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s u s ta i n a b l e d e s i g n + a pp lie d re sea rch Max C. Doelling, Dipl.-Ing. Interactive Spatial Thermal + + Daylight Visualization Custom Software. M C Doelling 2013 - 14

Annual Cooling Energy

Annual Heating Energy

Average Air Temp. + Daylight 7

kWh/m2

103

40

kWh/m2

136

18

째C

218 log(lux)

Entry Stairs; The Hive, Kotagiri, India. A Kundoo + M C Doelling, 2008 - 2012

22 3870


s u s ta i n a b l e d e s i g n + a pp lie d re sea rch A

Selected Projects, Papers + Presentations B

1

2.7

6.2

Client

4.7 8.9

1

2

8 2.84

6.

2

3.7

2.7

3

4

4

4.5

2.7

3.7

5

2.7

Independent study

Publication

Venue

38 - 50 Peer-reviewed paper

Space-based Thermal Metrics Mapping for Conceptual Low - Energy Architectural Design

University College London (UCL), UK. Building Simulation and Optimization 2014

51 - 60 Peer-reviewed paper

Parametric Design: a Case Study in Design - Simulation Integration

Institut Nationale de l’Énergie Solaire (INES), France. Building Simulation 2013

Hybrid Daylight Models in Architectural Design Education +

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), MA, USA. DIVA Day 2012

4.5

6

Post Suburbia Cape Cod, MA, USA

28 - 37

3.3

7.0

Setting Out Plan on Contours; The Hive ............

C

The Keystone Foundation

5

Built design

The Hive, Honey and Coffee Manufactory Kotagiri, Tamil Nadu, India

2.7

4.5

16 - 27

2

4.5

22.0

3

The Humane Society of the United States

3.8

South Florida Wildlife Center Redevelopment Ft. Lauderdale, FL, USA

3.1

p. 3 - 15 Accepted proposal

2.7

3

4.4

2.7

Project

SP

10.5

6

B C A

61 - 66 Invited presentation + + Peer-reviewed paper

+ Prototyping Daylight

National University of Singapore (NUS). CAADRIA 2013


s o u t h f lo r i d a w i l d l i f e c e n t e r r e d e v e lo p m e n t p. 3 | for the Humane Society of the United States

Ft. Lauderdale, FL, USA. 2009 - 2010, 2014

M

y real-world thesis project helped the Humane Society to develop a phased rehabilitation plan for the South Florida

Wildlife Center (SFWC), where injured native species and the occasional domestic animal are treated, rehabilitated and then

released back into the wild or adopted. The center primarily relies on core veterinary, rehabilitation staff and countless volunteers.

As a volunteer designer, I was tasked with developing a no holds

barred redevelopment plan to accommodate future operational growth and inspire upcoming development drives.

The resultant pays gives special attention to the unique programme demands,

site

sustainability

considerations,

the

protected wetlands

subtropical

climate’s influence on building morphology and related energy use.

Tropical building rule guides, solar geometry inputs and selective performance simulation were also used to shape the architecture, building on previous typology experiences in India.

For this portfolio, I created several new drawings and reworked existing ones to tell the design story in a compact format.

Additionally, extensive multi-zone thermal and daylight simulations of the final design state were run and visualized with custom software developed by me and not available when the project

was first completed. The new holistic simulations show that the intended design indeed lives up to its original performance intent previously not calculated on a whole-building level.

Background/Opposite: Aerial Perspective; South Florida Wildlife Center, Final Restructuring Phase

animal habitats

new wildlife care center building


s o u t h f lo r i d a w i l d l i f e c e n t e r p. 4 | Location + Original Site Impressions

T

Snyder Park

he SFWC site is wedged between a public park, an industrial area and Ft. Lauderdale International Airport. The initial

task was to develop an overview of the site and its operational structure, both previously undocumented.

2 1

1 Current Wildlife Hospital

2 Native Animal Rehabilitation Habitats

Raptors in Flight Cage


s o u t h f lo r i d a w i l d l i f e c e n t e r p. 5 | Challenges + Functional Programming

D

Opposite, top: Site and Architectural Programming, based on staff interviews

ocumenting the site revealed a scattered distribution of animal

Opposite, bottom: Adaptable Structure Sketches

in an ad-hoc fashion. In combination with detailed staff interviews,

Bottom, left: Existing Site Layout

treatment and rehabilitation activities that grew over the years

the main design challenges became clear:

•  Develop detailed functional programme requirements •  Understand key needs of separate animal groups •  Re-organize the site to improve caretaking operations •  Account for future growth and improve outreach facilities •  Redevelopment must not cause operational interruptions

Animal Hospital Offices Nursery Break Room / Kitchen Intern Apartment Maintenance Animal Feed Kitchen Domestic Animal Pens Small Domestics Trailer Wild Animal Habitats Restrooms + Showers Material + Feed Storage


s o u t h f lo r i d a w i l d l i f e c e n t e r p. 6 | Phased Development

S

haped by the programme requirements, a convoluted access situation, interlocking development goals and the presence of

protected wetlands at the site’s center, a plan to in three phases erect an eventually joined, multi-use building was proposed.

The structure would in its final state form an enclosure around the

domestic animal and adoption functions open to the public, seclude

Phase 1: New Animal Hospital • • • • •

Hospital & office functions in new building Domestics adoptions moved to old hospital Begin limiting public access to wild part Old admin trailer now education/outreach North wetlands site remains untouched

the private wild animal facilities to minimize human imprinting and offer new, properly distributed site positions for all key facilities.

Creating the plan was a challenge since caretaking functions should be interrupted as little as possible; only structures whose functions were addressed in each phase could be relocated, also causing intermittent repurposing of existing facilities.

Phase 2: New Nursery

Animal Hospital

Main Lobby

Animal Hospital Lobby

Exhibition / Multi-Use

Offices

Café

Nursery

Seminar Room (2nd floor)

Break Room / Kitchen

Sustainability Office (2nd floor)

Intern Apartment

Administration (2nd floor)

Maintenance

Souvenir Shop

Animal Feed Kitchen

Thrift Shop

Domestic Animal Pens

Lab

Small Domestics

Restrooms + Showers

Wild Animal Habitats

Agriculture

Material & Feed Storage

Feed/Biomass Production

Aquaponics

• • • • •

Nursery redeveloped at secluded site Minimized wild animal exposure to noise Created new functions (e.g. lab) in nursery Maintenance takes over old nursery trailer New domestic animal pens at site center

Phase 3: Public Functions & Adoptions • • • • •

Enclosed structure holds final functions: Lobby, edu. room, café and exibition area Adoptions center and thrift shop New administration staff offices Enclosed maintenance yard, workshops


s o u t h f lo r i d a w i l d l i f e c e n t e r p. 7 | View from Hospital towards

Adoptions, Main Entrance + Nursery


s o u t h f lo r i d a w i l d l i f e c e n t e r

3.8

3.7 3.4

p. 8 | Ground Floor Plan +

3.5

2.1 Meeting + Break Room, Administrative Areas 2.2 Library 2.3 Server Room 3.1 Animal Feed Kitchen 3.2 General Storage 3.3 Treatment Area 3.4 Baby Bird Room 3.5 Baby Bird Incubator 3.6 Work + Prep area 3.7 Bird Terrace 3.8 Specialised Incubator

3.1

3.2

1.17 1.18 1.19

3.3

1.25

3.8

1.21 1.22

1.24

3.12 3.13

1.15

3.14

3.15 3.16

1.16

1.13

1.26

1.12

1.11

1.14

1.10

3.8

1.9

1.7

1.27

3.17

1.8 4.1

3.9 Work + Prep Area 3.10 Baby Racoons 3.11 Adolescent Racoons 3.12 Baby Opossums 3.13 Adolescent Opossums 3.14 Work + Prep Area 3.15 Baby Squirrels 3.16 Adolescent Squirrels 3.17 Other Animals / Work Area

1.30

2.3

5.5

8.3 5.3 8.1

7.1

5.1

7.2

Section A

6.2

2.5 Administration: Public Functions 5.1 Lobby

5.2 Exhibition + Multi-Purpose Room

1.29 1.3

1.1

2.1

8.5

6.1 Storage External Facilities 6.2 Storage Exhibition 7.1 Domestic Animal Habitats 7.2 Adoptions Desk 7.3 Examination Room 7.4 Thrift Shop 7.5 Animal Feed Kitchen 7.6 Storage Feed Kitchen

1.4

2.2

5.4

5.1 Lobby 5.2 Exhibition + Multi-Purpose Room 5.3 Visitor + Staff Cafeteria 5.4 Souvenir Shop 5.5 Storage Cafe/Shop

5.6 Education + Seminar Room

1.5 1.2

6.1

4.1 Science Office

8.1 Storage External Facilities 8.2 Workshop 8.3 General Storage 8.4 Building Services 8.5 Workshop Yard

1.28 1.6

1.31

Section C

3. Nursery

1.20

1.23

3.10 3.11

Section / Elevation A 1.1 Animal Hospital Lobby 1.2 Admissions Desk + Offices 1.3 General Triage 1.4 Triage Wild Animals 1.5 Triage Domestic Animals 1.6 Triage Isolation 1.7 Main Treatment Area with Wet Cell 1.8 Auxiliary Treatment Room 1.9 Auxiliary Treatment Room 1.10 Intensive Care Unit 1.11 Surgery 1.12 Surgery Preparation 1.13 Radiology Office 1.14 Radiology 1.15 Pharmacy 1.16 Lab 1.17 Animal Feed Kitchen 1.18 Feed Kitchen Storage 1.19 Cages + Equipment Storage 1.20 Building Services 1.21 Morgue 1.22 Delivery + Disinfection Yard 1.23 Isolation Ward 1.24 Reptiles Ward 1.25 Domestics Ward 1.26 Wild Animals Ward 1.27 Veterinarian’s Office 1 1.28 Veterinarian’s Office 2 1.29 Staff Office 1.30 Staff Tea Kitchen 1.31 Staff Break Room

3.9

3.6

5.2

7.3

8.4

8.2 7.6

7.4

7.5

Section B

7.7 Adoptions Staff Break Room, Intern Apartment 7. Domestic Adoptions + Service Areas, Thrift Shop

Section D

8.6 Maintenance Office 8.5 Workshop + Yard

2.4, 1. Main + Hospital Administration 2. Admin Meeting + Library

1. Animal Hospital + Lobby


s o u t h f lo r i d a w i l d l i f e c e n t e r p. 9 | 1st Floor Plan +

Section / Elevation B 1.32 Changing Rooms (male staff) 1.33 Changing Rooms (female staff) 1.34 Hospital Office 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7

Main Administration Administration: Public Functions Meeting Area Office Storage

3.18

8.6 Office + Maintenance Personnel

3.19

3.21

3.22

3.20

3.18 Nursery Office 3.19 Nursery Office 3.20 Nursery Staff Break Room 3.21 Changing Rooms (male staff) 3.22 Changing Rooms (female staff) 3.23 Storage

3.23

4.2

4.2 Lab: Research

1.32

1.33 1.34

5.7

5.6 Education + Seminar Room 5.7 Education Lobby + Observation Deck

2.4 6.3

6.3 Education Equipment Storage 7.7 Adoptions Staff Break Room 7.8 Changing Rooms (male staff) 7.9 Changing Rooms (female staff) 7.10 Storage 9 Veterinary Intern Apartments

5.6

8.6

7.8 2.6

2.5

2.5 Administration: Public Functions 5.1 Lobby

2.6 Administration: Meeting Area

5.2 Exhibition + Multi-Purpose Room

9

Section B

7.7 Adoptions Staff Break Room, Intern Apartment

7. Domestic Adoptions + Service Areas, Thrift Shop

7.10

7.7

2.7

Public Areas (education, domestics + adoption) Private Administrative / Service Areas Private Wild Animal Care Areas (hospital + nursery)

9

7.9

8.6 Maintenance Office

8.5 Workshop + Yard

2.4, 1. Main + Hospital Administration

2. Admin Meeting + Library

1.1 Animal Hospital Lobby

1.1 Animal Hospital

1.22 Delivery + Disinfection Yard


s o u t h f lo r i d a w i l d l i f e c e n t e r p. 10 | Section / Elevation C, D +

Control System / Geometry I

I

n order not to overwhelm the site with excess building volume

and provide an envelope adapted to the new program, the

unique monitor height control

section continuously changes over the length of the building.

horizontal monitor line control

To retain control over this movement, a parametric system reads

input curves to define the building outline, the structural grid, roof monitor positions etc. After shape definition, a secondary script

6m

5m

4m

3.63m

3.57m

3.1m

3.04m

3.09m

3.03m

overhang + roof height / pitch control

divides the facade into bays of identical width sets and positions the individually shaped frames that form the building’s spine.

Care was also taken to study rationalization; despite its sweeping shape, few facade bays are truly unique; the roof elements are

tessellated flat (albeit still geometrically complex) and simple infill

panels compensate for gradual roof line changes before the facade units need to step up or down. Many of the frames, however, remain singular, custom elements.

