms include the stem and leaf undersides turning purple, and overall stunted growth.

Intro Page Photo Credit: Nick Persichilli

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The main cause of nitrogen deficiencies is having a pH that is too high. Every plant has an ideal pH range that allows for a maximum uptake of nutrients, and the water they are given should be pH balanced to be in the plant’s specific requirement zone. Soil and soilless growing mediums are very forgiving and can handle a wider pH range, where hydroponics and aeroponics need the pH range to be very specific for plants to thrive. For instance, tomatoes grown in soil can handle their water pH from 5.8 to 6.8, whereas tomatoes grown in hydroponics prefer the water pH to remain between 5.8 at the lowest and 6.4 at the very highest. To effectively treat a nitrogen deficiency, you must first determine whether enough nitrogen is being added to the nutrient mix. If the nutrient is high quality and being added at the directed rate this is not likely to be the source of the problem, however. An overly high pH—causing nutrient lock out—then becomes the most likely cause. Simply correct the pH levels and begin to check them more often. Another common cause of yellowing leaves is an iron deficiency. The symptoms of iron deficiency and nitrogen deficiency are similar: the leaf begins to turn yellow between the veins, which always remain green. If left untreated, the leaf will eventually die and

“The most common cause of yellowing leaves in plants is a nitrogen deficiency. Nitrogen is a mobile macronutrient that is needed for the production of chlorophyll.” fall off.The one symptom that can help you differentiate an iron deficiency from a nitrogen deficiency is that the leaves first affected will be the youngest leaves, closest to the top of the plant, and the yellowing will then spread from the youngest to the oldest leaves.

Maximum Yield  | March/April 2011

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Plant Solutions: How to Deal with Yellowing leaves

The use of poor quality Magnesium deficiencies nutrients is one cause of an iron are common indoors deficiency in plants. Cheaper and have many causes. nutrient formulas do Plants growing in soil or not always have the soilless mediums could right amount of have lots of magnesium micronutrients present but it may not be to promote ideal available to them because it has plant health. Switching to a more become bound in the medium. This complete nutrient or adding kelp spray to happens with soil and soilless mixes that your feeding schedule is usually a quick are too acidic. Simply adjust pH to the ideal level solution to the problem. and continue to check more frequently. Magnesium also Iron deficiency can also often be caused by having a becomes bound in soil when the soil is too cold or too wet. To pH over 6.5. If soil or water becomes more alkaline correct this problem, allow plants to drain and dry before their than pH 6.5 it will cause the plant to lock out some next watering. Adding perlite to your soil/soilless mix can also nutrients, including iron. By correcting the pH level improve drainage and air retention. When a plant’s root zone and checking it often you becomes too cold it is also unable will be able to address this problem “The symptoms of iron deficiency to take up adequate amounts of and prevent it from happening again and nitrogen deficiency are similar: magnesium—to have an ideal in the future. root zone, keep the temperature the leaf begins to turn yellow Iron deficiencies in plants can also between 18 to 24°C. be caused by an overabundance of Magnesium can also become between the veins.” potassium or phosphorous. Just like deficient in plants when there is having an overly high pH level, potassium and phosphorous an overly high EC. Having too much potassium, nitrogen toxicities lock out other nutrients. To ensure that plants do not and calcium in soil/soilless mixes or reservoir develop toxic levels of nutrients one should always follow the nutrient solutions will cause magnesium to nutrient instructions carefully. Plants in soil or soilless mixes become locked out of the plant. Adjusting should be flushed with straight pH-balanced water every the EC levels in the nutrient and other watering to prevent a build up of nutrients. For plants checking more frequently growing in hydroponics, using an EC (electric conductivity) can fix this problem meter or a PPM (part per million) meter can help prevent and prevent it nutrient toxicities. These meters do not tell you the exact amount of each nutrient, but give you a reading of the overall nutrient level. If a quality nutrient is being used, this is a safe method of measuring nutrient levels. If the toxicity has reached a dangerous level in the plant you may want to use a clearing solution to leach the excess nutrients out of the plant—this may save plants before they become too damaged and crops are affected. Another very common deficiency that results in yellowing leaves is a magnesium deficiency. Magnesium is a nutrient essential to the production of the chlorophyll the plant needs in abundance to absorb photons to enable the process of photosynthesis. The symptoms of a magnesium deficiency also include leaves yellowing in between green veins, but with this particular deficiency the leaf tips become brown and turn upwards, and the area first affected will be the middle leaves of the plant. 16

Maximum Yield |  March/April 2011


Photo Credit: Nick Persichilli

from happening in the future. If your problem is simply poor quality nutrients devoid of magnesium you can try watering occasionally with water treated with one teaspoon of Epsom salts per litre. This is a safe, low-risk way of increasing magnesium levels in the nutrients without burning your plant leaves. Sometimes leaves begin to yellow and there is nothing wrong with the plant.Yellowing leaves are just a natural part of the plant’s lifecycle—they turn yellow and fall off when they get old. This can trick gardeners into thinking that the plant has a deficiency, when really the old leaves are simply falling off due to old age. These old leaves are no longer photosynthesizing efficiently and it is in the plant’s best interest to shed them, allowing the plant to focus its energy on growing new leaves that will photosynthesize at maximum efficiency.

“Sometimes leaves begin to yellow and there is nothing wrong with the plant.” There are many different possible causes for a plant’s leaves to yellow, but a nutrient deficiency is usually to blame. Deficiencies generally result from fluctuating pH and EC levels, but overly saturated and cold root zones can be responsible as well. And sometimes yellowing leaves are just a symptom of old age—the old leaves are dying and falling off to be replaced with newer and more efficient ones. The important thing is to investigate the root of the problem to prevent nutrient deficiencies from reoccurring in the future. Vigilantly monitoring your pH and EC levels for any fluctuations away from the ideal zone can make all the difference when gardening. MY

Maximum Yield  | March/April 2011

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Soy THE GOOD,

THE BAD AND THE UGLY by Michael Bloch

When I was growing up, soy was pretty much confined to being used in our Chinese food takeaways or something that hippies and health nuts crowed about. Today, the humble soybean plays a large role in much of our lives, and while it is certainly a wonderful plant, our reliance upon it and exploitation of the land suitable for cultivating the crop has also presented some major challenges. Here’s the good, the bad and the ugly about the soybean in brief.

The good. Soybeans are an amazingly versatile crop, providing oil, carbohydrates and protein. The protein content is around 40 per cent, oil approximately 20 per cent and carbohydrates about 35 per cent. Soybeans can grow in a wide range of soils and mediums and as they are a legume, can help restore nitrogen levels to nitrogen depleted earth.

Uses: • meat replacement • dairy replacement - soy milk and cheese • biofuel as a replacement for crude oil • stock feed 18

Maximum Yield |  March/April 2011

• candles • soaps • cooking oil • flour • butter (like peanut butter) • ice cream

• chips • cosmetics • resins • plastics • inks • clothing • vodka


During my days as a baker, I used soy flour instead of gluten to give the bread more strength as we had many customers with gluten allergies. If you look on the ingredients list of many processed foods, you’ll likely see soya flour or oil listed. Even for us omnivores, a meal or two of soy-based meat replacements can help reduce the environmental impact of meat consumption. Given that products such as tofu absorb the flavours of what it’s cooked with, even a partial substitution is a good way to go if you simply cannot give up meat altogether. The same goes for dairy products. Candles are often made from petroleum, crude oil, as are cosmetics, plastics and resins, so soy offers an earth friendly alternative to these too. With so many uses, you’d think that we could just about live on soy alone; but there are some issues you need to know about before you start making radical changes in your diet and general consumption habits by replacing traditional products with soy.

The bad. Any well educated vegetarian or vegan will tell you soy contains many health benefits, but it is not the be all and end all replacement for meat and dairy. For example, it’s not high in Maximum Yield  | March/April 2011

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Soy: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly

calcium or iron, two critical elements of good health; so these nutrients need to be garnered from other products. Many manufacturers of soy dairy replacements fortify their products with calcium to address this.

