Page 1

PRESS KIT

RC44 ChamPionShip Tour 2010 _ Season 4 _ www.rc44.com

WORLD SAILING


Partner

Clothes Supplier

Class Communication

RC44 Class

Boat Builder

MaxComm Communication 42 Quai Gustave-Ador CH-1207 Geneva - Switzerland P/ +41 22 735 55 30 www.maxcomm.ch

Ch. Sablet 4 1110 Morges Switzerland F/ +41 21 803 01 78 www.rc44.com

Pauger E/ info@paugercarbon.com www.paugermast.hu

Bernard SCHOPFER M/ +41 79 332 11 76 E/ bernard.schopfer@maxcomm.ch Skype: bernardschopfer

Bertrand FAVRE M/ +41 76 324 05 39 E/ bertrand.favre@rc44.com Skype: bertrandfavre

Copyright photo / RC44 Class Association: Raffaelo Bastiani 4, 5, 7, 8, 12 - Ales Fevzer 1, 12 Morten Jerichau 7 - Nico Martinez 7 Gilles Martin-Raget 11, 12 - Fabrizio Prandini 11 Marie Rambauske 7, 9, 15 - Giovanni de Sandre 15 Loris von Siebenthal 2, 12


ÂŤ The main features of the RC44 Championship Tour are the logistical support brought to the teams, the quality of the venues, the level of hospitality and, of course, the one-design concept. Âť

4 The RC44 Championship Tour 2010 7 2010 Program 8 A class that provides a real support to its members 9 The RC44 10 Boat specifications 11 Coutts Justin Design 13 The Teams 15 Spectators, Guests & Media 16 Class Partners & Suppliers 17 Results

WORLD SAILING


4

THE RC44 CHAMPIONSHIP TOUR

The RC 44 Championship Tour The RC 44 Championship Tour 2010 comprises six different regattas held in five different countries (UAE, Spain, Austria, Denmark and the USA). The RC 44 Championship Tour is one of

the Middle-East, the Class plans to develop a

designed by four-time America’s Cup winner

the world’s top sailing events. Officially

North American circuit.

Russell Coutts, together with Slovenian naval

recognised by the International Sailing Federation (ISAF), the Tour comprises six different regattas held in five different countries (UAE, Spain, Austria, Denmark, and the USA). An RC 44 World Championship will take place for the first time this year, in

architect Andrej Justin. Twenty-two RC 44

« The fourth RC 44 Championship Tour is one of sailing’s top international events in 2010. »

Puerto Calero (Lanzarote, Canary islands),

one-designs have been built to date. The Class partners are: Oracle and SLAM (official clothes). The teams involved in the Championship Tour 2010 include Team No Way Back (Pieter

on October 11-16. Following three successful

The RC 44 is a light displacement, high

Heerema / Ray Davies), Artemis (Torbjorn

editions of the Tour in Central Europe and

performance One Design sailing boat

Tornqvist / Terry Hutchinson), Ceeref (Igor

www.rc44.com


Season 2010

5

Lah / Rod Davies), BMW ORACLE Racing

Other features such as direct umpiring,

Several rules have been updated in order

(Larry Ellison / Russell Coutts), Team Aqua

leeward gates during the fleet and match

to increase the appeal of the Class in 2010.

(Chris Bake / Cameron Appleton), Team

racing series and short courses enhance the

For example, the events now begin with the

Islas Canarias Puerto Calero (José Juan and

level of the competition.

match race event on day 1 & 2. The third day

Daniel Calero / José Maria Ponce), Katusha

is a fleet race practice day as well as a spare

(Guennadi Timtchenko / Paul Cayard),

When they started designing the RC 44,

day to conclude the match race if necessary.

Team Sea Dubai (Markus Wieser / Harm

Andrej Justin and Russell Coutts immediately

The fleet regattas take place on day 4, 5 and

Muller Speer), Team Austria (René Mangold

included the transportation and storage

6.