Opposite: Frame + Facade Bay Rationalization System, Control Curves diagrid height control diagrid pattern control main outline control

3.2 Staff 3.1/2 Baby Racoons + Baby Opossums

3.14 Work / Prep Area 3.15 Baby Squirrels

4.2 Science Lab 5.7. Obs. Deck

3.17 Other 4.1 Science Office Animals + Work Area

5.6 Edu / Seminar Room 5.4 / 3 CafĂŠ, Souvenir Shop

2.5 Admin: Public Functions 5.1 Lobby

Left: Section / Elevation C, D + Section Location Indicators 9 Intern Apartments 7 Adoptions

8.6 Maintenance Offices 2.4 Main Admin 1.34 Hospital Admin

8.5 Workshops + Building Services

2.1 Meeting + Break Room, Main Admin 1.1 Hospital Lobby

1.4 Triage

1.7 Main Treatment Area

1.14 Radiology 1.16 / 19 / 20 Lab, Storage, Services

1.21 Morgue


s o u t h f lo r i d a w i l d l i f e c e n t e r p. 11 | View towards Main Entrance


s o u t h f lo r i d a w i l d l i f e c e n t e r p. 12 | Performance Section +

Schematic Frame Variations

T

he building section’s rationale is to keep the structure as thin as possible to allow for cross-ventilation, use the roof monitors

to achieve deeper daylighting in wider parts of the building and to minimize afternoon glare if the facade louvers were to be closed,

especially at the east and west-facing orientations on ground level. As already apparent from the plans, many permanent occupancy zones, e.g. offices, are floating under the roof at the second building level; since they then do not necessarily border both

outside ground floor facades, the roof monitors in these cases effectively become a third side daylighting and ventilation window line through their change in location, size and orientation.

The schematic outlines of all frames are drawn on this page to give a further appreciation of the structure’s movement. At the

lower left is the first frame of the nursery, which is the widest and squattest building section.

Opposite: Complete Frame Sections Below: Environmental Section through Main Entrance Hall


03 Annual Cumulative Air Changes (E+ AirFlow Network natural ventilation)

s o u t h f lo r i d a w i l d l i f e c e n t e r

Natural ventilation was used in conjunction with mixed-mode changeover artificial cooling; spaces with fewest internal obstructions and openings on several sides fare best, e.g. most offices. The apartments, internal storage and service spaces show comparatively reduced ventilation rates due to lower transient occupancy, which was set to directly control window operation. Overall, natural ventilation is triggered frequently enough to significantly reduce cooling energy demand.

p. 13 | Conceptual Design Simulation:

Daylight + Energetic Performance

S

simulations for daylight (Daysim), energy use (EnergyPlus) and facade irradiation (Radiance) checked performance during

design and at the end of the conceptual ideation phase. Energy and daylight visualizations were created with my software Mr.Comfy.

Annual daylight performance, especially on the upper floor, is very good (~ 75% of occ. time illumination between 300 - 1500 lux) -

in part due to the roof projection, which shields the upper facades,

02 Annual Total Cooling Energy Use + Daylight Frequency 300 - 1500 lux

Seminar Room

as visible in the irradiation image. Appropriate intensity daylight in

South(West) facing offices show similar cooling use patterns; the apartments require less conditioning due to lower occupancy. Seminar and nursery offices receive higher solar gains due to East/ West orientation, and experience higher loads, even though daylight is well controlled on most of the floor. Absolute energy use values only valid for geometric sensitivity testing, mediated by ground floor adjacency conditions:

Nursery Offices

offices reduces lighting energy use, here a sustainability goal.

Relative cooling energy demand of the 1st floor office spaces is surprisingly uniform, given the multiple orientations. This is in

part due to different adjacency conditions to variedly used ground

Front Offices

floor zones, some of which are semi-exterior and non-conditioned. However, natural ventilation with coupled mixed-mode changeover

mechanical cooling reduces conditioning energy demand by ~35%. Generally, the zoning concept of moving office spaces to the first

floor and using a generous shading overhang works well, as do the roof monitors for deeper daylighting and good cross-ventilation. The original environmental design intent (also see previous page) is confirmed as feasible through the simulations; however, a final design iteration would still have room for improvements: secondary overhangs at the ground floor would again reduce cooling loads, as would e.g. a further (daylight-conscious) glazing area reduction. Annual Air Changes

203

air changes

87085

Daylight 300 - 1500 lux (freq.)

0

% of occ. hours

100

Annual Cooling Energy Use

0

kWh/m2

111

1st Floor Daylight Distribution

0

log(lux)

16910

382 0

log(lux) kWh/m

6733 2100

Annual Facade Irradiation

2

Intern Apartments

Conditioned zone floor adjacency Hospital + Main Administration

Semi-exterior/unconditioned adj.

01 Annual Facade Irradiation + log of Avrg. Ground Floor Illumination (lux) East- and west-facing facade areas and south-oriented, tilted roof sections receive highest solar gains. The roof projection successfully shields upper facade sections on all orientations, coresponsible for good 1st floor daylight performance. The ground floor is also well daylit (dot overlay), but shows partially undesirable peak intensities.


s o u t h f lo r i d a w i l d l i f e c e n t e r p. 14 | View from Lobby towards

Interior Yard + Multi-Use Space


To Whom It May Concern: Max Christian Dรถlling , born 01/24/82, served as an architectural design volunteer at the South Florida Wildlife Center for one year, beginning in September 2009. The South Florida Wildlife Center, founded in 1969, is one of the largest wildlife trauma hospitals and rehabilitation centers in the nation, admitting nearly 13,000 animals spanning over 255 species, annually. As a proud affiliate of the Humane Society of the United States, we serve the South Florida tricounty region of Broward, Palm Beach, and Miami-Dade. It is our mission to protect wildlife through rescue, rehabilitation, and education. The recovery habitats on our leased 4.1 acre property in Ft. Lauderdale, which house up to 875 animals at any given time, are upgraded, replaced, or added in order to keep up with a growing diversity of species and rehabilitative care demands in South Florida, which is partially a result of urban sprawl encroaching on natural habitats. Max set himself the task of creating a comprehensive case study on how the center might accomplish its growth and reorganization goals over the next few decades. In the analysis stage, he spent several days familiarizing himself with the way we work, conducting interviews with our crew, observing animal care and sketching as well as photographing the entire site. In the process, Max exhibited a wonderful ability to collaborate with our staff in order to learn of our precise requirements. Additionally, he studied the influence Florida's subtropical climate has on our activities and how to best utilize and control the combined impact of the prevailing winds, sun movement, building air flow and site topography. All those concerns were impressively addressed in the final design.

The phasing plan and the proposed flexible building structure to accommodate it have minimum volumetric impact and tread very lightly by not impinging on a residual patch of wetlands at the center of our site, which is undergoing a restoration presently. We were especially impressed by the clever consideration of natural environmental advantages to keep the structure as green as possible and to reduce lighting, cooling and other electrical needs, which is one of our major operational cost factors. Despite offering much more space than currently available to us, the designed building does not overwhelm the site and appears light and airy. Max used the factors of building orientation, layout and structure to their fullest effect, delivering a creative, stellar design that is as beautiful as it is functional. He presented the outstanding final product to our executive staff in September 2010 and received unanimous praise. Through the case study we were able to enhance our own understanding of the interrelationship between our care activities, the overall site organization and the possible benefits of improving our building stock. The knowledge thus gained continues to influence us to this day, for which we would like to thank Max. Working with him was a breeze, and his commitment to making the built environment a greener place, for humans and animals alike, is truly inspirational and very close to our own mission. We wish Max all the best for his future and believe that if all of society acted in unison, as demonstrated by this project, the harmony of man and environment might someday be fully achieved.

Sincerely, Based on his initial site analysis, further literature research on animal care and rehabilitation, as well as our continuous guidance, Max envisioned a multi-phase site restructuring concept that would allow key functions to be gradually moved to more appropriate locations on our property while maintaining care operations during the entire process, a concern that is very important to us and extremely difficult to achieve. The envisioned phasing scheme and final intended functional layout show great insight into the way we work and are highly imaginative, especially as additional educational spaces are proposed to further our community outreach mission, as well as achieving the clear spatial separation of domestic and wild animals. Throughout the entire concept, comfort requirements for the well-being of the animals, as well as the staff providing all manner of care of them, were fulfilled and even greatly improved upon, as compared to the status quo.

Sherry L. Schlueter Executive Director, South Florida Wildlife Center sschlueter@humanesociety.org t 954-524-7464 f 954-343-0760

South Florida Wildlife Center 3200 S.W. 4th Avenue Fort Lauderdale, FL 33315

s o u t h f lo r i d a w i l d l i f e c e n t e r p. 15 | Client Recommendation Letter

Page 1 of 2


t h e h i v e : h o n e y + c o f f e e m a n u fa c t o r y b u i l d i n g p. 16 | for the Keystone Foundation, Kotagiri,

Nilgiris, India. 2008 - 2010, 2012 (completion)

J

ointly designed by Anupama Kundoo and me working together in Berlin, the new “Hive” building for India’s NGO they

Keystone Foundation finished construction in 2012.

Nicknamed such by Keystone’s staff, the structure’s main purpose is to contain the processing and packaging of local cliff bee honey

(very tasty, very dangerous to collect) harvested by indigenous people in Southern India’s Nilgiri mountains, plus packaging and shipping of locally grown coffee.

The design was challenging due to the extremely steep slope Keystone’s campus is situated on; a form had to be found that would be constructable by a local general contractor at minimum cost, while still maintaining good design, minimizing land use impact and taking into account logistical production demands.

Environmental concerns of passive heating potential and natural

lighting also played a major part in shaping the architecture; as the campus slope faces roughly North-East, capture of morning solar

gains and provision of well daylit working spaces was enabled by

relatively large facade apertures necessitating a concrete frame structure, which is clad with local stone on the lower floors and uses rammed earth construction on the upper building levels.

The Hive has been in use for a few years now, and Keystone are satisfied with how the design provides a good working environment.

It is a very happy feeling to know that our contribution has made a difference to help preserve the region’s unique ecosystem, part of the UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves, and aspects of its indigenous way of life.

Background/Opposite: View towards the Hive, South-East facade of Built Design Variant


t h e h i v e : h o n e y + c o f f e e m a n u fa c t o r y b u i l d i n g p. 17 | Site Overview, Design Development 01

D

ue to rapid operational growth, the Keystone campus required

a larger building to replace the original Hive structure. A

new parcel of land (upper right) was originally intended as its

location, yet unforeseen permissions aspects forced a late move of the structure to be integrated into the main campus. The partial

reworking meant that select aspects of the building’s intended layout were changed, however it proved a blessing in disguise to have the new structure closer to existing campus functions. Background/Opposite: Keystone Campus Site Plan, Kotagiri, Nilgiris, India. Original Hive Building Site Location (upper right) and Redesign Location (center) indicated (red outlines) Survey: M.Ghandi, adapted by Author

South-West View towards Meeting Hall (center), prior to New Hive Construction


t h e h i v e : h o n e y + c o f f e e m a n u fa c t o r y b u i l d i n g p. 18 | Design Development 02

T

he building’s shape was developed from conceptual sketches by Anupama and volumetric 3d models created by me, which

tested many roof geometry and on-slope positioning ideas.

Using a digital site surface model helped check cutout volume, which we tried to minimize; to create a building that spans over

slope sections would have increased construction difficulty and cost. For this and access reasons, a form closely following the contours was chosen, with vertically nested functions.

Initial Programme Stacking + Distribution Sketches (A. Kundoo)

Early Digital Massing Study + Roof Form Exploration (Author)

Sketch Floor Plate + Section Geometries (Author)

Slope-spanning/”Hovering” Design Massing Sketch (Author)


t h e h i v e : h o n e y + c o f f e e m a n u fa c t o r y b u i l d i n g p. 19 | Final Design Variant Plans 01

T

est iterations led to a final design variant that precisely conforms to site

Offices 46 sqm

N

contours and features main access stairs to the North-West facade, outside

of the building itself. Individual floors are vertically stacked and only partially

overlap horizontally; by not extending roofs to touch the facade of the level on top, balconies are carved out which are directly accessible from each floor.

In effect, a shed roof typology is formed, which equipped with roof monitor windows allows for deeper daylighting and improved ventilation.

Note that due to the late-stage site change and construction of the building by

an independent general contractor, design changes were introduced in the built version, but luckily overall design intent was retained.

Dispatch + Storage 120 sqm

South-East Elevation

Coffee Floor 75 sqm 1

2.7

2.7

2.7

2.7

3.7

3.7

4.4

2.7

6.2

A

10.5

= + 6.4m

C

C

6.3

7

a

Coffee Floor

= + 3,2m

Honey Floor

B

3.3

2.848

1

=0

2

B

2 3.1

4.5

4.5

4.5

Dispatch

6

5

4

2.7

a

4.