“Soya flour has also been shown to cause cancer in rats, but no equivalent human studies have been done.” Soy also contains appreciable levels of phytoestrogens or plant hormones. There’s a great deal of controversy as to whether a diet high in soy contributes to issues in men such as lowered libido, increased breast tumour growth rates in women with a high risk of breast cancer and soy formula for infants is thought by some to increase the risk of autoimmune disorders of the thyroid gland. Soya flour has also been shown to cause cancer in rats, but no equivalent human studies have been done. Back in 2000, a study published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition stated brains of elderly people who ate tofu at least twice a week for several decades were aging faster than normal. If you are considering switching to a soy-rich diet, exercise due diligence and research thoroughly. The ugly. Probably one of the most disturbing issues of the burgeoning soy industry is the destruction of the Amazon forest and clearing in other countries.Vast swathes, thousands of kilometres of this incredibly important resource are being cleared in order to grow soybeans; primarily for stock feed. Cattle farms are being replaced by soy farmers who buy or rent land from cattle farmers. The cattle farmers then push on deeper into the Amazon forest.

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The lucrative soy market has also seen agribusiness sinking their claws in for control over the crop. Soybeans are a popular biotech food crop, meaning that it’s increasingly being genetically modified. The biotech companies actually own these variants and no one can use them without their approval. The danger in this, aside from the unknown long term health and environmental effects of GM crops, in addition to the legal ramifications of GM crops infecting non-GM crops, is that big business is increasingly controlling our food, and the future of our food. The use of soy as a biofuel is another thorny matter. It’s my opinion that food as fuel on an industrial scale is just wrong on so many levels—environmental and humanitarian. It takes an incredible amount of land and feedstock just to make

enough fuel to fill up a car. Additionally, food prices are rising around the world due in part to the demand of biofuels. Like anything else we buy these days, just because something is made from soy, it doesn’t mean that soy has been grown sustainably. Exercise caution when buying soy products. If you’re choosing soy for environmental reasons, it would be terrible to discover rainforest was recently destroyed in order to make your “earth-friendly” alternative. An environmentally friendly and healthy alternative is to grow your own soybeans. The following tips for growing soybeans are brought to you by Heather Higinbotham. Soybeans grow fast and easy. They have many uses in food products, and are also good for your garden. They are sometimes used as a “green manure,” which is a plant that is grown for the purpose of providing organic matter in the soil. After the plants are grown, they are tilled into the soil. Soybeans have nodules that grow off their roots that convert nitrogen gases into nitrogen compounds in the soil.

“Soybeans grow fast and easy. They have many uses in food products, and are also good for your garden.”

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Soy: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly

Soybeans are part of the Leguminosae family and are rich in protein. Due to the ease of growth and their many uses, soybeans are a great crop to add to your garden.

Grow Tips 1. Soybeans need a lot of light and can mould if they are in a moist environment. Try to plant them where they will not get shaded by other crops.Ventilation is also beneficial to successful growth. 2. Soybeans are a pole bean, which means they need something to grow on.You can use vertical gardening systems, or if you’re growing outdoors, stick a pole in the ground and aid the beans in twisting around them. Some people place three poles in the ground in a triangle and tie them together at the top. The plants may need to be thinned as they grow to prevent overcrowding. 3. Wet medium or soil can rot the seeds, so there must be good drainage. For outdoor gardening, a raised bed may work best if you live in a wet climate or your garden is in a wet area. 4. If growing outdoors, rotate your soybean crops from yearto-year. This means not to plant soybeans in the same spot as the year before. Also avoid planting where other legumes have recently grown. 5. Dust seeds with a bacterial innoculant to speed up the growth of nitrogen-helping nodules. This will also reduce the need for fertilizer. 6. Pole beans can take as long as 10 weeks to start producing, so if you would like to speed it up you can add a low nitrogen fertilizer to the medium. 7. Plant the soybeans about four to five centimetres deep. If using soil, make sure the topsoil is soft and loose. If your soil is lumpy, try to loosen any large lumps. 8. Soybeans can stand a cool environment. Do not try to plant if the soil or medium is under 18°C.

Maintenance Tips Mulch is helpful for soybeans as it prevents damage to the delicate root system that can occur during weeding. It also prevents over-watering and keeps the soil moist, but not saturated. If the soil dries out too much the beans will only grow a little then curl up at the ends and reduce the amount of beans you will get from the crop.

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Mexican Bean Beetle Aphids

Do not touch or move around in a crop with wet leaves. This causes the spread of disease among plants. Soybeans can be bothered by Mexican bean beetles, Japanese beetles and aphids. Pick off or spray off any bugs and scrap off any egg masses you see to prevent damage. Soybeans can get diseases, like anthracnose, bacterial blight and mosaic. If you have a disease make sure you are rotting the crops and buy seeds that are a disease resistant variety.

Harvest Tips • Let the pods get brown and dry before picking. If you expect frost you can pick before this and finish drying inside, but it is best if they are left to dry on the vine, if possible. • Before shelling put them in the freezer for about three hours. This kills anything that may be inside, such as bugs or their eggs. • Store your beans in a container with a lid in a dry cool place.

Soybeans are rarely, if ever, a hassle to the indoor or outdoor gardener. If you have never tried growing soybeans now is the time to start. Watch how many you plant because you could end up with way more than expected. Follow the tips listed here and you should have a bumper crop of soybeans this year. MY

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Unplugged 26

The Modernized Gericke System by Dr. Lynette Morgan Taking a hint from Dr.William Frederick Gericke’s 1930s hydroponic system, indoor growers today can combine the best of old school techniques and modern technologies for a simple and effective growing solution.

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The science of hydroponics is now more high-tech than ever before with the average grower having almost instant access to information on advanced growing techniques, systems and products. However, every now and then it pays to look back in history and revisit old ideas that might have something to offer us today, or at least provide some insight into what the early pioneers of hydroponics had to deal with. One such fascinating system was developed by Dr. William Frederick Gericke when he was working at the University of California at Berkley in the late 1930s. Science magazine in 1937 reported that ‘last week a new science was given a new name. Hydroponics, by its foremost U.S. practitioner Dr. William Gericke’—a startling announcement for a time when producing crops without soil was virtually unheard of. Unfortunately Gericke’s research into soilless production methods was controversial when he initially refused to reveal details of the system that he had worked on at home in his own time, despite the huge volume of enquiries he received. Eventually this led to him leaving the University of California and publishing the book “The Complete Guide to Soilless Gardening” in 1940, where it was claimed the system would revolutionize agriculture. In 1938, when asked by journalists if he expected to make a lot of money out of hydroponics, Gericke’s response was to just smile and reveal two gold teeth(1). The Gericke System would seem by today’s standards to be rather simple and primitive, however, there is no doubt that it can be used to grow plants successfully and many similar

“[Dr. William Gericke published] the book ‘The Complete Guide to Soilless Gardening’ in 1940, where it was claimed the system would revolutionize agriculture.” hybrid systems are in commercial use today. What is interesting and perhaps overlooked at the time, was that a Gericke System can be run as a traditional hydroponic system using inert media and nutrient solutions; as a hybrid organic/ hydroponic system; or possibly as a truly organic

T Completehe Soilless G Guide To ardening

William F .G

ericke Maximum Yield  | March/April 2011

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Unplugged: The Modernized Gericke System

soilless system. By incorporating two phases in one system—a solid media or substrate based ‘seed bed’ suspended above a nutrient ‘basin’ that don’t interact with each other— there is the possibility for combining some modern ideas and philosophies about plant growth. At the very least a well run Gericke System is a simple method that can be utilized where there is no power source or limited labour for monitoring and adjusting nutrient solutions. Many of the modern solution culture or deep tank systems are based on the Gericke System, although these have been developed to incorporate new materials and equipment.

