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Australia January/February 2013

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BEHIND LIGHT Fuvic Acid

maximumyield.com

A Golden Opportunity for Your Garden

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CONTENTS January/February 2013

24

FEATURES

32

46

18 A Golden Opportunity by Helene Isbell

24 Happy Ginger (in Hydroponics) by Dr. Mike Nichols

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44

38 32 Abiotic Diseases by Raquel Neofit

38 The Science of Light by Eric Hopper

44 Gardening for Apartment窶電wellers by Kristen McKenzie

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DEPARTMENTS

6

From the Editor

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Letters to the Editor

10

Simon Says

12

MAX Facts

14

Product Spotlight

46

Growers Know

48

Talking Shop

50

You Tell Us

52

Distributors

54

Coming up Next

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MaximumYield.com

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FROM THE EDITOR | LINDA JESSON

Happy New Year! If one your New Year’s resolution was to enhance and improve your garden, you have all the info and tools right in your hands this issue. From the science behind lighting to the golden opportunities of fulvic acid, the dangers of abiotic diseases to the idea of growing ginger in hydroponics, we have packed this issue full of info and great tips to make your good garden great! Also, think you don’t have space to grow indoors? Well, as Kristen McKenzie points out on page 44, you don’t need much room to create your own small space oasis. Add in some awesome new product finds and you have the recipe to start your year off right.

Message

From all of us here at Maximum Yield, we’d like to wish you all a great New Year filled with health, happiness and plenty of maximised yields!

from the

Editor Linda Jesson

CONTRIBUTORS Eric Hopper has over 10 years of

Helene Isbell is an avid

Raquel Neofit is a freelance writer

Dr. Mike Nichols is a retired

experience in the hydroponic industry as both a retail store manager and owner. He continuously seeks new methods and products that could help maximize garden performance. Eric resides in Michigan where he and his family strive for a self-sufficient and sustainable lifestyle.

for the horticulture, travel and lifestyle industries. She has a background in business and radio, and is an avid believer that hydroponics is the future. Follow Raquel’s writing on her blog, Black Thumbs Guide to Growing Green—the misadventures of the vertical herb gardening movement— and My Food Story on Facebook.

horticulturalist and has been an advocate of the hydroponics and organic gardening industry for over 10 years. A California native, Helene lives in San Diego, where she promotes the education of urban agriculture and represents Mad Farmer, a company that specializes in hydroponic nutrient supplements.

Kristen McKenzie Having spent the

last 10 years in Vancouver, Kristen has recently relocated Down Under with her Australian de facto spouse and now calls Sydney home. Previously the communications specialist for Tourism Richmond, she’s also written for a variety of British Columbian publications including Vancouver View and VanCityBuzz.com

university lecturer and an honorary research associate in the College of Sciences at Massey University, New Zealand. He speaks extensively at conferences for international organizations such as the United Nations, and also writes and consults on a range of intensive horticultural topics.

Become a Maximum Yield contributor and have your articles read by 250,000 readers throughout USA, Canada, UK, Australia and New Zealand. Maximum Yield is the largest free-to-consumer indoor gardening magazine in the world. Every issue is available on maximumyield.com, which has thousands of unique visitors monthly.

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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Long Beach Love

Hard Copy Heartache

Hi Maximum Yield, My staff and I had the pleasure in meeting you and being at your [Long Beach] show. Being a business owner for 10 months, I came back from your event motivated and even more driven. I look forward to working with you as I trail-blaze through our industry!  Thanks Again,  Robert Bayya 

I was so pleased to see [your magazine] was a free subscription, but when I went to print off the form to get the magazine mailed to my home, there was a charge. Also, I think it would be wonderful if your photos had some sort of figure heading ... I was often unsure of what I was looking at. I am really excited about finding this magazine! … [Before finding it,] I felt constantly frustrated when searching for hard-copy, indoor gardening magazines. Thank you so much for your time, Stephanie Nicholson

Thanks for Presenting Maximum Yield Many thanks for send sending the magazines to use for our “Escape Winter” presentation on hydroponics. They were very much apap preciated and were a hit with all workshop participants. Barbara Hanbridge, master gardener

via Facebook Great Minds in Agreement Best hydroponic mag we receive in the shop. Bradford Hydroponics Our customers love your Magazine and detail [sic] Articles, keep up the amazing work. Sky Valley Indoor Garden Supply Had a fun time at the expo … the booths were great and so were the products! Taylor Bedwell

WE WANT TO HEAR FROM YOU! Maximum Yield Publications Inc. Snail-mail: 2339 Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 Email: editor@maximumyield.com Twitter: twitter.com/max_yield Facebook: facebook.com/MaximumYield

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Hello Stephanie, Maximum Yield is available for free at indoor gardening and hydroponic shops, as well as on our website. We also offer free digital subscriptions at maximumyield.com/subscriptions. We only charge for hard-copy subscriptions that are mailed to you. Thank you for your feedback on adding captions. Sometimes the images are placed strictly as design details. Other times, images are placed to supplement the article. In the latter case, we try to always include captions. I hope I have answered all your questions. If not, don’t hesitate to contact me (editor@maximumyield.com).

enews

In our October 2012 E-News, we asked, “What growing techniques and products do you plan to use in the new year?” This is what one of our readers had to say: I’m going to give the new bubble flow bucket system a try since it is a hybrid set up that makes sense. I’m going to compare the difference to what I already use (a deep-water-culture bucket system). I’m curious to see how much of a difference the bubble flow system makes to the constant water flow aspect of the system.  Terry D. Haight, Jr.

VOLUME 10 – NUMBER 5 January/February 2013 PRINTED IN AUSTRALIA Maximum Yield is published bi-monthly by Maximum Yield Publications Inc. 2339A Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 Phone: 250.729.2677; Fax 250.729.2687 No part of this magazine may be reproduced without permission from the publisher. If undeliverable please return to the address above. The views expressed by columnists are a personal opinion and do not necessarily reflect those of Maximum Yield or the Editor. Publication Agreement Number 40739092 PRESIDENT/PUBLISHER - Jim Jesson GENERAL MANAGER - Don Moores BUSINESS MANAGER - Linda Jesson EDITORIAL editor@maximumyield.com Editor Linda Jesson Assistant Editor Jessica Skelton

ADVERTISING SALES Sales Manager Ilona Hawser - ilona@maximumyield.com Account Executives Ashley Heppell - ashley@maximumyield.com Emily Rodgers - emily@maximumyield.com Kelsey Hepples - kelsey@maximumyield.com

Katie Montague - katie@maximumyield.com PRODUCTION & DESIGN ads@ads.maximumyield.com Art Director Alice Joe Graphic Designers Liz Johnston Jennifer Everts Dionne Hurd ACCOUNTING Tracy Greeno - tracy@maximumyield.com Tara Campbell - tara@maximumyield.com

AUSTRALIAN DISTRIBUTION Dome Garden Supply Holland Forge House N’ Garden Hydroponic Generations Plant Symbionts UK DISTRIBUTION Growth Technology Future Harvest Development Europe Nutriculture UK Direct Garden Supplies Dutch Pro Maxigro Ltd. Hydrogarden CANADIAN DISTRIBUTION Brite-Lite Group Biofloral Eddis Wholesale Greenstar Plant Products Inc. Hydrotek MegaWatt Quality Wholesale USA DISTRIBUTION Aurora Innovations BWGS General Hydroponics Humboldt Wholesale Hydrofarm Hydro International National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply R&M Supply Tradewinds

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SIMON SAYS

Hey Simon, I was thinking about trying some organics this time around, but my friend told me that it makes no difference to the plants. I remember you did a question on organics before, but do you think you could answer this one for me again? Thanks, James It’s an interesting question and, like many I tackle, the answer is a little grey for the indoor grower. Outdoors, I recommend organics without question; the biodiversity and activity in true soils needs the interaction with organics to have great yields year after year. Indoors, it is a different story. Your friend might be a chemist, and in a narrow sense he is correct. When you look at the end result, organic nitrogen and chemical nitrogen do look very similar as they enter the plant and function. However, that is like flipping to the last page of a book and not knowing how the story got there. Chemical products are water soluble and available; as soon as they are put in the reservoir, they are available. This can be an important advantage in an indoor garden where there is not enough biology present to breakdown organic material properly. A slow nutrient release can cause problems when growing nutrient-hungry plants indoors. For this reason, a chemical base should be considconsid ered by all but the most diligent inin door growers. Also you are limiting the amount of biology—both good and bad—in your system by excluding organic compounds. In a much slower process, organic nutrients follow the nature of decomposition, which requires a food chain of various organisms to absorb, digest and secrete basic organic components. Many of the microbes sold in our industry are key components of the soil food web. Their purpose is to digest and release available nutrients for plants. While doing this, many of them also secrete beneficial substances that can tremendously benefit your plants—even indoors. Using undigested organic material requires a strong understanding of how long each organic input takes to break

down. An example would be the use of blood meal, which is water soluble and can break down quite rapidly, versus the use of feather meal, which has a similar level of nitrogen but can take months to actually start breaking down. Also, for those growing in true water systems the use of organic compounds should be knowledge-based and focused to avoid unwanted issues with recirculated water supply. Organics, however, do have a very serious role to play indoors even for chemical users. The important point is to focus on compounds that provide immediate and dramatic differences. Key examples are the humates, humic and fulvic acid. Although some of the benefits are still questioned most gardeners, commercial and hobby, all agree prothat these compounds do pro vide a richer soil that is more resilient and holds more nutrients in suspension for the plants. Kelp-based products can also provide tremendous benefits with all of the organic acids they contain. Worm castings are a natural way of adding plantaravailable nutrients and a vast ar ray of biology into your soils. There are more quality organic products available every year so keep your eyes and ears open. If you are keen on switching to organics indoors I commend you, but would also caution you to keep a little chemical product around—a base nutrient for overall slow growth and also a calcium magnesium supplement, as a Cal-Mg deficiency can be a recurring issue in organic systems. A digested organic liquid is your best option for an organic base nutrient, and make sure you look beyond the basic N-P-K for things like calcium, magnesium, sulphur, iron and other micronutrients. Check with your local shop for some organic options that have proven themselves and for organically fortified soil blends that provide some initial nutritional quality.

ALTHOUGH SOME OF THE BENEFITS ARE STILL QUESTIONED MOST GARDENERS, COMMERCIAL AND HOBBY, ALL AGREE THAT THESE COMPOUNDS DO PROVIDE A RICHER SOIL THAT IS MORE RESILIENT AND HOLDS MORE NUTRIENTS IN SUSPENSION FOR THE PLANTS.”

