Page 1







GENDER EQUALITY Advocating for Lactation spaces at the workplaces

Human Capital Development ASOKO ANALYSIS


Employee Integrity Reduce risk to company data by managing staff well

Kenya.............Kshs370 Uganda.....Ushs 13,800

Tanzania........Tshs 8,300 Rwanda........RWF 2,800

South Africa............R 40 Angola ..............OA 520

Algeria................DA 395 Egypt..........EPounds 32

Tunisia...........Dinar 8.50 Ethiopia..................R 90

Gambia...............Da 165 Ghana..........GH114,000

Nigeria..................N 840 Morocco...............Dh 48



Creative Human Capital “Around 85% of productivity gains are related to investments in innovation� says the World Economic Forum (WEF)

Pg 16



11 I Backbone of Our Economy


27 I Empowering the next Generation of Scholars

Wind Power in Kenya

32 I The sting of unemployment and the creation of a forgotten generation

15 I Reduce risk to company data by managing staff well 24 I Human Capital Development

34 I Human Resource Base 41 I Are we ready for the Next Revolution? 44 I Gender Equality at the workplace through advocacy for Lactation spaces. 47 I Human Capital 50 I Making Innovation culture a way of Life for Business 55 I Leadership Summit on Competitiveness, Nationhood and

Private Sector (ISN 61 6600 00 6882 3), is published quarterly: January - March ; April-June ; July-September and October-December. Private Sector is published and printed by Brand Effects East Africa. There is one issue per quarter, each count as four issues in an annual subscription. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or part without written permission is highly prohibited. Private Sector design is protected through trademark registration in Kenya. For Article Reprints, Permissions and Licensing





Preston Muhando


Preston Muhando

Michael Ndege Sabari Mark Masasabi Rachel Bitutu Fredrick Odenyo

Eliud Maumo Ochieng’ Maumo Stephen Karuma JETSAM



Caroline Nkirote Daniel Thamaini



Kenya Railways Alla Tkachuk Martin Dias Dr. Kevit Desai Asoko HELB


Henry Githaiga Joshua Mutisya Caroline Kawira Muema Mutindi Milka Murimi Tamsin Lee - Smith Gichinga ndirangu

FOREWORD Human Capital Development


uman capital development focuses on the entire talent program. Beginning with a thoughtful and integrated talent acquisition to coaching employees on the job, this model addresses the process of developing talent instead of just hiring, firing and enforcing policies. The new approach has to meet the needs of a dynamic and flexible workforce, as well as real time labour demands. As positions evolve (perhaps to extinction), there will be pressure to quickly develop talent for the emerging roles in a company. Organizations will have to expand not only their coaching strategies and programs, but also the education they offer to maintain a capable relevant workforce. Talent procurement with an emphasis on coaching develops human capital to create the next generation of leaders. It reinvents the culture of work to efficiently meet the fast-evolving needs of a 21st Century workplace. Today’s complex environment requires more emphasis on coaching talent, be they contracted or full time, to meet the demands and needs of business. The talent procurement business is evolving in light years and is now about human capital development. Welcome to the new world of talent! This training process has to be constant, fast and efficient to keep the workforce current and continue moving the organization forward. KEPSA, through TVET (Technical and Vocational Education and Training Authority) is enhancing youth employability and sustainable enterprise development in Kenya. However, it is important to note that economic growth alone cannot create sufficient employment opportunities for the rapid growing youth population. This is because of the misalignment of our technical and vocational education and the actual demand of the labour market. KEPSA recognizes the importance of the TVET sector to the future of our country and continues to work closely with the government, development partners and all stakeholders in the sector to correct this and ensure the sector’s full potential is exploited.

PUBLISHED BY BRAND EFFECTS EAST AFRICA 2nd Floor Mirage Plaza, Mombasa Road, P.O. BOX 36158 - 00200 CSQ, Nairobi, Kenya. Tel: +254 ( 020 ) 231 3096 / 211 0780 Cell: +254 (0) 722 352 350 . +254 (0) 734 352 350 Email: Web: Copyright 2016 Brand Effects EA I All rights reserved. While the publisher have made every effort to ensure the accuracy of all information in this magazine, they will not be held responsible for any errors therein.

Carole Kariuki, HSC, MBS Chief Executive Officer KENYA PRIVATE SECTOR ALLIANCE


The Kenya Private Sector Alliance (KEPSA) is the voice of the private sector in Kenya and is the umbrella body for private sector associations and corporate bodies in all sectors of the economy including trade associations. KEPSA speaks for multinationals, SMES and startups organized under different sector boards and working groups reflective of the 16 sectors of the economy. KEPSA has over 100,000 members through business member organizations and companies. It provides a platform for the private sector to engage in Public Private Dialogue at Local, National and International level. It also offers information, advisory and networking opportunities for members and is a key partner to government and other stakeholders in the formulation and implementation of policies and strategies geared towards spurring economic growth, wealth creation and national development.

Amb. Dennis Awori

Chairman, Kenya Private Sector Alliance


Amb. Dennis Awori


Nicholas Nesbitt

Vice Chairman

Vimal Shah (Ex-officio)

Regional Integration

Rita Kavashe


Pradeep Paunrana

Trade and Investment

James Mwangi

Vision 2030 and Entrepreneurship

Brenda Mbathi

Social sectors and Development

Jeremy Awori

Finance and Macro-economic Environment

Chris Wilson

Climate Change and Energy

Carole Kariuki

KEPSA CEO & Board Secretary

Muhoho Kenyatta

Food Security

Linus Gitahi

Productivity and Social Services

Patricia Ithau


Japh Olende

Foreign Investment

Adam Jillo

Security and Tourism

To find out more about how you can become a member of KEPSA, Contact us today:

Kenya Private Sector Alliance (KEPSA)

Kenya Private Sector Alliance I 5th Flr, Shelter Afrique Bldg, Mamlaka Rd. P.O. Box 3556 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Office: +254 20 2730371 / 2 / 2727936 Fax: +254 20 2730374 Cell: +254 720 340940 Email: Website:



2017 HIGHLIGHTS Key infrastructure projects set for completion in 2017


Operationalization of Nairobi-Mombasa line



New 20 inch Nairobi-Mombasa pipeline

300 MW Lake

2017 election is projected to be the most heavily contested election both at national and county level.

Turkana Wind Farm


Ksh 46.6 billion

Agriculture, Rural & Urban Development Sector

Ksh 509.4 billion

Energy, Infrastructure & ICT.

Key risks to Kenya POLITICAL RISKS Pre-election: Investors have

adopted a wait and see approach to investment Post-election: Security concerns

over poll disputes, 2017 election is projected to be the most heavily contested election both at national and county level. WEATHER: Kenya is dealing with

drought, a factor that could affect both the agriculture and energy sectors




Ksh 349.9 billion Education AGRICULTURE: Poor rainfall is expected to

affect the agricultural sector that accounts for over 24% of GDP. This poses a risk for both food security and industry. The effects may also ripple down to other sectors of the economy due to higher inflation and the cost of basic commodities.

Ksh 126.1 billion National Security

Ksh 45.1 billion ENERGY: Poor rainfall will affect

hydropower generation with falling water levels affecting the ability to produce power. However, the risk could be mitigated by geothermal power production and the expected injection of wind energy from Lake Turkana Wind Farm.

Social Protection, Culture and Recreation Sector

Ksh 90.5 billion

Environment Protection, Water and Natural Resources

Kenpipe Plaza, Sekondi Road, Off Nanyuki Road, Industrial Area,Nairobi P.O.Box 73442 - 00200 Nairobi, Kenya Tel: 020 2606500-4 Mobile: 254 722 207682/6768 254 734 333219/215/217 Telefax: 254 020 8040188/3540032 Email: @kenyapipeline Kenya Pipeline Company


Vision: Africa's Premier Oil & Gas Company. Mission: Transforming lives through safe and efficient delivery of quality oil and gas from source to customer. Motto: To do the best always. Core Values: • Integrity. • Diligence.

• Transparency. • Team Spirit.

• Accountability. • Loyalty.

• Care for the Environment. Our Mandate We provide efficient, reliable, safe and cost effective means of transporting petroleum products from Mombasa to the hinterland. To meet this objective, we have constructed a pipeline network, storage and loading facilities for transportation, storage and distribution of petroleum products in Kenya and the East African region..



Focus on leveraging the company’s expertise to build products and solutions that add value to the business as much as it solves it.

for emerging markets and social partner who bring strong understanding along with leveraging the business expertise of the organization to effectively address the problem. Key outcome: market-leadership, scalable and longterm solutions.

Meeting the requirements of the law and ensuring there are no risk to the organization. Initiatives are usually low-touch and aligned to statutory and governance norms.


Address specific social cause emerging from internal priorities or aligned with international and national goals. Social Cause

CONSUMERS/CUSTOMERS: Enable initiatives

that are customer centric. Key Outcomes: strong branding and better customer relations.

of the skilling ecosystem. Key Outcomes: sustainable livelihood creation.

Compliance Business Value

Value Chain

Stakeholders Engagement


Employees LOCAL COMMUNITY: Focus on community development

The Sustainable Inclusive Business (SIB) Kenya the Knowledge Centre has reported a number of successes for the year 2016.

As a brain child of the Kenya Private Sector Alliance (KEPSA) and MVO Nederland, the centre has earned enormous support from the two propelling its reach.In 2016, the centre directly reached a total of 200 companies and an estimated 5000 people through various media. Through the centre’s coordinator, Karin Boomsma, SIB became a voice in Sustainability circles that saw it get several article entries into major Newspapers in the country.




awareness and community demand that set a firm foundation for the organization to introduce new product and services. Key Outcomes: demand creation and behavioural change. Ensure that employees in the organization are engaged and involved in social impact activities on an on-going basis. Key Outcomes: employee engagement and the realization of a people-centric CSR roadmap.

around the company’s operational units. Key Outcomes: good relationships and brand with the local community.

The Centre, whose main objective is to raise awareness on Sustainability and Inclusiveness in Kenya had a successful year holding 16 major events including the SIB conference, roundtable discussions and theme meetings bringing together various stakeholders/ experts, among others.

Focus on building and strengthening the chain both upstream and downstream. Key Outcomes: sustainable livelihood and holistic community development.

The centre also earned a lot of support from the Embassy of the Netherlands in Kenya with a two-year seed capital which lapsed in December of 2016. To sustain itself and to continue giving value, the centre carried out internal trainings on Sustainability and Inclusiveness consultancy with a focus on sustainability reporting. The centre also entered into a partnership with the Business Call to Action (BCtA) that is been hosted by UNDP to conduct research on Inclusive Businesses in Kenya. The research which commenced in November 2016 is set to be finalized in the first quarter of 2017. Thereafter, the findings will be shared through published reports to be circulated at scheduled workshops.

The centre plans to roll out the following series of events for the year 2017 which is the final year for the awareness phase. The activities include; A roundtable discussion on Sustainability and Inclusiveness in the tourism sector. A roundtable discussion on SIB within the building and construction sector Annual Conference on SIB in April. Sustainability and Inclusiveness Scans for Businesses in the AgroSector Workshop on Inclusive Business in Kenya

The Sustainable Inclusive Business (SIB Kenya) knowledge Centre is a project formed in partnership between the KEPSA Foundation and MVO Nederland with support from the Embassy of the Kingdom of Netherlands. The objective of the knowledge Centre is to provide tools, knowledge and networks for businesses to have a positive impact on people.


KEPSA FOUNDATION HIGHLIGHTS Kilimani Police Station Re-development Project

The KEPSA Foundation together with the National Police Service, the Embassy of the People’s Republic of China, Nairobi City County Government and Kilimani Project Foundation launched the Kilimani Police Redevelopment Project Resource Mobilization Fund on 15th November 2016 at Serena Hotel. The launch was a unique undertaking to bring together the Kilimani Business Community, residents and other stakeholders with an aim to mobilize the consciousness of all people of goodwill to address the inadequacies of Kilimani Police Station facilities. Endorsed by the Inspector General of Police Mr. Joseph Boinnet, the project is in sync with police efforts to build a people centered service

that the country can be proud of and through which citizens can enjoy their constitutional right. Kilimani Police Station is the pilot project but there are plans to go to other wards such as Mathare, Runda, Karen, among others. The two phase project is estimated to cost Kshs 500M. It envisions the transformation of the Kilimani Police Station to a model station with modern facilities that will serve as the main police station and be a flagship project that would be replicated to other counties. Further, it will also seek to provide the police officers with a better working and living environment which is conducive to provide better service to the community.

