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I found this article. The pictures show what happens to a lot of our electronic waste - it is shipped out to the developing world This shows a riverside where circuit boards were treated with acid and burned openly. Massive amounts of dumping of imported computer waste takes place along the riverways. Guiyu, China 3rd world workers take apart old computers to try and scrape a living - foreign policy online article - waste is shipped overseas and the poor make a living from disassembling the parts - it is highly dangerous work, exposing them to heavy metals and toxins.

http://www.foreignpolicy. com/story/cms.php?story_ id=3807&print=1

matt_willox/ I saw therse pictures online and thought it is amazing how much electronic waste is created. The pictures show (anti-clockwise from top: mobile phones, chargers, circuit boards, 426,000 cell phones, equal to the number of cell phones retired in the US every day. EVERY DAY! I wanted to find out more about the disposal of all our gadgets and after some more clicking about....

This is an article taken from a canadian website so the figures are all for canada but the situation is definately the same here in the UK - we don’t recycle electronic products. Why is this?

Pop bottles and plastic grocery bags are quickly being outpaced by consumer electronics and household accessories as the dominant waste stream in the developed world. Since these new waste sources are complex assemblies that do not lend themselves to reuse or recycling, simply planning end-of-life strategies are not enough. We need to develop prod-

ucts which acknowledge that they will someday die. technology/3543839.stm

Mobile phones are now the most ubiquitous portable technology item, with 86% of all adults using them, according to Mintel’s Internet Quarterly – UK, December 2006 The main phenomenon of note is that in the past year, spread of usage has ground to a halt. Therefore, the market is almost completely based on replacement and becomes a much harder one to sell to, since the primary motive for replacement is improved functionality and design - phones are upgraded on average every 18 months.


National Statistics: Digital technology is relatively new, yet it is already approaching the near universal ownership levels of older technologies. The ownership of consumer durables in the UK continued to increase into 2005-06. The proportion of households owning a home computer rose from 62 per cent to 65 per cent between 2004-05 and 2005-06 In January to April 2006, 30 per cent had a portable or laptop computer, and 7 per cent had a handheld computer There are a range of functions available on mobile phones and these are continually being developed. By July 2005, 66 per cent of adults in Great Britain had sent a text message and 68 per cent had received one, while 28 per cent had sent a picture or photo using their mobile phone and 27 per cent had received one. In January to April 2006, 30 per cent of households possessed a mobile phone that could access the Internet, up from 20 per cent in April 2003 0,1000000308,2122756,00.htm Recycling venture aims to scale mobile phone mountain The British government lent its support on Tuesday to a new environmental scheme that is aiming to reuse or recycle the stockpile of 90 million mobile phones lying unused in the UK -- a pile that is expanding by up to 15 million per year. The Fonebak scheme is the first mobile phone recycling scheme to involve all five of the UK’s mobile phone operators as well as the Dixons Group of retail stores. It claims to benefit both business and the environment, and if successful it should significantly reduce the amount of potentially harmful waste produced by the mobile phone industry.

“Our solutions are focused on two key areas: the reuse of mobile phones unlocking excellent residual value, and secure materials recycling for end-of life equipment. A mobile is not just for Christmas The big mobile phone manufacturers agreed this week at a United Nations conference to make their handsets easier to recycle In the UK, about 15 million mobile phones are bought each year. Over 75% of the UK population owns one or more mobiles, which they replace on average every 18 months - but only 10% of owners consider recycling their phones. Manufacturers have set up a scheme called Fonebak, which allows customers to return unwanted phones for re-use or recycling; many are sent to developing countries that have poor land based communication systems.

The increasing disposability of consumer electronics and appliances is troubling environmentally, and socially. But it is not going un-addressed in the design world. “Major consumer electronics companies -- from Panasonic to Phillips -- are re-vamping their lines to make disassembly for recycling, and the remaining disposal as easy, cheap, and safe as possible. Features like low or no-lead solder, modular electronics boards, snap-fit rather than glued joints, and included instructions for disassembly make it easier for the dead product to have a new life.

I want to find out what else is being done at the moment to address the problem of ewaste, what materials? I found this website which shows what solutions might be used for future green devices gnvcm1000004eecbccdrcrd.html

Blueprint for a Green Laptop

In 2009, worldwide laptop sales are expected to surpass desktop sales for the first time—reaching more than 150 million. Most people will keep a laptop for just three years or so before shelving it or tossing it onto a junk heap. Here’s how designers plan to make this ubiquitous gadget more eco-friendly across its entire life span, from manufacture to recycling. PROBLEM: Petroleum-filled plastic SOLUTION: Make cases from corn New bioplastics—plant-based polymers—require less oil and energy to produce than traditional plastics. One challenge: upping heat resistance so electronics won’t melt them. Fujitsu makes a laptop with a half-natural, half conventional case and is now testing a castor-oil plastic that’s up to 80 percent bio-content. Kara Johnson, Director of Materials at IDEO, explained in a materials lecture at Stanford that the future is bright, but 100% PLA has a long way to go before being able to meet the engineering requirements for consumer electronics, especially toughness, flame retardancy, and glass transition temperature The world’s first 100% biodegradable computer components have arrived from MicroPro, a company based in Dublin, Ireland who produces eco-friendly computers, keyboards, mice and flat-panel monitors. They have a modular design and are easily upgradable, low power (35W rather than 300W of normal computers) You You can bury them in the ground and they will go back into the soil within 3 years.


Residual value: phones have raw material value, but also residual value. If they still work they can still be used. Maybe for another purpose? I remember seeing something about using old mobile phones to make other electronic products like alarms and security cameras in the design futures part of uni - I should contact them about it.