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MAX FACTS

HYDROPONIC NEWS, TIPS AND TRIVIA

Invasive Plant That Actually Helps An invasive plant—mother-of-millions—might have saved the iconic Australian bluetongue lizard from death at the hands of toxic cane toads. This plant produces a toxin much like that produced by the toads; so, after several generations of lizards eating this plant, the population has built up a tolerance of the toxin. (Source: sciencedaily.com)

MAXFACTS

HYDROPONIC NEWS, TIPS AND TRIVIA Kiwifruit Locking Up Carbon

Aussie Grows World’s Largest Pineapple A Northern Territory gardener has been officially listed as producing the world’s largest pineapple. Christine McCallum, 61, made headlines last November after growing an 8.28-kg pineapple that had a girth of 66 cm and a length of 32 cm. (Source: freshplaza.com)

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The New Zealand kiwifruit industry sequesters around 90,000 tonnes of carbon in soil annually, according to a new report by PlusGroup Research and Plant & Food Research. “We found soil nine metres below a 30-year-old kiwifruit orchard had significantly higher levels of carbon than pasture soil at the same depth,” says Alistair Mowat, Zespri Innovation Leader for Sustainability.  Growers could use this understanding of the soil organic carbon profile of their orchards to improve and maintain carbon levels, which would have significant benefits for surrounding land and downstream waterways.  (Source: freshplaza.com)

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Australian Tomato Consumption Soars Australia is experiencing surging interest in a wide variety of tomatoes. The ever-growing range of tomato varieties combined with increased recognition about the perceived health benefits of tomatoes has coincided with a sharp divergence in tomato prices. Consumers were paying up to $25 per kg for the finest range of new and exotic gourmet tomato varieties and as little as $1 per kg for the field-grown tomatoes. Cherry tomatoes generally sold for $15 to $20 per kg, while the paddock-grown tomatoes sold for $1 to $5 per kg and up to $10 per kg for truss tomatoes. Perfection Fresh chief executive Michael Simonetta said tomato consumption is definitely up over the last decade, with consumers looking more and more towards the smaller varieties in the belief that they are sweeter in taste. (Source: heraldsun.com.au)

Aussie Hydroponic Industry Market Research Report now Available The Hydroponic Crop Farming industry in Australia has blossomed over the past five years. Dry weather conditions hurt the productivity of soil-based farmers, which reduced competition in retail markets and enabled hydroponic crop farmers to widen their profit margins. For these reasons, industry research firm IBISWorld has added a report on the Hydroponic Crop Farming industry in Australia to its growing industry report collection. The report is available on IBISWorld’s website. (Source: news.yahoo.com)

Classification Issues Australia’s giant eucalyptus trees are the tallest flowering plants on earth, yet their unique relationship with fire makes them a huge puzzle for ecologists. However, fire dependency now threatens the trees’ future as much as it has shaped their evolutionary past. Due to this trait, foresters classify the tree as unique type of Australian vegetation rather than considering it a rainforest tree. “This classification has serious scientific and conservation implications for the remaining forests of mature (old growth) giant eucalypts,” said Professor David Bowman from the University of Tasmania’s School of Plant Science. “Giant trees have huge value for the timber industry, yet there are strong environmental reasons for their protection. Classification as rainforest trees would support arguments in favour of conservation.” (Source: sciencedaily.com)

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

YOUR GUIDE TO THIS ISSUE’S

HOTTEST ITEMS Ask for them at your local indoor gardening store. Finisher

Finisher is a super additive used to finish off your flowering cycle. This product was formulated to get the absolute most from your flowering plants. Like all Green Planet Nutrients, we start with the highest-quality raw materials blended in precisely the right way. Finisher is a must-have for the last three to six weeks of flowering. Most flowering additives are discontinued during the flush stage due to the high mineral salt content. Finisher, on the other hand, can be used all the way through the flowering stage, including the flush stage. Finisher will pump up the weight and quality of the flowers, finishing the flowering stage in the best possible way, maximising your efforts. Visit your nearest hydroponics retailer to learn more.

Bluelab’s Improved Truncheon Nutrient Meters

Flower Tower Dry Racks

We have released an improved version of all Bluelab Truncheon® Nutrient Meters. Our Truncheons are still tough, reliable, easyto-use meters with a five-year return or replacement guarantee. The product improvements include easier to read scales, external thermistor for faster readings (no double dipping required), less cleaning (monthly vs weekly), blue daylight-readable LEDs, new packaging label with a QR Code to scan and download electronic user manual and a simple twist to remove shroud for cleaning (and a twist to refit shroud for nutrient solution testing). To learn more, see your local hydroponics equipment retailer.

Are you tired of having your racks warp and sag and be difficult to load or unload? Well, GeoPot now has high-quality drying racks. GeoPot’s new Flower Tower Drying Racks come in two styles: open side or buckle up, with every layer able to be removed. A reinforced top rim and eight hanging straps prevent any warping. The enclosed style rack has a convenient U-shaped zipper for easy loading and unloading. This model can be hung from either end for even drying. For more information, please visit your local indoor gardening shop.

Dutch Master’s new 250-ml Size By popular demand, Dutch Master is introducing all new 250-ml size! We are so confident in the results our Gold Range products achieve that we decided to make our Gold Range Foliar Spray and Tank Additive products in a smaller size for those that aren’t so sure or for those on a tighter budget. Our products are concentrated enough to go a long way, effective enough to see results fast and now the 250-ml size is affordable enough for people to experience the results themselves! For information on our products, please contact your local hydroponics store.

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PH Control in One Easy Kit

Digimax Digital HPS Lamps

Now it is even easier to control pH in hydroponic systems with this complete pH Control Kit from HY-GEN. Containing pH Up and pH Down in handy 150-ml size bottles, a pH Test dripper kit, test tube and colour-coded pH chart, this kit takes the guesswork out of pH control without the need for expensive digital meters and is ideal for beginners and small gardens. The right pH in hydroponics is crucial in enabling the nutrient to be accessible to the plants, a step often overlooked by beginners. For more info, visit your local hydroponics store.

Sunlight Supply速, Inc. is excited to announce the arrival of the Digimax Digital 600- and 1,000-W HPS Lamps. Digimax Digital HPS lamps are engineered to operate specifically with modern high-frequency electronic HID ballasts. The Digimax lamp construction includes thicker component welds and stainless steel materials required to withstand acoustic resonance and harmonic distortion as seen with digital HID ballasts. This robust lamp construction in combination with a light spectrum geared towards photosynthetic response offers a superior product for the high-end horticulture market. Packaged in a protective tin keepsake box. For more information, see the nearest hydroponics retailer.

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

Aussie Tonic Aussie Tonic is a comprehensive blend of carefully selected vitamins designed to reduce plant stress while supporting essential functions. Aussie Tonic can be used on cuttings, transplants and for general health. It comes in a highly concentrated formula that will support heavy fruit and flowering formation. If shock has been caused from overwatering or under watering, excess heat, transplanting or growth spurts, then Aussie Tonic is a must use. This is your best insurance policy against any stress. When used diligently, the powerful antioxidant will boost plant health and accelerate growth, resulting in huge yields. For more information, see a local indoor gardening shop.

EZI-ROOT EZI-ROOT Hormone Gel is a unique, scientifically formulated rooting hormone that provides a superior strike of hardwood, softwood and exotic cuttings. EZI-ROOT is faster and more effective than most conventional preparations. It contains two hormones, NAA and IBA, and research shows that a combination of these two is generally more effective across a wider range of species than IBA alone. Unlike many gels, EZI-ROOT does not use alcohol to dissolve the hormone and, therefore, it is non-phytotoxic to plants. This product also contains a wetting agent for a more effective delivery of the hormones to the cutting and fungicide to reduce the likelihood of cross contamination between cuttings. Finally, EZI-ROOT has been extensively researched and trialled, and is used on a wide range of natives from West Australia to Queensland. See the nearest retailer for more information. 

A New Year Means New Packaging for Bluelab’s Probe Care Kits Bluelab have gone for a greener, recyclable cardboard box for their Probe Cleaning Kit packaging, shifting away from a nonrecyclable plastic. The boxes have been given a complete new look, along with a name change. All kit contents remain the same, however; so, you still receive all the tools you need to care for your Bluelab Conductivity or pH Probe and Bluelab pens. Probe cleaning is one of the most important parts of owning any Bluelab meter, monitor or controller. The right care of your probe increases the lifespan and improves accuracy of readings. Accurate readings make it easier to maximise the growth of your crop! Visit your nearest indoor gardening shop to learn more.

ROOT!T Heat Mats Get a jump start on planting with the ROOT!T Heat Mat. Adding uniform heat to plants can speed up germination by days, and ROOT!T Heat Mats offer more uniform heating than others. The single mesh element is encased in waterproof, frayproof layers, delivering the durability to withstand rugged greenhouse environments. To maintain optimum temperatures, use ROOT!T Heat Mats with the ROOT!T Thermostat, giving ultimate temperature control during propagation. ROOT!T Heat Mats are available in three sizes: small (25 by 35 cm), medium (40 by 60 cm) and large (40 by 120 cm). For more information, visit your nearest indoor gardening equipment retailer.

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Liquid W-8 Liquid W-8 is an excellent carbohydrate supplement that provides an added energy source for your plants, giving you huge flowers and fruits. Beneficial carb sources support both your plant directly and act as a food source for the microbial life in the root zone. Derived from organic unsulphured molasses, Liquid W-8 is an extremely cost-effective additive that enhances energy and stimulates growth. This truly unique formula has the most complete blend of simple and complex carbohydrates on the market today. Green Planet Nutrients starts with the finest raw ingredients to ensure the highest-quality finished product. Click on the QR code on anyone of our great products to see the video related to the product. For more information, go to your local indoor gardening shop.

Introducing the Affordable, User-friendly Etherdose Duo The Etherdose Duo is a low-cost, automated nutrient doser with the ability to remotely monitor EC, pH and temperature through household computer networks. The standard kit includes everything you need to monitor and adjust up to two channels of EC, pH and temperature with six pump channels, as well as up to three nutrient parts or a pH up/down. There are no buttons or an LCD to mess with—all monitoring and adjustments are made using the web interface, giving you the freedom to leave your growroom unattended for extended periods. The automated Etherdose Duo from Robomatic Corp. is affordable and user-friendly. See your local hydroponics store for more information.

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A

N E D OL GOPPORTUNITY: by Helene Isbell

Fulvic Acid

Fulvic acid is one of the most well-balanced and vital minerals on Earth. Dubbed the miracle molecule due to the sheer number of functions it performs, fulvic acid is a truly unparalleled compound. In fact, the plant and animal kingdoms rely on its benefits to support all life on the planet...