Mkenya Daima Initiative appeared before the Selection Panel for the Appointment of Commissioners of the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission (IEBC) to share their views on effective management of elections from a Private Sector perspective. The team also appeared before the Senate committee in December 2016 to give their views on the contested changes to poll laws. During the last quarter of 2016, Mkenya Daima held a series of engagements with external stakeholders with an aim of working together to achieve the overall objective of Mkenya Daima Phase IV as well as create awareness of Mkenya Daima in different forums. In November 2016, the MKenya Daima team

During the meeting, MKenya Daima gave some recommendations and suggested that Parliament needs to constitute a team that periodically sits together to look at unfolding situations and manage any amendments to the rules that could jeopardize the election process especially during an election year.

Better Business Practices for Children Project The KEPSA Foundation is implementing the second phase of the Better Business Practices for Children (BBPC) project that aims at improving maternal and infant nutrition by ensuring that the work places of the Business Membership Organisations (BMOs) and Corporates under KEPSA Membership are conducive for lactating mothers. BBPC is a joint initiative between UNICEF, Ministry of Health and KEPSA. During the second quarter of its implementation, the BBPC project team endeavoured to continue advocacy and awareness creation initiatives on the importance of practicing BBPC among the KEPSA members. KEPSA Foundation has identified champions who will work hand in hand with the private sector to influence the adoption and implementation of BBPC components for supporting working breastfeeding women at the workplaces. Private sector members and other stakeholders who have been sensitized on BBPC through the various KEPSA stakeholders’ engagement platforms are now aware of the importance of implementing its components at the work place. A baseline study has been conducted among the private sector members and its findings will influence the direction of the project based on the identified gaps. In addition, the BBPC team visited Oserian Development Company and Red Lands Roses in Naivasha and Ruiru respectively with an aim of learning the successes of implementing BBPC at the work place for scalability in other sectors.






The Backbone of our Economy BY KEVIT DESAI Chairman, LIWA Programme Trust.

Kenya’s Vision 2030 blueprint aims to transform Kenya into a newly industrialized middle income country providing a higher quality of life to all citizens by the year 2030. Among the nine foundations for Vision 2030 are; Human Resource Development and; Science Technology and Innovation (STI).



I 11


Through human resource development, Kenya intends to create a globally competitive and dynamic human resource base that meets the requirements of our rapidly industrializing and expanding economy. This can only be achieved through an education and training systems that links and responds to industry and private sector requirements.


he level and nature of skills, education and research has always played an important role in the process of development. Private sector and universities/TVET institutions working together for relevance and quality of the education system in Kenya will provide an impetus towards private sector development. When private sector, universities, TVET institutions and government work together, they could follow a very logical process that ultimately ensures increase in productivity, efficiency and innovations in industry. Today, our greatest challenge in ensuring efficiency, productivity and innovations in Kenya is the lack of technical and life skills among graduates. UNDP statistics show that 80 percent of the unemployed population is the youth. In addition, 92 percent of the unemployed youth have no vocational or professional skills training. On the other hand, over 500,000 graduates enter the job market every year. It is evident that youth unemployment in Kenya is a pressing problem. Youth unemployment rates are high and youth represent the bulk of the unemployed people. Academic and vocational training are central pillars of employability of youths and sustainable enterprise development in Kenya. Skills development is key in stimulating a sustainable development process and is also essential in seizing emerging opportunities




and tackling challenges to meet the demands of a changing economy and new technologies in the context of globalization. An effective education and skills development system- which connects education to training, training to labour market entry and labour market entry to sustainable employmentcan help Kenya sustain productivity growth and translate that growth into more high quality jobs. VOCATIONAL TRAINING In the past, there has been more emphasis on university education with little or no attention paid to technical and vocational training. Our country’s technicians are the linchpins of the economy. Every day, they marry knowledge of science, technology, engineering and Mathematics (STEM) with hands-on skills across industry and vital services to identify and solve problems. Technicians are critical to our economy yet we are not producing enough people with the right knowledge and skills. Without them, hopes of rebalancing our economy with a renewed focus on science, technology and manufacturing will not be achieved. Recent statistics from infrastructure projects show that they require 400,000 craftsmen, 80,000 technicians and 40,000 technologies. Infrastructure projects are just but a fraction of the the demand


for technicians. There are many industries and new opportunities opening up that demand for skilled technicians. Retired technicians also need to be replaced. There is therefore an immediate and significant demand for skilled workers to implement this projects. But, not enough people are gaining the right STEM knowledge and skills- denying many young people the opportunity to embark on a rewarding and fulfilling career.

The SSACs aims to achieve the following key outcomes:-

Every year, tens of thousands of great technician jobs remain hidden from young people who would benefit from these opportunities. These are not just important but also well-paid and interesting jobs leading to fulfilling and rewarding careers. For many bright students, a technical qualification should be the first and not a last choice. There a clearly a direct relationship between skills development and private sector development. The question is; how do we achieve this? The answer is “collective effort for collective impact!” Private sector development, skills development and economic development are issues that need collective effort from all stakeholders to ensure a pre-eminent collective impact. To achieve this the following should be done:THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SECTOR SKILLS ADVISORY COMMITTEES (SSAC) To address the issue of mismatch of skills demanded and supplied, and also taking a proactive role to ensure private sector acquire highly skilled Kenyan workers SSACs should be developed and sustained. The SSACs are formal private sector caucuses commissioned by CDACC (Curriculum Development, Assessment and Certification Council), a government agency mandated with Curriculum Development, Assessment and Certification. LIWA, an organization that facilitates private sector, university, TVET institutions and Government linkages is facilitating the SSACs in partnership with CDACC. The SSACs are led by industry professionals who give direction and guidance to all activities relating to training, curriculum, research and education. With the support of the private sector and development partners, LIWA has facilitated the development of the following SSACs; Welding; Instrumentation & Control; Mechanical Technology & Maintenance and; Heavy & Light Machinery Operations.

APPRENTICESHIP AND INTERNSHIP PROGRAMS Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a profession with on-the-job training. It also enables practitioner to gain a certificate of competency to enable them practice. Employers are mainly concerned about the cost of investing in apprenticeship programs. The first step is having a national policy that encourages and promotes a more demand-led, high quality apprenticeship system where the EMPLOYER, the PRINCIPAL BENEFICIARY of this form of training, is incentivized to make financial contribution to the apprenticeship costs. These policies are currently in place where employers get training refunds from NITA (National Industrial Training Authority) and tax rebates for employing fresh graduates for a period more than 6 months. There are a number of creative ways employers can reduce apprenticeship costs. Employers can collaboratively work together to bring together their unique technical capacities and expertise to create an apprentice scheme. This can be demonstrated in Kenya where 10 TVET institutions, Centurion Systems (a technology transfer organization), Nairobi Bottlers (a manufacturer, sales and distributor of products

and brands of the Coca-Cola Company) and Krones (a bottling machine manufacturer) established a center of excellence in the food and beverage industries. This unique and innovative initiative addresses the skills gap by upskilling TVET graduates and employed technicians with industry relevant modules coupled with apprenticeship leading to improved employment outcomes including productivity, efficiency and innovation. If the number of apprentices is to substantially increase, there is need to have more employers invest in this form of training. Those employers that currently invest in STEM Apprenticeships clearly find this investment worthwhile otherwise they would not continue to do so. PROFESSIONAL REGISTRATION Without skilled workers, our society would grind to a complete halt. Professionals play a crucial role in today’s innovations, developments and implementation of projects. Given that Kenya is to be industrialized by the year 2030 there is need to professionalize skills in through the registration and recognition of Technologists and Technicians through professional bodies. Therefore there is need to establish institutions that will register technologies and technicians.



I 13


Why we need to register technicians: Tackling the skills shortage This country needs more skilled technicians. By professional registration, it demonstrates that these are high-status vital jobs that capable people should pursue. Addressing Recruitment Issues Many firms who employ technicians are expecting recruitment issues. They know they may employ technicians who have inadequate technical skills or lack capacity to work and communicate with team members. Offering professional registration support will solve the issues recruiters are likely to face. Driving up Standards

enhances your marketability when it comes to recruitment. Public Confidence The informed public recognizes the value of professional registration. It affords them an additional measure of protection as well as the reassurance that your competence has been assessed by other professionals. Improved career prospects Those employers who meet a registered technician can be assured they are dealing with an accomplished professional. WHAT IS NEEDED

Technicians do jobs that demand greater accuracy and skills. Professional registration across the workforce drives up standards and capability of technicians.

Sector Skills Advisory Committees (SSACs) which would address the following:-

International Recognition

Apprenticeship policy should focus on quality, not just quantity. Apprenticeship resources should mostly target growth industries, particularly those relating

This not only confirms that your technical qualification is internationally acceptable, but also

High Quality Apprenticeship:

to STEM Specialized Technical Education: TVET institutions should be developed in terms of up-to-date training equipment and facilities, Train the Trainer Programs and Industry-TVET integration. This will ensure institutions deliver the qualifications and training valued by employers. Professional registration of professionals: professional registration should be the norm for all technicians and technologies, providing a quality mark for their skills and status. Government should support professional bodies in efforts to ensure the benefits of technician registration, both to individuals and employers, are more widely understood. Reformed Career Guidance: Career guidance should be reformed to give pupils the information they need about the full breadth of opportunities available.

What they said

Our future growth relies on competiveness and innovation, skills and productivity‌and these in turn rely on a link between industry and academia

As a nation we need to give top priority to the support towards the development of TVET. To achieve this there is need to create a systemic link between private sector and TVET to efficiently address issues of quality and relevance

Manu Chandaria

Amb. Dennis Awori

Dr. Dinah Mwinzi

Chairman : COMCRAFT Group

Chairman : Kenya Private Sector Alliance

Principal Secretary : Vocational and Technical Training




Relevant apprenticeship and internship programs are crucial for the preparation of TVET students as they get equipped with hand-on-skills that ensures immediate productivity when employed

Kenya’s competiveness does not start in a factory or an engineering lab, it starts with relevance and quality of TVET

Flora Mutahi Chairperson : Kenya Association of Manufacturers



Reduce risks to company data by managing staff well What does a person posing the most serious threat to your data look like? It’s a commonly asked question to which cyber security specialists will often deliver the same answers. BY TAMSIN LEE-SMITH Associate Director, KROLL HOW TO PROTECT YOURSELF


hreats range from the serious state-level Advanced Persistent Threats, to criminal gangs who hack and steal for financial gain, to “hacktivists” taking offline the websites of large corporates. But the profile of a hacker closest to compromising your own systems is less likely to resemble an army officer, criminal mugshot or even teenager. Rather, he or she could be far closer to your organisation – an insider. THE “INSIDER THREAT” Findings in Kroll’s 2017 Global Fraud and Risk Report highlight the “insider threat” as paramount. Results across all regions surveyed consistently showed that company insiders from moles, opportunists, contractors, disgruntled employees, and ex-IT personnel all seemed to pose a greater risk to corporate security than state-sponsored hacking.

STEPS COMPANIES CAN TAKE TO ADDRESS INSIDER THREATS RANGE FROM GOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES TO IT PROTOCOLS AND INCLUDE: • Listen to your workforce and communicate with colleagues. Leaders should address sources of grievance before they fully materialise. • Review IT security policies with employees frequently, particularly when new employees are on-boarding. Explain the importance of securing data as the valuable property it is. • Enforce strict privilege rules for file or system access; that way, unauthorised access to sensitive data won’t be an easy phishing expedition. • Application white-listing only allows authorised programmes to run on employees’ computers, helping to prevent infestations of malwares, viruses and worms. • Monitor all databases, logs, and systems, and flag any suspicious or unusual behaviour. Your proactive vigilance can be the best deterrent to these insider threats.

market-sensitive data.

57% of executives surveyed reported that cyber incidents were perpetrated by insiders, counting permanent employees, ex-staff, freelancers as well as agents and intermediaries – all of whom will have enjoyed privileged access to company data at some point.

The email had arrived in the inboxes of several board members amidst a dispute with a former senior-director at the company. After an initial briefing and examination of evidence our hypothesis was clear: the author was highly likely to have been an ex-employee, aided by at least one individual on the inside.

Nowhere were these trends more apparent than in sub-Saharan Africa which had the third highest prevalence rate of cyber incidents across all regions. According to 22% of respondents, ex-employees were named the most common perpetrators of attacks.

Over the course of our forensic review we cross checked several points of critical detail against the hard drives and email accounts of a number of suspects, eventually identifying the channel via which the information had been passed, the source of the leak and the recipient.

ILLEGAL EXFILTRATION OF DATA There are several ways those with access to your internal data, computers and network can do damage to a company’s property, reputation and value. A global fast-moving consumer goods company recently tasked Kroll to investigate the source of an anonymous ransom email containing

Had the client implemented a network monitoring system to detect the traffic of privileged data, this situation might have been avoided. But the additional lesson here concerns the need to prevent employees from being motivated to steal confidential information in the first place.