What is the Gericke System? In the days before readily available plastics for irrigation lines, reservoirs, plant supports and synthetic plant mediums, early hydroponic researchers

oponic Gericke The planted organic/hydrwth down into gro System showing root er two weeks. the nutrient reservoir aft

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mesh and into the nutrient solution contained in the basin reservoir below. With this system it was important to maintain an air gap between the top of the nutrient solution in the basin and the base of the media filled seed bed, which provided a moist environment for roots to obtain oxygen. The nutrient solution in those days was fairly basic as chelates were not yet available and formulations contained fertilizers such as ‘treble super phosphate’ and iron sulphate—salts we would not consider part of today’s modern nutrient solutions. System with a seedbed of The modernized Gericke ark/paper and a standard Despite this, photographs of vermicast/coco/compost/bn in the reservoir below. the many and varied crops, ‘grow’ nutrient solutio everything from peanuts to potatoes and papayas, grown by had limited resources to work with. Gericke, demonstrated that the Gericke’s initial basic system consisted system not only worked but was highly of a trench dug into the earth lined productive as well. with asphalt impregnated mats and roofing paper. Later these trenches The modern become ‘basins’ constructed from timber, Gericke System painted concrete or sheet metal. Over Today, with a much wider range of the basin, which was used to contain a materials and a wealth of knowledge depth of nutrient solution, wire netting on soilless production generated by researchers over the six decades since was stretched and this held the 10 to 13 centimetres deep ‘seedling bed’ that Gericke’s first system, it should be supported the possible to plants. This recreate and “In the days before readily seedling bed improve on available plastics for irrigation was typically these ideas. lines, reservoirs, plant supports filled with and synthetic plant mediums, early Gericke’s System materials hydroponic researchers had limited was initially a available at hybrid organic/ resources to work with.” the time (no hydroponic set up with a ‘seed bed’ consisting of rockwool or expanded clay in those organic materials and a reservoir below days); this was often sawdust, compost, vegetable litter, straw, chaff and leaf of balanced fertilizer salts. Thus, the mould. The function of the seed bed plants would have had access to the best of both philosophies—potential was to provide support and moisture for availability of organic compounds, the germinating seed until the plant had extended roots down through the wire microbes, humus and other organic


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Unplugged: The Modernized Gericke System

factors as well as complete and balanced nutrient from the mineral ions provided below. Considering that the organic seedbed above is maintained so that it does not leach organic materials into the solution below, the risk of the solution going anaerobic or bacterial and starting to smell would have been eliminated. Furthermore, the nutrient solution would not have been applied or irrigated onto to the organic seed bed, keeping it in its natural state. With a wider choice of both hydroponic nutrient products and organic materials these days it would be possible to create the ultimate organoponic system, which would require very little maintenance and adjustment. Another modern take on the Gericke System was to determine if it would still work for some of today’s micro crops that would have probably horrified Gericke who concentrated many trials on growing vast quantities of 1.8 metre tall wheat for high quality bread baking. Healthy food crops such as wheatgrass shoots, sprouts, baby salad leaves, lettuce and microgreens need little space and are well adapted to growing indoors on a kitchen bench or next to a window, but such systems

made from icke System The mini Geryrene cooler and plastic a small polystmesh basket.

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Gericke System showing need to be the and mesh based seed bednutrient reservoir below self contained and compact. , which sits above. Having such a system that does not require electricity, pumps or other equipment is a with lettuce seeds.The major advantage, as is a carefree method of system was left to its own devices, apart nutrient management. from two to three mistings with water to maintain moisture around the germinating The modern seeds.The lettuce seedlings grew rapidly with roots that extended down into Gericke System the nutrient solution within a few days trials Two ‘modern’ Gericke Systems were of germination.The system required designed using two different philosophies— no maintenance or adjustment of the the first was a small salad greens system nutrient.The lettuce leaves were harvested using completely soilless and media free within three weeks, by which time the principals.The nutrient reservoir or nutrient in the reservoir had dropped to basin consisted of a polystyrene cooler, less than 2.5 centimetres in depth.The approximately only time 25 centimetres “Having such a system that does not the solution long, 20 require electricity, pumps or other needed to be centimetres replenished equipment is a major advantage, wide and 15 as is a carefree method of nutrient was between centimetres sowings of management.” deep, filled to microgreens ⅔ depth with a complete hydroponic and baby leaf lettuce.The system was nutrient solution.The seed bed of clean, compact, energy and labour the Gericke System was a plastic efficient (no energy was required to run mesh basket that fitted tightly into the Gericke System although a lamp was the top of the nutrient filled cooler, used for extra light indoors). allowing an air space of around The second Gericke System was 1.2 centimetres.The mesh basket designed to incorporate organic was lined with a special matting, a gardening principals with hydroponics, synthetic, hygienic, porous material but without the potential problems used in the production of microgreens.The that this sort of combination can pose. matting was wetted with water and sown For this system a large black nutrient


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Unplugged: The Modernized Gericke System

tomato plants will be used at a high density to determine just how long the nutrient in the reservoir will last before needing a top up.

Disadvantages of these modern Gericke Systems to date have been: The small microgreens ‘cooler’ system worked well and the mesh basket could be easily lifted up to examine the roots and nutrient level with ease. However, the larger hydro/organic Gericke System was more Lettuce root outgrowth into the difficult to examine; the seed bed once nutrient reservoir after 10 days. filled with compost media was heavy to lift, so it became difficult to check the nutrient solution and root growth below. reservoir Given that this system was still considerably smaller than the original Gericke set-up, it was expected that the roots would be was e Gericke th d, ire qu easy to access, however, the weight of the damp seed bed had selected that re y ectricit No pumps or el l for a small indoor space ea id held 100 litres of been underestimated. If the nutrient solution is going to need crops. System was successive salad and grew many nutrient solution. topping up and adjustment during intense heat and evaporation The nutrient it is going to be rather difficult to do this and some further solution was a standard vegetative formulation at an tinkering with the system is planned for future developments. EC of 2.0 and pH of 5.9. The seed bed consisted of a painted The original Gericke Systems had built in nutrient level timber frame and wire netting that sat in top of the nutrient indicators and access funnels to allow the nutrient to be topped reservoir. The seed bed was up as required, so that would be “...simplified systems that require no filled with a layer of shredded the next logical step to improving pumps, electricity or circulating of nutrient the trial system. paper and coarse coconut can produce surprising results provided the Overall revisiting the Gericke fibre that prevented the finer particles falling through into principles of good plant nutrition, root zone System has led to some interesting the solution below. A mixture findings; simplified systems that aeration and support are followed.” of high quality vermicast require no pumps, electricity or (worm castings), fully decomposed compost mixed with circulating of nutrient can produce surprising results provided coarse bark, for additional aeration was placed over the the principles of good plant nutrition, root zone aeration and shredded paper, and the media planted with vegetable support are followed. In addition, modern ideas incorporating seedlings over a three week period. While this system is still organic gardening into hydroponics while still maintaining in the early stages of growth, the results are promising. The the benefits of both are possible in a simple and easy to media in the seedling bed has remained moist and roots have operate system. MY grown down into the nutrient reservoir. No signs of foliar References yellowing, stunting or wilting have occurred, which would Hydroponics’ Published in Science have indicated a lack of oxygen in the root zone or root Monday May 01, 1937 suffocation. The system appears to be healthy with worm Gericke W F, 1940.The Complete populations in the growing media and no unpleasant smell that would indicate the hydro/organic system had gone Guide to Soilless Gardening. Published by Prentice-Hall Inc, New York. anaerobic. Over time the nutrient level, EC and pH has not Gericke W F, 1945.The meaning been adjusted and will not be replaced until the plants are of hydroponics. Science,Volume 101, mature and harvested from the system. A true test of the Number 2615 pp 142-143. potential of this system will come when modern hybrid

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Aloe Vera 34

Growing and Usage by Therese Cressman Some say that Aloe Vera, the fascinating and mystical succulent, contains healing and soothing properties. The following tips will help you navigate the world of buying, growing and caring for this mineral-rich medicinal.

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Buying tips Aloe Vera usually grows slowly indoors so if this is the route you choose, purchase a large, more mature plant if possible. If a young plant is your only option, you can still use it for first aid treatments but know it will take a few years to grow large.Young Aloe plants are potent enough to use for first aid treatments, but a more mature plant is more potent; strength does increase with age.