BUG is a collection of easy-to-use electronic modules that snap together to build any gadget you can imagine. Each BUGmodule represents a specific gadget function (ex: a camera, a keyboard, a video output, etc). You decide which functions to include and BUG takes care of the rest letting you try out different combinations quickly and easily. With BUG and the integrated programming environment/web community (BUGnet), anyone can build, program and share innovative devices and applications. We don’t define the final products - you do. BUGmodules are the functional components used to add capabilities to your BUG device. Each module connects to the BUGbase, and installing and swapping modules is literally a snap. Each additional module exponentially increases the overall function of your BUG, and every combination unlocks virtually unlimited new potential devices.


Modular Multimedia device It’s composed of an LCD screen that acts as a base for a multitude of media modules. By snapping those modules on, you further extend the Lobster’s features. The cool thing about the segmented design is it makes a perfect arm band, that is if you add enough modules.


tutorial 10 Jan

>majority of people will be swayed by cost of energy saving devices rather than the environmental benefits >concentration on people over technology >roll up toolkit >working as one person, going out at night, completely different >find users in which the contrast is most prominant >or users who will require lots of different functions >draw and make >what is the metaphor >link to nature, natural world >lego

Emotional design: why we love and hate everyday things 3 levels of design - visceral, behavioural, reflective Visceral - looks, first impact Behavioural - how it works, feels, during use Reflective: how it makes the user feel, think, after use Things do work better if they look good Products can be loved because they look good (visceral) even if they don’t work well or at all (behavioural) this way they appeal on a different level that provokes ideas and discussion (reflective)

more meaningful interaction, relationship with products product that acknowledges that someday it will die shows age, growing older enriched and improved over time shows where it has been develops through interaction and new experiences evolves time invested is rewarded

these books helped my to think differently about how we interact with products - the psycology involved. This goes beyond just environmentally friendly materials and production methods to look at consumerism, why we buy new products so often - even when the old ones are still working and perfectly usable. They suggest a more sustainable alternative, designing to create a long lasting relationship that will result in keeping products for longer - and less consumerism and waste too. I think that this idea will become more poular - businesses will like it - building up relationships means more repeat sales and the increasing awaremess of our impact on the environment will encourage people to reduce the amount of waste they produce.


Emotionally durable design

metaphors: There are so many possibilities for this product - loads of different metaphors going on at the same time. I need to break them all down and define what is what. Product - Product relationship The first metaphor is modularity. What is the relationship between the different parts of the product? And between the products themselves? There are 2 ways I see that this could be represented: Modules are normally blocky, with fuctional shapes, lego like - and this can be a really good metaphor, easy to understand. It could be represented with things like: >building blocks >bricks >dominoes >cogs and gears >jigsaws >plumbing >electric circuits However - i think there is an opportunity to represent the environmentally friendly aspect of the product by refrencing nature in the styling and form. There are lots of modular parts of plants that are suitable: >flowers and petals >stems and leaves >daisy chains >fruits and seeds >bamboo This would give it added significance and meaning - providing the visual clues to modularty whilst also reminding the user of the environmentally friendly materials, production methods etc. prehaps give a sense of being in touch with nature and being part of a bigger whole. Materials will also be important, not just form, colours etc. Another way of thinking about it is a kind of kit form - one where the connection is not neccessary physical but with a sense of different parts belonging together to form the whole. Things like: >toolbox, spanners, screwdrivers, screws, allenkeys, hammers etc. >pencil case, pencils, pens, eraser, ruler etc.

These are interesting in that they do not have to connect physically, but they count as one item as they are kept together. Product - User relationship The next metaphor is to convey the relationship of user and product. The idea of symbiosis interests me -defined as “the living together of unlike organisms� The best exampes of this can be seen in nature. Plants and animals that use each other for mutual benefit. There are different kinds of relationships as well: mutualism - where both species benefit. Commensalism - where one benefits and the other is not significantly harmed or helped. Parasitism - one derives benefit, the other is harmed Examples of these different relationships: >tree and airflower >sea anemones and clownfish >shark and pilotfish >hermit crab and gastropod shells Other examples of relationships, where there is some degree of love involved. Emotional design was about how the user chersihes the product and builds up a meaningful relationship with it, loves it. Examples: >friend >family >companion >pet Other things that are loved and cherished...examples from existing products: >jewellery >expensive things generally >houses and cars especially People care for their cars - wash them every sunday, replace parts and upgrade them - same as houses, people add bits on, get new kitchens. the house provides them with shelter, in return, they clean and repair the house. the car provides transport if the user refuels and maintains the car. in both cases people choose to add to, upgrade their purchases. conservatories for example.


>knife, fork, spoon, plate

Blocks and lego are really good modular shapes - legos snap together with the raised bits on top fitting to the underneath of the next block this way they can only be joined in a set number of ways.

Daisy chains, flower petals and bunches of flowers are all good metaphors from nature for different types of modularity.


tutorial 17 Jan

>casual staying in touch >how it responds to you and you to it >peltier - cools down chips in computers, moves heat >could be used to convey deeper feelings >vibration, heat, sound, smell >text was a suprise technology - staying in touch easily >tribal, pack instincts, where is your tribe? your roots?

The pilot fish’s relationship with sharks is a mutualist one; the pilot fish gains protection from predators, while the shark gains freedom from parasites


This airplant grows near the top of trees in the rainforest - it uses the tree’s height to grow above the branches which obscure the sunlight. The tree is not harmed, the airplant only uses it for anchorage.

