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COFFEE: WHEREVER, WHENEVER, HOWEVER CONTENTS • Coffee: The coffee tree conquers the world • Coffee: Nectar from a red fruit • Caffeine: Not only in coffee • Coffee: Health and benefits • A coffee for every occasion



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Coffee varietes: 2 ⁄ 3 Arabica 1 ⁄ 3 Robusta

E D i TO R i A l Together with cereals, coffee is one of the major goods traded on the world commodities market. A universally appreciated drink, it can be prepared and enjoyed in thousands of ways. Coffee is consistently the subject of many scientific studies. Recent studies on the effects of coffee and caffeine confirm what we have known for a long time. Coffee has a positive effect on body and health. Therefore, we would like to bring the stimulating and wonderful world of coffee closer to you.

Sascha Türler-Inderbitzin NESTLÉ PROFESSIONAL Strategic Business Division

We would like to thank everyone for their contribution and support in completing this edition. Special thanks goes to NESTLÉ Switzerland, SERVICE NUTRITION, for their cooperation and enthusiasm.

Coffee: The coffee tree conquers the world Coffee is an important product on the world market. Quality and quantity depend on cooperation between economic players – growers, producers and consumers. The coffee shrub comes from the high plateau originally from the Kaffa region of Ethiopia, where the fruit is still turned into porridge. In the 11th century, coffee began its career as a hot drink. In the 16th century, the first cafés opened in the streets of Cairo, Constantinople and Mecca. They were cultural meeting places for discussions, singing and playing music. Coffee drinking was already a social activity at this time. Colonization greatly contributed to the expansion of coffee-growing in all the equatorial regions and, due to this development, the first cafés opened in Europe in the 17th century, when this new exotic drink came on the scene.

Coffee is grown all around the equator, from the Tropic of Capricorn to the Tropic of Cancer The coffee tree belongs to the rubiacea family and grows in the tropical and sub-tropical regions above and below the equator, known as the coffee belt. The main growing regions are Latin America (in particular Brazil), Asia and Africa. The annual global coffee harvest now amounts to about 7 million tons per year. Three quarters comprises different varieties of Arabica (Coffea arabica) and one quarter Robusta (Coffea canephora), which has a stronger taste.

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3 Coffee

Main growing regions Arabica Robusta

Mexico Capricorn Cote d’ivoire




O° indonesia



Some differences between Arabica and Robusta coffee Arabica


Time from flower to ripe cherry 9 months

10 –11 months

Ripe cherries



Yield (kg beans / ha)

1500 – 3000

2300 – 4000

Root system



Optimum temperature

15 – 24° C

24 – 30° C

Optimum rainfall

1500 –2000 mm

2000 –3000 mm

Optimum growth

1000 –2000 m

0 –700 m

Caffeine content of beans

0.8 –1.4%

1.7– 4.0%

Shape of bean



Typical brew characteristics


bitterness, full


average 1.2%

average 2.0%

(yearly average)

NutriPro Beverages 1 / 07 – NESTLÉ ProfESSioNaL Nutrition Magazine



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The roasting process turns the bean brown

Coffee: Nectar from a red fruit


The triumph of NESCAFÉ – made of 100% coffee At a time when producers’ warehouses could hold no more coffee, around the end of the 1920ies, Brazil, which was the world’s major coffee producing country, asked NESTlé if there was some way to preserve their precious merchandise. They wanted to control the fluctuation in annual production, save warehouse space and in particular offer the consumer a new ready-touse product: soluble coffee in cubes.

The whole art of transforming coffee is in the control of the different phases that preserve all its aromatic components. The technologies first used (roasting – grinding – infusing) have been complemented by numerous intermediary steps aimed at optimizing coffee flavor and aroma.