Lateral (a) Main Section

8.9

SP

A

= + 10,1m

3

2.7

Office

2 22.0

3 3.8

4 4.5

Honey Floor, 118 sqm N on Setting Out Plan

5 7.0

6


t h e h i v e : h o n e y + c o f f e e m a n u fa c t o r y b u i l d i n g p. 20 | Completed Structure on New Site, Dec. 2013

Note “tree courtyard� and modif ied roof detailing Photo: Keystone Foundation


t h e h i v e : h o n e y + c o f f e e m a n u fa c t o r y b u i l d i n g p. 21 | View of Honey Floor Work Stations, Dec. 2013 Photo: Keystone Foundation


t h e h i v e : h o n e y + c o f f e e m a n u fa c t o r y b u i l d i n g p. 22 | Dispatch Floor, December 2013

Staff packaging local produce Photo: Keystone Foundation


t h e h i v e : h o n e y + c o f f e e m a n u fa c t o r y b u i l d i n g p. 23 | Staff Member at Work, Honey Floor Photo: Keystone Foundation


t h e h i v e : h o n e y + c o f f e e m a n u fa c t o r y b u i l d i n g p. 24 | Final Design Variant Plans 02

A

central feature of the conceptual and built structure is the outside staircase

Rammed Earth + Stone Wall Infill

linking production floors. While the dumb waiter indicated in the original

6

plans was not included after the site move, the stairs remained as an important

design element; how they connect to the land in part determined floor heights and entrance positions. The axonometric drawings shown on this page were used by the general contractor to better understand and adapt the (by local standards) unusual building geometry.

5

Reinforced Concrete Struct.

North-West Elevation

4

Wall + Column Foundations

1

2

3

4

5

3

6 2

0m

3,2m

6,4m

10,1m

Stair Plan + Section Lines

Cutout + Foundations Section 1


t h e h i v e : h o n e y + c o f f e e m a n u fa c t o r y b u i l d i n g p. 25 | Final Design Variant View

C

omparing the original design variant with the constructed building shows that main spatial concepts were retained; In the final drawings, the

material definition of the outer walls was left open to be discussed with the contractor, who also served as structural engineer. Hence, adapting the building

to use rammed earth on the upper floors proved easy and was anticipated. Fundamental changes during construction are not unheard of in India, hence I am grateful to the Keystone for sticking closely to the original vision. Perspective View of Final Design Variant, showing four-floor configuration and full-height NE-facade windows


t h e h i v e : h o n e y + c o f f e e m a n u fa c t o r y b u i l d i n g p. 26 | Completed Structure on New Site, Dec. 2013

Opposed views along main access stairs Photos: Keystone Foundation


t h e h i v e : h o n e y + c o f f e e m a n u fa c t o r y b u i l d i n g p. 27 | Acknowledgements & Recommendation Letter

I

would like to thank Anupama Kundoo for giving me the chance to work on an ambitious design and granting me great influence on its intended and built

form- it was an interesting challenge that influenced my career.

The Keystone foundation deserves huge credit for accepting a challenging geometry and never giving up on the project despite at times seemingly insurmountable difficulties- Matthew and Sneh, thank you!

Kanika Puri’s contribution to keep the project on track after the site change is

not forgotten; without her, I am sure even less of the intended design would have been saved or even built at all, for which she has my deep gratitude.

Finally, Keystone’s Aritra Bose took many of the pictures that made it into this portfolio- thank you for going through all that trouble!

12th May, 2012 Weth are an environmental NGO working in the Western Ghats in India, more specifically in the 12 May, 2012 Reserve. We engage with issues concerning conservation of resources and Nilgiri Biosphere livelihoods of indigenous people and have over the years several programmes in these hills. See www.keystone-foundation.org We are an environmental NGO working in the Western Ghats in India, more specifically in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. We engageour with issuesinconcerning conservation resources and as We have since 2000 been developing campus the hills and work with of Anupama Kundoo livelihoods of indigenous people and have over the years several programmes in these hills. our architect for both office and residential premises. The several small units in the campus See www.keystone-foundation.org represent different aspects of our work. Since 2009-10 we have worked on expanding our facilities to help indigenous people value add and market their produce for better returns. This We have sincewas 2000 been developing ourand campus the hillsand andwith worka with Anupama Kundoo new building designed by Anupama Maxin Doelling, few adaptations, is nowas our architect for both office and residential premises. The several small units in the campus complete. represent different aspects of our work. Since 2009-10 we have worked on expanding our facilities indigenousthe people anddesign markettotheir for better This This lettertoishelp to appreciate effortvalue takenadd in the adaptproduce to our needs and returns. make necessary new building wasThe designed Anupama and Max and with a few adaptations, is now changes quickly. designbywas made keeping in Doelling, mind our steep mountain terrain and cold complete.The 3 floors now have cascade effect giving us open sunny terraces and large windows weather. facing the morning sun. This has made our working areas bright and warm saving on costs This letter islighting to appreciate the effort in are the large design to well adaptventilated to our needs concerning and heating. Thetaken spaces and and and havemake givennecessary the changes quickly. The design was made their keeping inspaces mind our steep mountain terrain andfloor cold uses team working there flexibility to adapt work as per their needs. The upper weather. earth The 3walls floors– now have cascade giving us open terraces and with largethe windows rammed like the rest of the effect campus buildings, andsunny blends well both facing the morning sun. This has made our working areas bright and warm saving on costs existing structures and the landscape. The lower floor use of local stone for cladding walls has concerning lighting andbeautiful heating. and The easy spaces large and well ventilated and have given the also made the building to are maintain. team working there flexibility to adapt their work spaces as per their needs. The upper floor uses rammed walls – liketothe of the campus and blends well boththe with thedone by We now earth use the building itsrest maximum capacitybuildings, and would like to appreciate work existing structures and the landscape. The lower floor use of local stone for cladding the architects to design it well to enable a comfortable working environment for us. walls has also made the building beautiful and easy to maintain. We now use the building to its maximum capacity and would like to appreciate the work done by the architects to design it well to enable a comfortable working environment for us.

Snehlata Nath Director, Programs Snehlata Nath Director, Programs

   


p o s t

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p. 28 | Independent Urban Design Study

Cape Cod, MA, USA. 2008 - 2009, 2014

C

ape Cod exemplifies many archetypical housing and urban development phenomena present in the US to this day, and

thus holds a special place in the collective understanding of how (sub)urban life is shaped and influences human life in return.

Due to my own history in the US (albeit in Florida, not New England) and a great interest in the intersection of natural ecosystems and

man’s desire to shape the environment in ways beneficial to contemporary (and contested) modes of living, I conducted a case study that investigated the impact of suburbanization on

Cape Cod, and developed a phased, participatory master plan to test ideas on how to remedy perceived (and very real) problems caused by low-density land use.

The planning narrative approaches the problem in three stages: •  analysis of suburbanization impact on land + ecosystem •  Explore conceptual urban design ideas based on analysis •  Adapt core concepts for possible real-world implementation

The planning site eventually chosen is shown in the highlight below; after mapping the peninsula, efforts were concentrated on applying what was learned at a smaller suburban scale.

Unlike the Wildlife Care Center and Hive projects, this study has

a purely academic target audience, which is a big limitation; I believe, though, that it still holds up to scrutiny, mainly due to the

rigor with which the initial impact data was collected and the way it influenced the phasing study.

Background/Opposite: Ecosystem + Land Use Map, Cape Cod, MA, USA Data: MassGIS Mapping: Author Area of further study


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p. 29 | Mapping Ecosystem Impacts with

Geographic Information System Data

L

ow-density residential use dominates Cape Cod, which has approached complete build-out; note that almost all dark-green

land shown on the map is protected free space. GIS-mapping of publicly available ecosystem and land use data reveals an intricate

pattern of spatial hierarchies; 1/4th to larger than 1/2 acre lots are concentrated on the shore, with higher densities and multifamily housing typically located closer to inland commercial strips.

This also a landscape of social stratification, visible e.g through the differentiation between private and public beaches.

Core animal habitats are highly fragmented due to development, but it is not only the animals suffering from adverse environmental

impacts; many inland lakes and bays are usage-impaired due to

water pollution, mainly caused by a lack of sewer systems and non-point source runoff from the significant portion of surface

area now sealed on the Cape. Red symbols on the map indicate pollution sources, with drinking water wells often close nearby.

The issues of use-impairing pollution, social stratification and

environmental habitat degradation - all of which negatively affect human habitation - were hence identified as major aspects to

tackle in the planning case study performed on a small part of the Cape, shown in the main map to the right at the bottom center.

The site was picked because it has almost uniform housing density; as such, it exemplifies the majority of spatial patterns on

Cape Cod, unfortunately including environmental impacts. Also,

since it is a peninsula within a peninsula, it gives the observer an almost fractal sense of zooming in towards spatial principles that repeat on the macro as well as micro scale.

Background/Opposite: Ecosystem + Land Use Map, Cape Cod, MA, USA Data: MassGIS Mapping: Author


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p. 30 | Site Analysis Maps 01 + 02

Territories + Ecosystem Interlacing

A

t Cape Cod’s shoreline, a sensitive coastal ecosystem meets sprawling low-density urban growth. Forests and non-overbuilt natural open spaces are only saved when

explicitly protected from development, as also shown by the regional GIS study- In effect, man-made and natural systems are fused into one totality.

The analysis maps isolate and show this interlacing; a homogenous fabric of housing

developments abuts and interrupts ecosystem features such as wetlands and barrier beaches, carving out individual territories extended into the water through private piers. Functional differentiation of the urban fabric is low, as is democratized water access. If one were to consider the site a town, and not just an agglomeration of dwellings, what operations could increase its urbanity, social inclusiveness and overall sustainability?

The question of course assumes a desire to move development along these lines, which I posit in this study but is not unrealistic considering growing sustainability awareness.

Map Legend (both) Forest Wetlands Barrier Beaches Hydrological Features

1

Accessor’s Parcels Priority Natural Habitats Empty Lots Ambivalent Coastal Zone

Analysis Map 01 : Figure Ground Plan, Ecosystem, Priority Natural Habitats

Analysis Map 02 : Housing + Private Piers : Territorialization

50

100

150m


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1

p. 31 | Phase 0 | Concept Engineering

Experiments in Streetscape + Land Use Volumetrics

B

efore confronting the intricacy of creating a plan limited

by existing conditions, the conceptual phase freely tested

2

concepts derived from the situational and environmental impact

mapping. Not all of the more far-fetched concepts made it into the

final plan but are in part shown here, such as radically modifying the linear street scape or even introducing new topography.

However, several initial ideas made it into the phasing as

underlying design intent; especially the introduction of de-paved play streets leading to the water and the concept of a central

3

green boulevard “spine” were influenced by ideas developed herein, as was the introduction of mixed-use functions alongside it. Spatially, a density gradient from peninsula center to the coast, with new and larger central lot building volumes inspired by solar envelopes, was tested and featured in the final iteration.

Variant Concept Sketches 1: Density Gradient Sketch, Lateral Peninsula Section (implemented as density gradient falloff in final plan) 2: FIrst Site Cross Section Modification Sketch (concept not pursued due to ground water levels + scale) 3: Radical “Green Band” Superstructure Sketch (not used, since extremely large blocks break local scale) Bottom: Mixed-use Solar Envelope Blocks (implemented as higher-density structures in final plan) Right: “Sinuous Band” Streetscape + New Locations of Additional Urban Functions (partially implemented)


p o s t

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p. 32 | Phase 1 + 2 | Negotiating Space

Streetscape Activation + Water Access + Multi-Use

T

o function as a town, a balance of multiply usable street spaces, public access to natural amenities such as the waterfront and a mix of local functions needs to be

present, which the analysis map shows is currently not the case. In an existing fabric, it

is not easy to achieve fast change; phase 1 and 2 therefore intend to carefully negotiate

multi-use rezoning to the North of the peninsula and creation of public spaces for partial

water access in the South. Beach access is focused in the East, as there existing lots are farther removed from the shore and impinge less on an “ambivalent zone” that would exist once greater public diffusion occurs into this once solely private realm.

In the intervention map, permeably repaved side “play” streets now lead up to ocean blocks that are assumed to have been successfully negotiated and will form public shore

Map Legend (left inset)

access anchorages; where exactly these were positioned would in reality not be so clear-

Land Use Single - Family Residential

cut, hence the plan only describes one possible formal outcome.

Multi - Family Residential Forest Other (see next map for details)

1

Agriculture / Open Space

3

2

Urban Open (none) Roads Map Legend (background) Urban Open (intended) Empty Lot : reused Empty Lot: left vacant Urban Park (intended)

1 1

3 3

Public Beach (intended)

2

2 Zone Ambivalent Coastal Main Boulevard Play Streets: Pathways, reduced Traffic (intended) Public Transport Link Unmodified Streets Central Redevelopment Area Open Spaces (to be defined architecturally)

Phase 1 & 2 Phase 1 negotiate for multi - use scenario Phase 2 assemble ocean lots to repurpose as urban squares All shown urban open spaces are intentional only, unless already negotiated

Analysis Map 03 : Land Use A, Roads, Coastal Outline

Intervention Map 01 : Speculative Public Open Spaces & Streetscape Modification

50

100

150m


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p. 33 | Phase 3 | Negotiating Functions

Multi-Use Scenarios for Beach Squares and the North Quarter

I

f water access were successfully negotiated as in the previous steps, the resultant beach squares would become focal points for a variety of urban functions. The analysis

map shows that most commercial and agricultural functions are currently clustered along strip developments to the North; negotiating and inserting a mixed-use fabric would

cut down motorized traffic towards these aggregations and build a community-oriented structure that offers local employment and the urban space needed to service it.