Jewellery is interesting - it is precious sometimes - often it is used as a means of personal expression - an add on. Personal technology is increasingly used as a means of personal expression - and technological items that reference jewellery have become more common - gold plated, diamond encrusted versions of regular products, but also music players worn round the neck, or as a bracelet. They extend the body physically and the personality mentally. What other means of personal expression could be referenced? >hair style >clothes >body mods - piercings, tattoos etc These things say something about a person, their personality and lifestyle. polynesian peoples believe that a person’s mana, their spiritual power or life force, is displayed through their tattoo. Connections: devices like mobile phones and computers connect us to our friends, family etc. If we lose our phone, we feel cut off from them, like a part of us is missing. This representation of the connection could be taken even further to suggest that, as your family and friends are represented through the device, the device is your family and your friends. - this ties into the relationship metaphor, creating a bond with the device. There are different groups that a person is part of: >Family >Friends >Business contacts This links in to personal expression - people behave differently when talking to these different groups - become a different person Clothes, hair etc. change depending on the context of the situation. It is also interesting to think about what is displayed or hidden in different situations - eg. hiding tattoos and taking out piercings to appear more formal - suit, tie, vs. tshirt, jeans. Behaviour, attitude and language change depending on the situation, less is conveyed if a person wishes to appeal neutral on formal occasions. The metaphor of connection to your virtual self is a very good one - people are increasingly online for more and more things - entertainment, work, shopping - and the link to the internet is becoming increasingly important. The internet is vast - our computer/phone is the connection to it. It could be seen as a lifeline - possible references: >satellites connect the internet >synapses connect the brain

Memories Your virtual, digital self also includes all your digital files - they make up what consists of “you� in the digital world. Your photos, music, emails, movies, and so on. If you looked at a persons digital life, you could learn a lot about them, their likes, dislikes, interests, where they have been and what they have done. Photos are displayed in albums or a frame - providing an extension to the memory with a physical version. What extensions of memory are there? >photo album, frame (photographers) >diary, notepad, book (writers) >sketchbook, paintings (artists) >souvineirs There are also things which trigger memories - they are very difficult to judge right as it depends on the individual and the links they form - different people percive the same thing in many different ways. An example of this could be a smell which reminds someone of a certain place or event. >smells scars remind people of where, how, why they got it. scars can enhance, be worn like a badge of honour. a collection of scars would show the history of a product, there would a story surrounding each one - triggering memories of past events, a tattoo does the same thing - people get tattoos to remember people and of certain times, events in their lives. >scars >tattoos scars and tattoos, other body mods are used in tribal culture to denote rank or status.


>portal connects to another place/time >plugs and wires connect electricity >gears and cogs connect to each other (metaphor: cog (computer) in the machine (internet) this metaphor crosses over from the modular aspect

Lifecycle The current average phone contract is 12/18 months. 12 months is one year, with 4 seasons. In the 4 seasons, nature goes through changes leaves turn brown and fall from trees etc. The product could be affected by the seasons - enhances the link with nature - the product lifecycle matches the cycles of the seasons. Birth, death, rebirth the next year. The product would evolve as well - giving the sense that it has its own free will. This makes for more meaningful user-product relationships (Chapman - emotionally durable design) >spring >summer >autumn >winter RIGHT. glad that writing is done! I want to design concepts to show these different metaphors in a product - starting with the modular metaphors - doing a couple of concepts for each metaphor - some for flower petals, a couple for leaves and so on. I want to build up a large range of ideas and not focus too tightly on one area at this stage. I will then be able evaluate all the different ones to decide which will be most suitable to include/ combine together and take further.

C3RI - cultural, communication and computing research institute. They did some research on mobile phones and sms messaging - some really interesting sounding things like the cultural implications of texting. I sent an email to Simeon Yates who runs the C3RI asking him if I could talk to him about the project.


Tues 22 Jan


tutorial 24 Jan

>things that you learn to love >tattoo-in technology >RFID embedded in bodies >Split personality - who you are talking to, what you feel like >Answering phone - different when unknown number >Zippo lighter - more time spent with, gets well known >how do you bond with something? >Eaves aluminum chair >quality of material important >Identify objects that we love - jeans jewelry, hair, trainers >wear in not out >trancend fashion >cocksedge, paul - famous! stroke light switch >materials and things that people love - character

Eames 'Time Life' lobby chair, c1977 A great example of a vintage 'Time Life' chair with manual tilt adjustment. Overall the dark brown leather is wonderfully aged, but the arm pads are very cracked. Date stamped 'May 1977'. ÂŁ795.00


Things that people love: 01 Here are some things that I have a strong attatchment to. From top: my dad’s old leather jacket, into which he has rather badly sewn in another denim jacket. Super warm and retro cool, it makes me feel like i am stepping back in time. It is nicely worn, stitching ripped in places - it is older than me! The plant is mine, I got it when i moved into the room. It stays in my room at home - I only see it when I go back to visit. I get to see how much it has grown whilst I have been away and I change its water when I can. It just about survives and I like how robust it is - a lazy pet!

Things that people love: 02 Alex Heath: dreads

Why? I like the maintainance side, the responsibility of upkeep - like a pet. They do their own thing, I can only try to guide and nurture them!

What about the look? Obviously they are a kind of visual personality - it is good, they are an icebreaker and helps me meet likeminded people. There are negatives, like when people say stuff but it’s only a problem if you make it. Do you have a favourite dread? I do! DreadWood is big and fat and splits into 3 at the end. 2nd row back on the left is my longest. Original Mutant is the original mutant and reaches the furthest down my back. They are my favourites. Why do you put the beads in? Decoration - customising them, makes them more personal and differerent from other peoples. It breaks up the length and makes them look longer. And predator wears ‘em!

Dave Williams: zippo

Personal Space Always wear them on flights Comforting and reassuring, something familiar Become different person with hood up/ down. People look at you differently because of the assosiation with youth culture. It increases my confidence when I wear it..