Growing tips Aloe Vera can be planted indoors or outdoors, but will turn brown in harsh sunlight so plant in indirect light. It will freeze, so make sure to protect it during frost dangers. Aloe Vera is not suitable for wintering over in cold weather zones. It will grow faster outside than inside, but definitely makes a good indoor plant. Use welldrained sandy potting soil; a good quality commercial potting mix with extra perlite, granite grit or coarse sand is recommended. Cacti and succulent mixes may also be used.

Watering Aloe Vera is a succulent and so should not be overwatered. Allow the soil to become fairly dry before watering. During winter months it can be lightly watered. If planting in a pot, make sure there are drainage holes.

Repotting A plant that is root bound will be top heavy and send out more new shoots or pups. In this case, it’s time to repot. Remove new shoots when they are eight to 10 centimetres high and replant them in their own pots. If you don’t, they will suck life from the mother plant. Signs of this happening: the mother plant will turn bright green and spread its leaves horizontally rather than vertically. Water the pups well when repotting then don’t water again for about three weeks, forcing the new roots to get strong and seek water. They may turn grey or brown initially; this is normal. These make great gifts so give freely!

Symptoms of poor plant care Leaves lie flat instead of upright: usually because of insufficient light. Leaves are thin and curled: plant is not being watered enough; it’s using up its own liquid Leaves are brown: too much direct sunlight Very slow growth: high alkaline soil or water; too damp for too long; not enough light; too much fertilizer

Removing leaves Harvest leaves as you need; the plant wound seals and heals quickly. The leaf will not grow back so choose those closest to the ground as they are the most mature and most potent.

How to cut a leaf Remove the leaf from the plant with a sharp knife. Trim the thorny edges from the severed leaf then slice across its width. The inner transparent, gooey gel is ready to be applied directly to the afflicted area. Use generously; it will be absorbed by the skin within several minutes. After the gel from the first layer of ruptured cells has run dry, scratch the surface with a clean knife to rupture more cells, releasing more juice. This can be continued until there is nothing but green skin left. Partially used Aloe Vera leaves will last for days if wrapped in foil or plastic wrap and refrigerated.

Consuming the plant The colourless pulp is tasteless, but before consuming, rinse off the bitter yellow sap. Peel the green skin from the pulp, then rinse off the sap with cool water.MY

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To achieve maximum yields it is essential to maintain a plant’s shape and remove any unnecessary or damaged growth. This is most important when growing indoors under artificial lights. Shaping plants under artificial lighting When growing under artificial lights (HID or fluorescent), light is best used by keeping plants short. This can be achieved by pruning and training. Pruning: Once the initial three or four true leaves have formed, a plant can be made to possess two or more main stems by removing the terminal growing tip (figure 1a). The new main stems will grow from the axillary buds located at the remaining leaf nodes (figures 1a and 1b). Apart from being shorter than a single-stemmed plant of the same age, multiple stems allow a classic goblet-shaped structure to form (figure 3a). This shape generally permits better airflow and light penetration throughout the foliage. Photosynthesis takes place mainly in young maturing leaves. Older leaves and those partly shaded photosynthesize less, thus drawing on the nutrition from young maturing leaves for their survival. For this reason, it is worthwhile removing the lower, older foliage. This

Fig 2 To help prevent disease transfer, always sterilize tools before use.

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practice is most relevant when growing under artificial lighting because the lower growth is furthest from the light and therefore has the least potential to photosynthesize and be of benefit to the remainder of the plant. For many species, major structural pruning should only be conducted during the vegetative phase. Unless there is overcrowding or damaged growth, avoid stressing plants Fig 1a To use HID lighting more efficiently, remove the terminal by pruning during growing tip. This will produce a short flowering. Plant stress and bushy (multi-stemmed) plant. can be minimized by conducting major pruning in stages— allow plants to rest for a week or so between prunes. Training: Upward growth can be restrained by erecting netting at an Fig 1b Axillary buds will grow to appropriate height. from vegetative or floral growth, or Once plants reach a combination of both the netting they can either be: Trained to grow horizontally (figure 3b). Many plant species will respond to this treatment by producing floral growth at the point where the stem is bent beneath the net. Allowed to grow through the netting (figure 3a). However, if they grow too tall they can be bent down under the netting again. Note: Pruning/training/shaping requirements will vary from one plant species to another. For specific advice ask your local grow shop or nursery.


Fig 3 Netting can be used to support heavy top growth or to prevent plants from growing too high.

Overcrowded growth: Removing dense growth will allow better airflow and light penetration throughout the foliage. This will enable fruit to ripen more quickly.

Fig 4a Correct pruning technique: The “collar” mark is usually visible on woody growth. Cut immediately in front of this. This cut will heal quicker and minimize the risk of pest attack and disease ingress.

Fig 4a Poor pruning technique: This style of pruning is slower to heal and attracts pest and disease problems.

Damaged growth: Broken, dying or dead growth is susceptible to disease and pest attacks and therefore should be promptly removed from the plant and the growing area. Pruning Techniques To minimize the threat of pests and diseases, use the following guidelines when pruning: Where to cut: When pruning, ensure that the cut is both neat and close to the stem (figure 4a). Doing this will help ensure that the cut heals quickly and completely, thereby minimizing the risk

Plant Support In many plant species, especially heavily fruiting plants, support mechanisms are needed to prevent the stem from breaking. Stem support can be achieved using the following methods: 1. Netting: Wide mesh netting stretched across the Fig 5 Support mechanisms for plants. growing area acts as a support once the plant grows through it (figure 5a). However, this method will inhibit physical access to the plants where it is done over a large area. 2. String: String that is hung from a ceiling support and tied to the stem is especially effective for tall plants. The string is simply wound around the stem as the plant grows in height (figure 5b). Use a coarse grade of string to minimize the threat of it cutting into the stem. 3. Stakes: Rigid stakes can be used where plants are grown in pots. To avoid damaging the roots, position the stakes prior to planting. MY

of disease and pest attack (figure 4b). Pruning tools: Suitable tools for pruning include secateurs or a sharp blade. For a neat and clean cut, tools should be sharp and sterilized with bleach prior to use.

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by Lee

McCa

The Ins and O uts ll

of HVA C

Does your grow room need a lift? Likely what it’s missing is a strong dose of ventilation. The pros and cons of a sealed room (with respect to heating, ventilation and air conditioning) are detailed in this article so you can make up your own mind and recreate your space. Don’t be daunted by the equipment list.

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The grow room is an isolated filter and heat from the grow light. In the long run, environment constructed to control investing more can end up returning more from the and influence plant production. Several crop. Take for example a high-output inline fan aspects such as lighting, nutrient that is capable of 700 CFM of free-flowing regimen and strain characteristics might air with no static pressure. As soon as that be regarded as primary pillars of the fan is paired with a carbon filter of the grow room, but ventilation is every bit appropriate size the static pressure as important as any of these aspects and rating is increased, thus dropping will ultimately influence the quality of the CFM level of the fan. If the end product and the efficiency of an air-cooled reflector is grow room operations. Ventilation is being used with 15 or concerned with temperature, humidity 20 centimetre ducts, and CO2—three major factors that it is best to keep revolve around efficient lighting and the fan running environmental control and which are in sync with the vital for healthy growth. As a grower, cycle of the lights. If a definitive question “Ventilation is concerned with when temperature, humidity and CO2— setting up a respectable three major factors that revolve new grow around efficient lighting and is deciding environmental control and which are whether or not the vital for healthy growth.” to run a sealed lights room. Many people argue that turn on, a sealed rooms create more problems fan should also with temperature, humidity and CO2 than they solve, but turn on to keep them cool during operation. As stated others prefer this method in order to maintain higher CO2 earlier, “clean” air that is projected from any carbon filter levels for longer periods of time and keep the expense of may be used to partially remove heat from the reflectors, running fans to a minimum. As with any grower, to each although this eliminates the ability to efficiently use their own; great results are achievable in a multitude of ways supplemental CO2 in the garden. The reason for this is and styles. because CO2 Personally, I steer away levels are from sealed rooms if at all possible, because I prefer to keep air movement high and CO2 levels at normal numbers for most of the day. I also favour air-cooling grow light reflectors separately from carbon filters. Although it is initially cheaper to use the filtered air from a carbon scrubber to vent heat out of grow light housings, I feel that overall efficiency is reduced through the effectiveness of VOC Grow room diagram. (odour) removal from the Maximum Yield  | March/April 2011