Lots adjacent to the new beach squares would be ideal candidates for further renegotiation, spurred on by a possible increase in land value due to added local amenities. Select empty lots are in this scenario reprogrammed as ecological infrastructure or even urban

Map Legend (background + left insert)

agriculture; the percentage of multi-family housing is increased and often coupled to local

Land Use Single - Family Residential

commercial zoning to allow for smarter land use along the central spine boulevard, which

Multi - Family Residential

could terminate in the South of the peninsula with new public and cultural functions.

Commercial Strip

1

3Transportation

2

4

Waste Disposal Nurseries Cranberry Bog Agriculture / Open Space Cemetary

Additional Land Use (background) Public Institutional + Cultural Social / Educational Services Urban Park

1 1 1

2 2 2

Ecological Infrastructure / 3 Urban Agriculture 4 3 3 Multi-Use: low level commercial 4 & multi-family residential 4

5 5 5

Community Center Local Commercial Urban Squares Empty Lot : reused (white outline) Empty Lot: vacant Uniform Density

Phase 3 Negotiate usages adjacent to beach squares & inland (unless lot is already empty) Proximity to greater quality urban open space will encourage higher density and diverse functions

Analysis Map 04 : Land Use B, Roads, Coastal Outline

Intervention Map 02 : Speculative Modified Land Use Pattern

50

100

150m


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p. 34 | Phase 4 | Future Inclusive Growth

Density Gradients + Typological Modif ications + Green Infrastructure

T

he Cape’s continuing demand for urban space will either lead to a further decimation of natural habitat or to densification; this plan follows the densification narrative. In

the conceptual stage, the idea of gradually limiting lot volumes from spine to coast was

introduced and is here taken up as a qualitative mix of density falloff and solar envelop gradients that would soften the impact of higher density developments on neighboring

structures. Growth and functional enrichment would also essentially turn the peninsula into a center itself, then possibly gaining surrounding communities as true suburbs.

As the analysis map again shows, urban impact through e.g. water pollution and wetland

destruction is a very real concern. Wetland restoration at the interface of suburb and new center, as well as the possible remediation of the East shoreline are given as goals in

the plan, as would be the formation of ecological architecture development sites to act as

5 1

prototypes for the remaining space, e.g. in terms of improved on-site waste management.

2

3

6

4

Further Symbology (background + left insert) Uniform Density Agriculture / Open Space Forest Wetlands Category 5 Water Pollution Barrier Beaches Eeelgrass Aquatic Ecosystem Map Legend (background only) Qualitative Density Graduation Ecological Architecture Development Sites

5 5

5 Terrain Empty Lot / Ambivalent 1 1 1

2 2 2

3 3 3

6 6 6

Ecological Infrstructure / Urban Agriculture

4 4 4

Urban Forest / Habitat

Houses affected by Phase 1 Development

Phase 4 Renaturalization Inclusion as new “Suburb” Typological Modification Incorporation into City Fabric / Redensification

Analysis Map 05 : Uniform Density, Natural Boundaries, Wetlands, Water Pollution

Intervention Map 03 : Density graduation, Ecological Infrastructure, Impact Assessment

50

100

150m


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p. 35 | Composite Plan, Phases 1 - 4

Summary + Evaluation + Outlook

T

he planning state regarded as “final” in this case study shows simultaneous operations already taken place or in process of

changing the suburban fabric into the beginning of a town. Of the many strategies mentioned, these are they key ones:

•  Introduce main “green” central axis / boulevard + side streets •  Negotiate + open public shore access around public squares •  Negotiate multi-use zoning in squares and North Quarter •  Develop community hub at peninsula center

Map Legend Land Use Single - Family Residential

•  Introduce prototypical ecological architecture development sites

Multi - Family Residential

•  Improve local waste management services to limit pollution

Commercial Strip

•  Retain free lots, some as urban agriculture, some as open space

1

3Transportation

2

4

Waste Disposal

•  Rebuild select wetlands and barrier beach sections

Nurseries Cranberry Bog

•  Connect new center to “suburbs” and natural amenities

Agriculture / Open Space Cemetary

What makes the plan “realistic” in its urbanization intent is the

Public Institutional + Cultural Social / Educational Services

respect for the fabric it might grow from, intervening within a

Urban Park

negotiated framework to activate functions that would build a town.

Questions in need of answering if this study were to move ahead

1

further are what exact density is the target, what precise mix

1 1 1

2

2 32 2

5 Ecological Infrastructure / 3 Urban Agriculture 4 3 3 Multi-Use: low level commercial 4 4 4& multi-family residential Local Commercial Urban Squares

technological sustainability measures, including their impact on

Empty Lot : reused (white outline) Empty Lot / Ambivalent Terrain

local ecosystem capacity, could modify this ratio.

Uniform Density

Parallels of this plan to contemporary “Smart Growth” or “New

Agriculture / Open Space Forest / Habitat

Urbanist” ideas are not coincidental; indeed walkability, individual

5 Wetlands 1

are important in these planning principles.

2

3

but a move towards dense urbanization seems equally improbable.

The concepts presented herein therefore stay on middle ground, hybridizing aspects of low- and high density planning.

Category 5 Water Pollution

4

Barrier Beaches

6

Qualitative Density Graduation

Renaturalization

The greater question of how suburban America will develop into the 21st century remains open; it will certainly not stay as it is,

6

Community Center

of functions is needed to service it and what architectural and

transit reduction, local amenity creation and streetscape activation

5 5 5

5 Annexation as new “Suburb” 1

2

3

Typological Modification

4 Incorporation into City Fabric / Redensification

6


p o s t

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p. 36 | Composite View, Phases 1 - 4

Functional Massing + Natural Space


10,00

182

196

192

176

168 173 171

157

5,00

194 200

10,00

150

5,00

S

183

172

206

202

191

200 S

189 190

174

163

151

139

140

125

0,00

151

149

140

160

30 Insolation Data: National Renewable Resource Data Center Redbook

100

Statistics, Analysis and Plots/Graphics: Author

100

-5,00

-5,00

50

-10,00 -15,00 2

3

4

5

6

7

8

-15,00

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

20,00

223

220

214

206 205

10,00

350

172

5,00

167

6

7

8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

25,00

350

217

20,00

272

196

206

192 192

262

257

300

200 S

10,00

252

150

5,00

247

233

245

225

164 160

W

265

257

253

239

239

234

213

Cape Cod Climate : Yearly Overview for ~40°lat. / -70°long.

156

279

269

267

15,00

228 SW

206

199

191

208

250

236

-10,00 -15,00

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

220

200 S

200

182 186

150

Wind Direction (degrees)

100

Wind Speed (m/s)

50

Mean Temp. (°C)

166 147

-15,00

Cape Codand Climate : Monthly Overview Statistics, Analysis Plots/Graphics: Author

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

0 1

June: see above

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

90 70

25

Humidity (%)

SW

220

Weather Data (incl. PAR): Waquoit Bay Station, National Estuarine0,00 Research Reserve System 100 (3-year averages from 2005/06/07) -5,00 Insolation Data: National Renewable Resource Data Center Redbook 50 -10,00 (30-year averages from 1961 - 1990)

0,00 -5,00

20

NW

299

293

W 250

238

224

212 216

100 80

30

30,00

NW

300

250 250

234

201

189

187

5

s u b u r b i a

268

213

4

p. 37 | Appendix | Climate Data

241

15,00

3

November: allow max. solar gains, night insulation, protect from cold W winds, redistr. mass gains

p o s t

25,00

2

90

25

0 1

May: begin limiting solar gains by (partial) shading of glazing & cross-ventilation

30,00

50

-10,00

0 1

100

(30-year averages from 1961 - 1990)

150

0,00

15

10

Precipitation (mm)

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

80 60

20

70 50

December: allow max. solar gains, night insulation, protect from cold W winds, redistr. mass gains

15 30,00

30

350

NW

25,00 269

15,00

218 221

10,00

195

276

269

251

240

276

268

255

250 234

W

264

240

260

NW

236

15,00

SW

215

206

201 186

199 200

188 193

S

185

225

216

207

10,00

234

225

234

231 215

203

199

195

213

201 185

177 181

165

160

5,00

150

192

207 183 181

196 200

196

195

-5,00

-10,00

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

-15,00

350

303 281

20,00

262 236

221 217

174

260

250

245

240 224

223

183 154

149

200 S

10,00

2

3

4

5

6

7

W 242 208

218

214 201 187

184

176

237

230

273 258

max/min temperature range 221 226

243

239 236

NW

192

278 256

264

W

176 140

150

149

192

216

209

233

3

4

5

6

7

8

208

188

203 cooling

temp. peak

192

216

209

30 10

cooling

233

heating

20 0

max/min50 temperature range

-15

132

192

185

heating

175 149

237

230

-5

200 S

190 190

188

1

2

-10

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

40

Precipitation (mm)

0 2

30,00

Mean Temp. (°C)

Wind Speed (m/s)

Wind Direction (degrees)

heating

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

208

188

203

5,00

NW

209

10

Humidity (%)

cooling

temp. peak

cooling

heating

30

-15

216

233

1

225

214 218 195

187

219

208 206

169

169 154 137

0,00

cooling

100

148

155

200

230 199

Precipitation (mm)

SW 212

209

208

167 165

176

164

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Mean Temp. (°C)

Wind Speed (m/s)

Humidity (%)

Wind Direction (degrees)

10

150

cooling

4

200 S

135

temp. peak

3

20

250

240

235

207 188

0 2

W

228

5,00

150

107

350

192

300

10,00

S

139

40000

100

7,0

heating

-5,00

50

-10,00 -15,00 1

2

3

4

5

28

6

7

3

0

4

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Mean Temp. (°C)

1

246

158

5,00

171

7

8

7

8

196 183

177

166

189

10,00

168

145

152

143

143

151 150

5,00

188

181

155 139

11

12

35000 350

300 276

276

201

192

207

202

234

247

230

221

W

SW

30000

200 S

195 172

166

5,6

250

244 246

243

228

212 197

140

134

251 225

217

179

285

4,7

0,00

100

7,0

-5,00

50

-10,00 -15,00 2

3

4

5

6

7

8

50

-10,00

0 1

-15,00

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

April: allow max. solar gains, night insulation, allow some cross ventilation

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

6,1 30,00

350

25,00

300

W

20,00 15,00

212

206

10,00

182

192

220

208

196 176

168 173 171

4,7

157

5,00 139

213 214

5

216

205

208

163

151

150

125

0,00

4,60

4,30

-5,00 -10,00

3,601

2

3

4

5

6

7

219 202

4,80

5,00

4,90

5,00

209

206

255 219

211 191

3,9 9 10

0

5,1

200 S

189 190

4,90 149

140

160

4,3

50

-15,00

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

November: allow max. solar gains, night insulation, protect from cold W winds, redistr. mass gains

3,6

3,5

3,4 30,00

350

3,1

25,00 20,00

2,7

15,00 213

223

220

250 250 234 201

189

187 172

5,00

167

156

W

241 214

206 205

10,00

212 216 196

250

238 224

217

30,00

206

25,00

2,8

15,00

200 S

10,00

164 160

1,9

150

0,00

100

-5,00

272

262

257

269 2,8

267 252

2,6

NW 300

299

293

20,00

228 SW 206 192 192

247 233

279 245

225

234

265

239 199

191

257

253

239

213

208

236 220

200

182 186

250

-10,00 -15,00

0 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

June: see above

8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

1,9

SW

147

-10,00 -15,00 2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

5,5

5,6

1,9 Wind Speed (m/s)

50

0(°C) Mean Temp. 5000

5,4

5,5

4,3

5,4

2,8

4,0 5,0 3,6

4,90 3,5

4,3

3,1

3,9 2,7

4,40 4,3

5,1

5,00

4,90

3,1

4,2

5,0 6,0

4,90

4,80

4,70

4,70

5,1

5,00

3,30

4,40 4,3 3,0

2,8

3,1

3,0

1

3,10

3,0 4,0 2,9

2,6

3,7

3,6

3,5 4,0

3,1

3,30

3,1 2,8

2,7

3,0

2,8

3,1 1,9

3,0

2,6

3,10

1,9

1,9

100

0 1

5000

Humidity (%)

150

0,00

4,90 6,1

3,0 2,9

3,0

Wind10000 Direction (degrees)

166

5,00

3,1

3,0

220

200 S

6,1 4,80

5,5

3,4

10000

W

-5,00

50

20000

15000 3,30

350

3,1

NW 300

268

4,40 4,3

0 1

5,6

4,60

4,30

3,60

15000

100

3,7 May: begin limiting solar gains by (partial) shading of glazing & cross-ventilation

3,7 4,7

5,0

150

-10,00

5,5

6,0 7,0

5,3

5

3,9 6,0

225 SW

174 151

3,4

25000

250

240

-5,00

50

8

208

W

5,4 241

233

0,00

100

4,2

-15,00

226

10,00

4,70

4,70

140

222

267 269

261 260 234

300

5,5

5,6

5,5251 264

15,00 209

194 200 S

20000

NW

25,00 20,00

5,3

SW

183

172

5,6

350

250

245

241 235

233

231

3,60

6,1

30,00

NW

5,6

4,2

30000

October: start allowing partial gains, start limiting night ventilation

35000

4,70

4,60

4,30

25000

0 1

4,70

100

94

-5,00

6,1

5,3

5

35000

150

138

6,1

40000

NW

139

123

0,00

10

Humidity (%)