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“FULVIC ACIDS EXTRACTED FROM LEONARDITE PROVE TO BE THE BEST PRODUCTS ON THE MARKET DUE TO THEIR HIGH PERCENTAGE OF FULVIC CONTENT.” Originating from the word fulvus (Latin for yellow), fulvic acid is named for its natural golden honey colour. Fulvic acid is a natural acidic organic polymer. This means that it is not a single molecule, but rather a combination of many different molecules with similar chemical properties. Fulvic acids, along with humic acids, are compounds found in humus—organic material that was metabolised by fungi and micro-organisms over millions of years—and are some of the most biologically rich substances available. Thanks to its molecular structure, fulvic acid has specific advantages over other humic substances. In order to isolate fulvic acid, it must undergo an additional extraction process using either acid or cold purified water to separate it from humic acid. (For best results in the garden, use only high-grade, non-chemical, coldwater extracted fulvic acid.)  Humic substances—such as fulvic and humic acid—commonly used in hydroponic and horticultural applications are sourced from areas rich with deposits known as humates. These humates include materials like peat moss, lignite, Leonardite and humic shale, and they are found in areas rich with mineraloid deposits, such as aquatic ecosystems, bogs, marshes and dry lakebeds. The quality of the

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A GOLDEN OPPORTUNITY

products is directly related to the source of the humates from which they were derived. Fulvic acids extracted from Leonardite prove to be the best best-quality products on the market due to their high percentage of fulvic content.  While While fulvic acid is often recognised as an iningredient in several horticultural products, many people might not realise what specific features and benefits this powerful supplement has to offer. The simple incorporation of fulvic acid into an existing nutrient schedule promotes a noticeable differ difference in the health, vitality and overall productivity of indoor and outdoor gardens.  One One of the most important features that fulvic acid offers the horticulture industry is its natural ability to chelate nutrients. The word chelate is derived from the Greek word chele,, which literally means claw. Fulvic acid acts like a claw to bond with macro- and micronutrients that might otherwise be inaccessible to the plant. Without the help of the fulvic acid, many of the larger molecules that are unable to permeate cell walls would not make it into the plant and get washed away in runoff water. HowHow ever, once minerals fuse with the fulvic acid, they become bioactive and chemichemi cally available to the plant where they are needed most. This is because fulvic acid—due to its low molecular weight—can easily

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“BY INFUSING PLANTS WITH AN ABUNDANCE OF MINERALS AND TRACE ELEMENTS, FULVIC ACID HELPS TO BOOST THEIR RESISTANCE TO A HOST OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS, SUCH AS DISEASE, MOULD, FUNGI AND INSECT INFESTATION.” penetrate the cell walls of plant tissue, allowing the larger nutrient molecules to piggyback their way into the plant. Once the chelated minerals are inside the plant, the fulvic acid acts as a delivery system to transport the nutrients to the parts of the plant where they will serve the best functions.  The increased uptake of nutrients with the help of fulvic acid maximises the efficiency of the nutrients in any synthetic or organic fertiliser (amazingly, one fulvic acid molecule has the capacity to transport dozens upon dozens of minerals into the cells of a plant). It naturally increases the plant’s metabolism and increases enzymatic activity, making food more available to satiate the plant’s growing appetite. FurtherFurther more, it helps the plant retain and fully utilise nutrients. This heightened efficiency results in fewer nutrients needed over time, which saves money for gardeners!  Fulvic Fulvic acid can be used indoor or outoutdoor in soil or hydroponic systems, and is completely safe for organic gardeners. It can be added to a nutrient solution and watered in as a root drench, or

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“ONCE MINERALS FUSE WITH THE FULVIC ACID, THEY BECOME BIOACTIVE AND CHEMICALLY AVAILABLE TO THE PLANT WHERE THEY ARE NEEDED MOST.” it can be applied as a foliar feed. Fulvic acid also contains over 70 nourishing trace minerals and when mixed with water, these vital trace elements and minerals become readily available to the plant. When used as a root drench in soil gardens, fulvic acid helps improve soil structure by delivering macro- and micronutrients directly to the root zone, encouraging healthy growth. If used as a foliar spray, fulvic acid will increase the amount of internodes or bud sites on a flowering plant. It also promotes sturdy stalks and stems while correcting minor deficiencies that might be present within the plant.  Another Another benefit of fulvic acid is that it increases drought tolerance in plants. By increasing the permeability of the

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A GOLDEN OPPORTUNITY

cell walls in plant matter, fulvic acid allows for plants to intake more water. With the heightened capacity to retain water, plants stay quenched for longer periods of time. This drought tolerance and water retention aid in monetary, as well as resource, savings. Also, hydrated plants are happy plants.   As As if that is not enough, the list of functions that fulvic acid performs goes on. It acts as a highly effective natural immunity booster for plants. By infusing plants with an abundance of minerals and trace elements, fulvic acid helps to boost their resistance to a host of

“WHEN USED AS A ROOT DRENCH IN SOIL GARDENS, FULVIC ACID HELPS IMPROVE SOIL STRUCTURE BY DELIVERING MACRO- AND MICRONUTRIENTS.”

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environmental problems, such as disease, mould, fungi and insect infestation.  Fulvic Fulvic acid also works as a natural detoxifier and protective agent. It removes toxicity from poisonous herbicides and pesticides from the plant’s system. It acts as a natural antioxidant that neutralises free radicals by scavenging for unpaired positive or negative electrons and supplying them with an opposite charge.  Fulvic Fulvic acid is also an excellent pH buffer that will slightly lower pH, help to stabilise drastic fluctuations and retain a steady pH balance. This is important because plants rely on a specific pH range to make use of vital nutrients. If the pH solution of a nutrient mix is too low, or acidic, certain macro- and micronutrients are rendered useless to a plant and it might become deficient in those minerals. If the pH level of the feed solution is too high, or alkaline, the mixture could potentially burn plants. An ideal pH range for most plants lies within the range of 5.5 to 6.5.

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“BY INCREASING THE PERMEABILITY OF THE CELL WALLS IN PLANT MATTER, FULVIC ACID ALLOWS FOR PLANTS TO INTAKE MORE WATER.”  Simple, yet complex, the myriad functions of fulvic acid is astounding. In prehistoric times on Earth, the planet was rich with humic substances and fulvic acid was abundant in the natural environment. Dinosaurs roamed the land and lush verdant plants grew to gargantuan sizes. Environmental conditions were prime for oversized life forms. Through evolution, these legendary giant species of plants and animals have gone extinct, but they left their biologically rich remains locked within geological burial grounds. Over the millennia, they have become the raw materials of the fulvic acid we rely on and utilise in our modern gardens. Although plants no longer grow to the mammoth proportions that they reached 65 million years ago, growers, gardeners and green thumbs worldwide can mimic what Mother Nature perfected in ancient times. By supplementing a normal nutrient regimen with fulvic acid, farmers can increase the fertility of their crops and encourage bountiful harvests that yield fruits and veggies rich with nutritional sustenance. For yields that are worth their weight in gold, try fulvic acid—a golden opportunity for your garden.

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(in Hydroponics) Globally loved ginger is normally grown in tropical/sub-tropical soil. Author Dr. Mike Nichols, however, has decided to try growing this rhizome with hydroponics‌

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by Dr. Mike Nichols

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“THE CHARACTERISTIC ODOUR AND FLAVOUR OF GINGER COMES FROM FRAGRANT ESSENTIAL OILS, PARTICULARLY GINGEROLS, FOUND WITHIN THE RHIZOME.” Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a swollen root—or, rhizome—that is consumed as a food, a spice or flavouring and a medicine against nausea. There are over 1.5 million t of ginger produced in the world, but as a tropical/sub-tropical crop the main production areas are found in India and PR China (aprox 350,00 t each), followed by Indonesia, Nepal, Nigeria and Thailand (about 150,000 t each). There is even a small area of ginger produced in Australia that supplies the local market and is exported worldwide. The plant itself comprises several upright, grasslike leaves that grow from the rhizome, which has both fiberous and thick roots. The plant steadily expands with the production of new rhizomes (the roots come first and produce the stalks from which leaves grow). The characteristic odour and flavour of ginger comes from fragrant essential oils, particularly gingerols, found within the rhizome. The success or failure of ginger production is determined by the health of the seed pieces (pieces of the rhizome) and the health of the soil. Diseases, particulary fusarium and pithium, and pests like nematodes can seriously reduce production. All growers anticipate some losses every season due to disease. However, most growers believe that a 10% losses in a patch are acceptable and, at times, some patches can experience over 80% losses. In Hawaii the soil pathogen problem is so serious that it is normal to fumigate the soil with methyl bromide.

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HAPPY GINGER IN HYDROPONICS

“THE SUCCESS OR FAILURE OF GINGER PRODUCTION IS DETERMINED BY THE HEALTH OF THE SEED PIECES (PIECES OF THE RHIZOME) AND THE HEALTH OF THE SOIL.”

The Queensland bulletin on ginger production also cites crop establishment in Australia being anything from as low as 5% to up to 95% due to soil-borne pathogens.That being said, it’s no surprise that disease-free planting material is highly desirable. While at a hydroponics conference in Adelaide last year, I was asked about growing ginger using hydroponics. I confessed complete ignorance, but this stimulated my interest to investigate the potential of using this production system—which is becoming well-established for many crops—for the less common goal of growing a root crop. The first approach was to review the existing literature on the subject. I, however, only discovered three papers on the hydroponic production of ginger—namely Kratky (1998), Rafie et al (2003) and Hayden et al

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(2004)—and numerous articles on the world wide web that were how-tos without any research findings. The Kratky paper proposes that the production of ginger using a non-circulating hydroponic method, in which essentially the plants were grown in plastic nursery flats filled with a growing medium comprised of peat, vermiculite and perlite. The plastic nursery flats were suspended eventually some 4 cm above a static nutrient solution once the roots had moved throught the medium into the solution. The Hayden paper was similar to some respects, except that instead of a static nutrient solution the growing medium was suspended above a tank in which the roots grew, and the nutrient solution was applied as a fine mist using aeroponics. The third (and simplest) system, explained in Rafie et al, used trays filled with a medium of coarse perlite. Plant spacing was 1.35 by 0.3 m.

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All systems appeared to work satisfactorily. The Hayden trial showed major disease problems when using peat as a growing medium, illustrated the importance of a growing medium (perlite in this case) for the rhizomes (as opposed to no growing medium), and demonstrated that heating the nutrient solution to 25ยบC produced rhizomes that were 50 percent larger. The Kratky paper also showed low yields without the use of a medium over the rhizome and that the more medium volume the better. The Rafie et al paper merely shows that the hydroponic system produced nearly double the yield of a field soil system. In our experiements, since ginger is not grown in New Zealand and introducing it via quarantine can be a tedious (and expensive) exercise, we purchased imported dried ginger roots (rhizomes) from a local supermarket from Fiji (or Australia) and from Thailand. It was unclear whether this might have been treated to prevent sprouting, but it sprouted easily when planted in a moist growing medium in a greenhouse.

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HAPPY GINGER

“THE LONGER THE PLANT IS GROWN, THE HIGHER THE YIELD, BUT APPARENTLY THE RHIZOMES ALSO BECOME MORE FIBROUS; SO FOR CANDIED GINGER, THE YOUNGER RHIZOMES ARE LIKELY TO BE MORE DESIRABLE.”

