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BEVERAGES N° 4 12/2009


TEA a global beverage CONTENTS


Tea usage around the world


Learning the basics of tea


From green leaves to tea


What’s in a cup of tea?


Health benefits


Tea varieties one for every taste


Trends & Insights






Ritual Cha TEA: a worldwide beverage

imarily green tea without milk sugar. enerally good quality. mall cups. rong ritual role.


Hot & Sweet

• Unique in its preparation and tasting methods. • Core component of casual and formal occasions. • Primarily green tea without milk. • Multiple infusions. • Small cup size beverages. • With or following food. • Wide variety.

• Typically brewed very strong, no milk. • Sweetened with a generous amount of sugar, honey or jam. • Major part of beverage consumption. • Low cost for the general public.

Dear Reader,

Tea is so much a part of everyday ENGLAND life that we might never stop to INDIA think about how a unique plant from faraway China became this global drink. Between two and three thousand leaves ofwith thehot camellia sinensis, the•evergreen tea plant Typically with cold milk that and ypically boiled milk, sugar sugar. nd a combination of spices, grows mainly in tropical and subtropical climates, Relatively large cup size. .g. cardamom. are needed to produce just ••one kilo of unprocessed Major part of beverage mall cup size. tea. consumption. Major part of beverage consumption.






n integral part of life. as a nutritional role.

• Typically hot water poured over tea-bags. • Low volume versus coffee and soft drinks. • Large variety of flavours.

• Any time of day, including first

drink (morning cuppa) and At present, there are more than 3'000 types of tea afternoon tea as a social custom. worldwide, cultivated in more than 30 countries. Every year, around 3.7 million tons of tea are produced around the world, most of it in Asian countries, i.e. China and India. Remarkable as well is that the most tea consumed, per capita, is in Turkey, followed by the United Kingdom and Ireland.

With this edition of NutriPro we will give you a lot of background information about the different facets of this multifarious beverage.


Dear All,

Tea is the most consumed beverage in the world, after water. Recent research exploring the potential health attributes of tea is leading many scientists to agree that tea may help maintain a healthy lifestyle. Like fruits and vegetables, tea contains important antioxidants. These phytochemicals help contribute substantially to the promotion of health and the prevention of chronic disease. CHINA PAN/TAIWAN


These and other health benefits of black and green teas are described in this NutriPro as well as the different tea varieties and •their health benefits. We Unique in its preparation and marily green tea without milk wish you an enriching reading experience. tasting methods. ugar.



Hot & Sweet • Typically brewed very strong, no milk. • Sweetened with a generous amount of sugar, honey or jam. • Major part of beverage consumption. • Low cost for the general public.

• Core component of casual and formal occasions. • Primarily green tea without milk. • Multiple infusions. Sascha Türler-Inderbitzin • Small cup size beverages. • With or following food. Nutritionist, NESTLÉ PROFESSIONAL • Wide variety.

erally good quality. all cups. ng ritual role.


NutriPro Beverages 12/2009






Hot & Sweet Tea usage around the world




• Unique in its preparation and tasting methods. • Core component of casual and formal occasions. • Primarily green tea without milk. • Multiple infusions. • Small cup size beverages. • With or following food. • Wide variety.

• Typically brewed very strong, no milk. • Sweetened with a generous amount of sugar, honey or jam. • Major part of beverage consumption. • Low cost for the general public.

Ways of drinking a cup of tea differ by country, depending on the history and culture. USA


Cuppa Ritual

• Typically with cold milk and sugar. Relatively largetea cupwithout size. milk • •Primarily green •or Major part of beverage sugar. consumption. • Generally good quality. Any time • •Small cups.of day, including first drink ritual (morning • Strong role.cuppa) and afternoon tea as a social custom.




•JAPAN/TAIWAN Typically boiled with hot milk, sugar and a combination of spices, e.g. cardamom. • Small cup size. • Major part of beverage consumption. • An integral part of life. • Primarily green tea role. without milk • Has a nutritional or sugar. • Generally good quality. • Small cups. • Strong ritual role.




Chai • Typically boiled with hot milk, sugar and a combination of spices, e.g. cardamom. • Small cup size. • Major part of beverage consumption. • An integral part of life. • Has a nutritional role.




Dippa Cha

• Typically hot water poured over tea-bags. • Low• volume coffee and and Unique versus in its preparation soft drinks. tasting methods. • Large variety of flavours. • Core component of casual and formal occasions. • Primarily green tea without milk. • Multiple infusions. • Small cup size beverages. • With or following food. • Wide variety.