/ Christian Binder), RC 44 Challenge (James

issues in their thoughts. As a consequence,

Spithill) and Organika (Maciej Nawrocki /

the stern of the boat is removable to allow

With six international regattas, some of the

Karol Jablonski).

the transportation length to be less than

world’s best sailors and new teams joining

40 feet. The keel fin attachment is also

the Class, the fourth RC 44 Championship

The main features of the RC 44 Championship

easily removable whilst the carbon mast

Tour is one of sailing’s top international

Tour are the quality of the venues, the level

is assembled in two parts. Therefore all

events in 2010.

of hospitality and the one-design concept.

equipment can be stored and transported

The RC 44 regattas include an exciting

on a flat deck container which can be

The Class website provides regular news

combination of fleet racing (owner driver rule)

transported in a cost effective way.

about the activities and events. www.rc44.

and match racing (no helmsman limitation),

com

with two rankings and one overall result.

www.rc44.com


6 Miami United States December 7 - 12

4

Valencia

Spain, Canary Islands October 11 - 16

Puerto Calero

Spain July 27 - August 1

5

#1 Al maktoum SailingTrophy, Dubai, UAE - February 22 - 27 #2 RC44 Austria Cup, Gmunden, Austria - April 29 - May 4 #3 RC44 Copenhagen Cup, Copenhagen, Danemark - June 8 - 13 #4 RC44 Valencia Cup, Valencia, Spain - July 27 - August 1 #5 RC44 World Championship Puerto Calero Islas Canarias, Puerto Calero, Canary Islands - October 11 - 16 #6 ORACLE RC44 MIAMI Cup, Miami, United States - December 7 - 12

2010 PROGRAM

www.rc44.com

3

Copenhagen

2

Danemark June 8 - 13

Partner

Clothes Supplier

Gmunden

Austria April 29 - May 4

1

Dubai

UAE February 22 - 27


PROGRAM

2010 PROGRAM #1 #2

Al maktoum Sailing Trophy

RC44 Austria Cup

Dubai, UAE February 22 - 27

Gmunden, Austria April 29 - May 4

#3 #4

RC44 Copenhagen Cup

RC44 Valencia Cup

Copenhagen, Danemark June 8 - 13

Valencia, Spain July 27 - August 1

#5 #6

RC44 World Championship Puerto Calero Islas Canarias Puerto Calero, Canary Islands October 11 - 16

Oracle RC44 MIAMI Cup Miami, United States December 7 - 12

www.rc44.com

7


8

The Class

A CLASS THAT PROVIDES A REAL SUPPORT TO ITS MEMBERS The RC 44 Class helps its members

length to be less than 40 feet. The keel fin

fitted with a small manual winch. The boat

by constantly developing innovative

attachment is also easily removable whilst

is supported on soft straps which are raised

solutions in order to facilitate the logistics

the carbon mast is assembled in two parts.

between the struts using the winches, to a

and reduce the costs.

Therefore all equipment can be stored and

position high enough to allow the attachment

transported on a flat deck container which

of the keel fin to the bulb. The hull is then

can be transported anywhere in the world.

lowered onto the keel after which the rudder

The RC 44 Class doesn’t just propose high performance boats, spectacular regattas and

and other parts are attached.

great venues. It also helps teams transport

In parallel, Andrej Justin and Marino Quaiat

their boats & support material from a venue to

have designed and built a revolutionary

«When the team has got its hands around the

the next in a safe and timely manner. Indeed,

container that not only carries the boat but

system, it takes only one day to assemble the

organizing regattas at various new locations

serves as a cradle once the boat arrives at a

RC 44”, comments Andrej Justin. “You only

is a challenge where boats and equipment

regatta venue. All equipment including sails,

need a crane for twenty minutes when you

need to be moved quickly and safely.

rudder, keel fin, boom, mast and spares are

want to step the mast.”

stored in compartments within the container. When they started designing the RC 44, Andrej

The bulb is transported in position under the

All the teams are allocated space in the

Justin and Russell Coutts immediately included

hull.

RC 44 container. The Class also provides a

the transportation and storage issues in their

refrigerated container, where the sails are

thoughts. As a consequence, the stern of the

After arrival at a regatta venue, four struts are

boat is removable to allow the transportation

attached to the side of the container, each

transported safely.


RC44

9

The RC44

The RC 44 is a light displacement high

distribution, deck layout and equipment, sail

The philosophy was to create something

performance One Design sailing boat. It was

plan and performance. “We wanted to include

special for the racing sailor – a bit like owning

designed by three-time America’s Cup winner

a degree of complexity so an owner can

a sports car versus a 4-wheel drive!