258

15,00

203

197

0

9

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

20,00

SW 200 S

230 199

176

6

250

243

232

5

25,00

W

267

254

184

4

30,00

NW 300

185

3

Wind Direction (degrees)

350

10,00

62

September: see above & stack ventilation

25,00

15,00

0

-15,00

5

Wind Speed (m/s)

30,00

20,00

50

-10,00

March: allow max. solar gains, night insulation, protect from cold W winds, redistr. mass gains

Precipitation (mm)

5000

196 168

50

15,00

203

190

heating

10000

199

20,00

SW 205

204

0,00

15000

190

249 250 228

199

-5,00

20000

SW

184

174

25,00

300

272 273 253

252

213 211

10,00

25000

228 230

213

205

187

152

1

350

185 288

271 273 246

188

203

August: see above & stack ventilation

289 287

15,00

208

40 20

60 231

250

-15,00

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

25,00 20,00

30000

239

-10,00

February: see above

231

40000

-10

-5,00

8

192

185

NW 300

100

0

237

max/min 70 temperature range

0

350

135

50

1

231

peak wind speed 230

-5

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

100

peak wind speed

-5,00

1

8

0,00

30,00

-15

7

5,00

0,00

-15,00

-10

SW

15,00

150

-10,00

-5

6

20,00

168

164

5

250

237

210

10,00 5,00

W

253

241 240

4

25,00

300

279

269 267 266

234

15,00

3

30,00

NW

25,00

2

80

July: minimize solar gains, shield thermal mass, maximum cross-ventilation

protect from cold W winds mechanically redistribute thermal mass indirect gains to direct gain areas

30,00

0 1

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

January: allow max. solar gains, night insulation, additional heating,

0

50 30

5

50

-10,00

0 1

5

0

100

50

-15,00

10

90

S

150

144

141

0,00

-5,00

15

60 40

10

SW

220

100

20

100

peak wind speed

W 250

246

170 151

0,00

5

300 276

20,00

250

239

168

5,00

350

25,00

300

294

290

278

20,00

25

30,00

3,10 2,0 3,0 2,9 1,5

1,0 2,0

2,0

1,5

1,5

0,0 12 1,0

2

3

4

5

6

insolation peak

7

8

9

10

11

Precipitation (mm)

1,0 Active Radiation (MicroEinsteins) Photosynthetically

December: allow max. solar gains, night insulation, protect from cold W winds, redistr. mass gains

0

Insolation [latitude tilt] (all in W/m^2/day) artificial shading required in summer

[lat. +15° = 55°] [Horizontal Surface] all incl. uncertainty factor of 9% (shaded bands)

[Vertical Surface]

0,0


s pa c e - b a s e d t h e r m a l m e t r i c s v i s u a l i z at i o n p. 38 | Cognition Support for Low-Energy

Conceptual Architectural Design • Custom software developed based on design/sim experiments • Tested and evaluated in specialized design optimization classes • Publication: Building Simulation & Optimization 2014, London

B

ased on integrated design/simulation workflow observations from interdisciplinary classes held by colleagues and me,

a new process model empirically developed from them and the

insight that hybrid design/performance representations shape cognition in low-energy architectural design, I developed a spatial

thermal and climate-based daylight data analysis/visualization plugin for Rhinoceros3d/Grasshopper3d, dubbed Mr.Comfy.

Instead of using charts or tabular formats, energy consumption, comfort, illuminance levels and any other available performance

report variable are directly displayed through color-coded surfaces

(and numeric values) where they occur – in the individual spaces

of a design. Mr.Comfy bridges the gap between sustainable designers’ need to analyze data spatially but still retain numeric

precision and multiple data representation modes as typically exposed through traditional graphing.

The tool’s features and user case studies are published in several project publications and invited presentations, most notably at Building Simulation and Optimization 2014 in London, at the École

Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne in Switzerland and the NYC IBPSA chapter, USA.

All publications are available in full on my visualization software website: http://mrcomfy.org/?page_id=116

Background/Opposite: Annual Hourly Map of All-Zone Average Air Temperatures (excerpt), Sample Building, Climate: Berlin


s pa c e - b a s e d t h e r m a l m e t r i c s v i s u a l i z at i o n p. 39 | Rhinoceros/Grasshopper3d Integration

for Improved Design-Analysis Interaction

B

y color-mapping and visually reinforcing differences between

zone behaviors, designers and engineers can more easily

diagnose which parts of a building use more energy and answer fine-grained analysis questions. Mr.Comfy’s features include:

• Spatial color-mapping of EnergyPlus *.csv zone report variables • Spatial co-mapping of Daysim daylight and irradiation results • Automatic generation of fitted or custom gradient display bounds

01

• Interactive hourly scheduling & custom report time ranges • Generate average, sum report maps and discover data extremes • Map percentages of hours that meet custom conditions • Custom report variable creation through component instantiation Shown to the right is a custom mapping scenario for one floor of a circular sample office building in Berlin, Germany:

01: Custom Search, Zone Highest Monthly Cooling Energy Use

kWh/m2: month timecode; Schedule: 24 hrs.

02

02: Same as previous, but for heating energy use 03: Average of Total Daytime Zone Internal Latent Gains, kJ/m2

Illuminance Distribution, log(lux), Schedules: 8 - 20 hrs.

To analyze the interplay of internal and external gains and how they are mediated through the building fabric (e.g. glazing areas,

shown dotted to the right) is a first step to understand where specific load scenarios occur- and how to reduce their severity.

Cooling Energy Use

2.22

kWh/m2

22.17

Heating Energy Use

8.54

kWh/m2

28.7

Avrg. of Total Internal Lat. Gains

3.93

kJ/m2

9.32

Log. of Avrg. Illuminance

382

log(lux)

6733

03


s pa c e - b a s e d t h e r m a l m e t r i c s v i s u a l i z at i o n p. 40 | Animation, Multi-Timestep Mapping

for Seasonal Performance Analysis

T

he combination of several data mapping types with temporal animation

can

reveal

a

surprising

amount

of

building

behavioural information that is not always easy to understand

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

through traditional means; Mr.Comfy’s zone-based display makes it easier to attain an overview and focused explorations of what is happening in both thermal and daylight domains.

Through instantiating several Mr.Comfy components it is also possible to create custom metrics; the monthly overview map of

the sample building’s first floor (right) simultaneously overlays mean radiant temperature display with two daylight metrics.

Black to white dots show the percentage of selected hours when zone illuminance is within 300 to 2000 lux- an acceptable range;

white to red inset display sensor nodes show the frequency

of overlit hours. In effect, when overlit tends towards null and

illuminance is in a usable range, the contrast between metrics is diminished (white on white) and a quick daylight check possible.

A recommendation to improve the sample building’s performance would be to reduce part of the yard’s north-facing glazing area,

include window shading on its south-facing part and introduce overhangs to the south office windows. Both winter heat loss and summer solar gains are problematic in this building; the high

incidence of summer overlit areas indicates that there is leeway to improve thermal performance and daylight utilization, by e.g. reconsidering the window-to-wall ratio (esp. in the yard).

Average Radiant Temperature

14

°C

31

Illuminance 2000 - 100,000 lux

0

% set hrs.

100

Illuminance 300 - 2000 lux

0

% set hrs.

100


s pa c e - b a s e d t h e r m a l m e t r i c s v i s u a l i z at i o n p. 41 | Academic Performance Mapping +

Optimization of Student Designs

T

o explore the use of the tool in actual design scenarios, a class was held during my tenure at the TU Berlin in which

student designers mapped and optimized already energy-conscious buildings created in previous simulation-integrated studios.

Testing the tool in unconstrained use allowed for many improvements to be added on the fly, new features to be prototyped and design

process observations to be made, which will influence integration model concepts in upcoming studies and classes.

Surprisingly, almost all participants managed to again improve the

performance of their designs; a zone-based approach facilitated to finally gain a spatial understanding of simulation results, which is

a first step to optimize further. Some of the resulting explorations are shown in the following pages.

Finally, a survey was held to exactly discover users’ thoughts about the tool and its underlying spatial mapping principles, results

of which are published in a paper presented at Building Simulation and Optimization 2014, London, UCL.

Background/Opposite: Student Sophie Barker presents Mapping Case Study of Waratah Bay House, Winter 2013/2014, TU Berlin, Germany


s pa c e - b a s e d t h e r m a l m e t r i c s v i s u a l i z at i o n p. 42 | ROBUST Studio Design Reoptimization

Design: C. Sitzler, L. de Pedro; Sim. Prof.: Author

A

design from the simulation-integrated ROBUST studio also

Section East-West 1:200

04 Research, Administration

featured in this portfolio, students were in the mapping class

tasked with once again improving design performance aided

04

03 MultiPurpose

through visualizations created with Mr.Comfy.

As the ROBUST designs were already highly energy-conscious,

this served as a good proving ground to discover whether cognition can be further enhanced by new mapping technologies.

02 Exhibition

03

The design shown here, by Christopher Sitzler and Laura de Pedro,

already performed comparatively well; its concept of using infra -

01 Exhibition

lightweight concrete to form structural bays of alternating zones of dark and light was through simulations convincingly shown to work

00 Events

as intended; however, as discovered in the following, performance deficits remained and were discovered through mapping.

UDI 100 - 2000 Lux

02

D. Availability 500 Lux

Daylight studies for alternating contrast situations 100% occ. hrs.

01

0%

Intended interior daylight volumetrics (greyscale) vs. simulation results

NORTH

114 113 112

HEAT GENERATION [kWh/m2]

Cross Sections

SOUTH

111 110 109 108 107 106

10

20

30

40

50

60

OPENINGS [%] NORTH

114 113

17

111 110

108 107

13 12

NORTH

10

10

20

30

40

50

60

10

OPENINGS [%]

15

00

15

11

106

16

Window to wall ratio effect on heating energy use studies 14

109

17

SOUTH

16 SOUTH

Chiller [kWh/m2]

Lateral Section

HEAT GENERATION [kWh/m2]

112

20

30

Climate: Berlin, Germany

40

OPENINGS [%]

SOUTH

50

60

N


s pa c e - b a s e d t h e r m a l m e t r i c s v i s u a l i z at i o n p. 43 | ROBUST Studio Design Reoptimization

Design: C. Sitzler, L. de Pedro; Sim. Prof.: Author

A

n all-zone mapping of the ROBUST design especially revealed problems on the top building floor, where staff offices are to

be located. Some concerns about this configuration had already been raised during the initial studio, but were delegated to a low

priority and did not skew the overall positive energy balance of

the original scheme. Re-mapping of whole-building performance, however, made the top floor problems hard to ignore:

• East/West-facing office plate glass is overdimensioned • Discontinuous office layout increases exposed total facade area • Shading was tested, but performance problems remained • Summer PMV slightly uncomfortable, high cooling energy use • High winter heating energy use due to fabric losses • Spaces largely overlit, especially in summer, with glare risk Based on the analysis maps, students implemented a number of geometric changes to get energy use and comfort under control: • Merge top floor into one continuous space, facing south • Reduce overall glazing area, offer shielded balconies, overhangs • Improve north-facing glass U-values, add low-e coating on south The measures improved thermal comfort, more than halved cooling energy consumption and reduced heating energy use by a projected 100 kWh/m2; daylight availability was brought from an

almost entirely overlit state to more than 80% of the redesigned space being lit by daylight alone during the summer.

Opposite (this and next page): Multi-Metric Mapping of ROBUST Design Top Floor Base State + Optimization Simulations: C. Sitzler + Author; Simulation Checking, Maps: Author Source: Building Simulation & Optimization 2014 paper (see bibliography)


s pa c e - b a s e d t h e r m a l m e t r i c s v i s u a l i z at i o n p. 44 | ‘ROBUST’ Studio Design Reoptimization

Design: C. Sitzler, L. de Pedro; Sim. Prof.: Author

A

part from the (literally) glaring problems on the top floor,

intermediate floors also had some improvement potential.

The explorations here especially focused on heating energy use reduction; cooling was checked but found to be by far the lowest

energy use factor. To lower heating energy demand, students combined geometric and material tweaks:

• Change ground floor lobby glazing amount • Add unconditioned lobby buffer space • Reduce north-facing “picture window” area • Improve U-Value of remaining north glazing While not as dramatic as the top floor performance improvements, overall heating energy consumption was still lowered considerably - especially in the lobby spaces - while touching few of the south

windows important for daylighting. The design’s concept to have dark and daylit spaces alternate when traversing the building on the long axis made the optimizations more straight-forward.