NURTURING TALENT TO REDUCE RISK What this investigation highlights is the need for companies to undertake proactive steps to mitigate the insider threat. The scale of the insider threat underscores the importance of nurturing human talent, something all organisations must do in order to excel. Strong adherence to good governance and management protocols will be as relevant to mitigating the risk of employee data theft as IT security reviews. IInsiders may also aid the discovery of cyber incidents and frauds through whistle-blowing procedures. Almost half of all respondents in our global fraud and risk report said that a recent fraud had been discovered through a whistle-blowing program, and 39% said it had been detected through an internal audit. Secondly, organisations have a better chance of managing risk exposure to insiders who are already known to them. They would also be better equipped to run a successful investigation with greater access to and control of evidence trail inside the company.



I 15




Creative human capital The driver of economic growth





In the 21st century growth and prosperity are driven by creativity and innovation. “Around 85% of productivity gains are related to innovation” says the World Economic Forum. Creative and innovative human capital, therefore, is critical to a nation’s success.


reativity now is a fundamental skill employers seek in employees. Creative, they are better prepared for the increasingly complex work environment. Thinking ‘outside the box’ is becoming a far bigger part of job tasks than a generation ago; academic qualifications are not enough. As GlaxoSmithKline Ceo Ann Byrd said: “We need creative people. They know how to think outside paradigm, to kick-start a new idea, to get a job done better.”

Strengthening creativity is the responsibility of company leaders who should take up available creativity training opportunities, and work with outside creativity/innovation consultants. Alla Tkachuk

Creativity training is, therefore, now a major concern around the world. Yet, in many regions, training for creativity remains elusive. 85% of employers say they are having difficulty finding employees that are creative: school-leavers are ‘deficient’ in creativity and only a few college graduates are adequately creative. 75% ofAfrica-based chief executives say that the lack of creative talent threatens their companies’ growth and even survival. (Ernst &Young, PwC). WHAT IS CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION? When asked, business leaders describe ‘creative employees’ as those who are able to ‘see the problems that no one else sees’,and generate new solutions. Innovation - is bringing new ideas to market. Without creativity there is no innovation. SCHOOLS BUILD CREATIVE WORKFORCE Creativity must be strengthened from the early years. According to research, if neglected it deteriorate from 98% of 5 years-old children being creative to only 2% of adults being capable of generating any new ideas. Strengthening creativity in adults is more difficult and costly than in the young. Creativity has to be at the center of education. Currently, ‘schools kill creativity’ says Professor Ken Robinson, adding that ‘universities finish off the other 25%’. Lack of pedagogy is one of the main reasons. Having spent a decade developing effective creativity training programmes, I believe creativity needs to be taught in school ‘directly’ as a ‘subject’ in a structured and informal way through after-school ‘creativity clubs’.



I 17


Facilitated by purposely trained facilitators who know how to set up the right ‘creativity learning environment’, students strengthen their creativity through activities such as the ‘experimenting through the arts’, ‘creative thinking exercises’, and ‘step-by-step approach to leveraging creativity for entrepreneurship and leadership’.

Indicators of creativity:

Art practices are the best tool to foster creativity. Sadly, art studies are highly limited in most schools in Africa. Why? Some educators and policy-makers wrongly assume that art education is only about imparting the artistic skills - which can be seen as luxury in the time of more pressing needs - while failing to recognise the most important outcome of art education - the ability to think creatively.

Currently, there is a gap in how schools and business assess creativity of students: schools believe the majority of their students are creative, business’s assessment is significantly lower.

BUSINESS BUILD CREATIVE WORKFORCE The 2016 Human Capital Report of the World Economic Forum states that ‘countries in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa might have a remaining window of opportunity of at most 10 years before technology permanently closes the door on the strategies’ that develop the skills demanded by the 21st century. To survive and succeed, business - whether traditional or new - has to invest in creativity of the workforce. Companies cannot be the consumers of ‘ready-made’ human capital anymore. If businesses are to increase their productivity and competitiveness, they must become the key contributors of enhancing creativity of the current and future workforce. I believe, there is a pressing need to create a workgroup that can engage business and educators in Kenya in a dialogue on how to enhance creativity of the workforce. To start, the group should help education and business leaders to align their perspectives on these critical issues: Creativity and innovation definition: Schools define creativity as the ability to solve problems, businesses, however, see ‘problem solving’ as a fundamental skill for employees, and do NOT define it as ‘creativity’. Disruptive innovation: Educators and business leaders should agree on why creativity is of increasing importance. Currently, businesses believe the ‘disruptive innovation’ (radical change) is the reason, schools - the ‘continuous innovation’ (gradual change, the opposite to disruptive innovation).




Employers say that ‘art studies’ and ‘entrepreneurial experience’ are the most significant indicators of potential creative worker. In Kenyan schools, art that encourages creativity is dangerously limited. Creativity assessments:

ON-THE-JOB CREATIVITY TRAINING Company’s success depends on creativity of

Companies cannot be the consumers of ‘ready-made’ human capital anymore. If businesses are to increase their productivity and competitiveness, they must become the key contributors of enhancing creativity of the current and future workforce.

employees at all levels. Strengthening creativity is the responsibility of company leaders who should take up available creativity training opportunities, and work with outside creativity/innovation consultants. KEPSA currently offers a ‘Leading and Managing Innovation’ workshop. Without creativity there is no innovation. Creativity is not ‘art’ of ‘soft’ skill. Occurring in all aspects of life it is a highest form of intelligence. If companies want to attract and retain creative talent, they must establish dynamic corporate innovation culture. Creative people are rarely motivated by money alone. They are put off by red-tape and hierarchy. They need freedom to work in the areas of interests, stimulating colleagues, and ‘permission’ to take risks. They need to be able to advance in a job in various ways, and be properly rewarded and celebrated as ‘agents of change’. When hiring new employees creativity profile tests and face-to-face interviews can assess their creative potential.

WHAT CAN BE DONE RIGHT NOW In accordance with the Kenyan ‘Science, Technology, Innovation Policy and Strategy’ developed in 2009, the agencies such as the National Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation, the National Innovation Agency, the National Research Fund, the National Research and Education Network - in collaboration with Kenyan businesses - should launch pilot programmes and scale them up. Organisations such as the MASK School for creativity and Innovation (MASK) is well placed for this. Since 2007, MASK successfully implemented its training in more than 20 schools in Kenya. For its innovative approach to creativity training, it has been listed on the Harvard University’s Global Innovation Education Initiative, and the Results for Development’s Center for Education Innovation. MASK Creativity Teacher’s Guide, which it is hoped to be endorsed by the Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development, would be disseminated to schools across Kenya. In 2013, the organisation established the successful creativity competition, MASK Prize. Supported by the Media Partner, the newspaper The Star, the programme is a efective model for catalysing innovation culture amongst new workforce entrants. It has attracted thousands participants in East and South Africa. Awarding 300,000Ksh in prizes, MASK seeks corporate partners to take the awards to 1 million. We all, governments, business leaders, education institutions and individuals, must understand the magnitude of the change underway in the 21st century. To successfully navigate the change we need to be creative. This must be a high-priority. Alla Tkachuk is creativity and innovation consultant and facilitator. If you want to increase creativity of your workforce,


Standard Gauge Railway




472 KM COST: Ksh.380.4Bn LINE:


120 KM COST: Ksh.143.3Bn Line:




120Kph 4Hrs 30Min




Cut in freight cost

Reduction in delivery time

Deliver over 22 million tonnes a year


25,000 Jobs Created



Local content that is generating

Ksh.130Bn Boost in GDP growth




Top Speed: 80Kph DURATION:

8Hrs 10Min






25 trains at a time OPERATES ON


54 Double Stack freight wagons





Freight Trains


Passenger Trains



Asoko Sector Brief

Wind Power

Kenya’s wind energy programme is kicking off in a big way, with the Lake Turkana Wind Farm – one of Africa’s largest such projects – nearing completion, although there still are a number of bureaucratic constraints on private investment in the country’s renewable sector.



I 21



Kenya Wind Power

Quarter One, 2017 Kenya’s wind energy programme is kicking off in a big way, with the Lake Turkana Wind Farm – one of Africa’s largest such projects – nearing completion, although there still are a number of bureaucratic constraints on private investment in the country’s renewable sector.


ith a nameplate capacity of 300MW, the $691 million Lake Turkana Wind Farm is notable on a number of counts. Expected to compete with Ethiopia’s Ashegoda project for the title of Africa’s largest wind farm, it represents Kenya’s largest single private investment. With 200 of its 365 turbines installed as of late November, the project is scheduled for early completion in Q2 2017. The project is being co-developed by KP&P Africa BV, Aldwych International and Kenya’s KENTRACO, with financial and technical backing provided by the European Investment Bank (which most recently announced a $226 million contribution to the project), the Investment Fund for Developing Countries, the Finnish Fund for Industrial Cooperation, KLP Norfund Investments AS, and Sandpiper Ltd. BOOSTING PRODUCTION However, this project is just the start of what is an aggressive effort by the government of Kenya to boost renewable production. Under current targets, Kenya aims to expand its wind output by 630MW – half of which will come from Lake Turkana – by the end of 2017. By 2030, the government hopes to add 23,000MW to the national grid by 2030, the bulk of which will be financed by the private sector. As a result, a 100MW, $232 million Kipeto Energy Wind Park is slated for completion in 2018, while a much larger 400MW Meru Wind Farm is due to begin operations by the end of 2018. This month the government also announced talks with the World Bank for a $150 million off-grid solar and wind farm to be constructed in the country’s rural northeast (without specifying specifically where). To help encourage additional projects and incentivise private investment in the country’s grid, the




government has sought to overhaul the existing utilities network, with the 2015 Energy Bill ending the state monopoly on distribution. It has also formulated a Feed-In-Tariff policy and developed a renewable energy portal which offers a one-stop guide to renewable energy clearance. That being said, the legislation also expands the number of relevant government agencies involved in the energy sector, which could prove burdensome: overlapping bureaucratic remits have created problems in the past, particularly in terms of access to land. Indeed, both the Lake Turkana project had encountered land rights-related resistance from local populations, with the Marsabit County Government spearheading opposition.

Under current targets, Kenya aims to expand its wind output by 630MW – half of which will come from Lake Turkana – by the end of 2017. By 2030, the government hopes to add 23,000MW to the national grid by 2030, the bulk of which will be financed by the private sector.









Ethiopia Emerging E-Commerce Q4 2016 Jumia Group has recently overhauled its Ethiopia operations, bundling its operations under the Jumia brand name and launching two new ventures, as part of a broader company-wide campaign. The move is one of the only notable recent developments in Ethiopia’s e-commerce sector, which remains relatively small in comparison to other major African markets.





The reorganisation of Jumia’s Ethiopian activities is one of the only major e-commerce developments in the East African country over the course of 2016 – a reflection of the limited number of online operators in Ethiopia.


eginning in June, roughly one year after it began operations in Ethiopia, Nigeriaheadquartered Jumia began integrating its formerly distinct business units of Jovago (travel), Kaymu (retail) and Lamudi (property) into the Jumia platform, rebranding them as Jumia Travel, Jumia Market and Jumia House respectively. Two months later, the firm rolled out two new sites, Jumia Jobs (a career platform) and Jumia Deals (a service exchange platform) in the Ethiopian market. The expansionary moves – which came in the wake of a valuation in March of Jumia Group at more than $1 billion, following $326 million in investment from Axa and Goldman Sachs, among others – were part of a continent-wide corporate overhaul for Jumia Group, formerly known as Africa Internet Group. The reorganisation of Jumia’s Ethiopian activities is one of the only major e-commerce developments in the East African country over the course of 2016 – a reflection of the limited number of online operators in Ethiopia. Only a handful of local sites exist, such as (which provides listings for cars, property, jobs and consumer products), Mekina. net and (which list cars and consumer products respectively) and Store251 (which allows online purchasing for clothing).

This small size of the sector is not surprising. An estimate by the World Bank, International Telecommunications Union and the UN Population Division put Ethiopia’s internet access rate at just 4.2% for 2016, which limits demand for e-retail, while a low urbanisation rate of under 20% makes distribution challenging across the country’s vast and hilly terrain. Payment is equally problematic. There are a handful of payment processing and money transfer services in Ethiopia, including M-Birr and BelCash, but usage lags far behind that of similar initiatives in neighbouring countries, such as Kenya’s M-Pesa programme. Similarly, the availability of plastic money options is far behind that of the region. As of 2014, the most recent year available, only 1.5 million people had ATM cards in Ethiopia according to data from the National Bank of Ethiopia. Currently, only eight of nineteen banks operating in the country provide ATM services, with a network of 664 ATMs. Our conversations with Maedot Assefa, CEO of Store251, have underlined these complaints. “For me e-commerce is not fully functional in Ethiopia. The main evidence is still the all the websites you have mentioned do not have a system where customers can actually pay for the services and products they want... What makes Store251 different is customers can actually buy any of the products they want with a credit card. For this to happen we needed to procure an international gateway from USA.” While these challenges are hardly unique to Ethiopia, the small size of the e-commerce sector is surprising given the large potential of the local market: the country offers one of the largest consumer populations on the continent, with a population of 100 million, 45% of which is under the age of 16.