From the red berry to the brown coffee bean In the tropical climate of the coffee-growing regions, coffee trees blossom and produce berries at precise periods of the year. These periods vary from region to region all around the coffee belt with the result that coffee can be harvested throughout the year. Around 5 kg of coffee berries must be picked – by hand – to obtain 1 kg of green coffee beans. The preliminary treatment of the ripe berries can be dry (dry process) or in water (washed process). In the latter case, the berries go through a de-pulper that removes the pulp and skin. The result is parchment coffee, when the coffee bean is still covered by a thin layer of its pulp, or mucilage. It is fermented for a few hours and then extensively rinsed in water and spread out to dry in the sun. Finally, it is hulled, resulting in the green coffee

The idea was as brilliant as the challenge was difficult. The major problems were the solubility of the product and the preservation of the aroma. After seven years of intense research and development, NESTlé finally launched its first NESCAFé in 1938. it was not in the form of cubes but in a powder that could be served in the quantity desired and dissolved easily. in its 68 years, NESCAFé has benefited from many technological advances, particularly spray-drying and freeze-drying. Currently, NESTlé is the undisputed leader in soluble coffee. Of the 24,500 cups of coffee drunk around the world every second, more than 4000 are cups of NESCAFé. There have long been numerous varieties of NESCAFé. They are characterized by the different amounts of Arabica and Robusta in the blend, by the grade of roasting and by their caffeine content. All are subject to the strictest purity standards: NESCAFé is made of 100% coffee.

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beans used by coffee manufactures. Alternatively, when undergoing dry processing the berries are dried in the sun for two to three weeks. After this the shell, which comprises the skin, the pulp and the parchment, is removed mechanically and the green coffee beans are packed in bags and transported to their final destination. Dry post-harvest treatment produces stronger tasting varieties than wet processing. The blending of different green coffees by specialists is the first step in defining the aroma and taste of the finished product. Roasting is the next decisive step. The coffee beans are heated for 5 to 15 minutes at temperatures between 190 and 250°C (374°– 418°F). During the roasting process the beans dry and increase in volume, and at the same time turn brown. They take on a dark brown color and the characteristic roasted coffee aroma and flavor develop. The whole or ground roasted coffee beans are then sold and should be used quickly.

5 Coffee

The mystery of aroma

Aroma profiles for Arabica and Robusta coffees

During the transformation process, all the operator’s attention is focused on capturing the aroma. More than one thousand highly volatile components have already been identified. They are ­created during roasting as a result of particular chemical reactions. It is interesting to note that the dominant elements, when taken separately, do not smell like freshly roasted coffee at all. It is only when they are put together that they are perceived as coffee aroma. Because coffee quality is mainly identified by its aroma, the coffee we know today does not have anything in common with the strong, bitter and acidic drink that first conquered the world.

The two varieties Arabica and ­Robusta are clearly differentiated by their aroma. Arabica is a variety that is milder, more aromatic and more acidic. It is perceived as pleasantly acidic. It grows ideally on high plateaus in tropical regions. Robusta has a stronger taste, is more bitter and grows better in ­humid valley forests. Roasting natu­rally plays an essential role in ­developing the respective aromatic characteristics as well.



Overall aroma Astringent

Coffee aroma Overall taste


Coffee taste



Sweet acid





Green vegetable



Cereal Rubber

Base Chemical / pharmaceutical

NutriPro Beverages 1 / 07 – NESTLÉ Professional Nutrition Magazine



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G O O D TO R E M E M B E R Caffeine Caffeine is an alkaloid that is found in the beans, leaves, and fruit of over 60 plants, e.g. coffee, tea yerba mate, cacao (see above). It acts as a stimulant on the central nervous system, ­improves alertness and awareness and removes tiredness. The caffeine content in coffee varies widely depending on the type of coffee (e.g. the Robusta variety contains more than the double the caffeine than Arabica coffee) and the method of preparation used. Generally, dark roast coffee has less caffeine than light roast because during the roasting process caffeine decreases.