Things that people love: 04

Things that people love: 03

Looks nice, almost feminine on the outside, but inside it is very masculine like a gun. The opening and closing action is satisfying - could do it for hours. Reminds me of auto-close drawers in the kitchen. It is comforting almost as well. It warms to body heat in your pocket, so when you take it out to light a cigarrette outside it is warm in your hands. That is nice, with the heat, the light, the fire.

Rory Walsh: hoodies


The fact that alex feels only partially in control of his dreads and they appear to do their own thing makes them seem alive and of their own free will - this reminds me of the book I read earlier. Norman discusses anthropomorphism in his book - “the attribution of human motivations, beliefs and feelings towards animals and inanimate things. The more behaviour something exhibits the more we are apt to do this�

tues 29th I have heard back from simeon yates, I have a meeting with him on the 8th feb. I want to talk to him about communication through sms - the trends, but most importantly the reason for these trends. I want to try and understand why sms is such a popular method of communication.

digital dreams: the work of the sony design centre, Paul Kunkel, 1999

This book is from 1999 but like the Philips future concepts, it is still relevant. This book discusses some of the existing designs but the most interesting tihings are the concepts. They explore ideas that are very suitable for my project - I will highlight these to aid me in coming up with some concepts.

This professional walkman looks really technical - the metal buttons especially - precise. The metal cage around them adds to this. The materials it uses give it some weight, which would make it seem robust, well made. It has gauges and dials. The black, metal colour scheme makes it look serious, the business.

>p19 • elegance - sophisticated, feminine. • personal accessory rather than machine Electronics - we have them with us almost all the time - means they become more than machines - extensions of mind and body.

>p21 • tea ceremony - ritual, tradition, meditative, style and grace • we are master of product, it is there to serve - quiet service The idea of a ritual is one most often associated with vinyl and records a special process that reqires care - strengthens the relatiionship as the actions take time and give the user the time to contemplate the product and how it works etc.


>p17. • sony spirit - sense of craftsmanship, integrity, simplicity and mystery found in great design • how to give mass produced consumer electronics greater quality and value, exclusivity • appeal not only to the factory, but also to humanity • professional - weight, precision

>p24 • super contact - value greater than sum of parts • performing precise function at any given time • hyper micro - parts function on their own and together

This is like the previous concepts I have seen with the buglabs modules. Breaking the functions down into individual parts that can function alone or as part of a multifunctional device if they are combined together. The user can mix and match to suit them at that particular time.

>p26 • must function beatifully and also have a human side • using the product in a playful manner • we must see with more than just our eyes • a product should also draw our hand, create fire in our mind, make us smile when we pick it up • should contantly evolve to ensure we never grow tired of them >p79 • cybershot- users lives complicated and often don’t have time to learn new products or technologies • make products that are as simple and transparant as possible • once you master the product and learn how it works, user discovers secrets (in the shape) the story that the product tells and in details that encourage the fingers to remain long after the shot has been taken

>p106 • car stereo controls - blind interaction • each part has a distinctive shape, texture, feature • contains layers of functionality • learning curve - you eventually master the controls

I like the fact that without a screen, the device takes time to learn - you have to feel your way around - this is rewarded as the user gains control over more and more functions as they learn what each bit does. No screen is more natural - you can do other things - such as drive a car in this case.

>p149 • street style discman • fuse with the body encouraging a sense of total mastery over the product • we now enjoy a new kind of relationship with our equipment • offer more than a plesant experience - provides a psychic involvement with something more powerful than any of us could hope to be >p184 • digital block • miniturising the technology and dividing up components into discrete modules that fit together like lego toys • allows multifunctional products to be assembled using simple and affordable units that customers can purchase over time • users have precisely the product they need


• make holding the product a pleasure to hold - a natural extension of the hand • interaction between hand and object - more than just camera - personal accessory • design encourages play unconciously, absent-minded like clicking and twirling a pen

Digital block is another modular concept - this one from sony is quite playful with its bright colours, reminds me of lego which is the modular inspiration. The devices are quite chunky compared to what is possible today, and massive compared to what will be possible in the future. I like the way the gadget is just its functions - that can be added and removed depending on the occasion and task.

Sony Ericsson phone with detatchable display “Except for the full touchscreen handsets, most mobile phones have two distinct areas - data input UI and display. All the electronics making the phone work go into a phone casing underneath. In most cases, these two areas are in some way connected to form a handset, and can not be used separately. But, when you really think about it, there’s no real necessity to have the phone display and keypad in one piece. And there actually may be some cases, where having detached data input and display areas would make more sense

Paul cocksedge - touch me V&A/wellcome exhibition

“Touch is our most neglected sense. We are always touching something and being touched in return, but we seldom think about it. Scientists know less about the workings of touch than about our other senses.

Touch can produce delightful sensations or uncomfortable reactions. The right touch can make us feel secure, happy, loved. But social taboos and new technologies often seem to get in the way of human contact. Many of our ordinary interactions with the world make poor use of our sense of touch. Using a computer keyboard, flicking a light switch or pushing a door provide few tactile rewards. However, designers are now creating novel objects that engage more playfully with the touch senses. Some explore unexpected materials. Some reinvent how we use objects and technologies in order to produce more satisfying encounters. Some are even creating designs that aspire to promote richer human relationships. These two designs create a more meaningful interaction than just pushing a button or switch - the stem of the flower completes the circuit, switching the light on, turning it off when it is removed or dies. The other light uses graphite pencil as a conductor - the user draws the circuit to switch it on, rub a bit out and the circuit is broken and the light is switched off.