• Typically with cold milk and CHINA

sugar. • Relatively large cup size. • Major part of beverage consumption. • Any time of day, including first • Unique in its preparation and drink (morning cuppa) and tasting methods. afternoon tea as a social custom. • Core component of casual and formal occasions. • Primarily green tea without milk. • Multiple infusions. • Small cup size beverages. • With or following food. • Wide variety.



Ritual Cuppa

Hot & Sweet

Tea – A beverage with a long history

• Typically brewed very strong, no milk. • Sweetened with a generous amount of sugar, honey or jam. • Major part of beverage There are many legends about consumption. • the Low cost for theof general origins tea. public. The most

popular is that tea was discovered by the mythological Chinese Emperor, Shen Nung, in 2737 B.C. According to this legend, some leaves from a tree USA fell into a cup of boiling water, prepared for him. Upon drinking this new liquid, he found it aromatic and refreshing and declared •RUSSIA Typically hotto water poured over the brew have medicinal powers.


tea-bags. • Low volume versus coffee and Around soft drinks.2000 years later, a • Large variety priest of flavours. Buddhist introduced

Hot & Sweet

this drink to Japan, where tea quickly • Typically brewed very strong, became an integral part of Japano milk. • Sweetened with a generous nese life. amount of sugar, honey or jam. • Major part of beverage Tea arrived in Europe via Dutch consumption. • Low cost for the generalsailors public. at the and Portuguese

beginning of the 17th century, and in the mid-17th century in America. During the 20th century, a

CHINA USA significant rise in tea consumption resulted from the invention of tea bags, which made it convenient for single-serve • Unique in its preparation • Typically hot water poured overand consumption.

Cha Dippa

•• Primarily greencold tea milk without Typically with andmilk or sugar. sugar. •• Generally Relatively good largequality. cup size. •• Small Major cups. part of beverage • Strong ritual role. consumption. • Any time of day, including first drink (morning cuppa) and afternoon tea as a social custom.




tasting methods. tea-bags. Core component of casual • Low•volume versus coffee and and This, combined formal occasions. with a lower soft drinks. • Primarily tea withoutfor milk. • Large variety ofgreen flavours. price, made it possible tea • Multiple infusions. to•be consumed by many more Small cup size beverages. people. • With or following food. • Wide variety.



• Typically b no milk. • Sweetene amount o • Major par consump • Low cost f




Learning the

basics of tea

There are five different types of tea: white, green, oolong, black and pu-erh (red or dark) tea. They all originate from the same plant, Camellia sinensis. The difference between these types is in the way the plant is processed and the degree of oxidation of the leaves. The level of oxidation is what gives each tea type its characteristic colour. For instance, white and green tea processing does not involve

oxidation, whereas oolong and black tea are subject to partial or full oxidation. Pu-erh tea, a speciality from China, is initially oxidised slowly at low temperatures but, because of its aging process, undergoes secondary oxidation over time.

Fresh tea leaves


Withering (often)

Rolling into strips or cutting

Shaking or rolling in baskets to bruise leaf edges

Pan-frying, steaming or firing

Full fermentation


Short fermentation



Rolling shaping

No oxidation

Drying (jasmine added)

Little oxidation




Partial oxidation




Full oxidation aged BLACK TEA • The most popular type of tea, accounting for around 78% of world production. • Made from fully oxidised leaves (fermented). • Has a “hearty“, deep, rich flavour and amber colour.

OOLONG TEA (Wulong or Blue Teas) • Made from large tea leaves. • Semi-oxidised - between 20% and 80%. • Has a wide range of colours (from greenish-grey to dark amber or rich chestnut), flavour and aromas. PU-ERH tea (in old Chinese: the Black or Dark Tea) • It is fermented slowly. • May be made from either oxidised or non-oxidised leaves. • A particularly large, richly coloured leaf, with a characteristic earthy, “musty“ taste.

NutriPro Beverages 12/2009





same root, very different results! All these types of tea come from the same plant, Camelia sinensis. Some are oxidised or fermented to give their characteristic colour and flavour.

Sorting / Cleaning Withering

Types of tea...

GREEN TEA • A tea that is not fermented and, therefore, not oxidised. • The liquid ranges from a greenish to a yellow colour. • The flavour can be described as fresh, light, subtle or, depending on the variety, from grassy to floral. • Some kinds of green tea have a certain sweetness and “uamami“ taste.

WHITE TEA • The tender, unopened buds of particular varieties of China bush tea plants. • The buds are dried slowly at a low temperature, or in the sun. • Has a mild flavour and a pale colour.