17% of green coffee is used to make soluble coffee

Soluble coffee Around 17% of the green coffee produced worldwide is used to make soluble coffee. The beans are first roasted and then ­extracted with water, after which the coffee extract is dried. To give soluble coffee the quality and the exquisite aroma of fresh coffee, NESTLÉ specialists have developed processes that preserve coffee’s delicate aromatic components. To produce the coffee extract, the roasted coffee must first be ground very evenly. The ground coffee is then infused in water above 100°C to extract the aromas and the soluble compounds, which makes up the beverage. Aromas are captured at various stages of the process and re-incorporated into the product during a later phase (before drying). The extract is concentrated in evaporators. Lastly, the drying itself is done by either spray-drying or freeze-drying. In a spray-dryer, the extract is sprayed with minuscule drops and dried with hot air. Freeze-drying heats the frozen extract gently under very low pressure so that the ice is transformed directly into water vapor. This gentle heating technique tends to preserve the aroma better, though both drying processes produce soluble coffee of premium quality.

G O O D TO K N OW Decaffeination Caffeine is the most well-known substance in coffee. It is usually appreciated for its stimulating effect. Some consumers, however, prefer to enjoy the full flavor of coffee without this effect. Different processes have thus been developed to eliminate caffeine from the coffee bean in order to obtain a coffee with all its flavor but without the stimulation effect. The generally preferred method uses water only, but solvents or supercritical carbon dioxide may also be used. Almost all the methods of decaffeinating coffee consist of soaking the beans in water to dissolve the caffeine, extracting the caffeine with either a solvent or activated carbon, and then re-soaking the beans in the decaffeinated water to reabsorb the flavor compounds that were removed in the initial extraction. If a solvent is used, no residues are left in the coffee. However, all brands of decaffeinated coffee still contain very low residual caffeine. Drinking twenty cups of decaf in a row may therefore deliver as much caffeine as one cup of regular coffee. NutriPro Beverages 1 / 07

7 Coffee

Caffeine: Not only in coffee

Food / beverage Filter coffee (150 ml)

Range [mg]









Infused tea (150 ml)



Instant tea (150 ml)



Iced tea (240 ml)



Cola-based drinks ( 300 ml)



Energy drinks l (250 ml)



Cocoa drinks (150 ml)



Chocolate milk (240 ml)



Milk chocolate (100 g)



Dark chocolate (100 g)



Cooking chocolate (30 g)



Soluble coffee (150 ml)

Caffeine is found in coffee, tea* (black tea, green tea and mate), ­cocoa, guarana and cocoa-based drinks. The caffeine content of foods and beverages made from these products varies according to the plant used to begin with, the variety, the treatment undergone and the method of preparation.

Average value [mg]


Decaffeinated coffee (150 ml) Espresso (30 ml) Tea

Sodas and energy drinks

Cocoa-based beverages

*For tea the term used is theine, which has the same chemical structure as caffeine.


NutriPro Beverages 1 / 07 – NESTLÉ Professional Nutrition Magazine



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G O O D TO R E M E M B E R Coffee is rich in antioxidants Coffee is a major source of dietary antioxidants, mainly polyphenols. It is well-established that antioxidants help fight free radicals and oxidative damage. Epidemiological evidence has established the beneficial effects of regular coffee consumption, probably mostly linked to polyphenol intake, which reduces the risk of certain chronic or degenerative diseases such as cancers, type-2 diabetes, inflammation and liver disease. Emerging evidence also indicates the possible positive impact of coffee on neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Polyphenols comprise a large family of natural compounds widely distributed in plant foods. Sources of polyphenols include fruits (e.g. citrus fruits, apples, grapes), vegetables (e.g. tomatoes, peppers, onions), tea, wine, dark chocolate and coffee. They can be classified into phenolic acids and flavonoids.

Coffee activates the nervous system

Coffee: Health and benefits Just like any other food, coffee contains nutrients, for example niacin, potassium, magnesium and manganese. The physiological action of coffee comes mainly from caffeine and from its high concentration of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds (polyphenols).