We started the rhizome pieces in small pots filled with coir in September (Fiji source) and November (Thailand source), and once they had produced a shoot and some roots, they were transferred into large pots filled with coir (coco peat) and with a single dripper nozzle to each plant. A complete nutrient solution was applied with every watering, and the plants were grown in a greenhosue heated at 15ºC and ventilated at 25ºC. In early May, it was decided to examine the plants to determine whether any ginger had developed and we were gratified to discover that the sytem had worked succesfully. As one might anticipate, the early planting had produced the greater yield and there clearly could be some advantage in planting even earlier than September so that the plants would be much larger in mid-summer when growth potential is greatest. Is this the way to grow ginger hydroponically? The answer (in my view) is a clear cut no. The more sensible solution would be not to use pots, but to grow the crop in beds filled with a good, well-drained growing medium (coir certainly fits this bill) using hydroponics. The key factor would be to isolate the beds from the soil, either by using beds on benches or a layer of polythene film over the greenhouse floor. The importance of temperature is clear from the

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Kratky research, and this must pose the question of whether greenhouse production might even be an even better option in warm climates such as in India or Australia? Of course, the longer the plant is grown, the higher the yield, but apparently the rhizomes also become more fibrous; so for candied ginger, the younger rhizomes are likely to be more desirable. If the crop is being grown for the oils alone, such as for flavouring ginger beer, then the oil content (and differences in chemical constitution) is likely to be influenced by genotype, possibly by harvest date, and by the way in which the crop has been grown. This article was originally published in Practical Hydroponics. References Hayden A L, Brigham L A & Giacomelli G A (2004). “Aeroponic Cultivation of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Rhizomes” Acta Hort. 659, 387- 402. Kratky, B A. (1998). “Experimental non-circulating hydroponic methods for growing edible ginger”. Proceedings, 27th National Ag Plastics Congress. Tucson, Arizona, USA. Feb18-21, 1998. pp 133-137. Rafie R A , Olcyk T, & Guerrero W (2003). “Hydroponic production of fresh ginger roots (Zingiber officinale) as an alternative method for South Florida.” Proc.Fla State Hort. Soc. 116, 151-2.

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c i t o i b A

Diseases By Raquel Neofit

Pests, fungi, viral diseases, bacteria—these are all potentially deadly problems if they get into your growroom. But there’s another danger lurking and, unlike the others, you can’t kill it because it’s not alive…

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We are all well aware that insects can cause some nasty plant diseases, and we also know that humidity and water imbalances can result in disastrous fungal problems— especially in a hydroponic environment. However, there is another cause of deadly plant disease circling your greenhouse like a shark and infiltrating your precious crop, and it goes by the name abiotic.  Look abiotic up in a dictionary and will find descriptions like “not of a biological nature” or “inanimate and non-living.” Translation: an abiotic disease is caused by non-living influences, such as heat or humidity.  These diseases are also referred to as physiological disorders and can be a little tricky to diagnose. Since they’re a direct result of nonliving influences, we need to turn our attention to our environments to detect the cause of an abiotic disease.   

THE PROBLEM WITH VISUALLY IDENTIFYING AN ABIOTIC DISEASE IS THAT THE SYMPTOMS ARE VERY SIMILAR TO THOSE CAUSED BY PESTS OR FUNGAL AND BIOLOGICAL DISEASES.”

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ABIOTIC DISEASES

Abiotic culprits Common influences resulting in abiotic disease in your greenhouse include; • Poor air circulation • Heat and humidity • Extreme light sources • Nutrient deficiencies or toxicities • External air pollutant infiltration • Contaminated tools or equipment • pH imbalance • Heavily compacted growing media • Contaminated or broken air filters   Nutrient deficiencies are one of the biggest causes of abiotic disease. Next on the list of most common would be pollutants entering the growing environment, then high humidity levels and environmental factors—sun, wind, heavy rain and even wildlife fall under the flag of environmental influences that regularly contaminate traditional outdoor farms. Luckily, those of us growing hydroponically or in protected indoor gardens are one step ahead where environmental factors are concerned. We might need to keep an eye on issues like external temperatures—which can affect our indoor environment—and be aware of which bugs have infiltrated our local area (in case they try to slip through the cracks), but unless we knock over a reservoir and cause our own indoor flood, we’re generally pretty safe from most environmental factors like animals and torrential rainfall.  Visually identifying abiotic symptoms is where things become difficult. If you have a pest infestation, you can generally see the invader and figure out pretty quickly what you need to do to rectify the situation. The problem with

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visually identifying an abiotic disease is that the symptoms are very similar to those caused by pests or fungal and biological diseases.   Prevention As the old saying goes, prevention is always better than a cure when it comes to disease, so follow these tips to avoid an abiotic outbreak: • Keep your growing environment clean • Remove any dead or dying foliage • Check air vents and circulation measures • Avoid heavily compacted media • If you use tools that have been used outside, sterilise them • Keep on top of nutrient strengths, pH levels and EC levels • Consider introducing an immunity building additive that will build resistance to plant disease • Stay on top of humidity levels and avoid excessive moisture buildup • Monitor your light and heat sources • Keep an eye on external temperatures and its effect on internal temperature • Take note of insects invading your local area   As you can see, there are many factors to take into consideration when assessing and testing your equipment and environment. An abiotic disease will destroy your plants physiological system, weaken your crops immune system and make it susceptible to other nasty elements lurking in your greenhouse. Know what a super healthy variety of your chosen crop looks like and learn exactly what it is that causes stress to your plants if you want to avoid a disease of the abiotic kind.

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Maximum Maximum Yield Yield | January/February | July/August 2013 2012

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THE

SCIENCE BEHIND LIGHT BY ERIC HOPPER

E V E R Y G A R D E N I S D I F F E R E N T, B U T T H E L A W S O F P H Y S I C S A P P LY E Q U A L LY T O T H E M A L L …

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The horticultural lighting industry is in a state of constant evolution involving pure science, technology and plant physiology as indoor growers strive to recreate the sun within their indoor gardens. Many factors are at play when choosing the proper lighting system—energy consumption, physical space and budget constraints will all influence your final decision. Because indoor gardens are nearly as diverse as their operators, it isn’t feasible to deal with every possible scenario for horticultural lighting applications in a single article, but we are able to break down any discussion on horticultural lighting into the ways it is affected by the laws of physics. These physical laws apply equally to all indoor horticultural lighting applications and are an invaluable source of reference when designing or assessing an indoor garden. Diminishing light energy The inverse square law states that light energy diminishes exponentially. This physical law is very important for the indoor gardener because it means that the farther a plant is from a light source, the less energy there is available for photosynthesis. For example, the light energy hitting a leaf 2.13 m away from a light source will only

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THE SCIENCE BEHIND LIGHT

Point of diminishing returns The point of diminishing returns is used to calculate the point of maximum efficiency in terms of light energy. We use this formula to find the maximum amount of light energy that can be applied to the garden’s physical space without wasting energy—in other words, we are looking for the point at which adding additional light energy is no longer validated by any increase in yield. We usually discuss the point of diminishing returns in terms of watts per square metre. It’s very important to remember when discussing a garden’s square meterage in a lighting context that we’re talking about the plant surface area, though—not the physical size of the room. Through my experience with growing everything from sprouts to squash indoors, I have found it is easier to separate vegetable crops into two general categories: leafy greens and fast-growing annuals. Lettuces, basil, sprouts and almost all of the culinary herbs are categorised as leafy greens, while tomatoes, strawberries, cucumbers, peppers, squash and most vegetables bearing fruit fall into the fast-growing annual category. I found the point of diminishing returns for leafy greens to be around 25-W per 0.09 sq m and for most fast-growing annuals it seems to be around 40-W per 0.09 sq m of garden. For example, a productive use of a 1,000-W HID bulb for leafy greens would be a 3.71-sq-

“It’s very important to remember when discussing a garden’s square meterage in a lighting context that we’re talking about the plant surface area, though— not the physical size of the room.” be one quarter the amount of light energy hitting that leaf at 1.07-m away, the light energy at 3.05-m will be oneninth the light energy at 1.07-m and so on. The optimal distance from light source to plant canopy depends on many factors, but the two most pivotal are the wattage of the bulb and the way a grower chooses to remove radiant heat. A good rule of thumb is to place the light source as close to the plant canopy as possible without burning the leaves, which should ensure your plants are receiving the maximum amount of light energy available without subjecting them to stress. 40

m plant surface area, which would take up a 2.44- by 1.52-m space. A productive use of a 1,000-W HID bulb for fastgrowing annuals would be a 2.31-sq-m plant surface area or a 1.52- by 1.52-m space. These examples are quite generalised and only represent two lighting footprint options for a 1,000-W light. The point of diminishing returns will vary greatly depending on the crop that is being grown and is somewhat subjective— depending on the crop’s market value and what I like to call its sentimental value. Sentimental value is unique to the individual grower because it is not based on purely

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more light energy is added to a given area than a plant can possibly process, the light saturation point will be reached and at this point, adding additional light energy will result in no further gain. Diminished output All artificial light sources break down over time and their light energy output declines—just because a bulb continues to produce light doesn’t mean its energy output for horticultural purposes remains the same as the day it was purchased! High pressure sodium and fluorescent bulbs for indoor gardening should be changed every year, if not sooner. Metal halides tend to decline in light energy at a faster rate than high pressure sodiums and should therefore be replaced more often. I replace metal halide bulbs every six to nine months and high pressure sodium and fluorescents every nine to 11 months. The light energy in an indoor garden is the driving force for plant photosynthesis. Wasting light energy or not providing enough to effectively cover the square meterage of your gardens is essentially depriving plants of the chance of performing up to their potential. Placing your light source as close as possible to the plant canopy, calculating the proper wattage for the plant surface area and changing your bulbs regularly will help maximise your return on investment and optimise the efficiency of your indoor garden.

financial considerations like overhead costs or profit margins. A person who really enjoys growing their own food indoors and values knowing where it came from probably doesn’t mind paying a little extra for the end results. For some fast-growing annual crops I will actually deploy more watts per square metre because paying a little extra on the energy bill is justified by the resulting increase in yield—this is especially applicable when the market value of a particular crop is higher. No matter the market value, there is a point at which adding more light becomes useless. When

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Maximum Yield | September/October 2012

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Small Space Oasis:

Gardening for

Apartmentdwellers by Kristen McKenzie

Even though apartments have little or no space for gardening, that doesn’t mean people who live in them can’t grow plants. Here are a few tips on how to turn a tiny space into a green oasis…

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As real estate prices soar and space becomes sparser, more and more people are turning to rental units within apartment complexes—residences that often have little to no yard space for gardening. But that doesn’t mean apartmentdwellers can’t still enjoy growing their own flowers, shrubs and produce. Matthew Carroll, spokesperson for Nursery and Gardening Industry Australia, says more and more apartment folk are finding ways to create their own little garden havens despite the limited space. It just takes a little time, creativity and imagination. “There are definitely space wars going on,” he says. “But there are plenty of ways to integrate green space into people’s lives.” Here are some of his top suggestions for creating an apartmentfriendly garden retreat.