Samsung wristwatch/mobile phone concept The problem with most wristwatch/phone hybrids is that they are too large to be worn on the wrist or too small to use as a phone. This concept has a detatchable part with the phone parts - screen, keypad, speaker etc. the rest is the main processor and main battery etc. Spliting up the parts of the phone makes it more flexible - there are parts of phones that people dont interact with directly - not like screens or speakers - parts like the main processors etc. they can just sit in a pocket and do their job using a wireless link. I think this will be a good way of miniturising gadgets to integrate them more easily around our bodies - lots and little rather than just one larger device.



Students at the Universitiy of Dundee have create six sensual phones “to learn to communicate and interact with each other on a new level.”

“The m:ssage handset facilitates a new level of intimacy between partners. The m:ssage handset comes with its own unique phone number and should be given to a person special to you. You can then send them messages and massaging vibrations. The wood gives the device a much different look and feel than a regular phone - much more luxurious.

The solid elm wood with beeswax finish makes it look nice, but the concept is simple and effective: make your loved one know about your state of mind remotely. It operates by tilting it and it has four faces each representing a different emotion. This sending of emotions and feelings is interesting - sometimes words can’t express what we want to communicate to someone else. This is an area that I would like to discuss with simeon on friday 8th.

Basic and rudimentary organic shapes, inspired from cocoons and caterpillars, are interlocked to form a circle of containers for 8 different spices. Portable, these containers can be taken with you anywhere and everywhere as part of your mobile life. It may even be worn as a necklace. Every module has a different texture for tactile recognition. Manufactured out of polyamide, using Rapid Manufacturing technology a.k.a. rapid resin prototyping. Designer: Hakan Gencol This is a good way of interacting by touch - different textures and finishes. They are all based on the same shape, colour, so they look like they belong together - a good example of a modular product based on touch. Using rapid prototyping is an interesting idea - would be really easy to create complex patterns.


Dimple challenges the conventional “human touch� technology by grafting subconscious instinctive human behavior onto technology. In the pursuit of designing a sensitive feedback for the human senses, we designed an intricate form of a dimpled depression, creating an almost unconscious but sensual occurrence of human nature to reach out for a unique element that titillates the fingertips subtly. Each time we navigate commands of skip and volume up/ down on this portable music player by intuitive fiddling actions of the finger sweeping across and up/down the Dimple player, it seems almost we can touch our music, creating a personal touch to mobile music technology. Designer: Priscilla Lui The lack of controls means that touch is the main interaction with the device. Touch sensitive controls ususally provide no tactile feedback at all - with this design the sensual touch makes it seem personal and intimate. This is something that I want to try and capture in my project.


tutorial 31 Jan

>seiko kinetic watch - goes to sleep if not used - interaction needed >handbag concept - lights up shape of object if not present to remind user it has been forgotten >pockets and handbag >bag of marbles - loose line of connection >put all concepts together >digital block - bit for looking at, bit for charging, bit for... >break down into functions >serious concrete concepts - believeable, understandable

Seiko Kinetic Watch

The movement of the arm on which the watch is worn causes a built-in rotor to rotate, and a gear train multiplies the rotational speed by a factor of approximately 100. This is used to spin a power-generating motor at ultra-high speed. The current that is generated by this motor charges a capacitor. The capacitor supplies the electricity needed to drive the timekeeping circuits

In 1999, Epson created the Kinetic Auto Relay, a new watch with innovative features beyond the kinetic function, including a power-saving function that temporarily stops the hands but keeps time in memory, and a quick-start time relay function that automatically corrects the hands to the current time with just a few shakes.

these could be used when breaking down the functions of the device - if it had ways of sensing things similar to a human it would be easier for the user to be anthropromophic towards it - it can see, it can hear, etc. The 5 senses that humans have are not necessarily the senses that the device should have - is taste or smell needed/ feasable - it should appeal to most senses that we do have but could sense other things that we can’t.

Frog Design and Motorola unveil a new family of wearable devices Sports sunglasses that incorporate a heads-up display, wrist-worn PDAs with full-voice control and intelligent pens that store a digital copy of your handwriting - these devices will form part of an integrated family of wearable devices under development by Motorola and frog design that are expected to reach the market in less than two years

There are other senses that animals have that we do not, such as sharks, fish, bats and birds. Electroception - the ability to detect electric fields Echolocation - like sonar Magnetoception - detect magnetic fields Todays devices can detect how much power they have, when they are connceted to a power source, they can sense all the wi-fi links within range, other computers, phones in the area etc. I will examine the functions of typical devices and try to match them to a sense if possible - some will be easy - screen, camera are sight, speaker, microphone are sound, others might not match up.

the concept wearable electronics range uses a keyless Wearable Digital Assistant (WDA) as the hub, with the individual pieces communicating via Bluetooth. The handheld WDA will utilise full-voice recognition capabilities and a screen interface in place of a keypad. There’s also a clip-on mini digital camera that sends images to the WDA or the wristable immediately after they are captured


Touch - as I have found out, can be used to enhance the product - user bond. What other senses could be used? The nervous system has a sensory system dedicated to each sense: sight // hearing // taste // smell // touch also: temperature // pain // balance and acceleration

The effects of touch: evidence of use. The floor at psalter lane has worn away where generations of designers have been walking up the same stairs, taking the same path - it shows the route that is most often walked - some places are more worn than others. The doors are the same - they have been pushed and pulled many times and the paint has worn through to expose the wood beneath where the handle is - where people have been touching it. The locker is interesting in that it is the lock swinging when people have been closing and opening it that has caused the wear - it would have worn differently if there was a built in lock, a chain had been used instead, or if it had been left open with no lock.