Is there a maximum daily consumption? Using studies for quantitative recommendations on coffee intake is unusual. The rapid rate of absorption of caffeine, coffee’s most well-known component, is extremely variable from one individual to another. The average half-life of caffeine (the time required for the body to eliminate one half of the total amount of caffeine consumed at a given time) is about 3 hours and can be considerably influenced by various factors. Pregnancy can prolong the average half-life up to 100%, while smoking habits increase its elimination. Contraceptives or alcohol also prolong the average half-life of caffeine breakdown. The amount of coffee suitable for each individual should therefore be determined by listening to one’s body and well-being. The average daily consumption of 3 to 5 cups of coffee per day is generally given as guidance; this amount can have very positive effects on a person’s health and well-being.

Caffeine and its effect on the central nervous system Caffeine’s effect on the nervous system is well-established. It improves reaction and concentration and at the same time delays fatigue. This is one of the reasons it is being studied to counteract the effects of jet lag. Caffeine may also have an influence on the rate of learning for certain tasks. Caffeine also acts as a global stimulant on the metabolism. It explains the capacity for more intense and greater physical effort at work or in an endurance sport. For example, we know that caffeine helps cyclists and long-distance runners to accelerate their speed performance.

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9 Coffee

Caffeine and its effect on your heart

G O O D TO K N OW Coffee no longer considered to be dehydrating Reworked interpretations of existing scientific studies show that ­coffee is no longer considered to be dehydrating, as it only decreases the extra­cellular water and has no effect on the intracellular liquid (the water in the cells). As coffee is also virtually free of calories, moderate coffee consumption (3–5 cups a day) can thus ­contribute positively to the recommended daily liquid intake within a diversified and balanced diet.

Coffee is sometimes linked to certain cardiovascular problems such as high cholesterol levels. Responsible for this effect are the coffee oils contained in unfiltered coffee such as Turkish coffee or Nordic-style boiled coffee. This can be easily eliminated by ­using filtration paper for coffee brews or using soluble coffee. No other supposed effects of coffee on the cardiovascular system have been demonstrated for moderate coffee consumption (3–5 cups per day), despite the stimulant present in caffeine. For example, a link between blood pressure and coffee consumption has not been demonstrated, but there are so-called ­“caffeine-sensitive” individuals, whose blood pressure rises when they ingest caffeine. However, the increase in blood pressure for these individuals is usually quite low and lasts only about one hour. Coffee is therefore not seen as a risk factor for high blood pressure. There has been some recent positive epidemiological evidence showing that coffee consumption may contribute to a reduced incidence of fatal heart attacks.

Coffee and health: Some myths Much has also been said, but nothing proven, about the possible effects coffee may have on bone density. Osteoporosis is the demineralization of the bones, which increases the risk of fractures. This disease is linked to numerous factors; eating habits, in particular calcium and vitamin D intake, physical exercise, body weight, tobacco and alcohol consumption, heredity and hormone balance. Scientific evidence shows that coffee does not interfere with bone health if the daily calcium intake is adequate. High caffeine intake may, however, marginally increase calcium excretion in women with insufficient calcium intake. Another myth is that caffeine is diuretic. Scientific evidence clearly shows that moderate coffee consumption has no significant impact on overall fluid balance.