I 23



Human Capital Development

BY MILKA MURIMI Acting Executive Director Institute of Human Resource Management (IHRM)

The concept of Human Capital Development focuses on human skills in an economy for competitiveness and employment opportunities, value for money, accountability and voice in efficient and inclusive service delivery as well as financial and social systems that ensure inclusion and social cohesion.






uman Capital Development plays a critical role in economic growth and poverty reduction. From the Human Resource Management perspective, the development of human capital improves labor productivity; facilitates technological innovations; increases returns on capital; and makes growth more sustainable, which, in turn, supports poverty reduction in the household. Therefore, we regard human capital development as a key economic factor. From a human resource management point of view, education, which is a component of human capital development, increases the probability of being employed in the labor market and improves earnings capacity. This is why most of the pay structures are pegged on educational qualifications. However, at the micro level, human capital is considered the component of education that contributes to an individual’s labor productivity and earnings while being an important component of firm production. In other words, human capital refers to the ability and efficiency of people to transform raw materials by integrating capital, land and entrepreneurship into goods and services. These skills can be learned through the educational system. That said, human capital development is important for development for its intrinsic value as a development goal in its own right, not only because of its instrumental value. Although the conceptual definition of human capital is clear, human resource professionals world over have found it difficult to design a metric that is comparable across individuals and countries this is so because it is practically impossible to observe individual skill. In this regard, various proxy measures of human capital have been proposed. They include literacy rates, school enrollment rates, years of schooling and test scores. While the literacy rate, which measures the proportion of the population who can read and write, comprises an important measure of well-being, it does not however measure the educational attainment or skill level of the workforce.

The development of human capital improves labor productivity; facilitates technological innovations; increases returns on capital; and makes growth more sustainable, which, in turn, supports poverty reduction in the household.

WORKFORCE On the other hand, school enrollment rate is a relevant metric only for school-age children and has little relevance for the workforce. Although years of schooling can reasonably capture the human capital stock of the workforce, this only reflects the quantity of human capital; it does not give an indication of the skill level of the workforce (quality of workforce). Test scores indicators reflect the quality of education and are closely related to individual skill. However, a problem with test scores is that it is very difficult to get a measurement that can be reliably extrapolated for the entire workforce. In fact, the country-level measures of average cognitive skills are not based on a random selection of schools or students, and may therefore not be nationally representative of the skill level of students, much less of the workforce. CONSEQUENTLY, HR PROFESSIONALS HAVE ADOPTED AVERAGE YEARS OF SCHOOLING AS THE MEASURE OF HUMAN CAPITAL SKILLS AND DEVELOPMENT, REASONS BEING; 1. It can be measured for the entire workforce in most countries, 2. It is fairly comparable across countries 3. It is the most commonly used measure of human capital. Despite its limitations, average years of schooling are still the most consistent and comparable country-level measure of human capital. It should be noted, however, that an ideal measure would be to combine years of schooling with test scores (as a measure of skill and cognitive ability) and construct an index that reflects both quantity and quality of human capital. On this basis, the Institute of Human Resource Management (IHRM) through its subsidiary, the Human Resource Management Examination Board (HRMPEB) has developed a curriculum, which lays a lot of emphasis on HR metrics to equip its members with abilities to measure levels of human capital development.



I 25


Empowering the next generation of scholars: “Its time to pay your HELB loan”




I 27


HELB has successfully managed to disburse the fund over the years having supported over 600,000 students and disbursing over Ksh. 40 Billion with a total asset base of Ksh. 49.5 Billion in 2016. Despite the hundreds of thousands of students who have benefited from HELB, the board has had challenges collecting loan repayments. To understand the disconnect between applications, disbursements and repayments we have to go back to the beginning. When the University Student Loans Scheme (USLS) was converted into a revolving fund in 1974, records where not easy to come by as Kenya introduced Identity cards in 1979. Over time beneficiary records were not maintained until 1995 when HELB was established, this means that for over 21 years, beneficiaries could not easily be tracked.

When Kenya gained independence in 1963 the government outlined a three pronged approach to empowering its people that involved fighting; illiteracy, disease and poverty. This three pronged approach put Education, Health and Employment at the top of the government’s list. Overtime the government singled out education as the most viable solution as education would lead to employment and financial empowerment that would enable the working populations not only fight poverty but also seek affordable healthcare.

T We are alive to the fact that some employees may not disclose their HELB status, that’s why we are asking employers to demand HELB clearance from their employees or they can send us the list of their employees and we can verify it for them. Mr. Ringera




he government leveraged on the Higher Education Loans Fund (HELF) which had been introduced by the colonial government in 1952, the system sent African students from the three East African countries of Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania to Makerere University and the Dar es salaam under the University of East Africa with Nairobi acting as a constituent college. In the 1970s the University of East Africa was split into Makerere, Dar es Salaam and Nairobi universities. Up until the 1970s, the Kenyan government continued to hand out scholarships under the ministry of education’s University Student Loans Scheme (USLS), but in 1974 the government sought to make the program more sustainable by converting it into a revolving fund. It is this decision that ultimately led to the creation of the Higher Education Loan’s Board in 1995 whose mandate is to disburse, manage and recover education loans under the revolving fund.

“These old records only contained names of people who benefited from the loans and were expected to pay, however the challenge is that many people share names and there was no identifying or distinguishing factor. Lucky for us there was only one major university at the time which was the University of Nairobi which had a finite number of graduates making it easy for us to then catch up with beneficiaries. The USLS leveraged on graduation lists to try and recover the loans but by the 1990s it was clear that it was not a viable way of recovering loans leading to the formation of HELB in 1995.” HELB CEO Charles Ringera says. Fast forward to today and HELB has all the tools necessary to recover the loans from beneficiaries. According to HELB CEO Charles Ringera, the board is leveraging a combination of its physical records and technology to recover loans. The board is also aided by legislation; “Of the 600,000 graduates we have funded 120,000 have fully repaid their loans amounting to about Ksh. 12 billion. There are about 136,000 people who are making monthly repayments to HELB while there are 220,000 students who are still in school. There however we have over 85,000 outstanding loans amounting to over Ksh. 9.5 billion that we cannot trace directly. Some of this people may have passed away or are in the diaspora, for that reason we have hired private debt collectors to help us consolidate our loan book.” Mr. Ringera says. HELB’s partnership with private debt collectors has enabled the Board to clean up its books and separate loans held by diseased beneficiaries from


its active loan book. From the records provided by the next of kin HELB is also able to make insurance claims and sustain the fund.

defaulters.” Mr. Ringera says. In addition to sharing credit information, HELB is also leveraging on data from other government agencies that undertake statutory deductions including KRA, NSSF and NHIF. To further optimize on its own records HELB is also using data from new applicants to track older defaulters.

To tackle its challenge with the diaspora, HELB is working with the department of Immigration to capture data on Kenyans in the diaspora and reach out to them. HELB estimates that over Ksh. 3 billion is held by an estimated 25,000 to 35,000 Kenyans in the diaspora. “Most times we are not able to tell where most of the beneficiaries in the diaspora went to, in terms of mapping out the diaspora we are setting up a program with the department of immigrations to enable us use their records of exit and return to know where these people are. We also hope to use immigrations to send a reminder to the Kenyan diaspora every time they return home at the point of entry.” Mr. Ringera adds. LEGAL BACKING To enable HELB recover loans, the government passed the HELB Act in 1995 that established the Board, the act was later amended to place statutory obligations and penalties on both employed beneficiaries and their employers under section 15 and 16 of the act.

Of the 600,000 graduates we have funded 120,000 have fully repaid their loans amounting to about Ksh. 12 billion. There are about 136,000 people who are making monthly repayments to HELB while there are 220,000 students who are still in school.

Subsection 15 (1) (b) of the act is about the employed beneficiaries who are required to (b) ‘begin repayment of his/her loan together with any interest accrued thereon; (c) if he/she is in formal employment, to authorize his/her employer to deduct the loan repayment and to remit it to the Board in such a manner as the Board many direct. Subsection 16 (1) of the act applies to employers and states (a) Upon the employment of any loanee to inform the Board in writing within a period of three months of such employment: (b) Upon confirmation by the Board that such a person so employed is a loanee, to deduct from the wages or remuneration of the loanee, the amount of any loan such instructed by the Board Upon graduation the Board gives a one-year moratorium for beneficiaries before the loan is due for repayment after which a monthly repayment is to be made by the beneficiary.

Failure to make the repayment subjects the beneficiary to a monthly penalty of Ksh. 5000 per month. For employers who fail to comply with the law and requirements to make deductions on all employees who benefited from HELB loans, the law stipulates a monthly penalty of Ksh. 3000 per person. The penalty to employers cannot be passed on to employees. “We are alive to the fact that some employees may not disclose their HELB status, that’s why we are asking employers to demand HELB clearance from their employees or they can send us the list of their employees and we can verify it for them. The final measure is to list all accounts in default for over 10 years with the credit referencing bureaus which impacts on the individual’s eligibility for credit. This affects an individual’s credit profile. We are looking to leverage on credit information sharing to track defaulters. HELB will be part of one’s credit rating and we will extend this to telecoms and utility companies to get information on HELB loan

“Chances are that for new applicants some of their parents where beneficiaries of HELB, if so we need to know if their parents paid their HELB loans. Last year we had about 80,000 applications and each required 2 guarantors, that gives us access to over 160,000 people. From this new data base, we were able to match 30,000 of our 85,000 default accounts. 6,000 of those matched had never paid a single cent to HELB so we leveraged this data to go after them and request payment but we did not deny their children access to HELB loans.” Mr. Ringera adds. NEW FRONTIERS Though traditionally targeted at universities, HELB has now roped in other tertiary learning institutions that are under the supervision of county governments. The loans are handed out under the government’s program for Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET). According to the board students from TVET institutions are less likely to default on their repayments and therefore represent a lower risk. So far HELB has rolled out the Afya Elimu Fund aimed at supporting healthcare support staff ranging from nurses, radiologist, lab technicians and biomedical engineers. The fund is a jointly funded by USAID at 40%, the Kenyan Government at 50% and HELB at 10%. The total fund currently stands at Ksh. 523 Million supporting over 9,500 healthcare works across various institutions. “Beneficiaries of TVET have a higher rate of loan repayment primarily because technical skills are in high demand, most graduates are still unemployed and even those that are earn low incomes in their first three years of employment. As a lender TVET is now a new frontier because of the ability and willingness to repay by those who benefited from the loans.” Mr. Ringera says. In addition to the demand for technical skills HELB credits the willingness for beneficiaries to repay the loans with some technical students starting to make their repayments while still in school. Though the segment holds great potential, HELB admits that it



I 29











































“Unlike white collar jobs where we can trace beneficiaries through employment records, technical jobs such as plumbing, welding, painting and electrical works are not stationary so have had to invest in various platforms and modes of repayments. 2% of beneficiaries in TVET are now repaying their loans while in school because they are able to utilize their skills part time.” Mr. Ringera adds. During the current academic there were 35,000 applications from TVET of which 25,000 will gain access to the requested funds while 15,000 continuing TVET students will benefit from the fund. On the other hand, 75,000 new university students will also benefit from HELB during the current financial year. DEVOLUTION The devolved system of government has also created both challenges and opportunities for HELB with the change of employment records from National to County governments creating a disconnect between loan beneficiaries and the board.



has had to remodel its repayment plans leveraging on technology to ensure that all beneficiaries repay their loans on time.


“We are now looking to bring onboard the the Public Service Boards of the Counties because they are the employers at County level. It is however noteworthy that you cannot retire from any public service organization both at National and County level without a HELB compliance certificate. This is important for us because you cannot access your pension from the system. We are working with the Retirements Benefit Authority (RBA) to find a way to extend the same to the private sector so no one can retire and access their pension through the registered private pension funds without clearing their HELB loan.” Mr. Ringera says. Despite the challenges however Devolution has also presented new opportunities for resource mobilization with a number of Counties and Constituencies setting up their own specialized funds to support higher education.