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The Ins and Outs of HVAC

generally most effective on plants at even 30 minutes, without reaching a the garden itself should be set up on its levels ranging from 800 to 1,500 PPM, dangerous temperature in the garden? own ventilation loop separate from that Theoretically, if air-cooling a grow and for periods in excess of at least 30 of the grow lights. A separate intake minutes. In order to successfully build light is dependent on the operation of point will allow fresh air to enter the a carbon filter, then the carbon filter a CO2 PPM level of 800 to 1,500 from grow area and refresh any depleted CO2 the normal 300 to 450 and levels. All grow room air that maintain it for at least 30 comes in contact with plants minutes, the garden must be should be exhausted through free of exhaust or intake air a carbon filter and dumped “If an air-cooled reflector is being during this time—virtually outside or into another area utilized with six or eight inch ducts, sealed. Leaving several adjacent the grow room. Let’s it is best to keep the fan running in 1,000 watt lights (or even recap: a minimum of two fans sync with the cycle of the lights.” just one) on in a confined is required in order to achieve space without adequate this ventilation concept. One air-cooling could result fan is dedicated to cooling in exposing the garden to only grow lights and has no temperature extremes in excess of 35°C would have to be turned off in order to other purpose to the operation of or more. If you are using a carbon filter the garden. Another fan will operate allow CO2 levels to rise in the garden; to air-cool your lights, can you turn the otherwise it would all be exhausted the carbon filter to ensure any and all carbon filter off grow room air is cleaned before it is out of the room with the heat from for at least one the grow light. Since the main source exhausted out of the area. A third fan hour, or of generated heat from a grow room is optional, for intake air to the garden. is derived from the lights, there will probably be a discrepancy in maintaining a safe and consistent temperature in the garden during times when CO2 would be used and the carbon filter would have to be turned off. To avoid a dilemma such as this and ensure that you are being cost effective with CO2 operations, air-cool any and all grow lights with their own fan, on their own ventilation loop. Basically, air should be pulled from a remote area—i.e. outside, an adjacent room, a crawl space, an attic, etc.—and projected through the grow light(s) to remove heat, then exhausted outside or to another area separate from the one where air is originally being taken from. When set up this way, the grow lights will be able to stay aircooled as long as they are on, and will have no affiliation with air flow from a carbon filter or room exhaust. Next, intake and exhaust air for Closed loop ventilation for grow lights. 40

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Mult-Tent: This set-up promotes thourough airflow through both tents using one intake and one exhaust.

I highly recommend that air from outside be pushed through a HEPA filter before being allowed to replenish the garden atmosphere. HEPA filters will remove more than 90 per cent of negative pathogens that could infect the garden and 99 per cent of insects such as spidermites, thrips, whiteflies and fungus gnats. This ventilation design provides flexibility to the user and allows for a higher precision point of environmental control. Not only can carbon filters be cut off for extended periods of time to allow for optimal CO2 usage in the garden, but heat will also stay controlled due to the fact that they are cooled from an entirely

separate fan system. I have provided literally become some simple diagrams to help guide addicted to what it is being those in need towards the ideal grow served in excess. In retrospect, room ventilation design. indoor gardening is all about A rare, but true oddity: a handful of efficiency as well as quality. As times I have encountered a grower a grower, if I can use less CO2 to who runs a sealed room with no achieve the same results and also keep problems for years, but suddenly faces my garden healthier at the same time, why wouldn’t I? poor growth, low yield and a drop in quality. Instead of allowing a crop to So the answer to the ultimate question breathe “normal” CO2 levels (300 to of whether or not to run a sealed room 450 PPMs) is actually from a fresh sort of simple. “Over time the crop evolves air exchange Keep the and adapts to these high levels with the temperature occasional at 24 to of CO2, and, as an effect, if CO2 CO2 blast of 27°C with levels are ever below 1,000 1,500 PPM, the lights to 1,500 PPMs then plant on, humidity the sealed production ceases.” room design levels maintains anywhere 1,000 to from 30 1,500 PPMs at all times. Over time the to 45 per cent and at least 60 to 70 crop evolves and adapts to these high watts of light per 0.10 square metres. levels of CO2, and, as an effect, if CO2 Don’t overuse CO2—less is always levels are ever below 1,000 to 1,500 more—and document all trial and error PPMs then plant production ceases. information. Whether your room is This theory basically confirms that sealed or fully vented, if you as a grower CO2 is a ‘supernatural’ occurrence for a are able to meet the specifications of the plant in nature at such high levels, major grow room design pillars, success and that your garden can will inevitably follow! MY Maximum Yield  | March/April 2011

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Maximum Yield  | March/April 2011

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RETAIL

directory

AUSTRALIA ACT

South Pacific Hydroponics #2 - 84 - 86 Wollongong St., Fyshwick ACT 2609 South Pacific Hydroponics 70 Oatley Court , Belconnen ACT 2617

(02) 6239 2598 (02) 6251 0600

NEW SOUTH WALES ABC Aquaculture 54 Wahroonga Road, Kanwal NSW 2259 (61) 2 4393 3131 ASE Hydroponics Factory 10/45 Leighton Pl., Hornsby NSW 2077 (02) 9477 3710 Ballina Hydro 3 Ray O’Niell Crescent, Ballina NSW 2478 (02) 6686 7321 Brunswick Hydro & Aquarium Supplies 19 Booyun Street, Brunswick Heads NSW 2483 (02) 6685 1552 Criscete Hydroponics and Organics Unit 2/15 Kam Close, Morisset, NSW 2264 (02) 4973 5779 Dr. Van Der Bloom’s Hydroponics Supplies 5/5 Forge Drive, Coff’s Harbour, NSW 2450 (02) 6651 9992 Dubbo Hydro & Tobacconist 42c Victoria Street, Dubbo West NSW 2830 (02) 6885 1616 Ezi Grow Hydro 177 Mt Druit Road, Mt Druitt NSW 2770 (02) 9832 1610 Ezi Grow Hydro 1B/340 Windsor Street, Richmond NSW 2753 (02) 4588 5826 Ezi Grow Hydro 56 Fish Parade, Bathurst NSW 2795 (02) 9832 1610 Ezi Grow Hydro - Head Office 18 Part Street, Eglinton NSW 2795 (02) 6337 1485 Favgro Hydroponics Growers 107 Glenella Road, Batehaven NSW 2536 (02) 4472 7165 Felanza - Hydroponics 140 Princess Highway, Arncliffe, NSW 2205 (02) 9556 1494 General Hydroponics 7/14 Sunnyholt Road, Blacktown NSW 9676 (02) 9676 8682 Grow Australia Factory 1/5 Sefton Road, Thronleigh NSW 2120 (02) 9473 5000 Grow Your Own Unit 6/34 Alliance Ave, Morisset NSW 2264 (02) 4973 5179 Happy Grow Hydro 15/The Crescent Street, Penrith NSW 2750 (02) 4732 2870 Hobby Grow 6/46 Through Street South Grafton NSW 2460 (04) 2283 8069 Home Harvest 423 Princess Highway, Rockdale NSW 2216 (02) 9567 8841 Hyalite Moorebank 6/376 Newsbridge Road, Moorebank NSW 2170 (02) 9824 3400 Hyalite Villawood 2/21 Birmingham Avenue, Villawood NSW 2163 (02) 9723 7199 Hydro Masta 100 Station Road, Seven Hills, Sydney NSW 2147 (02) 8812 2845 Hydro Masta Pty Ltd 76 Beecroft Road, Epping NSW 2121 (02) 9869 3011 Hydro Net 2/14 Aific Street, Long Jetty NSW 2261 (02) 4334 6955 Hydro Place 1/68 Nelson Street, Wallsend NSW 2287 (02) 4965 6595 Hydro Shop and Reptile Supplies 2/390 The Esplanade, Warners Bay NSW 2282 (02) 4958 1489 Hydro Shop Pty Ltd Unit 1/5-7 Channel Road, Mayfield West NSW 2304 (02) 4960 0707 Hydro Supplies 57 Flinders Street, Darlinghurst NSW 2010 (02) 9326 0307 Hydro Wise B/385 The Entrance Road, Long Jetty NSW 2261 (02) 4333 5700 Hydroponics Grow All Year 14 Fitzmaurice Street, Wagga Wagga NSW 2650 (02) 6921 5911 Hygrow Horticulture (Greenlite) 252 Oxford Street, Bondi Junction NSW 2022 (02) 9369 3928 Indoor Sun Shop 745 Victoria Road, Top Ryde NSW 2112 (02) 9808 6511 Indoor Sun Shop Unit 2/109 Junction Road, Moorebank NSW 2170 (02) 9822 4700 International Fans PO Box 120, St. Mary’s NSW 2760 (02) 9833 7500 Kyper’s Tools and Hydroponics Stuart & Tincogan Sts, Mullumbimby NSW 2482 (02) 6684 4928 Lismore Hydro 1/106 Canway Street, Lismore NSW 2480 (02) 6621 3311