The touch of the human is input... Touch is 2 pats - input is the wear on the device: that is what the human puts into the device, and the feel of the material to the human’s fingers is the output of the device. Input and output. When we interact with a device that is what we are doing - putting something in and getting something out. We affect and we are affected. Touch is one part of this - one sense. The other senses are also input/output. Computers are broken down into input/output - i/o. Take sight - we look at a screen with our eyes, we are looked at by a camera of. The output of the screen, the input of the camera. We put sound in - microphone, get sound out - speakers. So when I am designing my product I should bear in mind that each sense can be split into input/ output and that computers can be broken down the same way.

Computers could be made more human by augementing these senses - digital versions of hearing, touch, sight.


SO! the wear tells a story about the history of that object - how it has been used, for how long and so on. Is there a chance to tell a story through an object by controlling how it wears? There is no exact way of controlling it - the user is ultimately responsible for the touch that creates the wear, but the colour of the layers of paint can be chosen, the materials used could be chosen to wear fast or slow - bits can be made more prominant so they wear quicker etc. This way the wear, and therefore the story is guided in a certain direction - the user is told a story but they have an input into it - they can sit back and let it happen - or take a more active role by changing the pattern of wear and changing the story that is told.


tutorial 7 feb

>rubber membrane: first feel to find...then learn. maybe wear? >thermochromatics: last few seconds, minutes sending text, buttons change - fade back over time -thin bits quicker to heat up, cool down. change shape, change how fast it happens. >thermocromatic polymer membrane >combine with peltier chip? >find thermocromatic company >get it warm to discover where bits are >basic: power, data storage = heart, brain >add screen: becomes a viewer >form metaphors. get some visual reference material >prediction of future trends, concepts, vehicles >diagram explaining project for Simeon.

I have drawn up this digagram to try and explain the main focus of my project when I talk to simeon - if he knows what i am doing, hopefully he will be able to help me better. It also helps me as it lays out everything and shows what parts relate to what - i can kind of take a step back and think about the project as a whole


8 FEB: meeting with simeon yates and ellie lockley

>mobile used to show off when new >you are showing how you are in demand with people who are not there through your mobile. >mobiles are very public when in use >by comparison, have to get very close to see that someone is wearing headphones >hand to head = signal, stops people approaching >social space managed by technology >chris roast; mobile jewellery >usability important >men vs women - different tastes >MIT virtual reality jacket >static spaces - full of media... shift focus between physical and virtual >smaller device means short messages written because its not that easy. device dictates the style of communication >devices interacting with surrounding environment >zerox badge - left at desk to escape, mislead >modality - can’t hold complex sequences of actions in head >tactile info is crude - can’t tell lots of info quickly with touch, can’t be complex >google maps - up, down, out - view to next place >how would a human do it? >what if devices have conflicting demands on the user - 2 things at once - which takes priority? >social science theory - bruno latour - actors/actants >actant network >phone demands attention of user >how to manage work vs play if both at the same time? >could be medical - you need to take your pills >pay for stuff - oyster card >replace keys, money? >which environments are you in? >some people don’t want to look like an MIT geek >form is important - technology/ fashion >should people be aware you have it on you? >it says something about you, your relationship with your technology. prominant displays of technology imply a strong relationship. >people use different functions - some similar, common widely used. >a mobile is a very private posession >the hub could be seen as a given, taken for granted >the bond is formed with what is available through the product >technology has changed what is socially acceptable >bluetooth headsets mistaken for talking to yourself >relationship with technology >face management >virtual vs reality >immersive environments >goffman, sociologist that studied day to day life >when textiing and talking: where is attention. main/ side involvement? >people on the other end don’t know if they are the key focus >different social world than 30 years ago >how many steps to this technology? >embedding technology into the body - completely hidden >change how tech you appear - or not - depending on what you have - how immersed? >no switch off? always on >how to tell if on/ off?

Shown above: Ideo techno jewellery. GPS toes left, right light up to tell you which way to go. More sensitive understanding of what it means to integrate an object into your appearance by wearing it and where, when it will be worn. Kiss communicator by heather martin p209: “what would be the digital equivalent of a wave, wink or kiss? These are messages that are low on factual content but laden with emotional meaning.


Chris Roast: digital jewellery As experience. Four layers 1_the object itself, the aesthetics, materials, which relate to the cultural, personal, social resonance. 2_the text or narrative which accompanies the object, often in the form of a title, name 3_how and where it is presented 4_mode of physical interaction, how it is worn, comfort, where it is placed on the body.


Naoto Fukasawa: Personal technology. This is a really good looking collection of personal gadgets. The ideas behind them are interesting as well. The phone is shaped in such a way as to encourage being played with in the hand like a pebble. This would be really good for the charger unit I want to include. The constant movement from turning it over and around would ensure that the battery is charged up even when the person is not moving themselves. How could this be encouraged even more? The subtle glow represents the phone as a portal of information - something i want to try and capture, with the internet becoming more and more important. The candy bar phone has customisable keys allowing for easy and simple self expression. I really like the wristwatch, it hides the fact that it is a piece of technology until it needs to be used.

photo frame


flower shaped container

twist close container

drawing board

Looking at forms, materials. Found some products by Jerome Olivet These are all amazingly stylish products that would also encourage touch. I wouldn’t have thought it possible that these shapes could be made from leather. The curves are quite complicated, especially the wave shape on the table mat, drawing board thing. This is encouraging, these shapes are the kind of thing I am looking for when deciding on forms for what my portables, wearables should be like - refined, not totally organic but with curves in places that encourage touch.


paper/ magazine holder

To achieve absolute personal identification, the hardware would capture DNA from the user’s body, enabling direct participation in the political and cultural landscape. The technology would link remote users through engagement with their areas of interest. The system would be personalized not only by this DNA inclusion, but by a more standard procedure in which

users choose the applications they carry. Content I/O - including tools like cameras, microphones and laser-loudspeakers - would be connected to “interface pods�, then function as generic hardware This is an interesting way of braking down devices into parts. Seperating the parts out as input/ output or interface. The I/O could be reused and adapted to the activity at that time. I have already thought about what input and output devices there could be. What about the interfaces. These are used to carry out activities - different interfaces suit different activities and situations better than others.

input output camera projector stylus screen microphone headphones touchpad vibration widget charger wifi link, power

communicating vibrating bit on a moving ring or frame, to play back the touch of the other person on their phone different patterns, touches, like a secret handshake to call close friends - this touch is then replayed on the other device with vibrations mirroring that pattern to let them know you want to talk device goes warm for people that call you often, and cold for people that hardly ever call you. assign people warmer or colder temperatures if you want.