Pregnancy: 2–3 cups a day Caffeine metabolism is clearly influenced by a woman’s hormonal status. Slower absorption of caffeine in pregnant women, ­resulting in the sustained presence of caffeine in the blood, has been proven repeatedly. As caffeine also passes into the baby through the mother’s blood, the correlation between coffee ­intake and the baby’s health has been the subject of numerous studies on fertility, miscarriage, low birth weight, retarded development and cot deaths. No causal relation to coffee intake has been found. The results of these studies show that 2–3 cups of coffee per day (<300 mg caffeine / day) are usually no problem for pregnant women and the foetus. In fact, caffeine has even proven extremely useful in neonatology for premature babies. Since 1913, caffeine has been known to stimulate breathing, and carefully monitored doses of caffeine are administered to newborns with low respiratory activity as a therapeutic measure. NutriPro Beverages 1 / 07 – NESTLÉ Professional Nutrition Magazine



There are many methods to brew a perfect cup of coffee

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A coffee for every occasion Most adults drink coffee. They have at least two good reasons: the good taste of coffee and its stimulating effect. How coffee is consumed is a matter of individual preference, offer and availability, and socio-cultural habits.

Caffeine prolongs performance in endurance exercise After ingesting caffeine, cyclists and runners are able to sustain their athletic performance at a higher level for a longer period of time.


after ingestion of placebo


after ingestion of caffeine

+44% 0

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Mean performance time at 85% VO2max [min]






Source: Spriet LL & Howlett RA, 2000.

11 Coffee

A balanced breakfast is crucial for a good start to the day. It has been proven that breakfast improves performance in the morning, in particular as far as memory is concerned, and a cup of coffee definitely contributes to this. A breakfast rich in carbohydrates (e.g. cereal with milk or yogurt) provides energy and a range of essential nutrients and coffee contributes to stimulate alertness and awareness. A heavy lunch may induce drowsiness and a lower attention span in the early afternoon. A cup of coffee after lunch will overcome this. Fatigue also affects people working at night. Coffee helps them to stay alert and to adapt their biological clock to the circumstances.

A coffee for every taste Coffee can be found in many forms and aromas: roasted coffee beans, roasted ground coffee or soluble coffee. It can be consumed using different preparation methods such as those used for filter coffee, espresso or café au lait. There is a coffee for every taste. Flavored coffee, vanilla, hazelnut, caramel, for example, and cappuccino are very popular with consumers.

So many ways to make a good cup of coffee Turkish coffee is a specific way of preparing coffee, which is fundamentally different to other methods: the coffee is traditionally boiled three times. The necessary equipment to prepare this coffee is an ibriq, a small copper pot with a long wooden handle, and a finely ground coffee (normally Arabica varieties), that is more like a powder than anything else. In some regions a cardamom seed is added for flavor. Espresso forms a lot of other coffee variations, such as cappuccino (one-third espresso, one-third steamed milk and one-third frothy milk), latte macchiato (one-third espresso and two-thirds of frothy milk), or ristretto or corto (a very strong espresso with only a small amount of water). Soluble coffee is also convenient for preparing frappé, a cold coffee drink, which was originally created in Greece. It is served with a drinking straw, either with or without sugar or milk. Flavored coffee is a fast-growing area of the coffee market. At the moment there are more than 100 different flavored varieties available. There are two ways to flavor a coffee: a) The flavors are added directly to the roasted beans by spraying them with a carrier oil and the particular flavoring. b) A syrup is added to a hot brewed coffee.

NutriPro Beverages 1/07 – NESTLÉ ProfESSioNaL Nutrition Magazine

QUIZ 1. In which country did coffee originate? N Brazil C Ethiopia U USA 2. Which variety of coffee is cultivated most? A Coffea arabica E Coffea canephora 3. How many aroma components of coffee have currently been identified? D Five hundred E Eight hundred F One thousand 4. Does decaffeinated coffee still contain some caffeine? F Yes G No 5. Which cup of coffee includes more caffeine? E A cup of filter coffee F A cup of soluble coffee G A cup of espresso 6. Caffeine is rich of: A Protein I Antioxidants D Iron 7. For a Turkish coffee you boil the coffee: U Once T Twice N Three times 8. A latte macchiato is D A flavored coffee E An espresso with frothy milk F A very strong espresso

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Answer: CAFFEINE

More alert thanks to a morning cup of coffee

Heusser Communicates AG

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