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Maximum Yield  | March/April 2011

Lismore Hydroponics rear of 28 Casino St., South Lismore, NSW 2480 Northern Nursery Supplies Pty Ltd 14-16 Nance Road, Kempsey NSW 2440 Nowra Hydro 68 Bridge Road, Nowra NSW 2541 Nutriflo Hydroponic Systems 19/5 Daintree Place, Gosford West NSW 2250 Parkview Plants 250 Princess Highway, Nowra South NSW 2541 Port Pumps and Irrigation 20 Uralla Road, Pt Macquarie NSW 2444 Quik Grow 510a Great Western Hwy., Pendle Hill NSW 2145 Quick Grow 823 King Georges Road, S. Hurstville NSW 2221 Quik Grow Pty Ltd 490 Parramatta Road, Petersham NSW 2049 Simple Grow Hassall Street & Windem, Wetherill Pk NSW 2164 Tweed Coast Hydroponics 2/58 Machinery Dr., Tweeds Head South NSW 2486 Uncle Wal’s Gardenland 31 Crescent Avenue, Taree NSW 2430 Home Grown Aquaponics 13/8a-8b Hartley Drive, Thornton NSW 2322 Westside Lighting & Electrical (Ezi Range) PO Box 274, Mascot NSW 1400 Wollongong Hydroponic Center 318 Crown Street, Wollongong NSW 2500 NORTHERN TERRITORY Katherine Hydroponics Centre 17 Rundle Street, Katherine NT 0850 QUEENSLAND A Happy Medium Hydroponics Unit2/10 Central Court, Browns Plains QLD 4118 Allgrow Hydro 13 - 58 Bullock Head St., Sumner Park QLD 4074 Aquatic Oasis Unit 2/33 Smith Street, Capalaba QLD 4157 Billabong Hydroponics Lot 1, Billabong Court, Childers QLD 4660 D-Bay Hydroponics Shop 5/404 Deception Bay Road, Deception Bay QLD 4508 E.T. Grow Home Unit 1/4 Windmill Street, Southport QLD 4215 Eye Lighting Australia Pty Ltd PO Box 306, Carole Park QLD 4300 Green Power Hydroponics 2/80 Beerburrum Road, Caboolture QLD 4510 Grow Hydro 22 Mining Street, Bundamba QLD 4304 Hyalite Varsity 5/11 John Duncan Crt.,Varsity Lakes QLD 4227 Hydroponic Roots & Shoots Lot 3 Herberton Road, Atherton QLD 4883 Hydroponics & Garden Supplies 93 Cook St., Portsmith QLD 4870 Hydroponics Today PO Box 785, Stanthorpe QLD 4380 Indoor Solutions Unit 2 / 79 Oxford Tce., Taringa QLD 4068 J&K Hydroponics 10 Wacol Station Road, Wacol, Brisbane QLD, 4076 KY Garden 3/31 Argyle PDE, Darra Brisbane QLD 4076 Nerang Hydroponic Centre 27 Lawrence Drive, Nerang QLD 4211 North Queensland Hydro Supplies Shop 2B/20-22 Fleming St., Townsville QLD 4810 Northern Hydroponics 383 Mulgrave Road, Cairns QLD 4870 Pioneer Hydroponics 194 Doyles Road, Pleystowe QLD 4741 SA Hydroponics Shed 3, 1191 Anzac Avenue, Kallangar QLD 4503 Simply Hydroponics Gold Coast 42 Lawrence Drive, Nerang QLD 4211

(02) 6621 3311 (02) 6563 1599 (02) 4423 3224 (02) 4323 1599 (02) 4423 0599 (02) 6581 1272 (02) 9636 7023 (02) 9546 8642 (02) 9568 2900 (02) 9604 0469 (07) 5524 8588 (02) 6550 0221 (02) 4028 6388 1 800 661 475 (02) 4225 8773

(08) 8972 1730

(07) 3809 3322 (07) 3376 7222 (07) 3245 7777 (07) 4126 3551 (07) 3204 8324 (07) 5591 6501 (07) 3335 3556 (07) 5428 1133 (07) 3816 3206 (07) 5593 7385 (07) 4091 3217 (07) 4035 5422 (07) 4683 3133

(07) 3271 6210 (07) 3375 9098 (07) 5527 4155 (07) 4728 3957 (07) 4054 5884 (07) 4959 2016 (07) 3285 1355 (07) 5596 2250

Sunstate Hydroponics 1137 Ipswitch Road, Moorooka QLD 4105 Sunstate Hydroponics 67 Aerodrome Road, Maroochydore QLD 4558 The Hydroponic Warehouse Shop 3/73 PIckering Street, Enoggera QLD 4051 Tumbling Waters Hydroponics 2 Clarkes Track, Malanda QLD 4885 Walsh’s Seeds Garden Centre 881 Ruthven Street, Toowoomba QLD 4350 SOUTH AUSTRALIA Amazon Aquariums & Gardening Unit 5, 16 Research Road, Pooraka SA 5095 Ascot Park 753 Marion Road, Ascot Park SA 5043 Barry’s Hardware Saints & Main North Rd., Salisbury Plains SA 5109 Bolzon Home & Garden 103 Tolley Road, St Agnes SA 5097 Chocablock Discount Variety Store 15-17/1220 Grand Junction, Hope Valley SA 5090 Complete Hydroponics 1581 Main North Road Salisbury East SA 5109 Country Hydro 434 Saddleback Road, Whyalla SA 5600 D & W Dependable Hardware 45B Kettering Road, Elizabeth South SA 5112 Festive Hydro 2 Kreig Street, Evanston Park SA 5116 Fulham Gardener Nursery 597 Tapleys Hill Road, Fulham SA 5024 Futchatec Distribution 4 Symonds St. Royal Park, 5014 Glandore Hydroponics 644 - 646 South Road, Glandore SA 5037 Greener then Green 52 - 54 Cliff Avenue, Port Noarlunga South SA 51 Greenhouse Superstore Lonsdale 35 to 37 Aldenhoven Road SA 5160 Greenhouse Superstore Royal Park 4 Symonds St. Royal Park SA 5014 Ground-Up Service Nursery 3 Copinger Road, Pt. Pirie SA 5540 Harvest Time Hydroponics Shop 3/146-148, Findon Road, Findon SA 5023 Hindmarsh Hydroponics 39a Manton Street, Hindmarsh SA 5095 Highland Hydro 14/1042 Grand Junction Road, Holden Hill SA 5088 Hong Kong Hydro 13 Research Road, Pooraka SA 5095 Hydro Heaven Kane Motors-Hunt Road, Mount Barker SA 5251 Hydro Sales & Service 1 Salisbury Crescent, Colonel Light SA 5041 Hydro Technics 321 South Road, Croydon SA 5008 Hydro Warehouse 181 Seacombe Road, South Brighton SA 5048 Hydro World 40 Folland Avenue, Northfield SA 5085 Koko’s Hydro Warehouse Unit 2/2 McGowan Street, Pooraka SA 5095 Larg’s Bay Garden Supply 239 Victoria Road, Largs Bay SA 5016 Martins Road Hydro # 5- 353 Martins Road, Parafield Gardens SA 5107 Mitre 10 Drive In 152 Hanson Road, Mansfield Park SA 5012 New Age Hydroponics 135-137 Sir Donald Bradman Dr., Hilton SA 5033 Owen Agencies 17-19 Railway Terrace, Owen SA 5460 Professional Hydro 4/522 Grange Road, Fulham Gardens SA 5024 Professional Hydro Shop 5/645 Lower North East Road SA 5075 Professional Hydroponics 113 Maurice Road, Murray Bridge SA