“There is an aspect of devolved funds within HELB that is doing very well, where a 5 Counties and 9 Constituencies have given us funds to revolve for their people in the same manner that we do with HELB loans. This is because they do not have their own ways or knowhow to revolve the funds so we do it for them.” Mr. Ringera says. REPAYMENT MODEL Once one successfully applies for and receives their HELB loan, the loan begins to earn an interest of 4% per year and it due for repayment one year after graduation. The fund was formulated as a revolving fund and is there for expected to be self replenishing. However, the rate of repayment makes it difficult for the fund to grow and sustain itself. For instance, HELB planned to disburse Ksh. 10 Billion in 2016, but could only put back Ksh. 4 Billion from the revolving fund leaving it dependent on the National Treasury which set aside Ksh. 6.4 Billion for HELB. “The number of students in need is growing, we cannot match this because beneficiaries have 10 years to repay their loans and you must add the one-year moratorium to that. This means that the funds are repaid slower than the manner in which they are disbursed. We have to look beyond treasury for financial sustainability and seek external recourse mobilization.” Mr. Ringera says. Most of the additional funds flowing into HELB are from international donor agencies, Private Sector Foundations and Individuals looking to support the organization. “Above all else we need all beneficiaries to repay their loans, it should be a responsibility and sense of pride to repay your loan. We are investing and leveraging on technology both for local and diaspora beneficiaries so that it is more convenient to repay your loan. We have opened up more channels including mobile money and international money transfer services to make it easier to repay. We will have a mobile App to allow one track your loan from application to disbursement and repayment.’ Mr. Ringera adds.



The sting of unemployment and the creation of a forgotten generation 32




Despite obtaining the requisite professional and academic qualification, the Kenyan youth of today face the problem of unemployment. I, like many others in my chosen profession, struggle with the problem of transitioning into the country’s job market. BY JOB SEEKER


n 2016, a World Bank Report placed Kenya’s unemployment rate as the highest in the region. One in every five Kenyan youth of working age remains exposed to the vagaries of unemployment. The Country’s youth Unemployment rate is estimated to stand at 17.3 % as compared to 6% for both Uganda and Tanzania. World Bank economists say the problem is mainly compounded by the fact that Kenya’s ability to create new jobs has lagged behind population growth, resulting in narrow formal opportunities, especially for entry-level workers fresh from college.

unemployment and the inability to meet your day to day expenses that brings you down, far from it, it is the understanding that you are welcomed into the world of the statistics that you long fought and that the door could be permanently shut behind you. It is the question of whether you are as good as you thought you were and whether your constant revision of your curriculum vitae is not merely a product of self-aggrandizement. It is the derogation of your dignity and confidence in your skills and abilities and your inability to adapt to your present circumstances that tears you down and threatens to keep you there.

Whilst the statistics are staggering, the emotional frustration and turmoil amongst my peers remains the biggest challenge for the youth today. The hopelessness and depression that visits us in our pursuit to engage in productive employment is enough to tear down even the best of us. The sting of unemployment has today become an inescapable part of our national culture.

HIGHER EDUCATION LOAN For those, like me, who had to take out huge sums in student loans for their higher education, the sting of unemployment goes deeper. Every month without a salaried income exposes you to a monthly penalty for non-payment. A monthly charge, it would appear to us, for our “inability” to obtain gainful employment. This coupled with monthly expenses such as rent and basic necessities levies a huge burden on parents and family members who struggle to understand the dynamics of the present day job market. The question then becomes whether or not you are doing enough to claw your way out of your circumstances and find your way to financial independence.

Having graduated with an LL.B degree from the University of Nairobi and subsequently passing my national bar examinations from the Kenya school of law, the world it seemed, was my oyster. Upon completion of the bar examinations, the law requires lawyers to undertake six months pupillage under an advocate. It is here where the rubber meets the road with regard to the legal profession. Advocates take on pupils for twelve months at very low wages and keep them on only until the next batch of pupils are ready to enter the market. They obtain cheap labor at half the cost and escape any added costs by refusing to offer employment contracts preferring to take on the cheaper alternative of hiring a new group of pupils. Since my pupillage, my life has derogated into an endless job hunt. The only jobs available in the legal profession seem to require more experience than an entry-level graduate can reasonably be expected to possess. The job market seems hostile to entry-level graduates who then have no choice but to rely on parental support whilst they while away the hours in the endless wait. It is then only a matter of time before pessimism and hopelessness kick in to gear and depression sets in. It is not the mere reality of

There is much to be said about the resilience it takes to remain persistent in the job hunt. It takes quite an amount of grit and mettle not to raise your hands in defeat and let the chips fall where they may. Life for us is reduced to a mission to reassert our dignity and self-respect. We are fuelled only by the passion for our chosen professions and the desire to prove ourselves worthy to a job market that favors work experience and gives little regard to mere academic qualification. I have been unemployed for three months now, the search for gainful employment still continues. I cannot help but fill stuck, life has come to a halt. I spend my days making online job applications and knocking on random office doors. I have since graduated from the senseless hope that each application will be the last. For me what remains is the more realistic approach, a wait without expectation.



I 33



Kenya’s future hangs on its human resource base Human development is one of the essential yardsticks in measuring the extent to which a country’s population is primed to take advantage of opportunities that enable a people improve the quality of life and make a contribution to economic development. BY GICHINGA NDIRANGU


here are many indicators that may be used to measure progress against key human development indices in areas such as access to knowledge, health and shelter. In each of these areas, there must be adequate policies and laws that enable people to actualize themselves. Both the Public and Private Sectors must play a complimentary role to secure progress against these key indices. One such area is skill and knowledge development, where education and training are considered a component of human capital development. Granted that development cannot take place without a stable and strong human resource base, investment in education is an important prerequisite to economic development. The new Constitution has recognized the right to education while the Education Act has placed significant emphasis on this right by making it an offence to deny any child, the right to education. The introduction of Free Primary education (FPE) in 2003– which was matched by budget capitalization to support purchase of books and other learning materials in public schools – has led to an exponential increase in school enrolment. Additional policies such as the scrapping of national examination fees and extension of loans to students joining private universities have also helped enhance access and support this human development index. The complimentary role of both the Public and Private Sectors has helped steer progress in this area; granted that the competition for the limited available budgetary resources has constrained the government’s capacity to comprehensively invest in education infrastructure.




There exists significant investment opportunities for the Private Sector at the post-primary level which calls for a policy environment that nurtures and promotes Private Sector involvement. There is significant evidence that in the area of tertiary education, the collaboration between the Public and Private Sectors has created encouraging results. Kenya now has a total compliment of 64 public and private universities. The entry of private universities has eased the burden of sending Kenyan students to foreign universities on account of limited enrolment opportunities into public universities. As more students graduate from tertiary institutions and other levels of the education system, attention inevitably shifts to the labour market and its potential to offer opportunities in both the formal and informal sectors. GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT Because the public sector has a limited absorptive capacity, it is imperative that the Private Sector opens up opportunities for gainful employment. It is incumbent upon the government to put in place, laws and policies that open up the potential of the Private Sector’s growth. Creating a conducive environment for business is an important adjunct in improving opportunities to utilize education and skills and hence impact on the country’s economic development. In recent years, Kenya has focused on key business reforms. Last year was a watershed year in this regard, with President Uhuru Kenyatta assenting into law, four key business reform bills aimed at improving Kenya’s overall business environment, attracting investment and enhancing employment opportunities.

The new Constitution has recognized the right to education and the Education Act has placed significant emphasis on this right by making it an offence to deny any child, the right to education. The introduction of Free Primary education (FPE) in 2003– which was matched by budget capitalization to support purchase of books and other learning materials in public schools – has led to an exponential increase in school enrolment.


services. As the population continues to grow and health challenges invariably increase, there will remain a significant call for Private Sector investment in the provision of health services in terms of availing personnel and health infrastructure. The private sector currently accounts for two-thirds of all health facilities and is the largest employer of health care workers – a role that can only grow in the future. As in the area of education, collaboration in health service provision will enhance efficiency in service provision. ACCESS TO HOUSING Another important area in measuring the human development index is access to shelter. The Constitution of Kenya 2010 has recognized access to housing as a basic right even though the government is constrained in providing adequate housing. The Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development together with the National Land Commission have been at the centre of improving land registration and issuance of titles which has in the past constrained developers. Legislative reforms have been undertaken in respect of the Urban Areas and Cities Act and the Physical Planning Act while Regulations to various laws such as the Land (Amendment) Act are now under consideration. A clear policy and legislative environment will improve access to housing. Among these laws include; the Special Economic Zones Act which seeks to regulate the creation of industrial zones providing specific incentives to export-oriented investors. This new law will enable Kenya exploit its potential for economic growth and development through enhanced investment and establishing a stable industrial policy guide for investors. An important aspect of the new law, is that it will open up opportunities for businesses operating outside the zones to supply goods and services besides facilitating the transfer of technology and growing Kenya’s domestic technological capacity. The review of the Companies Act, with its emphasis on simplifying documentation requirements for registration of companies, was also an important stab in easing establishment of businesses. The provision of model articles of association is expected to ease the registration process while its other provisions will strengthen the enforcement of strict corporate governance standards. The other key business reform law is the Business Registration Service Act seen as key in opening up

the regulatory environment for business set-up and operations to advance Private Sector enterprise. This law has provided a window to address some of the bottlenecks and challenges that have in the past undermined the business regulatory environment due to the lack of a clear and defined structure of regulation. But even as these reform measures take place, a major challenge will remain that of ensuring that education and training are well aligned both to the demands of the market and national priorities to address the problem of a mismatch between skills and the job market. Another important area in assessing progress in human development is access to health services. Health is one of the fundamental rights provided under article 2(6) of the Constitution with an emphasis on access to the highest attainable standards of health services including a right to reproductive health. Today, the health sector in Kenya is defined by pluralism that draws in the participation of both the public and private sectors. Religious institutions and non-governmental organizations are also key stakeholders in the provision of health

However, access to housing is unsatisfactory with urban home ownership estimated at a paltry 16 per cent and an annual delivery of only 35,000 units against a demand of 150,000 units. The high cost of finance has undermined investment in low cost housing. The low-income sector now accounts for only 6,000 units annually due to significant under investment by both the public and private sector players. Addressing the housing deficit will require a greater degree of collaboration between the government and Private Sector in the development, formulation and implementation of housing development projects. The Public-Private Partnership framework which is now firmly anchored in law, creates an important platform to incentivize increased investment in low and middle income housing. Kenya has achieved progress against key indices on human development, there is however significant room and need for further progress. Collaboration and partnership between the Public and Private Sectors is of the essence to sustain and deliver further progress and impact on the country’s economic development and social enterprise.



I 35



I 37


Energizing the Kenyan Diaspora to invest back home The Kenyan diaspora has tremendous potential to bring in more remittance inflow if all factors are spruced in creating an enabling environment for investment. The bulk of this money goes into investments, with real estate being the most preferred investment option. Remittances are important to Kenya because they are the largest source of foreign currency and provide the biggest cushion against the country’s exchange rates. By Martin Dias

CEO - FAPCL Group enya, just like any other country, has a good number of her citizens living in other countries and continents, estimated to be around three million or slightly more. Since the 1960s, Kenyans have been migrating in large numbers to different parts of the world to acquire better training, education, job opportunities and generally better economic opportunities. Estimates reflect at least 80% are in the employment sector while the remaining are students. This means that close to 10% of the population is making a living beyond Kenya’s territory or undertaking their university education. Last year, Kenyans in the diaspora placed the country among the highest recipients of remittances in the continent. Kenya was the third country to receive high remittance of $1.6 billion (Kes168 billion) after Nigeria and Ghana.




The Central Bank of Kenya conducts a survey on remittance inflows every month through the formal channels that include commercial banks and other authorized international remittance service providers in Kenya such as Money Gram, M-Pesa and Western Union etc. Reluctance to invest back home One of the major hindrances that prevent Kenyans from investing back home is that they believe issues – economic or otherwise- have not improved since they left. I recently interacted with a few of my friends who reside abroad and I got to witness this negative mindset and scepticism first hand. I listened to them complain about a myriad of issues back home from politics, the economy, security etc. I reminded them that politics aside Kenya is making steady progress in many respects and if they observed objectively during their visit to the country, change was clearly noticeable.


some of the hindrances, or at least provide information to them so that they can militate against them before travelling to the country.

In the past, we have seen the diaspora taking legal action to protect their rights – fundamental rights like being allowed to participate in the electoral process in their own country should not be overlooked.

For instance, a friend asked me why our country is dependent on foreign aid, when the country ceased to rely on the same years ago. True, we receive aid like most countries in the world but it is neglible relative to our budgeted revenues. We take lots of loans, not aid, to build infrastructure in order to make our nation competitive in business, and attractive to investors. Of course there are potential risks for a nation in trying to live beyond its means, but if there is prudent debt management, the economic payoff is big in the long term.