In the maps, combined geometric and material improvements

show as greater “jumps” in scale than the linear improvements made through material changes only. Compound changes like these often occur in design and are hard to track, since zones are mutually influential; being able to locally, visually pin down

performance effects of complex changes is one reason why

spatial performance mapping, as found in class, is highly useful in conceptual design. Furthermore, error checking in large models

becomes easier, too, since when zones behave radically different from similar ones, something tends to be amiss, and is easily visible in performance maps.


s pa c e - b a s e d t h e r m a l m e t r i c s v i s u a l i z at i o n p. 45 | Waratah Bay House Performance Mapping

Modeling, Simulations: S. Barker; Sim. Prof.: Author

O

ne of the first studies performed, Sophie Barker mapped the performance of an existing structure in South Australia (near Melbourne). Due to her

lived experience in the structure, she was able to calibrate the energy model until it corresponded with her real-world subjective thermal assessments. The visualization/analysis strategy followed several steps: • Map seasonal air temperatures, with and without natural ventilation • Use different occupation schedules for bedroom and living room blocks • Use energy mapping to discover zones with highest total demand • Peak mapping to understand when highest demand occurs

(No nat. vent., unconditioned, ed. Note)

(w/nat. vent., unconditioned, ed. Note)


s pa c e - b a s e d t h e r m a l m e t r i c s v i s u a l i z at i o n p. 46 | Waratah Bay House Performance Mapping

Modeling, Simulations: S. Barker; Sim. Prof.: Author

T

he analysis visualization showed many of the effects already observed in

real life; during summer, the building performs adequately if unconditioned

and natural ventilation is employed- for both daytime and nighttime schedules.

Only in winter there is heating energy demand, especially in the bedroom zones. As is apparent from the maps, the comparative lack of thermal solar gains in the bedroom block (which is oriented South, facing the sea) tends to

cause colder nighttime air temperatures. The peak heating wattage maps show when this occurs and can be used to size on-demand heating equipment, which is slated to be included in the structure. Optimization mapping was not part of this particular case study; as the first actual test of the tool, we instead focused on first understanding what mapping can do to improve analysis.

(Unconditioned, ed. Note)


s pa c e - b a s e d t h e r m a l m e t r i c s v i s u a l i z at i o n p. 47 | Sweden Urban Housing Design Exploration

Design: B. Wittik, F. Wich; Studio + Sim. Prof.: Author

B

jörn Wittik’s and Franziska Wich’s design for Östersund, Sweden (Köppen climate class. Dfc), was created in the

“Performative Design” class cycle, which dealt with energy-efficient

(sub)urban housing typologies; both urban layouts and modular housing types were developed and tested in their interplay, which

01

is challenging due to unit overshadowing and the influence of housing layout on what can or cannot be achieved on an urban level. After the first class iteration, both students enrolled in the

spatial mapping class to gain an even greater understanding of how their design performed.

Their overall workflow followed a rough staging regime: • Create locally inspired minimalist housing design language • Develop conceptual passive conditioning idea (sunspace) • Test housing unit overshadowing & facade irradiance • Detailed performance mapping & house typology modifications

02

However, the actual design process included many subvariants,

experimental changes, failures, errors, recovery and renewed understanding through experiencing the above; the narrative presented here is retrospectively condensed for clarity. The

spatial

language

of

the

development

is

inspired

by

contemporary Nordic housing design and vernacular typologies. Östersund’s subarctic climate (Köppen class Dfc) requires the capture of solar gains for passive conditioning, therefore a south

facade tilt and relatively large row spacing of the houses, which sit shoulder to shoulder to reduce fabric losses, were chosen and tested through irradiation simulations (right).

Opposite: 01 Design Development Phasing, Final Iteration Site Plan 02 Row Housing Overshadowing Distance Study 03 Combined Overshadowing + Facade Tilt Irradiation Studies

03


s pa c e - b a s e d t h e r m a l m e t r i c s v i s u a l i z at i o n p. 48 | Sweden Urban Housing Design Optimization

Design: B. Wittik, F. Wich; Studio + Sim. Prof.: Author

T

he overall unit development was staged and always seen in relation to the overall urban scheme:

• Test sunspace vs. no sunspace performance • Reduce north facade areas by tilting units • Minimize unit size to improve surface/vol. ratio • Tilt upper south facade to increase gains • Balance seasonal behaviour (glazing area, shading) The impact of building fabric changes was generally measured with the simplified metric zone air temperature; this limited approach gave students an “intuitive” metric to work with, compared to comfort indices sensitive to

different variables and not always usable in unconditioned buildings, as the test geometries generally were.

In the first step (right), students through frequency and

peak mapping compared unit performance with and without

sunspaces; the former was found to be preferable, with

a measurable increase of hours held in an acceptable air temperature range of 18 - 25°C and a reduction in severity of both minimum and maximum hourly air temperature peaks- albeit both remained severe.

Based on the tests, the sunspace typology was selected and further developed to balance seasonal performance.

Opposite: Peak, Frequency Mapping Comparison of Base Design State with and without Sunspace, Unconditioned Version Floor Plans, Conceptual Rendering (lower right)


s pa c e - b a s e d t h e r m a l m e t r i c s v i s u a l i z at i o n p. 49 | Sweden Urban Housing Design Optimization

Design: B. Wittik, F. Wich; Studio + Sim. Prof.: Author

C

apturing solar gains can come with a penalty during summer; in the chosen design,

overheating turned out to be an issue difficult to rectify with e.g. mere fixed overhangs

due to low solar angles; correspondingly, extreme daylight overprovision also occurred.

To gain a degree of control over summer behaviour (and incidentally also reduce winter

losses), students increased the outer and inner sunspace opaque mass wall area and allowed shading plus sunspace/all-house cross-ventilation, triggered by high zone air

temperatures. Maxima peaks and frequency readings were improved greatly (right), as was daylight utilization, which finally exhibited fewer overlit hours.

Opposite: Final Design State with vs. without Shading + Natural Ventilation Comparison, Unconditioned Bottom Right: Final vs. Base State Daylight Availability Comparison, No Shading Below: Conceptual Sectional Rendering + Elevation, Pre-final Design State


s pa c e - b a s e d t h e r m a l m e t r i c s v i s u a l i z at i o n p. 50 | Sweden Urban Housing Design Optimization

Design: B. Wittik, F. Wich; Studio + Sim. Prof.: Author

C

omparing the base state and final design iteration average monthly air temperatures

through seasonal maps (right) and a traditional line chart (below), the modification

effects already visible in the previous peak and frequency readings become more readable in their temporal localization. Both minima and maxima peaks are reduced; however it remains visible that problems with overheating in summer months continue to persist.

The class terminated at this improvement milestone, however it was clear to both students and me that more work would be necessary to bring down air temperatures to an even greater acceptability level, and in the process to investigate detailed comfort metrics. Opposite: Base (top) vs. Final (below) Monthly Average Zone Air Temperatures, Unconditioned Bottom: Base vs. Final Design State Daily Whole-Building Average Air Temperatures, Unconditioned


pa r a m e t r i c d e s i g n : a c a s e s t u d y i n d e s i g n s i m u l at i o n i n t e g r at i o n

-

p. 51 | Design-Driven Performance Simulation • Series of 7 simulation-integrated design classes (incl. studio) • Building performance cognition and design process research • Publications: e.g. Building Simulation 2013, eCAADe 2012, etc.

F

rom 2011 to early 2014, colleagues and I at the TU Berlin

researched the integration of dynamic daylight (Daysim

+ Radiance) and thermal (EnergyPlus) building performance simulation into freely structured design processes. Four different class formats with more than 100 MArch. students served as test environments, dealing with the low-energy design of office buildings, community centers, housing with its interplay of

individual units and urban layout, as well as spatial performance mapping with custom developed software (Mr.Comfy). In each class, typologies were created for several climate zones and mainly geometric sensitivity tests performed, leading to building morphologies that reacted to specific climatic conditions.

The successfully completed project had three main goals:

• Investigate integrated design + simulation process formats • Research morphological impact on building performance

• Develop cognition/simulation support tools to facilitate integration From design + simulation activities, emprical observations were

made and developed into a dynamic integrated design/simulation process model, which was used to create performance design

guidelines in new classes and to develop custom spatial analysis software to enhance free-form performance ideation and analysis. Results were published widely, most notably at Building Simulation

2013 at the French Institut Nationale d’Énergie Solaire and at DIVA Day 2013. See http://mrcomfy.org/?page_id=116

Background/Opposite: Students R. Georgieva + C. Castillo presenting class designs + simulations Parametric Design Class, Winter 2011/2012


pa r a m e t r i c d e s i g n : a c a s e s t u d y i n d e s i g n s i m u l at i o n i n t e g r at i o n

-

p. 52 | Class Types Overview 2011 - 2014

A : Parametric Design Climates : 1, 2, 4

B : Performative Design

1, 3, 4

Community Center & Offices (mechanically conditioned)

Housing Units & Urban Design (passive & mechanical conditioning)

Multi - Use Exhibition & Office building (mechanically conditioned)

Spatial Thermal Performance Visualization + Optimization with Custom Software

R. Canihuante, M. El-Soudani Office Bldg. (FL site)

O. A. Pearl, D. Gkougkoudi Housing units (SWE site)

B. Suazo, M. Silva Mixed-Use Exhibition Building (Berlin site)

F. Wich, B. Wittik Housing Development (SWE site)

Strategies: Geometric optimizations Fixed materials & setpoints Balance thermal & daylight

Geometric & material optimization Fixed setpoints & U-Val., custom mat. Thermal performance focus

Geometric & material optimization Custom setpoints, mat. & behavior Individualized performance tests

Comfort and energy use behaviour discovery & optimization visualization of new and previous class designs

C : ‘Robust’ Studio Integration

5

D : Performance Mapping

Design Climate Zones

1 Hollywod, FL, USA Climate.: Am (Köppen class)

2 Hashtgerd, Iran Climate: BSk

3 Yazd, Iran Climate: BWk

4 Östersund, Sweden Climate: Dfc

5 Berlin, Germany Climate: Dfb

1-5


pa r a m e t r i c d e s i g n : a c a s e s t u d y i n d e s i g n s i m u l at i o n i n t e g r at i o n

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p. 53 | Combined Design + Performance Development

P

erformance intent is often not an integral part of design

processes, despite the early ideation stage’s fundamental

influence on later energy use and occupant comfort. To counteract this disconnect, the interplay of form and performance was in our

classes studied in great detail, primarily to develop a new process model and to test the conceptual use of whole-building simulation. The graphics to the right chart the combined performance and

design development of two buildings of the same programme, but for different climate zones (Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, top; Hashtgerd, Iran, bottom); optimization is not linear but steadily progresses in

unison with architectural decisions. As summarized in the abstract for my Building Simulation 2013 paper:

“[...] With initiatives now aiming at bringing energy simulation into the mainstream of environmental design, the applicability of state-of-the-art simulations in formally non-constrained creative

production needs to be re-evaluated. To this end, a teaching experiment that includes multi-domain simulations as drivers into

the early architectural design process has been conducted; Master

of Architecture students create a community centre with low energy use and high daylight utilization, presented in case studies.

Performance increases are achieved by making appropriate morphological choices only; form and energy are thus linked in

a tectonic fashion. A novel design-simulation process model that

acknowledges both creative and analytic thinking is derived and discussed in the context of on-going integration attempts.”

The developed integration model was also tested in advanced architectural design studios such as ‘Robust’ (see following).

Opposite: Combined Daylight + Thermal Building Performance Design Development Community Center, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, USA (top) + Hashtgerd, Iran (bottom) Students: I. Crego, D. Cepeda + T. Merickova, M. Potrzeba, Parametric Design Class Studio, Simulation Prof., Simulation Validation + Performance Graphics: Author


-

Proceedings of Building Simulation 2011: 12th Conference of International Building Performance Simulation Association, Sydney, 14-16 November.

B

p. 54 | Integrated Process Model Development

attempts to identify “ideal” workflows; yet the now greater diffusion of simulation into academic and professional design has invalidated

many simplified and purely iterative process models, as they fail to

capture the non-linear nature of design thinking- as also apparent from the discussed class examples and their ideation history.

Shown on this page are several snapshots of how the development of integration thinking has progressed, including a novel model by

the author (top right, description see inset text, right). It is by now accepted that high-performance building design is a discipline in its own right, with the influence of architectural thinking on its

concepts no longer underemphasized. The model is used by the

author to improve pedagogy and to test if new design support technologies, such as spatial thermal metrics mapping also discussed in this portfolio, fit into fluid design process schemes.

Y

SC

E

these dependencies, a large body of building simulation literature

concept as a consequence, eliminate E PRwould, O OP solutions that block the visual contact between exterior and interior spaces. Even though the process of transforming abstract SE IL N Tinto A B pragmatic inputs is complex to constraints describe or fully represent, similar techniques are widely used in architectural design. Architects intuitively deal with several conjectures in order to Design parameters for formulate problems and identify Intent acceptable solutions. During this process, designers can use information as ‘shortcuts’ to facilitate the translation of abstract In design practice, this information is “The focus ofconstraints. simulation is to Integrated Design Process Model, often related to previous experiences of the architect Development Context solve design dilemmas. [...] and is rarely based on quantitative criteria. Most notably, Chermayeff and The identification of three mainsimulation,Alexander already used describedas a In designerly information in 1963 that design is a design stages is not neccessarily ‘shortcut’ should allow the identification some wicked problem with of myriad interdependencies that inputs. concern of using misleading(pictured) precedents is a reproduction of theThe [design] do not allow for truly linear or minimized as they can improve using simulation. process. ” (Venancio et al.) iterative processes to develop. Two types of information are approached:

A

SS CE

factors dependent on individual project idiosyncrasies, climate

influences and learned process histories. In pursuit of capturing

systems. Depending on the type of assessment, available information canprocess be ignored “An integrated is (gray bullets) or used as inputs (red bullets) in the simulation model. a dynamic field of related Simplified simulations involve abstractions or even design states and should not the stipulation of unknown information. The level of be represented linearly.” simplification depends on the specific dilemma and the stage of design development. A dilemma would M. C. Doelling & F. Nasrollahi not be pertinent if relevant design definitions, Dynamic Field Design/Simulation directly related to the dilemma, are unavailable. For Process Integration Model instance, the quantification of the insulation impact on heating loads (Building should Simulation’13) be compromised if the geometry of the building is completely unknown.