Say hello to herbs Carroll says herb gardens have become a trend among urban dwellers and it’s not hard to see why: they’re easy to maintain and can be grown indoors in a variety of tight spaces. Moreover, they’re visually appealing, aromatic and can make a great addition to any recipe. Even if you don’t have a balcony, herbs can still thrive on a windowsill or kitchen counter. All that’s really required for success is regular watering and adequate access to sunlight. And to make things extra simple, ready-to-grow herb kits are available for sale at a number of garden centers and nurseries. Tip: some of the easier herbs to start with are chive and parsley, as they both require less light than other varieties.

Get passionate about pots “Container gardening has become more and more popular,” Carroll says, adding there are now new varie-

Even apartment-dwellers can reap the benefits of growing fresh food, flowers and herbs.

ties of stylish, lightweight products available for purchase. “If you pair the right plant with the right pot, you can minimise your upkeep.” Your local garden center will be able to advise on which numerous plants or seeds are suitable for indoor potting. In addition to growing an appealing array of flowers and houseplants, Carroll recommends trying dwarf varieties of crops that will produce smaller fruits and vegetables, but still yield great results from pots and smaller garden spaces. These include apples, quince, cherries, peaches, plums, figs, avocados and blueberries.

Think vertical “If you don’t have a lot of floor space you can take [your plants] up the wall,” Carroll says, referring to the hot trend of vertical gardening systems.

The most innovative and aesthetically pleasing of these systems is the greenwall, a soilless, vertical patch of garden that grows along the flat surface of a structure. The plants used for greenwalls are those that can adapt and survive in difficult growing conditions, including ferns, grasses, herbs and perennials like the begonia. You can get tricks and tips on how to create your own greenwall at your local nursery center. There are also many landscaping companies that have begun specializing in these visually stunning gardens. An alternative to the greenwall is espalier, a vertical gardening method in which a lattice or wire provides support for branches and offshoots, so they can continue to grow upward. Finally, there’s always the trusty hanging basket, a space-saving gem that grows a variety of plants and flowers and even certain edible crops. Maximum Yield | January/February 2013

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GROWERS KNOW

Plants

HIRE

for

By Raquel Neofit

Steve Brough, owner and manager of Plants for Hire

Company: Plants for Hire Owners: Steve Brough Location: 43 Tootal Rd.,

Dingley Village, Victoria, Australia 3172 Phone: 61 3 9558 1033 E-mail: info@plantsforhire.com

Raquel Neofit talks to Steven Brough from Plants for Hire about the changes in the plant hire industry, the effects of green wedge zones on businesses and what the future holds.

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The principal business at Plants for Hire is just as the name states: plants for hire. It’s a high turnover business where Steve Brough and his small team of staff service professional and corporate business with decorative plants and maintain their up-keep. Steve’s designers have a keen eye for design and colour, which in turn has lead them to build an impressive client list. Currently, Steve supplies Peter Rowling Catering at the exclusive Rippon Lea Estate, 35 - 55 Collins Street and the Australian Tennis Open. They even supplied lush green hedges for the Channel 9 commentary boxes at the Spring Racing Carnival. But Plants for Hire’s newest client is Mark Best, internationally renowned chef from Sydney’s Marque restaurant, in his new Melbourne establishment, Pei Modern. Glossy tomatoes companioned with basil and mint, bay trees with thyme and coriander and scented lemon balm are part of the edible delights on display. Generally plant displays are replaced monthly so they always look their best, which makes it a high turn-over industry. Some of these jobs, however, are also high value—especially when the brief display includes exotic orchids that are thrown on the compost-heap once they’ve flowered.

Hired plants at Pei Modern

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Plants for Hire employee, Joyce, pots up massive mixed bowls for a new client

Fighting the green wedge In 2004, local council zoned Steve’s seven acre property within the new green wedge, unfortunately devaluing the commercial value of his land and limiting the way his business can operate. “All business’ change over the years and you need to be able to transform your business into other areas of opportunity. Because we are in the green wedge now, we can’t expand our business in a way that might give us a better future,” Steve says. “Our major asset is the land we’re sitting on,” he adds. “So, if we wanted to restructure in any way, we’d have to sell this property for housing development, which would perhaps give us enough to buy a small block and build a purpose-built facility.” Plans are currently lodged with town planning for a new housing development, but local councils have put forward that they would like to see this green wedge developed into a prettier area. This is just the latest hurdle Steve has had to jump in order to make a profit in the evolving plant-hiring industry. Luckily, however, he’s a creative thinker where business is concerned.

heated propagation tables, automatic venting, irrigated drippers and misting sprinklers. It’s a basic system and although there are more sophisticated methods available, Steve finds it effective. Planting is done in a 50/50 mix of peat moss and perlite with slow release pellets to fertilise. One of the things that caught my attention was that they’ve incorporated white wash paint on their greenhouse roofs to help control external heat–a method popular in Europe. Steve’s experienced a major shift in who hires plants over the last few years and has found that the industries are favouring short-term leases for house auctions and green walls. High-end property owners are employing designers to spruce up their properties for auction campaigns. To help supplement the plant hiring business, Plants for Hire also offers a subcontract service for Interior Plantscapers—that is, the staff can be hired out by the hour to help with plant replacements, installations and removals. As you can see, Steve and Plants for Hire are rolling with the punches. And they’ll continue to do so in order to remain successful in the changing market and to keep providing their customers with the best quality service, product and attention to detail.

Plants, propagation, growth and profits Steve’s found its more cost-efficient to buy small plants in and grow them on. “Some of our more popular plants are grown from propagation for speed,” he explained. “In horticulture,” he adds, “there are a lot of areas that people specialise in; they’ve developed experience and they do it well.” They have around two acres of greenhouses with

Heated propagation table—it might be old school, but Steve finds it effective

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TALKING SHOP

Back from the Ashes: Bayside Hydroponics & Homebrew Warehouse AT A GLANCE Company: Bayside Hydroponics & Homebrew Warehouse Owner: Gerry Carter Location: Factory 5/9 Rutherford Rd., Seaford, Victoria Phone: 03 9775 0495 Email: baysidehydroponics.com Motto: “We’ll get you growing!”

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Jason and Gerry

When it comes to running a strong business, life sometimes likes to get in the way and cause setbacks. Still, what if the act of overcoming these unexpected challenges that is the true measure of success… Before Gerry Carter got into the hydroponics industry, he owned his own roof tiling business for 28 years. His wife, Tracey Carter, was a devoted stay-at-home mother of two boys, Guy and Ryan. However, the family life changed after Gerry injured himself so badly at work that he could not return to roof tiling as a trade. Perhaps it was fate; Gerry had always been interesting in hydroponics, and his accident opened up the perfect opportunity to enter the industry. So in 1990, Gerry opened Bayside Hydroponics & Homebrew Warehouse. Indeed,

he thought it was the perfect time to do so as there weren’t many hydroponic shops in the local area and the industry was growing strong. In the beginning, there were only three people manning the tiny store: Gerry, Tracy and their long-time friend Darren Shane Mogford. They all worked full-time, with Gerry working seven days a week, producing tomato plants and herbs and selling hydroponic equipment. However, there were also many struggles to face having a new store. There was the challenge of stocking shelves with products, and also having very little money and space

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Fire damage

to do so. Difficulty with advertising the store didn’t help either. They handed out flyers, made posters and signs, and relied on word of mouth and having excellent customer service, but customer flow was still slow. “I learnt it’s hard starting a new store with lack of recognition within the industry,” says Gerry. “Getting your name out there it was very stressful and not easy and also having so many setbacks.” However, there were some customers coming through the shop. A lot of people had trouble with their plants getting sick, bugs etc. the advice that Gerry or one off his employees would give them would give their plants a whole new life. In fact, that’s where Bayside’s motto—We’ll get you growing!—comes from. As Gerry says, “Out of little things, big things grow.” Well, the same goes for Bayside Hydroponics. Finally, after four years, business picked up and Gerry decided to relocate in 1994 to Factory 2/8 Rutherford Rd. in Seaford. The bigger store had more space for stock and displays. They made sure to keep all the best products that hydroponics had to offer, and the store finally started to get business and have regular customers. Unfortunately, though, the good always comes with the bad. In 2007, a fire burnt down the factory and Bayside lost everything. The total loss was $1.2 million, and the company had to move into the Carter’s home shed. Six months later, the shop relocated to Factory 5/9 Rutherford Rd., Seaford, where we are currently located.

Thankfully, the store has slowly started to become recognised again. They’re even stocking their shelves with the best products again, a practice that isn’t easy due to the fact that they weren’t insured for the right amount. Still, customers can find Professor’s, Steroid, Monster Bud, B52 Thrive and all Homebrew goods on Bayside’s shelves. “I have learnt that products are always changing,” says Gerry. “New products coming out that you have to stock or try to compete with them.” It is this dedication to the newest and latest goods that has kept, and continues to keep, Bayside ahead of the other form of competition it has to deal with: other stores in the local area. Over the years, stores in Frankston, Seaford, Carrum and Edithvale have come and gone. Now, according to Gerry, there is only competition in Springvale. Nonetheless, the main reasons Bayside has been able to regain its footing and start re-establishing itself in the industry—an accomplishment the Gerry believes is the company’s biggest success—are its customer service, the knowledge about all the products kept in stock and the advice

L–R: Casey, Jason and Darren

its staff gives out to clients. “Our philosophy hasn’t changed over the years,” he says. “At Bayside Hydroponics, we believe in giving out the right information to all customers and that customers come first.” Of course, great customer service can’t happen without a great staff. There have been very few staff changes over the years—Sadly, Darren passed in 2012, but Gerry and Tracy still work at the shop, and they are now joined by their eldest son, Guy; Casey Abbott; and long-time friend Jason. “My employees are awesome because they have the best knowledge and are very friendly and outgoing,” beams Gerry. “We are more than a team; we are family with a very strong bond.” And so, with a strong staff, a past history of overcoming struggles and Gerry’s desire for success, it seems that Bayside Hydroponics & Homebrew Warehouse continue to come back from the ashes and blossom into a hydroponics-industry success.

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YOU TELL US

The Nutrifield team

Nutrifield recently sat down with Maximum Yield to discuss the importance of sustainability and education, why research and development is at the cornerstone of Nutrifield’s vision. Tell us a little about how your company started? Nutrifield began from a desire to have access to hydroponic feed programs that pushed the boundaries of traditional nutrient programs. Traditional methods offered completely synthetic products centred around delivering the essential elements for plant growth, but we believed that by introducing organic and synthetically balanced additives, we could push the plant further and be rewarded with higher yields. We developed complete nutrient delivery programs and educational systems that simplified the approach to plant nutrition and changed the way growers looked at their current methods of gardening.