Russell Coutts, together with naval architect

experience what a top-end race boat is like to

Andrej Justin. The RC 44 was created for top

sail, and it delivers on that”, explains Russell

The class rules and the construction of the

level racing in international regattas under

Coutts. “Yet we also wanted it to be easy to

boat are being tightly controlled to protect the

strictly controlled Class Rules. The concept and

own – you can race this boat in summer and if

one-design concept and reduce development

the design features of the RC 44 are dedicated

you wish put it away easily in winter.”

costs for participants. For fleet racing it is an

to the amateur owners racing in fleet racing and match racing sailing events.

owner driver class with strict limitations on With a powerful sail plan, the RC 44 is

the number of professional crew. For match

intended strictly for racing, either match

racing, there is no helmsman limitation.

The objective of the Class is to develop a high

racing or day sailing fleet races. The boat is

level and entertaining racing program and to

targeted at the day sailor who wishes to sail

keep the absolute one design aspect of the RC

a high performance one-design class. It has

44 by ensuring that all boats are as identical

no comforts for cruising, and with a big open

as possible in terms of construction, shape

cockpit, a fairly narrow beam and the huge

of hull and appendages, weight and weight

sail plan it produces a lot of excitement.

www.rc44.com


10

The Boat

Boat Specifications Boat dimensions: LOA: 13.35 m Bmax: 2.75m Draft: 2.90m Mast: 20.32m Displ: 3560kg Keel: 2200kg Crew: 680kg Concept: This is a light-displacement racing yacht designed to be fast downwind and powerful upwind. It has a high aspect ratio keel with a trim tab and rudder. Easy transport concept: The specially designed canting trailer, easy detachable stern scoop and simple keel to hull attachment with a conical joint/coupling makes the boat very easy to transport and store. The mast is also built in two structural parts making the boat easy to transport on the road with no oversize restrictions. Structural design:

Rudder & steering system:

The hull, deck, structural liner, keel, rudder and rig were calculated and

The rudder and tapered rectangular section rudder shaft are one

structurally optimised using Nastran software for the FEM analysis.

piece carbon built with RTM technology in a high precision female mould. The rudder shaft structure is FEM optimised and dimensioned

Construction:

according to ABS loads for speed of over 26 knots.

Hull, deck and stern scoop are built in sandwich construction of epoxy resin and exclusively carbon unidirectional and biaxial fabrics, while

Mast & Rigging:

the twill carbon woven rowing is used to give a smooth, clear, carbon

The mast shape has a variable section, designed specially for this

look finish on all external surfaces.

boat, to improve the mast-sail aerodynamic interaction. The mast is produced in two segments for transport reasons.

Keel & bulb: The keel is built of carbon pre-preg material in carbon moulds

Engine:

postcured at high temperature and pressure in an autoclave. A weed

Volvo 20HP diesel engine is fitted with specially developed retractable

cutter is fitted in the keel leading edge. The trim tab is built in carbon

drive. The compact hydraulic transmission is moved up and down

with RTM technology. The lead-antimony bulb is cast in CNC machined

with two electro-hydraulic rams with remote controls at the steering

steel mould for high precision and faired with epoxy compound.

position.

www.rc44.com


Design 11

RUSSELL COUTTS

ANDREJ JUSTIN

COUTTS JUSTIN DESIGN

Nationality: New Zealand

Nationality: Slovenia

Born March 1st, 1962, Wellington, New Zealand.

Born in 1959 in Koper on the Adriatic coast.

Married to Jenny and father of four children. Academic background: Academic Background:

Studied electronics and civil engineering in Ljubljana – Slovenia

The University of Auckland, Bachelor of Engineering.

and architecture in Graz – Austria, Graduated in Yacht Design at Westlawn Institute of Marine Technology in 1993.

Career highlights: Russell Coutts has won the America’s Cup four times. His sailing

Career highlights:

record includes winning the ISAF World Youth championships,

Andrej Justin, born in Koper on the Adriatic coast in 1959, has lived

a Gold Medal in the 1984 Olympics, three World Match Racing

with yachts and the sea all through his life. He studied electronics

Championships, numerous international match race wins and IOR,

and civil engineering in Ljubljana – Slovenia and architecture in Graz

IMS and One Design World Championship victories. In New Zealand

– Austria. He designed his first boats for the biggest Slovenian boat

he has been honoured with a Commander of the British Empire and

builder ELAN in the late eighties, and graduated in Yacht Design at

the Distinguished Companion of New Zealand Order of Merit and

Westlawn Institute of Marine Technology in 1993. Andrej Justin has

has twice been the International Yacht Racing Union’s World Sailor

designed several racing boats from 33-foot match race one design

of the Year. His is the skipper and CEO of BMW ORACLE Racing.