Without adequate information on the opportunities at home, and the prevailing business environment, it will be all the more difficult for this group to guide potential foreign investors to the country. We need a paradigm shift in the way we interact globally, and tap into the great potential out there. How can we improve this? To grow these remittances, there is a need to make the country’s investment environment more appealing for Kenyans who want to invest back home. We must offer competitive investment opportunities at home, with the right market pricing, conducive environment and legislation. One of the ways in which we can achieve this is for the government to build a good relationship with this community. In the past, we have seen the diaspora taking legal action to protect their rights – fundamental rights like being allowed to participate in the electoral process in their own country should not be overlooked. This will raise the confidence of the diaspora community in the government, as they will have the right to participate in deciding the destiny of their country.

The US is the world largest debtor, followed by most European countries. Both their citizens and their governments operate on debt.

We can also encourage investment through showcasing products and investment opportunities available locally.

Another key concern Kenyans abroad have is the difficulty in making an investment. They travel home for a few weeks, and are unable to conclude transactions due to slow administrative and regulatory processes.

One way to do this is through expos and workshops where Kenyans in the diaspora get a chance to meet and engage at a personal level with leading businesses and captains in various industries to expose them to the variety of existing investment opportunities in the country.

These challenges are in several areas, including land transactions, agricultural activities, purchases of shares and Treasury bills, etc. Kenyans in the Diaspora remit home over $100 million monthly, and are likely to substantially increase that amount if they actively engage in investments. Hence, it is imperative to address

So far, one of the industries that has been maximizing on these expos and workshops is the real estate industry. Real estate firms and lenders are actively angling for a piece of the Kes168 billion that Kenyans in the diaspora send home annually by equipping them with information that enables them to identify



I 39


and evaluate investment opportunities despite limitations of distance.

the aspirations and goals of Kenya’s vision 2030.

They are constantly holding investment expos through which they showcase real estate opportunities in Kenya to grow the economy and minimise investment losses.

The broad objective of this policy is to empower Kenyans abroad to effectively make greater contribution to the development of the country.

A good example is the global diaspora property and investment expo that was held last September in Canada by Real Estate Maximum (RE/MAX) Heritage.

Some of the key interventions in the policy include; curbing high cost of remittances, improving consular services to address issues of Kenyans abroad, using the Kenyans abroad to promote tourism, tapping into diaspora talents to reverse brain drain and designing a dedicated web portal to facilitate collection of data and profiles of Kenyans abroad for proper planning and engagement.

The event was organised in partnership with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Trade and Kenya Property Developers Association. The expo included 50 Kenyan real estate firms that showcased to the 30,000 Kenyans in Canada, the opportunities at home – including housing options, mortgage finance and investment with Saccos and insurance firms. Representatives from investment companies, financial institutions, insurance companies and Kenya National Chamber of Commerce and Industry also made presentations.

The treasury has also recently indicated they would like to roll out a diaspora policy that will most likely be aligned with the already existing one by the Ministry of foreign affairs. This should enable the diaspora to integrate further and to engage international development agenda.

The treasury has also recently indicated they would like to roll out a diaspora policy that will most likely be aligned with the already existing one by the Ministry of foreign affairs. This should enable the diaspora to integrate further and to engage international development agenda.

This is indeed a step in the right direction and other industries can benefit from borrowing a page from the real estate sector. The expos, workshops and conferences are a good way to educate Kenyans in the diaspora about the value of investing in key industries in Kenya. Efforts by the government. Without a doubt, the diaspora has huge and untapped potential to positively contribute to the growth of our economy. Despite the critical role played by Kenyans abroad in the transformation process of the country, Kenya has continued to face many challenges in harnessing their potential due to lack of a comprehensive framework to fully integrate them in national development. Fortunately, the government – through the ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Trade - set up a mechanism to tap into this potential through the Diaspora Policy that was enacted last year. The policy was identified as a way to mainstream the Kenyan diaspora into our national development process in line with




I believe this will give the diaspora more confidence that they are being looked at as part of the economy- especially armed with the knowledge that there are more opportunities in the country and the areas that will give them a healthy return on investment.

We need to challenge ourselves to do more through the government and through the private sector to maximise on this. The ball is indeed in our court.

The bottom line is - a large percentage of Kenyans living abroad are professionals who have the purchasing power and are looking for long-term investments. The diaspora is still a largely untapped market and their potential has not been fully exploited.




Are we ready for the next revolution?


Since the invention of the wheel 3500 BC, humanity has come along way; we have transformed from grinding food and pottery to rolling on the wheel as a means of transport. However, the two most notable revolutions are the Agrarian Revolution and the Industrial revolution. Masked beneath these two revolutions is mechanization, our ability to develop new tools and weapons continues to drive our ambition and innovation.



I 41


Historians are yet document two new revolutions that have seemingly gone unnoticed; automation and information explosion. Today’s world is driven by clicks and prompts from machines rather than muscle or the traditional workforce. Across the globe policy makers are yet to tackle the dawn of this two revolutions, perhaps because the Agrarian and Industrial revolutions created more opportunities to manufacture tools and operate tools.






n 1772 at the beginning of the Industrial revolution Thomas Mortimer in his book ‘The Elements of Commerce, Politics and Finance’ wrote ‘Machines are calculated to exclude the labour of thousands of the human race… a more pernicious scheme could not be deviled.’ However, his fear soon proved unfounded as workers were trained not only on the use of the machines but also on the maintenance of the machines thus creating more job opportunities. By 1821 policy makers and workers’ unions were taking on the challenge head on, Economist David Ricardo dubbed it the ‘Machinery Question’ with a prime focus on the influence of machinery on different classes of society. Back then the concern was that machines would eventually replace humans in all types of jobs eventually rendering humanity jobless and business owners’ wealthy. Over time the ‘Machinery question’ has captured the human imagination as machines have been perceived to get smarter by the decade. This threat is best captured by the movie industry with futuristic movies ranging

1870s - 1930s







from Terminator to the Matrix. Today that question is back with global publications such as the Economist (from which this article has drawn a lot of insights) delving into the issue on an almost monthly basis. Research firms such as PWC (the global arm no less) have devoted hundreds of thousands of man hours into research on concepts such as Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence, Deep Learning and Bots. At the end of it all the one constant question that continues to occupy even the greatest minds of our time is ‘how will this affect humanity’. A recent study by Oxfam found that Eight Billionaires have as much money as the 3.6 billion people who make up the poorest half of the world’s population. This one statistic is more telling than every other factor today; this is simply because it is this 3.6 billion people that face the threat from mechanization, artificial




Every five years the next big company is born, the most profitable companies today did not exist two decades ago for instance google was incorporated in 1998, Alibaba 1999, facebook was founded in 2004, Uber 2009, Airbnb 2008 and so on.

intelligence, machine learning and deep learning. Technology and innovation by their very nature are disruptive, the jobs they challenge are low end, low skill and mass employing. At the beginning of the Industrial revolution the jobs that mechanization challenged were porters and millers, by the 1940s the name of the game had changed to automation and the jobs that challenged ranged from packaging to assembling of furniture and vehicles as automated assembly lines took industry by storm. Today the jobs at risk range from personal assistants to drivers (self driving cars) as well as customer service (automated call centers) and banking. Even before Mechanization, Automation, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and Deep Learning kick in most developing, middle income and low income economies including Kenya are already faced with mass unemployment. We don’t have enough jobs to sustain our growing population; as East Africa’s leading economy, Kenya has the highest rate of unemployment estimated at over 30% of its youth population. However, the next revolution presents the greatest opportunity to address not only our current rate of unemployment but also the future risk to existing jobs. RE-ENGINEERING OUR EDUCATION For the first time in decades, we are able to predict what technologies will be developed in the future, what they will be applied in and what disruptions they are likely to cause. Based on this information we need to reengineer our education system to prepare our workforce for the opportunities that will arise from disruption. Progress cannot happen without disruption, but disruption becomes a norm when we prepare for it and adopt it. For instance, over the last one year Kenya and the wider global economy

has had to adapt to Uber, in less than one year we went from burning and roughing up Uber drivers to developing a financing scheme to enable drivers by their own cars. In the same breath we can prepare from the anticipated disruptions from Mechanization, Automation, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and Deep Learning by developing the skills to exploit the emerging opportunities. Much of unemployment today is as a result of the disconnect and skills mismatch between education and the job market. Graduates often pick careers and courses based on two factors; parental recommendation and societal pressure. As a results we have millions of graduates who train in skills that are already saturated and have no potential for career advancement. For instance, the government which remains the largest single employer in our economy can only employ a limited number of people with a set retirement age of 60. This means that the average government job can last between 20 to 40 years with little or no career progression. In total the national government and county governments employ close to 200,000 employees. The greatest number of retirees so far was recorded in 2014 (independence generation) with 20,000 civil servants said to have attained retirement age. Going by this figure the government’s annual employment needs are below 10% or under 20,000 new jobs due to retirement. Compare that figure to the over 300,000 students enrolling into both public and private universities on an annual basis; food for thought. if we begin to match skills to the job market based on projected future need, we can mitigate against the risk of unemployment. We can no longer afford to build our human capital on the foundation of what worked for our parents and what works for the current society. Every five years the next big company is born, the most profitable companies today did not exist two decades ago for instance google was incorporated in 1998, Alibaba 1999, facebook was founded in 2004, Uber 2009, Airbnb 2008 and so on. It is time to prepare for the next big revolution.



I 43



BY JOSHUA MUTISYA Communications and Social Media, Sustainable and Inclusive Business (SIB), Kenya

BY CAROLINE KAWIRA Better Business Practices for Children Project, KEPSA Foundation

KEPSA Foundation Better Business Practices for Children and the Oserian Flower Farm team with babies during a visit to the Oserian Development Company Day care Centre in Naivasha

at the workplace through advocacy for lactation spaces



enya has already committed to achieving gender equality by the year 2030. This huge and ambitious goal is indeed achievable. However, for women in various walks of life, there is one area that requires equal attention: The Workplace. Although women are working harder to climb the ladder of success within their careers, they still encounter challenges such as unequal wages compared to their male colleagues, and sexual harassment. Some of these inequalities are being addressed through policies and laws such as the Kenyan Employment Act 2007 that compels all employers to provide equal pay to both men and women for work of equal value and also outlaws any form of sexual harassment.

Gender equality


During his state visit to Kenya in 2015, US President Barack Obama asserted the need for women to be respected and provided equal opportunities like men. “Treating women as second-class citizens is a bad tradition. It holds you back,� he remarked.


It is also paramount to recognize the challenges that breastfeeding women have had to face upon return from the 90 days maternity leave in regard to sustaining breastfeeding while balancing between the baby and work. This struggles therefore lead to introduction of other foods which are contraindicated for the infants. According to UNICEF and WHO, breastfeeding has proven to be an efficient and a key cost effective way of increasing human capital and economic growth as the health benefits associated with breastfeeding can save several billion dollars in health care costs by reducing hospital admission and treatment of other infectious diseases in children. Furthermore, studies have shown that exclusive breastfeeding which means giving infants breast-milk alone for the first six months can avert 13% of child deaths worldwide. Therefore, this is another area that needs advocacy and lobbying for employers to support, protect and promote breastfeeding by ensuring that work places conducively support continued breastfeeding post maternity leave. The Kenyan Parliament in March 2016 passed the Health Bill 2016 which has entrenched clauses on support for breastfeeding at the work places that will go a long way in urging


the employers to provide fully equipped lactation rooms and flexi working time to allow for conducive breastfeeding environment as prescribed in the bill. Clause 71 (1) of the Health Bill 2016 states that “All employers shall in the workplace establish lactation stations which shall be adequately provided with necessary equipment and facilities including handwashing equipment, refrigerators or appropriate cooling facilities, electrical outlets for breast pumps, a small table, comfortable seats, the standard of which shall be defined by the ministry responsible for matters related to health.” Those against the approved bill believe that this is sort of irrelevant compared to the many challenges facing the nation and that there is no stigma related to breastfeeding. However, the new law focuses on giving working mothers a conducive working environment and improving the health of the baby through the nutrition in the mother’s milk. BETTER BUSINESS PRACTICES The Kenya Private Sector Alliance (KEPSA) Foundation hosts the Better Business Practices for Children (BBPC), a joint initiative of UNICEF, Ministry of Health and KEPSA. The aim of the initiative is to sensitize members of the private sector on the need to promote exclusive breastfeeding for children by providing working mothers with a conducive working environment as well as providing breaks for them to breastfeed their children. This in the long-run assures the country of a healthy future-workforce and improvement on productivity of women at their workplaces due to better health of their children. The employers of these women as well benefit from the decreased turnover, improved return on investment, improved employee loyalty and enhanced company image. By providing the desired work place support for breastfeeding women, the employers will be contributing to the achievement of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for instance, SDG 10 on Reducing Inequalities and SDG 3 on Promoting Good Health and Well-Being. And yet the biggest challenge to implementing policies that support working breastfeeding mothers is not the lack of goodwill, but the stigma associated with breastfeeding. This reminds me of a time in September 2016 when I attended the World Breast feeding week launch, a forum organized to sensitize the private and public sectors on the importance of supporting, promoting and protecting breastfeeding whose theme was ‘Breastfeeding: a key to

