What sort of products are in the Nutrifield product range? We manufacture a complete range of superior-grade growing mediums, hydroponic nutrients, supplements and additives, certified organic fertilizers, stimulants and beneficial micro-organisms. Nutrifield’s mediums meet the stringent specifications of the Dutch RHP grading system, and our combination of natural organic and high-grade synthetic materials deliver a balanced feeding program that ensures optimal nutrient uptake—delivering healthier plants and the potential for larger harvests. Nutrifield products work in synergy. Take Cargo Boost and Fulife for example; Cargo Boost is our breakthrough proprietary

Nutrifield isn’t only about nutrient programs. Their product line also includes pots and buckets like this Smart Grow Pro Gardener.

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nutrient delivery system, responsible for increasing nutrient delivery to a plants root system when combined with Fulife, which prevents complex bonds forming and converts nutrients into plant available form you have the ultimate nutrient delivery system. What are your most popular products? Why do you think these are the most popular? Nutrifield offers a range of products to suit every gardener, from hobbyist to commercial farmer. All Nutrifield products evolve over time to suit new market demands and once developed, [they] are tested for a one and a half years in real hydroponic growing situations; our loyal customers know that any product carrying the nf mark is a symbol of the Nutrifield guarantee to deliver … NF Coco, NF Alaska Pure, NF Ocean Mist, NF Cargo Boost, NF Fulife, NF Elements, NF Defence System, and NF Plant Starter are all quality hydroponic nutrient systems. Every year, we target two Nutrifield products and identify ways to better improve our formulation and yield results. What is your company philosophy? Our aim is to grow the plants of the world through manufacturing a complete range of premium growing solutions that become the brand of choice to gardeners. Nutrifield is inspired by educating growers and encouraging free thought … The world is constantly in a state of change; plant physiology is constantly changing [and] our atmosphere is constantly changing, and if we as nutrient manufacturers (and gardeners) don’t pre-empt these environmental changes and evolve with them, the results gardeners expect will deteriorate. It’s why research and development is at the cornerstone of Nutrifield’s vision to become world market leaders. Our focus is sharply aimed at providing our customers with winning products and education that keeps them coming back every time.

How important do you think sustainability is to the indoor gardening business as a whole? Sustainability should be at the forefront of everyone’s mind and it’s a topic that we work hard at from a grassroots level. Consumers have become selfeducators savvy on the products and ingredients used to grow the fresh produce they are feeding their families, and if growers don’t evolve with this new direction in market demand, they’ll be left behind. Hydro’s the way of the future, and will become one of the ways we feed our nation. It offers opportunity to increase sustainable growing practices worldwide. We’ll grow in closer proximity to the population, reducing food miles and optimising logistical operations while reducing broad acre practices that create sterile land, while lowering over-fertilisation. When you look at start to finish growing, hydroponics produces more fresh produce per square meter, and reduces water and nutrient use over traditional farming practices, with the benefits of utilising arid environments. It’s why we’re seeing an increasing number of rooftop gardens and a growing interest in the “grow your own” movement—ecoconscious consumers are gaining sound knowledge of what goes into their food and are slowly moving away from fresh produce not grown in a sustainable manner. Tell us more about your Garden Problem Solver? How does it work? The aim of Nutrifield’s Online Garden Problem Solver is for it to become the gardening bible for all growers—a one-stop shop of universal knowledge aimed at hydroponic cultivation that will bust through the myths and gimmicks that have flooded our industry. Knowledge is the key to success, and whether you’re a novice or seasoned gardener, you will have access to educational articles on everything from nutrient deficiency identifiers to micro-organisms. Is there anything interesting happening at the R & D stage that you’re at liberty to tell us about? We’ve had an interesting couple of years in the laboratory and we’ve been working in close conjunction with Australia’s leading agronomist, who is a world-renowned expert in hydroponics. But the best is still to come! This year we have some revolutionary new products coming your way, and we have developed an evolving feeding program that will turn a novice grower into an expert.

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors AUSTRALIA ACT South Pacific Hydroponics

#2 - 84 - 86 Wollongong St., Fyshwick ACT 2609 (02) 6239 2598

South Pacific Hydroponics

70 Oatley Court, Belconnen ACT 2617 (02) 6251 0600

NEW SOUTH WALES ABC Aquaculture

54 Wahroonga Road, Kanwal NSW 2259 (61) 2 4393 3131 ASE Hydroponics

Factory 10/45 Leighton Pl., Hornsby NSW 2077 (02) 9477 3710 Ballina Hydro

3 Ray O’Niell Crescent, Ballina NSW 2478 (02) 6686 7321 Brunswick Hydro & Aquarium Supplies

19 Booyun Street, Brunswick Heads NSW 2483 (02) 6685 1552 Criscete Hydroponics and Organics

Unit 2/15 Kam Close, Morisset, NSW 2264 (02) 4973 5779

Dr. Van Der Bloom’s Hydroponics Supplies

5/5 Forge Drive, Coff’s Harbour, NSW 2450 (02) 6651 9992 Dubbo Hydro & Tobacconist 42c Victoria S treet, Dubbo West NSW 2830

(02) 6885 1616 Ezi Grow Hydro 177 Mt Druit Road, Mt Druitt NSW 2770 (02) 9832 1610 Ezi Grow Hydro

1B/340 Windsor Street, Richmond NSW 2753 (02) 4588 5826 Ezi Grow Hydro

56 Fish Parade, Bathurst NSW 2795 (02) 9832 1610 Ezi Grow Hydro - Head Office

18 Part Street, Eglinton NSW 2795 (02) 6337 1485

Favgro Hydroponics Growers

107 Glenella Road, Batehaven NSW 2536 (02) 4472 7165 Felanza - Hydroponics

140 Princess Highway, Arncliffe, NSW 2205 (02) 9556 1494

General Hydroponics

7/14 Sunnyholt Rd., Blacktown NSW 9676 (02) 9676 8682 Grow Australia

Hobby Grow

6/46 Through Street, South Grafton NSW 2460 (04) 2283 8069 Home Harvest

423 Princess Highway, Rockdale NSW 2216 (02) 9567 8841Hyalite Moorebank

6/376 Newsbridge Road, Moorebank NSW 2170 (02) 9824 3400 Hyalite Villawood

2/21 Birmingham Avenue, Villawood NSW 2163 (02) 9723 7199 Hydro Masta

100 Station Road, Seven Hills, Sydney NSW 2147 (02) 8812 2845 Hydro Masta Pty Ltd

76 Beecroft Road, Epping NSW 2121 (02) 9869 3011 Hydro Net

2/14 Aific Street, Long Jetty NSW 2261 (02) 4334 6955 Hydro Place

1/68 Nelson Street, Wallsend NSW 2287 (02) 4965 6595 Hydro Shop and Reptile Supplies

2/390 The Esplanade, Warners Bay NSW 2282 (02) 4958 1489 Hydro Shop Pty Ltd

Unit 1/5-7 Channel Road, Mayfield West NSW 2304 (02) 4960 0707 Hydro Supplies

57 Flinders Street, Darlinghurst NSW 2010 (02) 9326 0307 Hydro Wise

Nowra Hydro

68 Bridge Road, Nowra NSW 2541 (02) 4423 3224 Nutriflo Hydroponic Systems

19/5 Daintree Place, Gosford West NSW 2250 (02) 4323 1599

252 Oxford Street, Bondi Junction NSW 2022 (02) 9369 3928 Indoor Sun Shop

Grow Your Own

Lismore Hydro

Unit 6/34 Alliance Ave, Morisset NSW 2264 (02) 4973 5179

1/106 Canway Street, Lismore NSW 2480 (02) 6621 3311

Happy Grow Hydro

Lismore Hydroponics

rear of 28 Casino St., South Lismore, NSW 2480 (02) 6621 3311

PO Box 306, Carole Park QLD 4300 (07) 3335 3556

Advanced Garden Supplies

2/80 Beerburrum Road, Caboolture QLD 4510 (07) 5428 1133

Quik Grow

510a Great Western Hwy., Pendle Hill NSW 2145 (02) 9636 7023 Quick Grow

823 King Georges Road, S. Hurstville NSW 2221 (02) 9546 8642 Quik Grow Pty Ltd

490 Parramatta Road, Petersham NSW 2049 (02) 9568 2900 Simple Grow

Hassall Street & Windem, Wetherill Pk NSW 2164 (02) 9604 0469 Tweed Coast Hydroponics

2/58 Machinery Dr., Tweeds Head South NSW 2486 (07) 5524 8588 Uncle Wal’s Gardenland

31 Crescent Avenue, Taree NSW 2430 (02) 6550 0221

Home Grown Aquaponics

PO Box 274, Mascot NSW 1400 1 800 661 475

Wollongong Hydroponic Center

318 Crown Street, Wollongong NSW 2500 (02) 4225 8773

Katherine Hydroponics Centre

QUEENSLAND A Happy Medium Hydroponics

Unit2/10 Central Court, Browns Plains QLD 4118 (07) 3809 3322 Allgrow Hydro

13 - 58 Bullock Head St., Sumner Park QLD 4074 (07) 3376 7222 Aquatic Oasis

Unit 2/33 Smith Street, Capalaba QLD 4157 (07) 3245 7777 Billabong Hydroponics

Lot 1, Billabong Court, Childers QLD 4660 (07) 4126 3551

22 Mining Street, Bundamba QLD 4304 (07) 3816 3206 2 Sonia Crt., Raceview QLD 4305 (07) 3294 3253 Hyalite Varsity

5/11 John Duncan Crt., Varsity Lakes QLD 4227 (07) 5593 7385 Hydroponic Roots & Shoots

Lot 3 Herberton Road, Atherton QLD 4883 (07) 4091 3217

Hydroponics & Garden Supplies

Advanced Garden Supplies

Unit 5, 16 Research Road, Pooraka SA 5095 (08) 8359 1800 Ascot Park

753 Marion Road, Ascot Park SA 5043 (08) 8357 4700 Barry’s Hardware

Saints & Main North Rd., Salisbury Plains SA 5109 (08) 8281 4066 Bolzon Home & Garden

93 Cook St., Portsmith QLD 4870 (07) 4035 5422

103 Tolley Road, St Agnes SA 5097 (08) 8265 0665

Hydroponics Today

Chocablock D iscount Variety Store

PO Box 785, Stanthorpe QLD 4380 (07) 4683 3133 Indoor Solutions

Unit 2 / 79 Oxford Tce., Taringa QLD 4068 J&K Hydroponics

10 Wacol Station Road, Wacol, Brisbane QLD, 4076 (07) 3271 6210 KY Garden

3/31 Argyle PDE, Darra Brisbane QLD 4076 (07) 3375 9098

15-17/1220 Grand Junction, Hope Valley SA 5090 (08) 8396 3133 Complete Hydroponics