Full oxidation

From green leaves to tea The tea manufacturing process is comprised of five steps, but only black tea goes through all of them: 1. Harvesting

The tea leaves are usually handpicked. In Asian countries, the tea-picking season starts at the beginning of spring, whereas in Africa, tea is harvested all year round. The picked tea leaves contain up to 80% moisture.

3. Rolling

The leaves are placed in a rolling machine, where the leaf cells are broken down in order to release enzymes. This release then starts the oxidation process. The leaves may be broken to varying degrees, depending upon their quality and the desired uses for the product.

4. Oxidation

2. Withering

During withering (sometimes called the first drying) the leaves are spread out on tables, trays or over mats, to dry in direct sunlight. Another method uses warm air blown over them. The objective is to reduce moisture in the leaves to between 40% and 70% (varies from region to region) in order to render the leaves limp and pliable. This process takes around 12 – 17 hours.

The oxidation process (also known as “fermentation“) is relevant for the flavour, colour and strength of the tea. Depending on the tea variety, this step takes between 30 minutes to three hours. It is very important to respect this time, because if it is left too long the flavour will be spoiled.

5. Drying

To stop oxidation the tea is passed over hot-air dryers. This reduces the total moisture content to around 3% – 10%. The tea is now ready to be sorted into grades before packing.



GOOD TO KNOW Grades of black tea There are a number of grading systems for teas. For black tea, however, the same grading system is used by most tea producers. Generally, this differentiates between whole leaf grades and broken leaf grades. The most common whole leaf grades are: FTGFOP: Finest Tippy Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe. This is a very high quality tea with an abundance of tips (the leaf of the plant). TGFOP: Tippy Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe. This grade represents some of the most precious teas. The tips of these leaves can represent as much as a quarter of a whole leaf. GFOP: Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe. A quality tea, which includes whole, young tea leaves, whose tips are golden and are complemented by the flowers of the tea plant. FOP: Flowery Orange Pekoe. This indicates that the first two leaves and the buds are used. The most common broken leaves grades are: OP: Orange Pekoe. This includes large tea leaves without the flower bud of the tea plant. BOP: Broken Orange Pekoe. This consists of small tea leaves or pieces of large leaves. FBOP: Flowery Broken Orange Pekoe. The leaf is usually larger than the standard BOP and often contains brown and silver tips. D: Dust. This is the lowest grade of black tea. Usually, it consists of very small particles of tea or tea dust, left over after processing.




in a cup of tea

Tea – black or green – is a very good source of flavonoids, which are a group of phyto chemicals with considerable antioxidant power, that can neutralise the action of free radicals. These free radicals damage components of the body, such as genetic materials (DNA) and fat, and this can be the cause of some chronic diseases. One cup of black tea, for example, contains around 125 to 200 mg of flavonoids. The concentration of individual flavonoids varies between the type of tea and the areas of cultivation. For example, green tea contains more catechins than black tea but less complex thearubigins and theaflavins. This may be one reason for the different health effects of green and black tea.


Green Tea








Other carbohydrates
















Aminoacids Fibre

Phenol compounds Oxidised phenol compounds

GOOD TO KNOW Flavonols

GREEN TEA 10% Catechin

20% 70%

Catechin Polymeric flavonoids

8% 10% 12% 70%

Flavonols Theaflavins


NutriPro Beverages 12/2009

Black Tea


Flavonoids More than 4,000 flavonoids have already been identified and many more are still likely to be discovered. They can be divided into various sub-classes. Some of the activities attributed to flavonoids include: anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-microbial and anti-allergic. Flavenoids are also potent antioxidants some are even more powerful than Vitamins C or E – and help protect cells from damage caused by an excess of free radicals. Green tea is rich in specific flavonoids, referred to as catechins, of which epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is very well known. Some of the suggested health benefits of tea are generally attributed to EGCG.

Health benefits Tea and its effects on cardiovascular disease... The consumption of more than three cups of tea per day has been associated with a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease, (e.g. coronary

heart disease, strokes) and a reduction of risk factors, e.g. low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol.

Tea and the prevention of cancer...

Tea and its effect on bone density... A daily intake of five or more cups of black tea over a longer term (six or more years) may have a positive effect on bone mineral density (BMD), particularly in older women. A high BMD is an indicator of strong bones, and this might help reduce the risk of osteoporosis, including hip fractures.

GOOD TO KNOW Tea and the intake of caffeine... Tea is naturally low in caffeine. On average, tea leaves contain 3% caffeine by weight (dry weight), although this can range from 1.4% to 4.5%.