sustainable development’. On visiting one of the exhibitions, I was interested in understanding what they meant by expressing breast milk, the ladies at the booth immediately strapped plastic breasts on my chest, handed me a dummy and showed me how milk is expressed from the breasts!! What a scene!! A small crowd was building, most were amused by my interest (as a man) in understanding how breast milk is expressed. Toxic masculinity among the male players in the sector and in the society, is a huge hindrance to implementing this bill. I can’t recall how many times I have faced counter-arguments on the implementation of this bill, one being that employers would refuse to employ breastfeeding mothers, because ‘it would be expensive for a business’

through the prescribed breaks and by digging into their profits for setting up the requisite equipped lactation spaces. This illustrates how the major issue here is more social than professional. That, as we proceed with developing policies that provide a conducive working environment for mothers, we also need to focus on sensitizing and working towards changing the mindsets of the public. This is because policies without the public’s social approval are just mere statements. IMPLEMENTATION Companies that have taken the steps towards having a good breastfeeding environment need to be recognized and celebrated. This is for the purpose of motivating other businesses to embrace the same, and that as a business, you can still do good, by being good. Some of these companies are Safaricom, Oserian Development Company, Phillips, Seven Seas and General Motors, among others. Kenya took another huge step by legislating the Breast Milk Substitutes Act in 2012, which, is in line with the World Health Organization (WHO) International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes of 1981. This legislation was developed for the purpose of regulating the market for breast milk substitutes, to ensure that babies are provided with high-quality, safe and adequate nutrition. Leading by example, the KEPSA Foundation is aiming at getting full equipment for the lactating station within its premises, which will be a model to showcase to other private sector members. Sustainable Inclusive Business (SIB) Kenya – The Knowledge Centre, which is also based at the KEPSA Foundation, believes that this is a step in the right direction in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals such as SDG-1, which is meant to end poverty by ensuring that working mothers get income for their families, SDG-2 of ending hunger, SDG-3 of having good health for the kids, as well as SDG-8 of having decent work for economic growth. As a center, SIB-Kenya acknowledges the huge role played by women in the national development agenda. As we progress with development, we should, and must leave no one behind. Together let’s change the office from its traditional stature, to one that is open and accommodating for all, including babies and their mothers.



I 45






Human capital Kenya’s economy has over the last decade seen incredible growth posting an annual GDP growth rate above 4.5% save for the impact of the post election violence in 2007 and 2008. Most of the growth has been driven by private sector expansion, increased government spending on infrastructure and the devolution. Despite this growth however, most businesses continue to stagnate on two fronts; expansion and employment. This is despite the fact that our institutions of higher learning continue to churn out hundreds of thousands of graduates every year. BY GEORGE WANYOIKE


o resolve this Kenya needs to consider the most important factor of all, human capital development. This needs to be done from a more analytic perspective by considering and comparatively linking both tertiary and higher learning institutes to the job market. Human Capital is the measure of the economic value of an employee’s skill set to the business. Skill set varies from one employee to another. The quality of employees can be improved by investing in them;

their education, experience and abilities to add value to the employer and the economy in general. THE GREATEST RISK OF ALL The oldest dilemma in skill set development has always been weighing the risk between investment in employee skill development and failure to invest in skills development. The the modern context it has always been relayed as a conversation between a CFO and CEO: CFO: What happens if we invest in developing our people and they leave us? CEO: What if we don’t and they stay? However, the question in older than most civilizations and is born out of two fears, the fear of losing control and the fear of keeping control at the cost of progress. As human beings began to build communities, they found themselves in need of both physical and food security, on the one hand they needed to hunt or gather more to sustain the community and on the other they needed to protect the community. As time went on we developed tools and weapons and the stronger your tools and weapons the more sustainable the community became. To meet the two needs humanity began to specialize into food producers and protectors and



I 47


over time tool producers. Thus the apprentice was born and from generation to generation skills were passed down until communities grew into kingdoms and governance was established to settle disputes. Today the business that does not invest in training its employees is doomed to fail, for much like our predecessors a King who refuses to train his soldiers in battle for fear of mutiny will soon be overthrown by a rival kingdom. The more we equip our work force, the higher the level of productivity within the business and as such the economy. To this end we need to put in place interventions at two levels, student and workforce. STUDENT LEVEL As it stands, most graduates who were trained with the mindset that they would ably fill emerging opportunities within various sectors of the economy, remain unemployed and to some extent unemployable. This is despite the billions of shillings spent by both state actors and parents on attaining various levels of education and skill development. Some employers prefer more seasoned employees inferring that they value experience over all else. The net effect has been a bias against fresh graduates regardless of their training in various institutions creating a generational gap within the workforce and crippling the economy’s ability to impart experience and expertise on graduates. Businesses are however not to blame for the creation of this gap, but rather the mismatch between the educational system and the needs of the job market. The gap is a creation of a traditional preference for certain skills without giving due consideration to their long term relevance or life of those already employed or applying the skill. To fix the gap we need to project both current and future trends within the job market and drive those in institutions of higher learning and technical institutes towards that demand. For instance, who many doctors, nurses, engineers, mechanics, electricians, accountants and so on and so on do we need over the next ten years? Can we afford to sustain these skills both financially and in application? To solve the problem, we need to inspire our children to pick careers not because those around them seem successful today or get employed faster, but because the career they pick will not only be in demand in future but will also make them competitive. Today’s job market calls for both innovation and the application of new technology




Businesses need to invest in upskilling their employees to enable them remain competitive and marketable. We need to consider their ability to specialize and remain relevant in their fields by subsidizing the cost of retraining and acquisition of new skill.

that most of our institutions of higher learning are yet to teach or adopt. On average, most Kenyan businesses offered three month internships to bridge the gap between institutions of learn and the work place, today most businesses take and average of six to nine months to train new graduates and induct them into the system making it both easier and preferable to experienced workers as opposed to fresh graduates. WORKFORCE LEVEL We have a lot of our home grown human capital being applied more effective abroad because those in the various fields see better appreciation for their skill set in foreign land than in their own country. Pilots, Doctors, Nurses to mention but a few, have opted to work abroad for the sole reason that, their skill set is going to be improved. Most of the employees who have the exposure of working abroad poses a more refined skill set since they are more exposed and tend to be more aggressive. They are looking to perfect their skill set to suite international or even global standards. Businesses need to invest in upskilling their employees to enable them remain competitive and marketable. We need to consider their ability to specialize and remain relevant in their fields by subsidizing the cost of retraining and acquisition of new skill. There are many factors that would impede positive productivity among those in employment. When an employer becomes ignorant to the needs of their employees, apathy sets in and gradually begins to affect performance within the organization. Measures ought to be put in place to curb unnecessary hitches in productivity within the workforce. Key measures that need to be put in place to boost productivity include; worthwhile compensation, health care, career advancement opportunities and upskilling. Though most employers consider compensation and salary increments expensive and unsustainable in the

long term, there are other options such as bonuses and performance based rewards that can not only attract but also retain skilled employees. As for the employees, they too have a role to play to ensure that they meet the expected output and perform at an optimum level. The success of the business is intertwined with their ability to perform, if the business fails then they too are rendered jobless. In this regard, employees need to apply a certain level of work ethic to ensure the business not only succeeds but remains sustainable. Once absorbed into an organization, it is paramount to be the best at the respective area one has been assigned. There ought to be no laxity or hesitation in ensuring the execution of assigned roles and responsibilities. There should be amicable ways to deal with challenges and disputes between the employer and the employee. As there are guidelines; rules and regulations that have been set to ensure the smooth running of any organization. Both the employer and employee should adhere to these guidelines so as to avoid unnecessary qualms which would result in the wastage valuable working hours. EMPLOYEE OBLIGATION While it is important for employers to focus on human capital development and offer training programs for employees, employees are duty bound to seek out opportunities to develop their skills. Employers and business owners will always have the option to fire and hire at will, but employees may never have the same power. As such employees need to study and forecast trends within their industries and areas of expertise. Technology and innovation have over the last century rendered millions of skills obsolete and unfortunately millions more are at risk. While governments have their role to play in policy development and implementation, business owners end employers need to develop a two pronged approach to human capital development; on the one hand they need to drive policy makers towards the development of sound policies to enable their businesses and the wider economy remain competitive, and on the other the responsibility to invest both in human capital development and upskilling of their workforce. In the end however Human capital development and upskilling is a personal choice that each and every individual needs to invest in and as such it falls upon employees and students to determine their own course of action.



Making innovation culture a way of life

for business

In a rapidly evolving landscape where disruption is increasingly becoming the “new normal�, businesses will have to cast their nets wider in search of new ideas to drive growth and profitability. The insurance industry is no exception given the changes being witnessed in the financial services sector as technological and regulatory risks multiply. Some of the best ideas will come from within organisations, even from unexpected sources. For that to happen, we must foster a culture of innovation

BY MUEMA MUTINDI CEO, Kenya Orient Insurance Limited

Innovation is a pre-requisite for developing better products that are responsive to consumer needs. From an insurance perspective, innovation also helps break barriers to inclusion and access. Most people hardly view insurance as a financial product yet the ultimate goal is to provide financial security to individuals and businesses against risks. Muema Mutindi






n the fourteenth century, in a city called Florence in modern day Italy, something very interesting happened. A wealthy family of bankers known as the Medicis assembled and funded a motley group of individuals from a wide range of professions – sculptors, scientists, poets, philosophers, painters and architects. The ensuing vibrant confluence of brilliant minds and ideas from diverse disciplines sparked one of the most creative epochs in human history – the Renaissance. Six hundred years later, a Swedish-American entrepreneur named Frans Johannson, described this phenomenon as the “Medici Effect” – the intersection of different cultures and disciplines leading to a creative revolution that ushered in a new world of ideas whose impact is felt by humanity till today. In a world where organisations, businesses and companies are grappling with how to remain relevant in the face of disruptive ideas, we can learn many lessons from the Medici family: diverse opinions, ideas and disciplines can be harnessed to fuel significant shifts in thinking in society. That’s precisely what innovation entails – not just new ideas but fostering the right environment for those ideas to thrive no matter where they originate. Organisations including businesses have to increasingly nurture a culture of innovation if they hope to navigate the conundrum of uncertainty brought on by disruption. It matters not what industry one is in. No business or industry is immune to the existential threats lurking in the form of new products, competitors and business models. Dramatic shifts may come from outside a particular industry. Think how M-Pesa a telco product fundamentally changed banking in Kenya. Uber and Airbnb are examples of how cross-cutting ideas can upend traditional industries in this case transport and hospitality. It was Google not the auto industry that developed the concept of the “driverless” car. To be innovative requires asking some hard questions. The job description of every business leader is of course to constantly seek answers to the challenges facing his company but as management guru Peter Drucker noted, “The important and difficult job is never to find the right answers, it is to find the right question.” That essentially defines innovation.

changing risks of business. In other words, insurance firms are worried not just about the disruptive nature of innovation (technology, competition etc.) but more importantly finding new ways to price risk, engage consumers, enhance efficiency and grow market share.