1581 Main North Road Salisbury East SA 5109 (08) 8258 4022 Country Hydro

434 Saddleback Road, Whyalla SA 5600 (08) 8645 3105

Nerang Hydroponic Centre

D & W Dependable Hardware

North Queensland Hydro Supplies

Festive Hydro

27 Lawrence Drive, Nerang QLD 4211 (07) 5527 4155

45B Kettering Road, Elizabeth South SA 5112 (08) 8287 6399

Shop 2B/20-22 Fleming St., Townsville QLD 4810 (07) 4728 3957

2 Kreig Street, Evanston Park SA 5116 (08) 8523 5100

Northern Hydroponics

Fulham Gardener Nursery

383 Mulgrave Road, Cairns QLD 4870 (07) 4054 5884

Pioneer Hydroponics

194 Doyles Road, Pleystowe QLD 4741 (07) 4959 2016 SA Hydroponics

Shed 3, 1191 Anzac Avenue, Kallangar QLD 4503 (07) 3285 1355 Simply Hydroponics Gold Coast

42 Lawrence Drive, Nerang QLD 4211 (07) 5596 2250

Sunstate Hydroponics

1137 Ipswitch Road, Moorooka QLD 4105 (07) 3848 5288

Sunstate Hydroponics

67 Aerodrome Road, Maroochydore QLD 4558 (07) 5479 1011 The Hydroponic Warehouse

Shop 3/73 PIckering Street, Enoggera QLD 4051 (07) 3354 1588 Tumbling Waters Hydroponics

2 Clarkes Track, Malanda QLD 4885 (07) 4096 6443

Harvest Time Hydroponics

Shop 3/146-148, Findon Road, Findon SA 5023 (08) 8244 0222 Hindmarsh Hydroponics

39a Manton Street, Hindmarsh SA 5095 (08) 8346 9461 Highland Hydro

14/1042 Grand Junction Road, Holden Hill SA 5088 (08) 8395 4455 Hong Kong Hydro

Green Power Hydroponics

H2 Gro Pty Ltd

20 Uralla Road, Pt Macquarie NSW 2444 (02) 6581 1272

Indoor Sun Shop

Kyper’s Tools a nd Hydroponics

Eye Lighting Australia Pty Ltd

SOUTH AUSTRALIA ------------------------------------------

Port Pumps and Irrigation

17 Rundle Street, Katherine NT 0850 (08) 8972 1730

PO Box 120, St. Mary’s NSW 2760 (02) 9833 7500

Unit 1/4 Windmill Street, Southport QLD 4215 (07) 5591 6501

881 Ruthven Street, Toowoomba QLD 4350 (07) 4636 1077

Amazon Aquariums & Gardening

NORTHERN TERRITORY

International Fans

E.T. Grow Home

Walsh’s Seeds Garden Centre

3/8 Bredbo St Lonsdale S.A. 5160 (04) 1325 8818 ------------------------------------------

745 Victoria Road, Top Ryde NSW 2112 (02) 9808 6511 Unit 2/109 Junction Road, Moorebank NSW 2170 (02) 9822 4700

5/404 Deception Bay Road, Deception Bay QLD 4508 (07) 3204 8324

Grow Hydro

Westside Lighting & Electrical (Ezi Range)

Hygrow Horticulture (Greenlite)

D-Bay Hydroponics Shop

250 Princess Highway, Nowra South NSW 2541 (02) 4423 0599

Parkview Plants

Hydroponics Grow All Year

Stuart & Tincogan Sts, Mullumbimby NSW 2482 (02) 6684 4928

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14-16 Nance Road, Kempsey NSW 2440 (02) 6563 1599

13/8a-8b Hartley Drive, Thornton NSW 2322 (02) 4028 6388

Factory 1/5 Sefton Road, Thronleigh NSW 2120 (02) 9473 5000

15/The Crescent Street, Penrith NSW 2750 (02) 4732 2870

Northern Nursery Supplies Pty Ltd

B/385 The Entrance Road, Long Jetty NSW 2261 (02) 4333 5700 14 Fitzmaurice Street, Wagga Wagga NSW 2650 (02) 6921 5911

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

597 Tapleys Hill Road, Fulham SA 5024 (08) 8235 2004

Futchatec Distribution

4 Symonds St. Royal Park, 5014 (08) 8447-1122

Glandore Hydroponics

644 - 646 South Road, Glandore SA 5037 (08) 8371 5777

Greener than Green

52 - 54 Cliff Avenue, Port Noarlunga South SA 51 (08) 8386 2596

13 Research Road, Pooraka SA 5095 (08) 8260 2000 Hydro Heaven

Kane Motors-Hunt Road, Mount Barker SA 5251 (08) 8391 1880 Hydro Sales & Service

1 Salisbury Crescent, Colonel Light SA 5041 (08) 8272 2000 Hydro Technics

321 South Road, Croydon SA 5008 (08) 8241 5022 Hydro Warehouse

181 Seacombe Road, South Brighton SA 5048 (08) 8377 1200 Hydro World

40 Folland Avenue, Northfield SA 5085 (08) 8262 8323 Koko’s Hydro Warehouse

Unit 2/2 McGowan Street, Pooraka SA 5095 (08) 8260 5463

Larg’s Bay Garden Supply

239 Victoria Road, Largs Bay SA 5016 (08) 8242 3788

Martins Road Hydro

# 5- 353 Martins Road, Parafield Gardens SA 5107 (08) 8283 4011 Mitre 10 Drive In

152 Hanson Road, Mansfield Park SA 5012 (08) 8445 1813 New Age Hydroponics

135-137 Sir Donald Bradman Dr., Hilton SA 5033 (08) 8351 9100 Owen Agencies

17-19 Railway Terrace, Owen SA 5460 (08) 8528 6008 Professional Hydro

4/522 Grange Road, Fulham Gardens SA 5024 (08) 8353 0133 Professional Hydro

Shop 5/645 Lower North East Road SA 5075 (08) 8365 5172 Professional Hydroponics

113 Maurice Road, Murray Bridge SA (08) 8532 3441

Seaton Hydroponics

Greenhouse Superstore Lonsdale

129 Tapleys Hill Road Seaton SA 5023 (08) 82682636

Greenhouse Superstore Royal Park

44 Chapel St., Norwood SA 5067 (08) 8362 8042

35 to 37 Aldenhoven Road SA 5160 (08) 8382 0100 4 Symonds St. Royal Park SA 5014 (08) 8447 5899

Ground-Up Service Nursery

3 Copinger Road, Pt. Pirie SA 5540 (08) 8264 9455

Soladome Aquaculture & Hydro

South Coast Hydroponics

6/25 Gulfview Road, Christies Beach SA 5165 (08) 8384 2380 State Hydroponics

174 Semaphore Road, Exeter SA 5019 (08) 8341 5991

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Tea Tree Gully Hydro

32 Famechon Cresent, Modbury North SA 5092 (08) 8264 9455 Two Wells Hardware

86 Old Port Wakefield Road, Two Wells SA 5501 (08) 8520 2287 Urban Grow Solutions

1/111 Main Sth Rd, O’Halloran Hill, S.A 5189 (08) 8322 0040 West Garden Centre

Peachey Road, Elizabeth West SA 5113 (08) 8255 1355 TASMANIA Advanced Hydroponics

26 Mulgrave Street, South Launceston Tas 7249 (03) 6344 5588 Ezy Grow

625 East Derwent Highway, Lindisfarne Tas 7015 (03) 6243 9490 Garden World

717 West Tamar Highway, Legana Tas 7277 (03) 6330 1177 ------------------------------------------

Barb’s Hydro and Nursery

Hydroware

15 Wallace Avenue, Interverloch Vic 3196 (03) 5674 2584

59a Lara Way, Campbellfield, Vic, 3061 (03) 9357 8805

87A Archer Street, Shepparton Vic 3630 (03) 5831 6433

Hyalite Airport West

5/ 411-413 Old Geelong Rd., Hoppers Cros. 3029 (03) 9360 9344

Bayside Hydroponics

5/9 Rutherford Road Seaford, VIC 3198 (03) 9775 0495Belgrave Hydroponics

5/ 60-68 Colby Drive, Belgrave Heights Vic 3160 (03) 9754 3712 Brew ‘N’ Grow

4 - 479 Nepean Highway, Edithvale Vic 3199 (03) 9783 3006 Casey Hydro

12 The Arcade Street, Cranbourne Vic 3977 (03) 5996 3697 Casey Hydro

78 Spring Square, Hallam Vic 3803 (03) 9796 3776Chronic Hydroponics

31 Anderson Street, Templestowe Vic 3106 (03) 9646 8133 Complete Garden Supplies

580 Ballarat Road, Sunshine Vic 3020 (03) 9311 9776 Discount Hydroponics

Green Acres Hydroponics

Unit 1 46-48 Bingalong Rd, Mornington, TAS 7018 (03) 6245 1066

-----------------------------------------Growers Choice

225 Main Road, Derwent Park Tas 7009 (03) 6273 6088 Hydroponics Systems

131 Main Rd, Moonah, TAS 7009 (03) 6278 3457

Hydroponic World

322 Bass Highway, Sulphur Creek Tas 7316 (03) 6435 4411 Organic Garden Supplies Tas

17 Don Road, Devonport Tas 7310 (03) 6424 7815

Tas Hydroponic Supplies

99 Lampton Avenue, Derwent Park Tas 7009 (03) 6272 2202

The Hydroponic Company

69 Charles Street, Moonah Tas 7009 (03) 6273 1411

The Hydroponics Company

289 Hobart Road, Kings Medow Tas 7428 (03) 6340 2222 VICTORIA

Albury Hydroponics / Cappers Hydroponics

62 Thomas Mitchell Drive, Springvale Vic 3171 61 (02) 6024 4029 All Seasons Hydroponics

3 Springvale Road, Springvale Vic 3171 (03) 9540 8000

Banksia Greenhouse and Outdoor Garden

530 Burwood Highway, Wantirna Vic 3152 (03) 9801 8070

18 Princes Hwy. Doveton VIC 3177 (03) 9792 2966 Echuca Hydroponic Nursery & Supplies

23 Ogilvie Avenue, Echuca Vic 3564 (03) 5480 2036 Echuca Pump Shop

128 Ogilvie Avenue, Echuca Vic 3564 (03) 5480 7080 Excel Distributors Pty Ltd

2/41 Quinn Street, Preston Vic 3072 (03) 9495 0083 F.L.O.W. Plants and Environments

66B Chapel Street, Windsor Vic 3181 (03) 9510 6832 Gardensmart

810-834 Springvale Road, Keysborough Vic 3173 (03) 9769 1411 Global Hydroponics

10 Knight Avenue, Sunshine Vic 3020 (03) 9356 9400 Greenleaf Hydroponics

9a Church Street, Traralgon Vic 3844 (03) 5176 0898 Greenleaf Hydroponics

Factory 7, Industrial Park Drive, Lilydale Vic 3140 (03) 9739 7311 GreenLite - Ringwood