>electronics inside natural materials >concrete concepts >how to tell the story

So the story i want to tell is of the relatively near future, in prehaps 3-5 years or so. Wireless internet will cover the entire country giving online access everywhere, anytime. Online storage will become normal - we can access it wherever, whenever so there will be no need to carry it around physically. Technology will be integrated into our everyday lives, personal technology will become more easily carried or worn and stay with us most of the time. We will see a shift in how personal technology is seen from machines to additions to the body. This change in the relationship will require a new way of interacting with the devices - more human, intuitive interactions. The device, rather than embody your digital self will represent the connection to it. Devices will become human powered. This will highlight the change in the product user relationship - the gadgets derive power from the user, who in turn uses the devices to connect to the internet for various purposes, talking to friends, listening to music, taking a photo etc. It is two-way relationship. Communication will extend beyond written, spoken word, pictures or video to convey touch, emotions...



tutorial 14 feb

Sender - touch the concave part, it senses your touch and....

Sending and receiving touch ...the touch on the sender is mirrored on the receiver of another person, which can be worn in the pocket, or anwhere close to the body.

Should the touch be the message itself? Would allow for much more intimate gestures. Or should it just be used as a way of attracting attention? I think both - the caller could attract the attention of the receiver in different ways depending on the context - playful stroke, hard poke etc. Also, it could be used during calling to emphasise points, provide better communication. it could be attatched to a message along with sound or pictures

i gave it out to people...


Unconcious play: kinetic charger I originally set out to make a touch communicator mock-up, something that could be held in the hand comfortably to transmit and recieve touches - a sender and receiver in one. It is an odd shape - asymmetrical - based loosely on the shape of my palm. It turned out to be really fun to play with. Like Naoto Fukasawa’s smooth pebble phone that was inspired by people playing with their phones - rolling them in their hands. I found that it was almost like a game, to try and find a comfortable grip on it, which involved turning it round and round in the hand, flipping it over to try out another way of holding it that was more comfortable. I tried this out on various people, just giving it to them and asking them to hold it in a comfortable way for them. I discovered that people held it in different ways each time. This was very interesting - it would make it more personal if you had your own way of holding it - and by holding it in a certain way, it could mold to that grip to become even more personal. It also started conversations about differences in grips “i hold it like this...oh! i hadn’t thought of holding it that way!...try like this too...”

...people hold it in different ways. 8 examples

>on the plant charger, what about a soft inner to fit to different finger sizes >explain sketches better >seiko watch - have a go on one >asymmetry, junctions between lines, different materials >where they live when not on the body, some kind of dock? >resolve each one to the same level before going further >could receiver be incorporated into charger? >how to transmit touch in the most accurate way?

Stacking them up is good fun - arranging them in piles, as you do stones. this could be how they are stored when not on the body.



tutorial 21 feb

Foreign Bodies Christoph Zellweger

“Foreign bodies aims to extend the definition of body adornment today” I thought it would be useful to read this book to get some ideas about the relationship between jewellery and the body, as I want to create wearable devices that will be the same as jewellery in many ways. p 14 Body Pieces, have the apperance of a part of the body, a nodule, a gland, a part of a limb” Could my device mimic an external organ of some kind? I imagine it could be viewed as an extra body part that just happens to be outside the body. p 42 the actual scene of self transformation is not its physique...but rather the world of its imagination. Jewellery has a socio-cultural function, body adornment serves communication. It is an aid that shifts the functional body towards a body of meaning. this is all about what we look like says about us p46 The human body will not only be increasingly interpreted as functionally ‘limited’, as insufficiently beautiful, as defective and unsatisfactory, but also actually modified technology becomes integrated into our bodies p 50 manmade extensions of itself make it difficult, if not impossible to clearly distinguish between foreign body and its own body.Jewellery is a body extension which oscillates on multiple levels between foreign body and ones own body”

Body Piece V11, 1997 I like how thie piece seems to fit into a part of the body - it has its own space that it fills. The part that is kept with the user all the time should be like this - it should belong!

Earbuds are in a pendant, which is the microphone. I ran through how a phone call would be answered. There would have to be some kind of alert - this could be provided by the touch receiver, check who is calling on the screen if you don’t recognise their touch pattern. Take the earbuds out, put them in your ears, talk away. This sounds simple - but putting in the earphones can be difficult, fiddly, and a real hassle if you only have one hand. Would be better is they were worn round the ears all the time. This poses massive problems with knowing weather people are using them or not - if they are just dormant or in use.


Testing the sound necklace - earbuds and microhone


tutorial 28 feb

>donald norman - invisible computing >social conventions change, using headsets, “talking to yourself� will become accepted, but some sign to indicate that you are busy will be needed >one earphone for phone, two for music. could be different? >difficult to answer phone call if fiddly, clip on/off needs to be quick and easy >bigger than just earbuds, more visible, but still easy to hide away when not in use >ears not always visible - what about other places on the body?