(07) 3848 5288 (07) 5479 1011 (07) 3354 1588 (07) 4096 6443 (07) 4636 1077

(08) 8359 1800 (08) 8357 4700 (08) 8281 4066 (08) 8265 0665 (08) 8396 3133 (08) 8258 4022 (08) 8645 3105 (08) 8287 6399 (08) 8523 5100 (08) 8235 2004 (08) 8447-1122 (08) 8371 5777 (08) 8386 2596 (08) 8382 0100 (08) 8447 5899 (08) 8264 9455 (08) 8244 0222 (08) 8346 9461 (08) 8395 4455 (08) 8260 2000 (08) 8391 1880 (08) 8272 2000 (08) 8241 5022 (08) 8377 1200 (08) 8262 8323 (08) 8260 5463 (08) 8242 3788 (08) 8283 4011 (08) 8445 1813 (08) 8351 9100 (08) 8528 6008 (08) 8353 0133 (08) 8365 5172 (08) 8532 3441


Seaton Hydroponics 129 Tapleys Hill Road Seaton SA 5023 Soladome Aquaculture & Hydro 44 Chapel St., Norwood SA 5067 South Coast Hydroponics 6/25 Gulfview Road, Christies Beach SA 5165 State Hydroponics 174 Semaphore Road, Exeter SA 5019 Tea Tree Gully Hydro 32 Famechon Cresent, Modbury North SA 5092 Two Wells Hardware 86 Old Port Wakefield Road, Two Wells SA 5501 Urban Grow Solutions 1/111 Main Sth Rd, O’Halloran Hill, S.A 5189 West Garden Centre Peachey Road, Elizabeth West SA 5113

(08)82682636 (08) 8362 8042 (08) 8384 2380 (08) 8341 5991 (08) 8264 9455 (08) 8520 2287 (08) 8322 0040 (08) 8255 1355

TASMANIA

Advanced Hydroponics 26 Mulgrave Street, South Launceston Tas 7249 Ezy Grow 625 East Derwent Highway, Lindisfarne Tas 7015 Garden World 717 West Tamar Highway, Legana Tas 7277 Green Acres Hydroponics Unit 1 46-48 Bingalong Rd, Mornington, TAS 7018 Growers Choice 225 Main Road, Derwent Park Tas 7009 Hydroponics Systems 131 Main Rd, Moonah, TAS 7009  Hydroponic World 322 Bass Highway, Sulphur Creek Tas 7316 Organic Garden Supplies Tas 17 Don Road, Devonport Tas 7310 Tas Hydroponic Supplies 99 Lampton Avenue, Derwent Park Tas 7009 The Hydroponic Company 69 Charles Street, Moonah Tas 7009 The Hydroponics Company 289 Hobart Road, Kings Medow Tas 7428

(03) 6344 5588 (03) 6243 9490 (03) 6330 1177 (03) 6245 1066 (03) 6273 6088 (03) 6278 3457 (03) 6435 4411 (03) 6424 7815 (03) 6272 2202 (03) 6273 1411 (03) 6340 2222

VICTORIA

Albury Hydroponics 62 Thomas Mitchell Drive, Springvale Vic 3171 All Seasons Hydroponics 3 Springvale Road, Springvale Vic 3171 Banksia Greenhouse and Outdoor Garden 530 Burwood Highway, Wantirna Vic 3152 Barb’s Hydro and Nursery 15 Wallace Avenue, Interverloch Vic 3196 Bayside Hydroponics Factory 2/8 Rutherford Road, Seaford Vic 3196 Belgrave Hydroponics 1642 Burwood Highway, Belgrave Vic 3160 Brew ‘N’ Grow 4 - 479 Nepean Highway, Edithvale Vic 3199 Casey Hydro 12 The Arcade Street, Cranbourne Vic 3977 Casey Hydro 78 Spring Square, Hallam Vic 3803 Chronic Hydroponics 31 Anderson Street, Templestowe Vic 3106 Complete Garden Supplies 580 Ballarat Road, Sunshine Vic 3020 Discount Hydroponics 752 Waverley Road, Chadstone Vic 3148 Echuca Hydroponic Nursery & Supplies 23 Ogilvie Avenue, Echuca Vic 3564 Echuca Pump Shop 128 Ogilvie Avenue, Echuca Vic 3564 Excel Distributors Pty Ltd 2/41 Quinn Street, Preston Vic 3072 F.L.O.W. Plants and Environments 66B Chapel Street, Windsor Vic 3181 Gardensmart 810-834 Springvale Road, Keysborough Vic 3173 Global Hydroponics 10 Knight Avenue, Sunshine Vic 3020 Greenleaf Hydroponics 9a Church Street, Traralgon Vic 3844

(03) 9540 8000 (03) 9540 8000 (03) 9801 8070 (03) 5674 2584 (03) 9775 0495 (03) 9754 3712 (03) 9783 3006 (03) 5996 3697 (03) 9796 3776 (03) 9646 8133 (03) 9311 9776 (03) 9568 1860 (03) 5480 2036 (03) 5480 7080 (03) 9495 0083 (03) 9510 6832 (03) 9769 1411 (03) 9356 9400 (03) 5176 0898

Greenleaf Hydroponics Factory 7, Industrial Park Drive, Lilydale Vic 3140 GreenLite - Ringwood 291 Maroondah Highway, Ringwood Vic 3134 Grow 4 XS Rear 24 Simms Road, Greensborough Vic 3088 Holland Forge Pty Ltd. 5 Hi-tech Place, Rowville Vic 3178 Hydroware 59a Lara Way, Campbellfield, Vic, 3061 Hyalite Airport West Unit 4/504-506 Fullarton Road, Airport West 3042 Hyalite Bayswater 4/19 Jersey Road, Bayswater Vic 3153 Hyalite Global 10 Knight Avenue, Sunshine North Vic 3020 Hyalite Westend 3 Third Avenue, Sunshine Vic 3020 Indoor Garden Company 29 Glasgow Street, Collingwood Vic 3066 Impact Distribution PO Box 2188, Salisbury Downs 5108 JB Lighting 492 - 500 Neerim Road, Murrumbeena Vic 3163 Just Hydroponics Deer Park Unit 11 29-39 Westwood Drive, Deer Park, VIC 3023  Just Hydroponics Geelong Unit 7 36-38 Saunders street, North Geelong, VIC 3215 Latrove Valley Home Brew Supplies PO Box 802, Morwell Vic 3804 Living Jungle 345 Sommerville Road, Footscray West Vic 3012 Melton Hydroponic Supplies 18/10 Norton Drive, Melton Vic 3194 Midtown Hydroponics Factory 1, 821B Howitt St., Wendouree Vic 3355 One Stop Sprinklers 1 Burwood Highway, Wantirna Vic 3152 Pam’s Home Brew & Hydroponics 61 McArthur Street, Sale Vic 3850 Palms & Plants 175 Salisbury Highway, Salisbury S.A. 5108 Shepparton Hydroponics 87A Archer Street, Shepparton Vic 3630 Simply Hydroponics 5/ 411-413 Old Geelong Rd., Hoppers Cros. 3029 Simply Hydroponics 8, 59-61 Miller St., Epping 3076 Sunlite Hydroponics 1/104 Shannon Avenue, Geelong West Vic 3281 Sunray Hydro 157 Tenth Street, Mildura Vic 3500 Supply Net International P/L PO Box 171, Highbury Vic 5089 The Hydroponic Connection 397 Dorset Road, Boronia Vic 3155 Waterworks Hydroponics Unit 1, 5 Brand Drive, Thomastown Vic 3074 WESTERN AUSTRALIA Accent Hydroponics Unit 2/141 Russell Street, Morley WA 6062 Aqua Post Unit 2B 7 Yampi Way, Willetton WA 6155 Aquaponics Lot 12 Warton Road, Canning Vale WA 6155 Bunbury Alternate Growing Supplies 8/13 Worcestor Bend, Davenport, WA 6230 Creative Hydroponics 1/95 Dixon Road, Rockingham WA 6168 Great Southern Hydroponics Shop 1, 21 Hennessy Road, Bunbury WA 6230 Greenfingers World of Hydroponics Albany Hwy & Kelvin Rd.,Maddington WA 6109 Greenfingers World of Hydroponics Unit C 14-16 Elliot Street, Midvale WA 6056 Greenlite Hydroponics 4/91 Wanneroo Road, Tuart Hill WA 6060