REPR

I

ntegrated workflows in architectural design are amongst many

IT

pa r a m e t r i c d e s i g n : a c a s e s t u d y i n d e s i g n s i m u l at i o n i n t e g r at i o n

D

C

Experiments in integrated class

formats the author’s can Design principles: the useheldofduring guidelines Chermayeff & Alexander (‘63): research project reaffirmed this reduce considerably the scope of analysis. Such and led to the development of Design Factor Interdependencies an adapted field process information can be used to focus on model specific (above), which accepts design as design strategies. a non-linear, explorative activity

¥

“The basic procedures

involved in the design g & Representability

that chiefly relies on the interplay Precedent solutions: the analogy with specific of mutually influential knowledge states from related domains. features extracted from precedent solutions can be useful in the process of transforming abstract In the model, design intent encapsulates all knowledge intentions into pragmatic definitions. R. Venancio, n domains (A, B etc.), which are mutually influential, create design The process of transferring information from these A. Pedrini, A.C. van der 2 Representation of designerly simulation. synthesis through overlapping nTheFigure sources to the model depends highly on what is Linden, E. van Ham &dilemma R. Stouffs: should adopt decision states and subsequently simulation of aden design intended by the designer modify and design howintent, the forinformation the entire W. J. Batty & B. Swann: Integration of Computer Based Think that Designerly! Multiple Simulation information is usedUsing in the formulation of design process begin anew until it is used as a ‘shortcut’ represents theto intention. n frozen at a satisfactory moment information is Dilemmas, strictly related to Modelling and an Inter-Disciplinary Based Approach to Building Designproblems. [...], ToolsThis to Solve Architectural n(Lawson, or all domains simulation are exhausted in Of course, the process of designerly has a design (Building constraints 2006) that can be (Building Simulation ‘97) Simulation ‘11) their contribution potential. strong human component. This is clearly related to pragmatic or abstract (Figure 2). Both types of cognitive processes and assumptions that are an n Design Problem Interlinks dilemma constraints are intended to reduce the scope inherent part of any design activity. of the analysis.

of a commodity are the same whether it be a toaster, supersonic passenger aircraft or a building.”

in a multi-representational performance models?

of knowledge (A etc.) are c flexibility their multivalent digital models) enable, and

¥

B

A

D

C

(Chermayeff / Alexander)


pa r a m e t r i c d e s i g n : a c a s e s t u d y i n d e s i g n s i m u l at i o n i n t e g r at i o n

1st Prize

p. 55 | ‘ROBUST’ Interdisciplinary Studio

B

uilding on previous experiences, the author and colleagues

Design Chair

in summer 2013 participated in an interdisciplinary MArch

Studio Leaders

studio held by the department of Prof. R. Leibinger. The theme “robust” underpinned the investigation of flexible structures built

Coop.: Structural Design

out of modular, high-volume spatial elements. The program brief,

adapted from the 2013 Egon Eiermann competition requirements,

Coop.: Author

called for multi-use exhibition, event and administration spaces;

the downtown Berlin site chosen in consultation with the author

was elongated along an east-west axis and opened the main facade stretch towards the south, easing seasonal performance optimization in Berlin’s heating-dominated climate.

Atrium

Programme

Sol. Protection

Students performed design-centric daylight (Daysim + Radiance) and thermal (EnergyPlus) performance simulations in class, which

were introduced and guided by the author and colleagues, who also acted as design/performance consultants. The simulation

scope was unique per project, however performance assessments

played a major part in shaping design decisions, following a fluid didactic and design-centric process model.

1st / 2nd floor

East Section + Elev.

Exhibition

Demonstrating the quality of the resultant designs, the first prize of

the 2013 Egon Eiermann competition was claimed by ‘ROBUST’

studio students (right). Its main design/performance interplay

was to analyze facade versions, resulting in a double-walled glass facade with interior louvers adjusted according to thermal simulations, irradiation and daylight studies.

Two successful studio results are shown next; the first used

simulations to shape a design with various zones of daylight

contrast while minimizing heating energy use; the second studied

1st Prize Winner of Egon Eiermann Architectural Competition 2013

deep facade geometries to control seasonal irradiation, related

Translation of jury verdict: “The work’s great quality results from extending the concept of ‘Smart Skin’ [competition theme] to become a holistic system that shapes space. The light concrete pillars’ contribution to thermal performance is believingly described and construction concepts that allow geometric variability are investigated in detail. The interplay of transparent facade and climatically active pillars creates a convincing, flexible and powerful space”.

in the performance mapping class also found in this portfolio.

Source & image credits: Eternit AG. Egon Eiermann Preis 2013: Smart Skin, ein Haus der Materialforschung. Stuttgart: Karl Krämer Verlag, 2013.

energy use and natural light. Both designs were further optimized


pa r a m e t r i c d e s i g n : a c a s e s t u d y i n d e s i g n s i m u l at i o n i n t e g r at i o n

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p. 56 | ‘ROBUST’ Studio Class Result Sample

Design: C. Sitzler, L. de Pedro; Sim. Prof.: Author

Section East-West 1:200

04 Research, Administration

04

03 MultiPurpose (Seasonal) UDI 100 - 2000 lux & DAv 500 lux daylight studies for alternating interior contrast situations

03

02 Exhibition 01 Exhibition

02

00 Events UDI 100 - 2000 Lux

UDI 100 - 2k (summer)

UDI 100 - 2k (winter)

D. Availability 500 Lux 100% occ. hrs.

01

0%

Intended interior daylight volumetrics (greyscale) vs. simulation results

NORTH

114 113 112

HEAT GENERATION [kWh/m2]

Cross Sections

SOUTH

111 110 109 108 107 106

10

20

30

40

50

60

OPENINGS [%] NORTH

114 113

17

110

108 107

12

NORTH

10

10

20

30

40

50

60

10

OPENINGS [%]

15

00

13

11

106

16

Window to wall ratio effect on heating energy use studies 15 14

109

17

SOUTH

16 SOUTH

111

Chiller [kWh/m2]

Lateral Section

HEAT GENERATION [kWh/m2]

112

20

30

Climate: Berlin, Germany 40

OPENINGS [%]

SOUTH

50

60

N


RESULTS COMPARISON / HEATING ENERGY CONSUMPTION / ANNUAL / ALL HOURS Base Design

Adapted Design

-

A

B

C

D

PREDIAL LIMIT

E

F

G

PREDIAL LIMIT

H

I

J

K

H

PREDIAL LIMIT

1

1

1.27

Elev. Box

05: Events

PREDIAL LIMIT

pa r a m e t r i c d e s i g n : a c a s e s t u d y i n d e s i g n s i m u l at i o n i n t e g r at i o n

2

Backjard 291.0 M2

Elev. Box

05: Events 4.50

Stair Box

1.00

6.52

2

1.50

Bathroom 10.23 M2 5.25

p. 57 | ‘ROBUST’ Studio + Performance Mapping Results

Original roof opening

4.50

Exhibition Room 1 xM2 Bathroom 8.41 M2

3

0.50

Design: A. Patrick, I. Cárdenas; Sim. Prof.: Author

05: Events

Base Design_04: Exhibition

24.77

1.50

3

Reception x M2

2.65

05: Events

Elev. Box

0.20

4.50 18.25

2.65 B.Room

Elev. Box

4

4

1.50

0.50

5.00

Store 1 58.95 M2

Café

Store 2 61.7 M2

4.50

Stair Box

5

5

1.00

1.25

1.70

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

4.50

48.20

B

A

C

B

D

C

E

D

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

4.50

F

E

G

F

1.50

4.50

1.00

19.00

67.20

Base Design_04: Exhibition A

1.50

H

G

I

H

J

I

K

J

H

K

H

1

1

1.27

Elev. Box

Elev. Box 4.50

Stair Box 3.00

6.52

Service Corridor 16.75

2

1.00

3

0.50

2

1.50

Bathroom 10.23 M2

04: Exhibition

5.25

5.25

04: Exhibition 4.50

Exposition Room 753.3 M2

Bathroom 8.41 M2

19.00

2.20

Elev. Box

5.50

5.50

24.77

0.50

1.50

5.50

4.50 18.25

Elev. Box

4

0.50

0.50

3

4

1.50

4.50

Adapted roof opening

04: Exhibition

04: Exhibition

5.00

Adapted Design_04: Exhibition

5.00

Stair Box

5

0.55

3.40

4.50 48.00

0.55 1.50 0.55

1.70

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

48.20

Heating + Cooling Energy Requirement Energy Use (kW/m²) 0.0

Adapted Design_04: Exhibition

60.0

5

1.00

1.25

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.00

19.00

67.20

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

H

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

H

Metrics Display: All Year, 24 hours 1

Elev. Box

Elev. Box 4.50

Stair Box

6.52

Service Corridor

2

Exposition Office 43 M2

5.25

03: Offices / Auditorium

Metrics Display: All Year, 24 hours

3

Office 23 M2

Office 23 M2

Office 23 M2

Office 23 M2

Kitchen

Service Room 4.50

03: Offices / Auditorium

0.50

19.00

1.50

Elev. Box

5.50

Waiting Space

0.50

03: Offices / Auditorium

3

4

1.50

5.00

03: Offices / Auditorium

24.77

4.50 18.25

Elev. Box

4

2

1.50

Exposition Room

60.0

1.00

Exposition Room

0.0

1

1.27

Heating + Cooling Energy Requirement Energy Use (kW/m²)

4.50 Stair Box

5

1.70

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

48.20

A

Performance Sketches + Annual Irradiation Distribution on Elevation

5

1.00

1.25

B

A

C

B

D

C

1.50

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

F

E

G

F

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.00

19.00

67.20

E

D

4.50

H

G

I

H

J

I

K

J

H

K

H

1

1

1.27 Bathroom Elev. Box

Elev. Box 4.50

Stair Box

6.52

Service Corridor

2

1.00

2

1.50

Bathroom 5.25

4.50

Austellung Bathroom

3

Base Design_01: Foyer / Exhibition

0.50

19.00

02: Main Exhibition

4

3

1.50

Elev. Box

5.50

4.50 18.25

02: Main Exhibition

Elev. Box 0.50

4

1.50

5.00

4.50 Stair Box

5

1.70

Base Design_01: Foyer / Exhibition

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

48.20

02: Main Exhibition

02: Main Exhibition

5

1.00

1.25

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.00

19.00

67.20

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

H

H

1

1

1.27 Bathroom Elev. Box

Elev. Box 4.50

Stair Box

6.52

Service Corridor

2

2

1.50

Cocina

Service Room

Service Room

4.50

Service Hallway

3

1.50

Event - Meeting Room

24.77

1.50

01: Foyer / Exhibition

3

4.50 18.25

4

4

01: Foyer / Exhibition

Mini Austellung

4.50

Stair Box

5

Total Heating Energy Use (kWh/m²)

01: Foyer / Exhibition Total Heating

Energy Use (kWh/m²) Main View of South Facade 0.0

Total Heating Energy Use (kWh/m²)

Adapted Design_01: Foyer / Exhibition 15.0

Total Heating Energy Use (kWh/m²)

1.70

15.0

N

Metrics Display: All Year, 24 hours

0.0

15.0

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

48.20

A

B

C

D

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

4.50

1.50

15.0

Thermal Reoptimization Map (from followup class) Metrics Display: All Year, 24 hours

4.50

1.50

67.20

E

F

4.50

1.50

4.50

5

1.00

19.00

G

H

I

01: Foyer / Exhibition

Total Heating Energy Consumption = 258173 kWh

Metrics Display: All Year, 24 hours

0.0

0.0

1.00

1.25

J

K

H

Base Plan +-13.5

Daylight Availability, 500 lux

0%

occ. hrs. 100%

Total Heating Energy Consumption = 220518 kWh WiSe 13_Mr Confy_ Alan Patrick


pa r a m e t r i c d e s i g n : a c a s e s t u d y i n d e s i g n s i m u l at i o n i n t e g r at i o n p. 58 | A. Patrick + I. Cardenas presenting,

f inal crit of ‘ROBUST’ Studio

-


pa r a m e t r i c d e s i g n : a c a s e s t u d y i n d e s i g n s i m u l at i o n i n t e g r at i o n p. 59 | Select Student Reviews of Author’s Classes

Letter of recommendation

Eloy Bahamondes E. Architect Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Eloy Bahamondes E. M.Sc. Architektur Technische Universität Berlin Architect Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile eloy@grupocactus.cl M.Sc. Architektur Technische Universität Berlin eloy@grupocactus.cl