JustinTen to 80-foot carbon, canting keel MaxiJena, and cruisers from 37-foot to the currently under construction PalmerJohnson 90’ in aluminium.

www.rc44.com


Ironbound

Peninsula Petroleum

Synergy Russian Sailing Team

Katusha

Team Artemis

BMW Oracle Racing

No way Back

17

Jelik

Islas Canarias Puerto Calero

CEEREF

AEZ RC44 Sailing Team

Team Sea Dubai

Mascalzone Latino

Team Aqua


Teams 13

T

The Teams

he RC44 core fleet is definitely international, with twenty boats representing twelve nations (Russia, Sweden, Spain, Japan, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Dubai, Portugal, Poland, Austria, USA and China). All the team managers have selected top level crews whilst respecting the Class Rules which restricts the number of professional sailors to four per boat. This rule leads to an interesting combination of skilled amateur sailors and America’s Cup or Olympic sailors.

IRONBOUND USA 1

PENINSULA PETROLEUM GBR 1

SYNERGY RUSSIAN SAILING TEAM - RUS 13

David Murphy (USA)

John Bassadone (GBR)

Scottssburg Manor LTD

Ian Williams (GBR)

Iñaki Castañer (ESP)

 Evgeniy Neugodnikov (RUS)

David Murphy joins the RC 44 Championship Tour for the first time during the ORACLE RC 44 Cup Miami. “We have entered this fleet because it represents the highest level of competition in sailing today”, he says. Murphy loves the one design concept of the Class. The team’s pro skipper and match race helmsman is Ian Williams, one of Great Britain’s best specialists of match racing.

Peninsula Petroleum Sailing Team has been involved in the GP 42 Series before joining the RC 44 Championship Tour during the Worlds in Puerto Calero, Lanzarote. It is therefore an experienced and ambitious team, that plans to play an active role in the Class. The pro skipper of the team is John Bassadone whilst most team members come from Spain.

Synergy Russian Sailing Team joined the RC 44 Class in Puerto Calero during the RC 44 Worlds in October 2010. The team is very active in the TP 52 Class and was also involved in the Louis Vuitton Series. Its purpose is to help develop top level yacht racing in Russia. The team’s pro skipper is Evgeniy Neugodnikov and all the members of the team come from Russia.

Results: New in 2010

Results: New in 2010

peninsulapetroleumsailingteam.com

www.synergyteam.ru

TEAM KATUSHA RUS 007

TEAM ARTEMIS SWE 44

BMW ORACLE RACING USA 19

Guennadi Timtchenko (RUS)

Torbjorn Tornqvist (SWE)

Larry Ellison (USA)

Paul Cayard (USA)

Terry Hutchinson (USA)

Russell Coutts (NZL)

Team Katusha is a Russian team skippered by sailing legend Paul Cayard. The team joined the RC 44 Championship Tour in September 2009 and immediately won its first match race contest, showing its level of ambition from the onset. Katusha and its international crew are with no doubt one of the favourites for the season 2010.

Torbjorn Tornqvist’s Artemis is one of the top teams in the RC 44 Championship Tour. Artemis began racing in the RC 44 Championship Tour at the end of 2008. It dominated most of the season 2009 with Dean Barker calling the shots, winning the fleet racing and finishing second overall. Pro sailor Terry Hutchinson has recently joined the team as helmsman and will be involved in both the RC 44 Championship Tour and Torbjorn Tornqvist’s Louis Vuitton Trophy team.

Larry Ellison, Russell Coutts and their team BMWORACLE Racing finished respectively fifth and fourth in the RC 44 Championship Tour 2008 and 2009. Russell Coutts is the founder of the RC 44 Class whilst Larry Ellison is the owner of team BMW ORACLE Racing. The crew is made of a mixture of top America’s Cup sailors and amateur yacht racers.