The correlation between tea consumption and cancer prevention is still a matter of debate. Significant positive effects of green tea related to the risk of cancer of the colorectum, breast, oesophagus, stomach, pancreas, prostate and lung have been reported.

However, other studies report no association, or the results do not appear consistent enough to support any firm conclusion. The situation regarding the effects of black tea is less certain than that of green tea.

Tea and its effect on iron status... Tea could inhibit iron absorption if it is consumed simultaneously with food containing iron i.e. meat, fish or poultry (referred to as haem iron). However, this effect depends on the daily dietary intake of iron and, of course, the iron status of the consumer.

The amount of caffeine depends on how the tea is made. For tea preparation, the amount of leaves, the leaf particle size, water temperature and brewing time are important. In general, there does not appear to be any of the risks associated with caffeine intake (such as difficulty in sleeping) if tea is drunk in normal quantities.

Healthy people with a minimal risk of iron deficiency have no reason to restrict tea consumption, but vulnerable groups such as children, the elderly, pregnant women and those with a low iron status, should avoid tea-drinking at mealtimes.

Coffee (5 oz.)

80 mg

Black tea (8 oz.)

40 mg

Oolong tea (8 oz.)

30 mg

Green tea (8 oz.)

20 mg

White tea (8 oz.)

15 mg

Decaf tea (8oz.) Rooibos/herbal tea (no real tea leaves)

5-10 mg 0 mg


Tea varieties-

one for every taste

Up to 300 different plants, or parts of their structure, are used for making blended, scented, flavoured or fruit teas. The parts of the plant selected depend on where the aromatic substances are located. They include the leaves (such as orange or peppermint), fruit (such as apples or rosehips), fresh or dried flowers (such as lime or chamomile) or roots (such as ginger or ginseng).

Ginseng tea


• The fleshy root of the ginseng plant. • Two important varieties: the North American variety (prized for its calming qualities) and the Chinese variety (known for its stimulating effects). • Strengthens the immune system, reduces physical and mental stress. • May reduce the risk of cancer; helps lower the levels of LDL-cholesterol or acts as an aphrodisiac.

• Green tea, scented with jasmine flowers. • A pale green colour. • Refreshing and thirst-quenching.

Chamomile tea

Peppermint tea

• Made from the flowers of the chamo mile plant. • Used for relaxation and stomach disorders, spasms, and as a sleep aid. • May help prevent the complications of Type 2 Diabetes, such as loss of vision and nerve and kidney damage.

• The dried leaves of the peppermint plant. • Drunk hot or ice-cold. • Menthol is the most important ingredient. • Used to sooth an upset stomach, to aid digestion, treat headaches, or can help relieve the symptoms of coughs and colds, sore throats and allergies.

Cantonese Cooling tea

English Breakfast tea

• A combination of different Chinese herbs with “cooling” effects. • Main health benefit is the removal of “inner heat“ and the prevention of or relief from a variety of diseases. • Very popular as a ready-to-drink beverage in China.

• A blend of several black teas, derived from various regions, including India, Sri Lanka, Kenya, Malawi and China. • A robust, full-bodied beverage with light floral undertones (sometimes referred to as “coppery“). • Drunk with milk and sugar.

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Earl Grey • Black tea, infused with oil from the bergamot (similar to orange blossom). • Named after Earl Charles Grey (1764-1845), a British Prime Minister. • One of the most popular and well- known teas in the western world. • Not necessarily a high-quality tea.

Hibiscus tea • Made from the calyces (outer part) of the hibiscus flower. • The hibiscus plant has different names: Karkady (in the Middle East), Bissap (in West Africa), or Red Sorrel (in the Caribbean). • Drunk hot or cold. • High amount of Vitamin C, minerals and anthocyanin, a type of flavonoid. • Used in several fruit teas for its flavour and colour. • May reduce high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels.

Genmaicha • A combination of tender green tea leaves with popped brown rice kernels and corn. • A mild taste of green tea with a hint of roasted rice. • Very popular with the Japanese.

Rooibos tea (Red Tea) • The dried leaves of the rooibos plant. • Typically drunk hot, with sugar and milk. • High amount of antioxidants. • A flavourful, caffeine-free alternative to tea. • Often used as a beverage for babies to sooth colic and stomach problems and to calm and improve sleep.