Letter of recommendation To whom it may concern, To whom may concern, during theitwhole academic period of my architecture student life, I was always very attracted to two specific branches of the discipline: design student and sustainability. Mostly, both branches are during the whole academic period ofParametric my architecture life, I was always very attracted to two always seen independently, which makes these knowledge areas incomplete and hollow: parametric specific branches of the discipline: Parametric design and sustainability. Mostly, both branches are design was just an architecture stream defined curved surface and complex where always seen independently, which makes these by knowledge areas incomplete andorganic hollow:forms parametric the main target was to achieve an impact sculpture type of architecture, and the sustainability design was just an architecture stream defined by curved surface and complex organic forms where architecture was reduced construct with bottles. the main target was to to achieve an impact sculpture type of architecture, and the sustainability architecture was reduced to construct During the academic summer term of with 2011bottles. in Berlin as a double degree program student, I got into aDuring class which broke all these term preconceptions. Parametric Design’s aimprogram was, forstudent, first time in into my the academic summer of 2011 in Berlin as a double degree I got academic life, not to achieve forms, but to achieve efficiency. The inputs where not geometrical, but a class which broke all these preconceptions. Parametric Design’s aim was, for first time in my energy efficiency Theforms, output not a sculptural the not optimized geometry academic life, notrelated. to achieve butwas to achieve efficiency.cool Theshape, inputsbut where geometrical, but instead. Of course, this didn’t happened itself, and Maxcool Dölling hadbut thethe major responsibility of energy efficiency related. The output wasbynot a sculptural shape, optimized geometry it. instead. Of course, this didn’t happened by itself, and Max Dölling had the major responsibility of it. It was not just the technical knowledge (which solved an issue in a couple of minutes because of understanding problem from the root) (which that made himantheissue main successful class, It was not just athe technical knowledge solved in character a couple of of this minutes because of but also his architectural understanding of the problematic involved in each of the studied cases, understanding a problem from the root) that made him the main character of this successful class, which always brought out understanding solutions full ofofarchitecture and spatial features. Thisofisthe a very important but also his architectural the problematic involved in each studied cases, point, since in lots of classes related to sustainability are presented by engineers who isolate these which always brought out solutions full of architecture and spatial features. This is a very important variables, which gives architecture its particularity. point, since in lots of classes related to sustainability are presented by engineers who isolate these variables, which givesMax architecture its particularity. I would recommend to any class related to Parametric Design and energy efficiency concepts, or even a workshop, that with no doubt wouldtohave visionaryDesign projectsand as results. I would recommend Max to any class related Parametric energy efficiency concepts, or even a workshop, that with no doubt would have visionary projects as results.

Eloy Bahamondes E. Architect Eloy Bahamondes E. Architect


pa r a m e t r i c d e s i g n : a c a s e s t u d y i n d e s i g n s i m u l at i o n i n t e g r at i o n

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p. 60 | Select Student Reviews of Author’s Classes

Higher School of Architecture University of Seville, Spain Higher School of Architecture University of Seville, Spain To whom it may concern: ITowas MaxitDölling’s student in “Parametric Design” at the TU Berlin, Germany, in the winter whom may concern: term of 2011/12 and I can responsibly affirm that he was a trained, committed and a dedicated Iprofessor. was Max Dölling’s student in “Parametric Design” at the TU Berlin, Germany, in the winter term of 2011/12 and I can responsibly affirm that he was a trained, committed and a dedicated He had a good performance as professor, standing out extraordinary skills in performing ideas professor. and explaining them in different languages, the interesting content of his lessons, his He had a good architectural performance and as professor, standing out extraordinary skills character in performing informatics knowledges and his upbeat mathematical, and ideas good and explaining them in him different languages, the interesting content of his lessons, his disposition to work make a valuable team player. mathematical, architectural and informatics knowledges and his upbeat character and good In addition,tohework has make an interesting curriculum as researcher and he could include our design disposition him a valuable team player. investigations in several international publications of design and simulation seminars, seminar one of In addition, he has an interesting curriculum as researcher and he could include which was presented at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, our USA.design investigations in several international publications of design and simulation seminars, seminar one of Iwhich recommend very strongly Dölling as Institute researcher and professor, as he hasMA, demonstrated was presented at the Max Massachusetts of Technology, Cambridge, USA. an excellent analytical ability and capacity to grasp and explain new concepts necessary for Isuccess. recommend very strongly Dölling as work, researcher andwith professor, as he hascapacity demonstrated His motivation and Max passion for his together his intellectual are the an excellent analytical ability and capacity to grasp and explain new concepts necessary for perfect combination to achieve excellent results. success. His motivation and passion for his work, together with his intellectual capacity are the I also believe he would be a good candidate for a vacancy, as he would go the extra mile to perfect combination to achieve excellent results. deliver his best performance and honour the institution that gives him that chance. I also believe he would be a good candidate for a vacancy, as he would go the extra mile to Yours deliverfaithfully, his best performance and honour the institution that gives him that chance. Yours faithfully,

Architect - David Cepeda del Toro Seville, 16th January, 2014 Architect - David Cepeda del Toro Seville, 16th January, 2014 David Cepeda del Toro

· arquitecto 0034/606206781 · davidcepe@hotmail.com @hotmail.com Avda. de Kansas City 32E, 11A, 41007, Sevilla Sevill David Cepeda del Toro · arquitecto 0034/606206781 · davidcepe@hotmail.com @hotmail.com Avda. de Kansas City 32E, 11A, 41007, Sevilla Sevill


h y b r i d d ay l i g h t m o d e l s i n a r c h . d e s i g n e d u c at i o n + daylight prototypes p. 61 | Data-Embedded Physical Performance Models • Hybrid design + performance representation research • 3d printing of novel color-embedded iteration prototypes • Publications: e.g. CAADRIA 2013, DIVA Day 2012, etc.

A

s one component of the research into design-integrated daylight

and

thermal

building

performance

simulation

performed during my tenure at the TU Berlin, I made extensive

use of rapid prototyping techniques to output design performance artefacts such as the daylight and irradiation models shown on the next pages, resulting from a series of simulation studios.

Models play a vital role in architectural design, but it is not always easy to reconcile projective on-screen representations of simulation data with model-centric modes of design manipulation.

The artefacts created by students under my guidance thus

presented tests into how irradiation, daylight data and even

thermal performance can be physically output as color-coded models easy to understand and to literally grasp, with the ultimate

aim to enhance design processes. This was achieved by using the models as demonstrator objects in new classes and through them discussing performance design aspects in ongoing seminars.

The models were featured in several project publications, most notably at MIT for my 2012 DIVA Day presentation and in 2013 at the CAADRIA conference at the National University of Singapore. See http://mrcomfy.org/?page_id=116 to access them. Background/Opposite: UDI 100 - 2000 lux Daylight Metric-Embedded, Physically Rapid-Prototyped Daylight Model, disassembled. Design: T. Merickova, M. Potrzeba Studio, Simulation Prof. + Prototyping: Author


h y b r i d

d ay l i g h t

e d u c at i o n

m o d e l s

+ daylight

i n

a r c h

.

d e s i g n

p r o t o t y p e s

p. 62 | Off ice Building + Community Center Performance

Studio, Simulation Prof. + Prototyping: Author

G

ood climate-based daylight and thermal performance tend

5

model type produced in our studios therefore were disassemblable

3

to be correlated in many different climate zones. The major

daylight models that capture a design’s physical layout and how it

2

5 4

affects all-year daylight performance of the final design state, with

N

intermediate artefacts printed during the ideation process.

The right-hand image shows an conceptual office building design

for the climate of Ft. Lauderdale, South Florida. It is the model of the final design variant, with the design performance of the

2

first iteration shown in contrast. The daylight metrics UDI 100 -

2000 for general spaces and Daylight Availability at 300 lux for

office spaces are included to show a fine-grained appreciation

C. 103

for different daylight demands; both UDI and DAv are above 80%, which is a good result. Cooling energy use was reduced

by a projected 39 kWh/m2, which considering Florida’s tendency to penalize higher daylight utilization through increased cooling

UDI 66 %

UDI 90 %

H. 2

shading design and changes in the original design’s morphology.

and alternate climate zones: Florida, Iran (Hashtgerd), Sweden (Östersund) and once more Iran, all of which exhibited similar

performance increases through smart geometric design choices. All facing facades are oriented South.

DAv 20 %

L. 6

Initial Variant 275 kWh/m2

DAv 84 %

H. .1 L. 4

Final Variant 170 kWh/m2

5

Florida Office Bldg; Students: R. Canihuante, M. El-Soudany

C. 64

demand is astonishing. The result was achieved through careful

The bottom strip of images shows related buildings from the same

1

DAv 300 lux, UDI 100 - 2000 lux Heating, cooling, lighting energy use development (kWh/m2) Primary energy demand

1 Continuous shading balcony 2 Horizontal louvers 3 Large windows (comfort vent.) 4 Shielded interior courtyard 5 Short, opaque E/W facades 100%

0% occ. hrs.

Below: I.V. de Crego, D. Cepeda + T. Merickova, M. Potrzeba + C. Castillo, R. Georgieva + E. Bahamondes, L. Vasquez


h y b r i d

d ay l i g h t

e d u c at i o n

m o d e l s

+ parametric

i n

a r c h

d e s i g n

p. 63 | D. Cepeda, I. Crego presenting, winter 2011/12

.

d e s i g n


h y b r i d d ay l i g h t m o d e l s i n a r c h . d e s i g n e d u c at i o n + irradiation prototypes p. 64 | Urban Performance Design Models

I

n addition to the daylight models, physical irradiation models played a special part in a retooled urban + housing design

studio, as in this instance unit overshadowing, urban layout and individual unit designs closely interlocked. The resultant small-

scale models, of which many were produced during a given design

process, offer another mode of performance understanding and extend on what was originally written in the paper for CAADRIA 2013 published at the National University Singapore:

“The increasing use of building performance simulation in architectural

design

enriches

digital

models

and

derived

prototyping geometries with performance data that makes them analytically powerful artefacts serving sustainable design. [...]

Simulation metrics are merged with prototyping geometries to be

output on a colour-capable Zprinter; the resultant hybrid artefacts

simultaneously allow three-dimensional formal as well as whole-

year daylight performance evaluation [and] embody a specific

epistemological type that we [...] posit to be an example of multivalent representation, a formal class that aids knowledge accretion in performance-based design workflows.”

The following sheets show the performance of two housing

class designs compared throughout the ideation process, and use the irradiation models as combined design and performance repositories. Both works were created in Östersund, Sweden’s climate; yet as in other classes, multiple climate zones were also used in the urban design seminars.

Background/Opposite: Annual Irradiation, Physically Rapid-Prototyped Urban Design Models. Design: D. Gkougkoudi, O.A. Pearl + T. Merickova, P. Jardzioch + O. Ritter, W. Sutcliffe + C. Kollmeyer, R. Kölmel + N. Vitusevych, W. Fischer Studio, Simulation Prof. + Prototyping: Author


h y b r i d

d ay l i g h t

e d u c at i o n

m o d e l s

i n

+ irradiation

a r c h

.

d e s i g n

p r o t o t y p e s

p. 65 | Sweden (Östersund) Housing Design Performance Comparison

Design: O.A. Pearl, D. Gkougkoudi; T. Merickova, P. Jardzioch Studio, Simulation Prof. + Prototyping: Author Students: O. A. Pearl, D. Gkougkoudi

Variant B Variant A 461 114

495 117

> 2k 43 % 100 - 2k 38 %

Summer Winter Avrg. irradiation (exposed surfaces): kWh/m2 Versioning: compare two site design variants; pick “best” one. Metrics: average irradiance, H/C energy demand (VIPER)

“Shaping”

Students: T. Merickova, P. Jardzioch Variant A 529 135

Summer Winter

100 - 2k 48 %

H. 89 19 %

H. 34 27 %

Inequal unit performance!

Baseline (~A)

Final Variant

Test glazing areas, materials, U-values, and unit overshadowing (conditioned & passive)

Daylight UDI 100 - 2000, > 2000 & < 100 lux comparison; Heating energy use development (kWh/m2)

Variant B 606 140

> 2k 42 %

Final Var. 467 116

> 2k 25 %

> 2k 23 % 100 - 2k 45 %

100 - 2k 40 % H. 37 18 %

H. 18 32 %

Baseline (~B)

Final Variant

In parallel to systematic tests, designs continue to develop in a heuristic & design-driven fashion, on multiple levels

Final Var. 630 154


h y b r i d

d ay l i g h t

e d u c at i o n

m o d e l s

+ irradiation

i n

a r c h

.

d e s i g n

p r o t o t y p e s

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT p. 66 | Sweden (Ă&#x2013;stersund) Housing Design Performance Comparison

Design: O.A. Pearl, D. Gkougkoudi; T. Merickova, P. Jardzioch Studio + Simulation Prof.: Author PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Students: O. A. Pearl, D. Gkougkoudi Unit perspective section

Site perspective (looking East)

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Students: T. Merickova, P. Jardzioch Unit section

Site perspective (looking West)



Max C Doelling | Sustainable Architecture & Academic Research