Results: New in 2010 www.rc44.com/ironbound

Results overall 2009: 8th www.rc44.com/katusha

Results overall 2009: 2nd

Results overall 2009: 4th bmworacleracing.com

www.artemisracing.com

NO WAY BACK NED 18

17 USA 17

JELIK HKG 16

Pieter Heerema (NED)

James Spithill (USA)

Frank Pong (HKG)

Recent winner of the America’s Cup at the helm of BMW ORACLE Racing, James « Jimmy » Spithill makes his comeback on the RC 44 Championship Tour as skipper and match race helmsman of RC44 Challenge. The team is made of a mixture of America’s Cup sailors and genuine amateurs, as required by the Class rules. It will with no doubt immediately become one of the favourites of the event.

Frank Pong’s team Jelik discovered the RC 44 Championship Tour during last year’s regatta in Malcesine. Usually involved in the Asian yacht racing circuit, Pong and his team ambition to sail more in Europe; they will join the Championship Tour 2010 in Austria and consider competing in several regattas this year.

Results: New in 2010

www.rc44.com/jelik

Ray Davies (NZL) Pieter Heerema’s Team No Way Back started sailing in the RC 44 Championship Tour at the beginning of 2009, making fast and steady progress and going from last to first throughout the season. No Way Back won the overall title in its first year, which is a fabulous accomplishment. Benefiting from Ray Davies’ advice, the team finished third overall in the fleet race ranking and second of the match race contest. Owner Pieter Heerema steers during the fleet races as well as during some of the matches. Results overall 2009: 1st

bmworacleracing.com

www.rc44.com/nowayback

www.rc44.com

Results overall 2009: 11th


14

Teams

ISLAS CANARIAS PUERTO TEAM CEEREF CALERO - ESP1 SLO 11

AEZ RC44 SAILING TEAM AUT 44

Jose Juan and Daniel Calero (ESP)

Igor Lah (SLO)

René Mangold (AUT)

José Maria Ponce (ESP)

Rod Davis (NZL)

Christian Binder (AUT)

The Calero family discovered the RC44 Class during the Gold Cup 2008, and decided to launch a serious project for the season 2010. Islas Canarias Puerto Calero finished seventh overall in 2009, proving that they can beat the best teams in both the match and fleet regattas. Daniel and his brother José Juan share helming duties during the fleet races whilst Spanish match-race champion José Maria Ponce is at the helm for the match races.

Team CEEREF is led by Igor Lah (SLO), who steers the boat during the fleet regattas whilst pro sailor Rod Davis is at the helm during the matches. Ceeref has been one of the leaders of the Championship tour since 2008, finishing second two years ago and third overall last year. The Slovenian team managed to win the match race title in 2009.

René Mangold’s team is made of amateur sailors from Austria. The team has been training hard last year and has made steady progress, winning several fleet regattas by the end of the year. The team joined the RC44 Championship Tour for the first time in 2009 and finished tenth overall.

Results overall 2009: 3rd

www.aut44.at

Results overall 2009: 7th

Results overall 2009: 10th

www.ceeref.com/news_sport.html

www.puertocalero.com/sailingteam

MASCALZONE LATINO ITA 07

TEAM SEA DUBAI UAE 77

TEAM AQUA UAE 440

Vincenzo Onorato (ITA)

DIMC (UAE)

Chris Bake (CAN)

Francesco Bruni (ITA)

Markus Wieser (GER)

Cameron Appleton (NZL)

Vincenzo Onorato’s Mascalzone Latino was one of the first teams to join the RC 44 circuit in 2006. The team then competed on other projects, including the America’s Cup 2007, and has been back in the Championship Tour since the summer 2010. The team is currently 11th overall; a result that doesn’t reflect its members’ huge talent and potential.