At Kenya Orient, we have a Code of Conduct that identifies innovation as a key pillar of our business. We value diversity and work to be creative. Each employee is encouraged and expected to explore new and exciting ways of accomplishing tasks and above all, delivering real value to customers. UNEXPECTED SOURCES At the heart of the new thinking on innovation is the notion that creative ideas do not necessarily have to come from the top rather from different and sometimes unexpected sources within the organisation. Johansson argues this is only made possible by finding the right intersection of disciplines and cultures. Thus by cultivating the “Medici Effect” –that vibrant intersection of ideas and cultures - organisations can empower their employees to drive the innovation process. This requires breaking down the barriers imposed by silos operating within the organisation. Silo mentality kills the free sharing of ideas from one corner or level of the organisation to the other. Traditionally, the insurance industry has been described as slow in adopting new ideas. Insurers are often accused of selling the same products only with different tags. There’s little differentiation of the insurance commodity. That is however changing with the entry of new technologies that are dramatically altering how we engage with consumers. A survey conducted by consulting firm PwC in 2015 identified the “ability to change” as the biggest concern for insurance executives globally when it comes to the role of innovation in meeting the

In Kenya, where the insurance market is becoming increasingly competitive with the entry of new players and looming threat of disruption, innovation especially driven by technological changes, will play a central role in addressing suck risks. Things like cloud computing, mobile phones, online/digital platforms and other emerging technologies will profoundly influence the creation of new insurance products, services and business models. Innovation is a pre-requisite for developing better products that are responsive to consumer needs. From an insurance perspective, innovation also helps break barriers to inclusion and access. Most people hardly view insurance as a financial product yet the ultimate goal is to provide financial security to individuals and businesses against risks. By making insurance more accessible and affordable – through innovations like mobile and internet platforms – we empower more people to achieve financial security. In other words, insurance is not just about settling claims. It transcends this narrow scope, where a client whose premises has been gutted by a fire is quickly put back into business. WAY OF LIFE Weaving the sometimes chaotic tapestry of creative ideas into a coherent process requires a new approach underpinned by an internal culture that encourage rather than stifles new ideas no matter how unconventional. Innovation becomes more than just a buzzword bandied at strategy meetings; instead it evolves into a way of life embraced by all employees within the organisation. At Kenya Orient, we have a Code of Conduct that identifies innovation as a key pillar of our business. We value diversity and work to be creative. Each employee is encouraged and expected to explore new and exciting ways of accomplishing tasks and above all, delivering real value to customers. Building a culture of innovation is the best way to keep the ideas and creativity flowing. Finding the right point or plane where ideas mesh into a creative driving force permeating the entire organisation is, like the Medicis achieved six centuries ago, the trigger to great leaps in human thinking.



I 51



Leadership summit on competitiveness, nationhood & peaceful elections


he Kenya Private Sector Alliance (KEPSA) in partnership with the two Houses of Parliament – the Senate and National Assembly – convened a two-day leadership Summit at the Leisure Lodge Resort, Diani, Kwale County from 2nd - 3rd December 2016 to deliberate on the forthcoming August 2017 General Elections. The focus of the Summit was on ensuring peaceful, free, fair and credible elections. The Summit was attended by various leaders led by H.E. the President, Hon. Uhuru Kenyatta, Cabinet Secretaries and Permanent Secretaries, Members of both Houses of Parliament led by Rt. Hon. Ekwee Ethuro and Rt. Hon. Justin Muturi, the Judiciary, Governors of County Governments, Development Partners, religious leaders, political leaders, Civil Society and members of KEPSA led by the Chair, Amb. Dennis Awori.



I 55


Group photo with H.E. President Uhuru Kenyatta during the 2nd Leadership Summit held in Diani, Kwale County from 2nd-3rd December 2016

H.E. President Uhuru greets some of the guests during the 2nd Leadership Summit held in Kwale County from 2nd -3rd December 2016.

MKenya Daima Co-Chair Mr. Polycarp Igathe displays the Peace Pledge signed by H.E. President Uhuru Kenyatta during the 2nd Leadership Summit held in Kwale County from 2nd3rd Dec 2016




KEPSA CEO Ms. Carole Kariuki gives her remarks during the Leadership Summit held in Kwale County from 2nd -3rd December 2016


SUPKEM Sec. Gen. Sheikh Adan Wachu addressing participants during the 2nd Leadership Summit held in Kwale County

Tetu MP Ndung’u Gethenji addressing stakeholders during the 2nd Leadership Summit in Kwale County

Kenya Red Cross Secretary General Dr. Abbas Gullet during the 2nd Leadership summit held from 2nd -3rd December 2016

Narc-Kenya party leader Martha Karua addressing participants during the 2nd Leadership Summit held in Kwale County

Women politicians dance to the ‘Tushangilie Kenya’ song during the 2nd Leadership Summit held in Kwale County from 2-3rd December 2016 Kwale County Governor Salim Mvurya addressing stakeholders during the 2nd Leadership Summit held in Kwale County from 2nd -3rd December 2016

Danish Ambassador to Kenya Ambassador Mette Knudsen during the 2nd Leadership Summit from 2nd-3rd Dec 2016 in Kwale County



I 57


BUSINESS MEMBERSHIP ORGANIZATIONS (BMOs) African Women in Agribusiness Network-Kenya Chapter

Kenya Association of Air Operators

Organization of Women in International Trade (Nairobi Chapter)

Agricultural Employers' Association

Kenya Association of Independent International Schools

Agrochemicals Association of Kenya

Kenya Association of Manufacturers

Petroleum Institute of East Africa

American Chamber of Commerce (K) Limited

Kenya Association of Tour Operators

Private Sector Youth Federation

Kenya Association of Travel Agents

Producers' Guild of Kenya

Kenya Association of Women Business Owners

Protective Security Industry Association

Association of Chartered Certified Accountants Association of Consulting Engineers of Kenya Association of Gaming Operators Kenya Association of Insurance Brokers of Kenya Association of Kenya Insurers Association of Practitioners in Advertising Association of Public Relations and Communication Management Association of Small and Medium Energy Contractors

Kenya Association of Women in Tourism Kenya Auto Bazaar Association Kenya Forex and Remittance Association

Safaricom Dealers Association

Kenya Healthcare Federation

Seed Trade Association of Kenya

Kenya Institute of Supplies Management

Shippers Council of Eastern Africa

Kenya International Freight & Warehousing Association

Society of Crop Agribusiness Advisors of Kenya (SOCAA)

Kenya IT & Outsourcing Services

Technology Service Providers Association of Kenya

Clean Cookstoves Association of Kenya

Kenya Motor Repairers Association

Courier Industry Association of Kenya

Kenya National Farmers' Federation

Delegation of German Industry & Commerce in Kenya

Kenya Oil & Gas Association

East African Tea Trade Association

Kenya Property Developers Association

East African Venture Capital Association

Kenya Renewable Energy Association

Eastern Africa Grain Council

Kenya Security Industry Association

Environment Institute OF Kenya

Kenya Ships Agents Association

Federation of Kenya Employers

Kenya Tea Growers Association

Federation of Women Entrepreneurs Associations

Kenya Tourism Federation

Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya Institute of Certified Public Secretaries of Kenya

Kenya Private Schools Association

Kenya Water Industry Association Marketing & Social Research Association Marketing Society of Kenya Media Owners Association of Kenya Micro& Small Enterprises Federation

Institution of Engineers of Kenya

Motorcycle Assemblers Association of Kenya

Institution of Surveyors of Kenya

Music Associations Alliance of Kenya

Inter-County Young Entrepreneurs and Professionals Association

National Association of Private Universities of Kenya

Kenya Agribusiness and Agroindustry Alliance

National Potato Council of Kenya




Retail Trade Association of Kenya Roads & Civil Engineering Contractors Association

British Chambers of Commerce Kenya

Global Innovations Society of Kenya

Responsible Drinks Companies Association

Kenya Bankers Association

Kenya Motor Industry Association


Outdoor Advertising Association (K)

Oil & Gas Contractors Association of Kenya

TEEP Kenya Chapter The Architectural Association of Kenya The Automobile Associatio of Kenya The Chartered Institute of Arbitrators The Kenya Chamber of Mines Company The Kenya Flower Council United Business Association


CORPORATES MEMBERSHIP Accurite Diagnostics Limited

Deacons Kenya Limited

Infinity Industrial Park Limited

Actis Africa Limited

Deloitte Limited

Infoparts Limited

Advantage Financial S.A

Desbro Engineering Limited

Interconsult Engineers Limited

Africa Practice East Africa Limited

Dow Chemical East Africa

International School of Advertising

African Banking Corporation

East African Breweries Limited

Ipsos Limited

Agri Experience Limited

Eastern Produce Kenya Limited

iWay Africa Kenya Limited

AIG Kenya Insurance Company Limited

Engen Kenya Limited

Jamii Telecommunications Limited

Airtel Networks Kenya Limited

English Press Limited

Jungle Group Holdings Limited

Akiira Geothermal Limited

Esri Eastern Africa

Kaluworks Limited

Aldwych Africa Development Limited

Express Communications Company Limited

Kenergy Renewables Limited

Amotech East Africa Limited

Fairmont Hotels and Resorts Kenya

Kengas Link Limited

Apec Consortium Limited

Financial & Property Consultants Limited

Kenwest Cables Limited

Ashleys Kenya Limited

Freight Forwarders Kenya Limited

Kenya Bus Service Management Limited

Atlas Copco Eastern Africa Limited

Frontier Investment Management Africa Limited

Kenya Kazi Services Limited

Avenue Healthcare Limited Bamburi Cement Limited Base Titanium Limited BAT Kenya Limited Bidco Africa Limited Bio Food Products Limited Biogas Company of Kilifi Limited Blackberry House Limited Blue Sky Films EPZ Limited Bollore Africa Logistic Kenya Limited Bonjour Institute Brands and Beyond Limited Bridgenet Global Consulting Limited Bright Vision Media Limited Brookside Dairy Limited Centum Investment Company Limited CFC Stanbic Bank Chase Bank Limited Citibank N.A Civicon Limited Coca Cola East & Central Africa Control Risks East Africa Limited Cooper K-Brands Limited CPF Financial Services Limited Davis & Shirtliff Limited

Fusion Capital Limited G4S Kenya Limited Galana Oil Kenya Limited Gapco Kenya Limited GE East Africa Services Limited General Motors East Africa Limited Genghis Capital Limited Geonet Communications Limited Gertrude's Garden Children's Hospital Global Primetime Solutions Good Testimony Junior School Google Kenya Limited Grain Industries Limited Grant Thornton Consulting Limited Gumbo & Associates Haco Tiger Brands E.A. Limited Heineken East Africa Import Company Hesbro Engineering Limited Heva Fund Limited Home Afrika Limited Hospitality Systems Consultants Housing Finance Human Capital Synergies Africa Limited IBM East Africa Limited

Kenya Markets Trust Kenya Pipeline Company Limited KN Associates LLP Advocates KPMG Kenya Kroll Associates UK Limited KTDA Management Services Limited Kuguru Food Complex Limited KUSCCO Limited Liaison Group (I.B) Limited Liquid Telecommunications Kenya Limited Longitude Finance Lukenya Schools - Boys Mabati Rolling Mills Limited Maersk Kenya Limited Marubeni Corporation Mathara Holdings Limited Mckinsey & Company MEA Limited M-KOPA Kenya Limited Mobius East Africa Limited Multichoice Kenya Limited Nairobi Bottlers Limited NIC Bank Limited Nicky Consultants Limited Oakar Services Limited



I 61



Standard Chartered Bank

Octagon Pension Services Limited

Steam Plant Limited

Oil & Energy Services Limited

Stima Sacco Society Limited

Omnex Trading Company Limited

Sunesis Consulting Limited

On Acre Fund

Suraya Property Limited

Optiven Limited

Synergy Industrial Credit Limited

Oracle Corporation

Tata Chemicals Magadi Limited

Osho Chemical Industries Limited

Telkom Kenya Limited

Panari Hotel

The Cooper Motor Corporation

Pevans East Africa Limited

The Copy Cat Limited

Pewin Cabs Limited

The Nairobi Hospital

PKF Kenya

The Riara Group of Schools Limited

PricewaterhouseCoopers Limited

The Standard Group Limited

PrideGroup Kenya

The Wrigley Company (E.A.) Limited

Procter & Gamble

TIFA Research Limited

Qalaa Holdings

Toyota Kenya Limited

Quest Holdings Limited

Transcend Media Group Limited

Questworks Limited

Tsusho Capital (Kenya) Limited

Resolution Health Limited

Tullow Oil

responsAbility Africa Limited

Tusker Mattresses Limited

Rift Valley Railways (Kenya) Limited

Twiga Chemicals Industries Limited

Riverside Place Limited

UAP Insurance Company Limited

RSM Eastern Africa

Uber Kenya Limited

Safari Park Hotel & Casino

Ultravetis East Africa Limited

Safaricom Limited

Unilever Kenya Limited

SAP East Africa

Verve K.O. Limited

Sarova Hotels Limited

Vestas Deutschland GmbH

Sasini Limited

Virgin Tours Limited

Savannah Cement Limited

VISA International Service Association

Scania East Africa Limited

Vivo Energy Kenya Limited

Scion Real Estate Limited

WildlifeDirect Kenya Limited

Senaca East Africa Limited Seven Seas Technologies Limited SGS Kenya Limited Simba Corporation Limited SNC-LAVALIN Sodexo Pass International Sowitec Kenya Limited Stan Consulting Group Limited





ONGEA NA FROTCOM 0727 654 111 W W W. F ROTC O M .C O M


Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you