(03) 9739 7311 (03) 9870 8566 (03) 9435 6425 (03) 9764 1372 (03) 9357 8805 (03) 9331 5452 (03) 9720 1946 (03) 9356 9400 (03) 9311 3510 (03) 9416 1699 (08) 8250-1515 (03) 9569 4399 (03) 8390 0861 (03) 5278 6478 (03) 5133 9140 (03) 9314 0055 (03) 9746 9256 (03) 5339 1300 (03) 9800 2177 (03) 5143 1143 (08) 8285 7575 (03) 5831 6433 (03) 9360 9344 (03) 9408 4677 (03) 5222 6730 (03) 5023 6422 (88) 264-3600 (03) 9761 0662 (03) 9465 1455

(08) 9375 9355 (08) 9354 2888 1800 640 222 (08) 9725 7020 (08) 9528 1310 (08) 9721 8322 (08) 9452 0546 (08) 9274 8388 (08) 9345 5321

Growsmart Hydroponics 47768 South Coast Highway, Albany WA 6330 Hydro Nation 41A Rockingham Road, Hamilton Hill WA 6163 Hydroponic Solutions 1/1928 Beach Road, Malaga WA 6090 Hydroponic Warehouse Unit 7/627 Wanneroo Road, Wanneroo WA 6065 Hydroponica 317 Guildford Road, Maylands WA 6051 Isabella’s Hydroponics 66 Jambanis Road, Wanneroo WA 6065 Johnson’s Nursery Garden Centre 30 Blencowe Road, Geralton WA 6530 Neerabup Organic & Hydroponic Supplies Unit 1, 21 Warman St. Neerabup WA 6031 One Stop Hydroponics 947 Beaufort Street, Inglewood WA 6052 Perth Hydroponic Centre Shop 4, 171-175 Abernathy Road, Belmont WA 6104 Reptile and Grow Store Unit 7 - 117-119 Dixon Road, Rockingham WA 6168 Southwest Hydroponics Lot 29, Pinjarra Road, Mandurah WA 6210 The Grow Room 1/1451 Albany Highway, Cannington WA 6107 Bloem PO Box 1816, Subiaco WA 6008 The Watershed Water Systems 150 Russell Street, Morley WA 6062 The Watershed Water Systems 2874 Albany Highway, Kelmscott WA 6111 The Watershed Water Systems 1/146 Great Eastern Highway, Midland WA 6210 Water Garden Warehouse 14 Drake Street, Osborne Park WA 6017

(08) 9841 3220 (08) 9336 7368 (08) 9248 1901 (08) 9206 0188 (08) 9371 5757 (08) 9306 3028 (08) 9921 6016 (08) 9404 7155 (08) 9471 7000 (08) 9478 1211 (08) 9527 2245 (08) 9534 8544 (08) 9356 7044 (08) 9217 4400 (08) 9473 1473 (08) 9495 1495 (08) 9274 3232 (08) 9443 7993

NEW ZEALAND

Easy Grow New Lynn 3018 Gt North Rd New Lynn, Auckland Easy Grow Manukau 15/69 Wiri Station Road, Manukau, Auckland Guru Gardener 14 Molesworth St., New Plymouth Otaki Hydroponics 1083 S.H. 1 South Otaki House of Hydro 221 Waiwhetu Rd., Lower Hutt Wellington Pet and Garden 10 Fitzgerald Ave., Christchurch Grow and Brew 14a Flexman Place, Silverdale Auckland Green Day Hydroponics Cnr of Maunganui Rd & Tawa St., Mt Maunganui Switched on Gardener Number 189 (Lower) Dent Street, Whangarei Switched on Gardener Unit 159 Central Park Drive, Henderson Switched on Gardener Unit 1/60 Ti Rakau Drive, Pakuranga Switched on Gardener Number 1c Sunshine Ave, Hamilton Switched on Gardener Number 513 Heretaunga Street West, Hastings Switched on Gardener Number 62 Kaiwharawhara Road, Wellington Switched on Gardener Unit 7/67 View Road, Glenfield Switched on Gardener Number 1 Rata Street, New Lynn Switched on Gardener Number 57 Cavendish Drive, Manukau Switched on Gardener Number 427 Cameron Road, Tauranga Switched on Gardener Number 1060 Fergusson Drive, Upper Hutt Switched on Gardener Number 3 Pascoe Street, Nelson Switched on Gardener Number 9 Buckley Road, Linwood Switched on Gardener Number 143 Tuam Street, Christchurch CBD Switched on Gardener Number 313 King Edward Street, Dunedin

09 827 0883 09 263 7560 06 758 6661 06 364 2206

03 377 2507 09 426 2095 07 575 4090 (09)438 0223 (09) 837 1210 (09) 576 0296 (07) 850 8351 (06) 876 7885 (04) 472 5265 (09) 443 0106 (09) 826 4444 (09) 263 4336 (07) 579 9840 (04) 526 3913 (03) 546 4769 (03) 381 0937 (03) 374 5682 (03) 456 1980

Maximum Yield  | March/April 2011

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COMING UP IN

may - june 2011

Photo by Dennis Tasa

Chelated Micronutrients Discover the several forms of trace mineral chelates and learn why amino acid chelates are particularly beneficial.

Hydroponic Growing Systems Discussed are three hydroponic growing systems in wide use for commercial production made more complicated since a rooting medium is involved.

Plant Propagation: Discovering Rooting Hormones The benefits of each type of rooting hormone and essential do-it-yourself details for the homemade weeping willow remedy are presented.

Simon Says, industry news and reviews, your letters, shop talk, grow gear and so much more.

DO YOU

know?

symptoms of a magnesium deficiency include 1 The leaves yellowing in between green veins, but with this particular deficiency the leaf tips become brown and turn upwards, and the area first affected will be the middle leaves of the plant. are an amazingly versatile crop, providing 2 Soybeans oil, carbohydrates and protein. The protein content is around 40 per cent, oil approximately 20 per cent and carbohydrates about 35 per cent. term hydroponics was introduced in 1937 in Science 3 The magazine by U.S. practitioner Dr. William Gericke. stems on a plant allow a classic goblet-shaped 4 Multiple structure to form, which generally permits better airflow and light penetration throughout the foliage. more mature an Aloe Vera plant is, the more 5 The potent it is. Strength increases with age. is a ‘supernatural’ occurrence for a plant in 6 CO nature at extreme levels, and your garden can literally 2

become addicted to what it is being served in excess.

www.maximumyield.com Maximum Yield Australia May/June will be available May 1 for FREE at selected indoor gardening retail stores across Australia. Subscriptions are available by contacting editor@maximumyield.com or visiting maximumyield.com/subscriptions.php

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Maximum Yield  | March/April 2011

nitrogen deficiency is the most common cause of 7 Ayellowing leaves in plants.


Maximum Yield  | March/April 2011

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Maximum Yield Australia | November/December  | March/April 2011 2010


Maximum Yield Australia/New Zealand Mar/April 2011