Trends & insights The growth and development of tea and its related products, e.g. RTD (Ready-to-Drink) tea, over the past three to five years is nothing short of remarkable. While the consumption of tea in Asia has always been an integral part of life (e.g. 92% Chinese, 50% Japanese and 42% Koreans drink tea every day), demand for these products in western countries is relatively low but has increased significantly. For example, it has been estimated that the US market for tea will double over the next five years, boosted by a growing interest in health and wellness. Three trends are responsible for this increased demand: 1. The image of tea: The improving image of tea owes its success to:

Wellness/Relaxation Well-being from tea provides the perfect occasion for relaxing alone or with family and/or friends. People drink a cup of tea in order to indulge and reward themselves, or to create a pleasurable experience.

Green tea has rapidly become more popular as the consumers’ choice in tea. One reason may be the high amount of antioxidants in green tea and, as a result, its health benefits. A further reason is the increasing number of green tea products, especially green tea with antioxidant-rich fruit extract, e.g. echinacea tea (a green tea with a combination of echinacea herbal varieties), elderflower tea (a green tea mixed with elderflower leaves)

Health benefits

Flower Tea Types

Tea can protect against certain diseases because of its high levels of antioxidants, as well as help in weight management and maintaining beauty.

(Global, in % of new products, Jan 05 – Dec 08)


3: Blended, scented and flavoured teas: Herbal and fruit teas have a natural, authentic and sustainable image. During the last few years, tea manufacturers have been experimenting with new herbs, leaves and flower petals, e.g. panadus, lemongrass or mauve flowers, and have created many new exciting combinations.

Seeds & Nuts

Sweet Fruit & Vegetables




Tea is an excellent thirstquencher that is affordable and easy to drink – anytime and everywhere - just like water. In particular, RTD teas are becoming real alternatives to carbonated soft drinks.

31% Herbs & Spices

NutriPro Beverages 12/2009

or cranberry tea (a tea with two sources of antioxidants: green tea and dried cranberries).

2. The increasing market of green tea:


6% 45%

NESTLÉ PROFESSIONAL Tea time Tea has been given a modern twist in the tea-drinking nation of China. NESTLÉ PROFESSIONAL introduced NESTLÉ Tea Talk - a range of innovative teas, developed specially for young and active consumers looking for trendy yet healthy beverages. Relax with the natural goodness of NESTEA Green Tea with Honey or indulge in rich and foamy “Tea-cinos”. You will be spoiled for choice with interesting flavours like Original Tea Latte, Green Tea Latte or Hazelnut Tea Latte. These beverages can be served hot or cold.

A series of coherent communications have also been designed to help operators drive consumption and incremental sales.

Marysville is NESTLÉ’s Product Technology Center for ready-to drink beverage development. Opened in 1948, with 232 employees, it also has major programmes in soluble coffee, tea and non-dairy creamers. Its core activities are to provide solutions in RTD Beverages, Premium Coffee, Tea and NESTLÉ PROFESSIONAL Liquid Beverages. Marysville also has expertise in engineering and manufacturing. Product categories supported - NESCAFÉ RTD - Chocolate and Malt Beverages - Health and Beauty Drinks - Liquid Coffee and Tea Enhancers - Tea RTD and NESTEA Iced Tea Dry Mixes


2. How many tea leaves are needed to produce one kilo of unprocessed tea? R: One thousand leaves. O: Between two and three thousand leaves. E: Four thousand leaves.

4. What are the processing steps for making black tea? E: Harvesting, rolling, withering, oxidation, drying. M: Harvesting, drying, fermentation, withering, rolling. O: Harvesting, withering, rolling, oxidation, drying. 5. What is the grade of GFOP? N: Whole leaf tea. T: Broken leaf tea. Associated R&D locations - NRC, Switzerland - Orbe, Switzerland - Konolfingen, Switzerland - Vittel, France - Lisieux, France - Tours, France - Beijing, China - Shanghai, China - Singapore Technology & science platforms - Extraction & Separation - Freeze Drying - Liquid Dispensing - Enzymes - Health Beverage Solutions - Rapid Bottle Development - RTD Manufacturing Intelligence - Flexible RTD Manufacturing

6. With what has the consumption of more than 3 cups of tea been associated? G: A lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases. T: A lower incidence of stress. 7. Does tea have a positive effect on bone density? T: Yes E: No 8. What is hibiscus tea in the Middle East called? A: Bissop E: Karkady F: Red Sorrel 9. Is Earl Grey tea made with green tea? N: Yes A: No

Answer: Oolong tea


1. How was tea discovered? O: Accident. G: Invention.

3. What is green tea? E: Partly-oxidised tea. L: Non-oxidised tea.

This range of tea can be conveniently dispensed from NESTLÉ‘s proprietary hot and cold beverage machine with minimum labour and technical knowledge required.





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