Unit 4/504-506 Fullarton Road, Airport West 3042 (03) 9331 5452 Hyalite Bayswater

4/19 Jersey Road, Bayswater Vic 3153 (03) 9720 1946Hyalite Global

10 Knight Avenue, Sunshine North Vic 3020 (03) 9356 9400 Hyalite Westend

3 Third Avenue, Sunshine Vic 3020 (03) 9311 3510 Hydroponic Central

110 Dynon Road West Melbourne Vic. 3003 (03) 9376 0447 Indoor Garden Company

29 Glasgow Street, Collingwood Vic 3066 (03) 9416 1699 Impact Distribution

PO Box 2188, Salisbury Downs 5108 (08) 8250-1515JB Lighting 492 - 500 Neerim Road, Murrumbeena Vic 3163 (03) 9569 4399 Just Hydroponics Deer Park

Unit 11 29-39 Westwood Drive, Deer Park, VIC 3023 (03) 8390 0861 Just Hydroponics Geelong

Simply Hydroponics

Simply Hydroponics

8, 59-61 Miller St., Epping 3076 (03) 9408 4677

Sunlite Hydroponics

1/104 Shannon Avenue, Geelong West Vic 3281 (03) 5222 6730 Simply Hydroponics Pakenham

Factory 6/3-11 Bate Close Pakenham, Victoria 3810 03 5940 9047 Sunray Hydro

157 Tenth Street, Mildura Vic 3500 (03) 5023 6422 Supply Net International P/L PO Box 171, Highbury Vic 5089 (88) 264-3600 The Hydroponic Connection

397 Dorset Road, Boronia Vic 3155 (03) 9761 0662 Waterworks Hydroponics

Unit 1, 5 Brand Drive, Thomastown Vic 3074 (03) 9465 1455 WESTERN AUSTRALIA Accent Hydroponics

Unit 2/141 Russell Street, Morley WA 6062 (08) 9375 9355 Aqua Post

Unit 7 36-38 Saunders street, North Geelong, VIC 3215 (03) 5278 6478

Unit 2B 7 Yampi Way, Willetton WA 6155 (08) 9354 2888

Latrove Valley Home Brew Supplies

Lot 12 Warton Road, Canning Vale WA 6155 1800 640 222

PO Box 802, Morwell Vic 3804 (03) 5133 9140 Living Jungle

345 Sommerville Road, Footscray West Vic 3012 (03) 9314 0055 Melton Hydroponic Supplies

18/10 Norton Drive, Melton Vic 3194 (03) 9746 9256 Midtown Hydroponics

Factory 1, 821B Howitt St., Wendouree Vic 3355 (03) 5339 1300 One Stop Sprinklers

1 Burwood Highway, Wantirna Vic 3152 (03) 9800 2177 Pam’s Home Brew & Hydroponics

291 Maroondah Highway, Ringwood Vic 3134 (03) 9870 8566

61 McArthur Street, Sale Vic 3850 (03) 5143 1143

Grow 4 XS

Palms & Plants

Rear 24 Simms Road, Greensborough Vic 3088 (03) 9435 6425

175 Salisbury Highway, Salisbury S.A. 5108 (08) 8285 7575

Holland Forge Pty Ltd.

Prestige Hydroponics Pty. Ltd.

5 Hi-tech Place, Rowville Vic 3178 (03) 9764 1372

Shepparton Hydroponics

S 2.10 Level 2, 343 Little Collins St. Melbourne VIC Australia 3000 61 4 187 81083

Aquaponics

Bunbury Alternate Growing Supplies

8/13 Worcestor Bend, Davenport, WA 6230 (08) 9725 7020

Creative Hydroponics

1/95 Dixon Road, Rockingham WA 6168 (08) 9528 1310 Great Southern Hydroponics

Shop 1, 21 Hennessy Road, Bunbury WA 6230 (08) 9721 8322 Greenfingers World of Hydroponics

Albany Hwy & Kelvin Rd., Maddington WA 6109 (08) 9452 0546

Greenfingers World of Hydroponics

Unit C 14-16 Elliot Street, Midvale WA 6056 (08) 9274 8388 Greenlite Hydroponics

4/91 Wanneroo Road, Tuart Hill WA 6060 (08) 9345 5321

Growsmart Hydroponics

Hydroponic Solutions

1/1928 Beach Road, Malaga WA 6090 (08) 9248 1901 Hydroponic Warehouse

Unit 7/627 Wanneroo Road, Wanneroo WA 6065 (08) 9206 0188 Hydroponica

317 Guildford Road, Maylands WA 6051 (08) 9371 5757 Isabella’s Hydroponics

66 Jambanis Road, Wanneroo WA 6065 (08) 9306 3028 Johnson’s Nursery Garden Centre

30 Blencowe Road, Geralton WA 6530 (08) 9921 6016 Neerabup Organic & Hydroponic Supplies

Unit 1, 21 Warman St. Neerabup WA 6031 (08) 9404 7155 One Stop Hydroponics

947 Beaufort Street, Inglewood WA 6052 (08) 9471 7000 Perth Hydroponic Centre

Shop 4, 171-175 Abernathy Road, Belmont WA 6104 (08) 9478 1211 Reptile and Grow Store

Unit 7 - 117-119 Dixon Road, Rockingham WA 6168 (08) 9527 2245 Richo’s 4 Hydro

Unit 7/22 Franklin Lane, Joondalup, WA 6027 (08) 9301 4462 Southwest Hydroponics

Lot 29, Pinjarra Road, Mandurah WA 6210 (08) 9534 8544 The Grow Room

1/1451 Albany Highway, Cannington WA 6107 (08) 9356 7044 The Great Indoors

Unit 1/25 Gillam Dr. Kelmscott WA 6111 +61 (08) 9495 2815 Bloem

PO Box 1816, Subiaco WA 6008 (08) 9217 4400 The Watershed Water Systems

150 Russell Street, Morley WA 6062 (08) 9473 1473 The Watershed Water Systems

2874 Albany Highway, Kelmscott WA 6111 (08) 9495 1495 The Watershed Water Systems

1/146 Great Eastern Highway, Midland WA 6210 (08) 9274 3232 Tru Bloomin Hydroponics

NEW ZEALAND Easy Grow New Lynn

3018 Gt North Rd New Lynn, Auckland 09 827 0883

Easy Grow Manukau

15/69 Wiri Station Road, Manukau, Auckland 09 263 7560 Guru Gardener

14 Molesworth St., New Plymouth 06 758 6661 Otaki Hydroponics

1083 S.H. 1 South Otaki 06 364 2206 House of Hydro

221 Waiwhetu Rd., Lower Hutt Wellington Pet and Garden

10 Fitzgerald Ave., Christchurch 03 377 2507 Grow and Brew

14a Flexman Place, Silverdale Auckland 09 426 2095 Green Day Hydroponics

Cnr of Maunganui Rd & Tawa St., Mt Maunganui 07 575 4090 Switched on Gardener

Number 189 (Lower) Dent Street, Whangarei (09)438 0223 Switched on Gardener

Unit 159 Central Park Drive, Henderson (09) 837 1210 Switched on Gardener

Unit 1/60 Ti Rakau Drive, Pakuranga (09) 576 0296

Switched on Gardener

Number 1c Sunshine Ave, Hamilton (07) 850 8351 Switched on Gardener

Number 513 Heretaunga Street West, Hastings (06) 876 7885 Switched on Gardener

Number 62 Kaiwharawhara Road, Wellington (04) 472 5265 Switched on Gardener

Unit 7/67 View Road, Glenfield (09) 443 0106 Switched on Gardener

Number 1 Rata Street, New Lynn (09) 826 4444 Switched on Gardener

Number 57 Cavendish Drive, Manukau (09) 263 4336 Switched on Gardener

Number 427 Cameron Road, Tauranga (07) 579 9840 Switched on Gardener

Number 1060 Fergusson Drive, Upper Hutt (04) 526 3913 Switched on Gardener

Number 3 Pascoe Street, Nelson (03) 546 4769 Switched on Gardener

Number 9 Buckley Road, Linwood (03) 381 0937

47768 South Coast Highway, Albany WA 6330 (08) 9841 3220

7/36 Port Kembla Dr. Bibra Lake, WA 6163 (08) 9434 5118

Switched on Gardener

Hydro Nation

Water Garden Warehouse

Switched on Gardener

41A Rockingham Road, Hamilton Hill WA 6163 (08) 9336 7368

14 Drake Street, Osborne Park WA 6017 (08) 9443 7993

Number 143 Tuam Street, Christchurch CBD (03) 374 5682 Number 313 King Edward Street, Dunedin (03) 456 1980

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COMING UP IN March / April ECO COCO While we all know coir is a by-product of the coconut processing industry, Dr. Lynette shows us that understanding its properties and potential as a horticultural growing medium can be slightly more complex than the other inert substrates.

THE COMFORT ZONE Ensuring a vital root zone is essential to the health of your plants, and you can’t do that without understanding the comfort requirements of the tiny organisms living in your garden…

PHOTOSYNTHESIS & PLANT NUTRITION Photosynthesis is a vital function in plants. In this article, Bentley Mills breaks down the process and explains how nutrition deficiencies can negatively affect it.

PLUS:

Hydroponic news, tips and trivia; hot new products; exclusive giveaways; Talking Shop and more!

Maximum Yield (March/April) will be available in March for free at select indoor gardening retail stores across the country and on maximumyield.com Subscriptions are available at maximumyield.com/subscriptions

COMING UP ON THE WEB W GROA PRO

LIKETOUR!

GEARING UP FOR ANOTHER GREAT YEAR OF EXPOS

2013 is just around the corner, and so is another great year of indoor gardening expos sponsored by Maximum Yield. Whether you’re a new or experienced gardener, these shows offer something for everyone. Stay tuned to indoorgardeningexpo.com for details so you can plan your 2013 vacation.

GOT QUESTIONS? GET ANSWERS. Maximum Yield’s resident experts are available and ready to answer your modern gardening questions. Email editor@maximumyield.com or fill out the “Ask the Experts” question form on maximumyield.com 54

FREE DIGITAL SUBSCRIPTION TO MAXIMUM YIELD I’M A FAN CONTEST Introducing the newest contest from Maximum Yield! Tell us why you are a fan of Maximum Yield and you could win monthly prizes of $100 gift card to your favourite indoor gardening shop, and also have a chance at the grand prize of a $1,000 gift card to your favourite indoor gardening shop. Simply send your testimonial, name, address, phone number and email address to editor@maximumyield.com Contest closes December 14, 2013.

Now you can receive Maximum Yield free to your inbox every month. Subscribe to the digital edition of Maximum Yield by simply filling out the form at maximumyield.com/subscriptions

CONNECT WITH US maximumyield.com facebook.com/MaximumYield indoorgardeningexpo.com twitter.com/max_yield

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Maximum Yield AUS/NZ Jan/Feb 2013