Team Sea Dubai started its campaign in March 2008, and obtained excellent results from the onset. The team’s pro skipper is Markus Wieser, from Germany, who won the Dragon worlds in 2009. Yousef Lahej, a young talent from DIMC, steers the boat during the fleet regattas. The team finished ninth of the Championship Tour 2009, sixth overall in the fleet race ranking and ninth in the match race event. Results overall 2009: 9th

Chris Bake’s Team Aqua has been one of the leading forces in the RC 44 Championship Tour for the past three years, winning the Tour in 2007, finishing fourth in 2008 and fifth in 2009 after dominating the beginning of the season. The team’s pro sailor is NewZealander Cameron Appleton.

www.mascalzonelatino.it

Results overall 2009: 5th www.teamaqua.org

www.seadubai.com

TEAM ORGANIKA POL 14

TEAM BEECOM JPN 5

K-CHALLENGE FRA

Maciej Nawrocki (POL)

Isao Mita (JPN)

Stéphane Kandler (FRA)

Karol Jablonski (POL)

Kelvin Harrap (NZL)

Maciej Nawrocki’s Organika Sailing Team comes from Poland and is involved in the Class since the end of 2007. The team’s pro sailor and match race helmsman is Karol Jablonski, who was the skipper of the Spanish team in the 32nd America’s Cup. The team finished sixth in the Championship Tour 2009 and obtained a brilliant third position in the match race contest.

Team Beecom is one of the RC 44 Class oldest teams. The team is currently not involved in the Championship Tour, but is considering a come back.

Stéphane Kandler’s K-Challenge America’s Cup team plans to join the RC 44 Championship Tour in the future.

www.teambeecom.jp

www.k-challenge.org

Results overall 2009: 6th www.organikasailingteam.pl

www.rc44.com


15

SPECTATORS, GUESTS & MEDIA The RC 44 features a long stern scoop, ideal

The races are short and intense, making them

The series TV footage is also distributed by

to host a guest. During regattas – or training

enjoyable whilst not too long to watch for the

SNTV and the EBU news networks.

sessions – journalists, sponsors and VIP guests

public.

can experience the formidable sensations

Highlights of the regattas are being shown on

provided by sailing on those high tech boats

All the races are covered by a media team that

a daily basis on the Class website as well as on

with top sailors.

includes professional photographers and

yacht racing websites all over the world.

TV production. The regatta summaries and The Class’s goal is to get closer to the public,

results are posted daily on the Class website

by inviting people to watch the show afloat,

(www.rc44.com) whilst the TV productions

racing close to the shore and by giving the

are shown on Seamaster Series, Eurosport,

public the opportunity to meet with the sailors

Gillette World Sports, Sailing Channel and

after the regattas.

many more.

All the races are covered by a media team that includes professional photographers and TV production.

www.rc44.com


16

Partners

Class Partners

& Suppliers

Partner

Clothes Supplier

www.oracle.com

www.slam.it

Official Suppliers

www.ribacomposites.com

www.quaiat.it

www.bang.com

www.ams-italia.it

www.harken.com

www.paugercarbon.hu

www.affinityinsurance.ie

www.sailing-point.si

www.futurfibres.com

Championship Tour Supplier

www.predictwind.com

www.rc44.com


Results RC44 Championship Tour 2010 Race

Fleet Racing

Ranking 17

USA

Aqua

UAE

AEZ RC44 Sailing Team

AUT

Artemis

SWE

BMW ORACLE Racing

USA

CEEREF

SLO

Ironbound

USA

Islas Canarias Puerto Calero

ESP

Jelik

JPN

Katusha

RUS

Mascalzone Latino

ITA

No Way Back

NED

Organika

POL

Peninsula Petroleum

GBR

Sea Dubai

UAE

Synergy Russian Sailing Team

RUS

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

10

11

11

12

13

14

Total

16

Total

Race

Match Racing

Ranking

1

17

USA

1

Aqua

UAE

2

AEZ RC44 Sailing Team

AUT

3

Artemis

SWE

4

BMW ORACLE Racing

USA

5

CEEREF

SLO

6

Ironbound

USA

7

Islas Canarias Puerto Calero

ESP

8

Jelik

JPN

9

Katusha

RUS

10

Mascalzone Latino

ITA

11

No Way Back

NED

12

Organika

POL

13

Peninsula Petroleum

GBR

14

Sea Dubai

UAE

15

Synergy Russian Sailing Team

RUS

16

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

12

13

14

15

All the results 2010 available online race after race: www.rc44.com/en/regattas/ranking.php

Partner

Clothes Supplier


www.rc44.com

Partner

Clothes Supplier

Profile for MaxComm Communication

RC44 Press Kit 2010  

RC44 Championship Tour 2010

RC44 Press Kit 2010  

RC44 Championship Tour 2010

Profile for maxcomm
Advertisement