Touch - if there is an area that deforms to communicate touch, could it also be deformed to form different interfaces that would suit the function being used at the time

mircophone - opens up when it is on to collect sound, attatched, clipped on to collar or on ear? earphones - clip from round microphone they visually block the ears - light up, grow, change shape when in use. camera - opens up to collect images screen - blocks off eyes? or projector, small, private or large, public depending on context touch collected, covers fingertips and records their movements touch played back - attatches on skin, glows when in use, goes warm or cold depending on who is calling energy collected - batteries charged, energy grows visually pen to write messages on the screen


there is a similar problem with sight - the screen. Size is important. There will be times when a small screen will suffice, but some things will require more space and a bigger screen. What is the best size screen - and if a larger screen is needed, how to carry it around with you? >Roll up, foldable, flexible display? >Projector? - this is interesting in that the closer a projector is to the surface it is projecting on, the smaller the image gets. However, there are issues with privacy - projecting your screen around when in public for example. Sometimes it is good to have a small screen that only you can see. And what about when there is nothing to project on to? It would be best to have both - a small, private screen and a projector for a bigger viewing area that is less private. What about a visor - this would be inkeeping with digitzing the senses, replacing them with an digital alternative, would also let people know that the person is looking at something else by visually blocking the eyes.

The model is made from wood, with a 15mm wooden ball attatched with 3mm acryic rod.

The circle is very comfortable, even in wood, I imagine it would be made from soft rubber. The only major problem is around the lobe, it gets folded up a bit, not uncomfotable, but looks strange. It can be quite fiddly to get on, but this would be much easier if it were made from rubber and the centre part not attatched with plasticine.


Siafu is a PC designed to give people with vision loss or impairment a more intuitive computer experience. It lays flat like a tablet and allows the user to fully interact with it by way of touch. The surface utilizes a conceptual material called magneclay or magnetized liquid. This material has the ability to morph upward into any shape via a controlled electromagnetic field enabling the device to create a braille surface for reading and even pictures in 3D relief The technology behind Siafu - Magneclay, is an oil based synthetic agent that possesses limitless morphing capabilities. It has a loose molecular structure but can be infinitely rearranged when acted upon by electrical and magnetic charges. As long as the charges acting upon it remain stable, the magneclay will hold its structural rigidity, allowing it to be touched without deformation. I want to find out more about this technology, and other projects people have done regarding touch.


tutorial 06 mar

>emfi - electromechanical film, electro ceramic >what about a ring, not a bud for in the ear - not obscuring the ear, but still directing sound toward it. >context for project - human centered, not about pragmatic >mobiles have become accepted, so will this >smaller representation of “mic on� >OLEP, OLED display >Cambridge display technology >flexible, roll screen, larger, smaller >combine with other part? touch behind? >touch, temperature >screen on other side of touch? >sight next week, materials, textures, design language after that

NXT’s Distributed Mode Loudspeaker is a new class of loudspeaker in which the resonant modes of a typically light and stiff panel are optimally excited by a transducer (exciter) to deliver a diffuse sound field over a wide audio frequency bandwidth. NXT has developed a broad range of patents covering all aspects of DML technology. The exciter can be based on any motor technology. In all except the smaller mobile communication devices we tend to use a conventional moving coil approach combined with specialised magnetic materials for reduced size and weight to achieve the best all-round solution. In mobile communication devices we tend to use an ultra-light, compact piezo-based patented solution known as the Distributed Mode Actuator (DMA). These are suitable for smaller devices where size, weight and power drain are critical issues.

andrew tavernor 01777818739

I have been given the contact details of andrew tavenor to talk about the possibility of using piezo electric ceramics for the earphone - what do I need to consider from the technology side?? It isn’t difficult to concieve of a future where messaging isn’t a jarring, autistic ‘vibrate’ for every incoming message, but perhaps a gentle stroke from a loved one or a playful pinch from a friend. Mobile social networks with some inherent intimacy algorithms, coupled with various tangible media may bring us a future of haptic messaging that subtly alerts us to the nature of a message using one of our most powerful senses. This sums up what I want to acheive with the touch communicator part of the network - gestures that can’t be expressed in words. subtle alerts to messages is an interesting idea - this lets the user know they have a message without distracting them too much or disturbing a conversation they may be having with someone olse. they will be able to tell if it is an urgent call, and then excuse themselves politely, or if it is not important, ignore it. a message could be sent back to let the other user know.

matt_willox/ “Oren Horev has made some projects that incorporate active 3D surfaces to give tactile information. On the TactoPhone this surface is used for e.g. giving spatial feedback and interacting with location based information.” It uses pins which are pushed up to represent different touches, which I think will be much harder to represent a wide range of touches compared to using ferrofluid or magneclay, which can be manipulated in many more ways, it just depends on the magnetic field that can be generated. presentation_14may2007.pdf Output: penta-vibrating grip redux - HAPIBEETLE looking at hand sized haptic interfaces, this would be good - hand size, pocket size. easy to carry around. bits on the side push out in patterns, sequences. Input: Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) - HAPIWAND enhance, compliment visual, audio. carry out actions without looking. user tilts the device around to navigate through menus, change volume etc.

TapTap is a platform for recording and playing back simulations of human touch The current prototype is a scarf with large pockets with a power supply. The design of the scarf is intended to make it wearable in a number of ways and allow specific TapTap actuators to be mounted wherever the wearer desires. The outside of the scarf is a public color (gray) while the inside and its intimate actuators are a warm color (pink). the extra pockets and central power distribution inside the scarf make it ideal for carrying and charging personal electronics like mp3 players and cameras More sophisticated sensing will be necessary to record touch more precisely: we are considering quantum tunneling composites, force- sensing resistors and capacitive sensing for this

matt_willox/ TapTap is a wearable haptic interface that can record and play back patterns of tactile information so that people can experience the emotional and physical benefits of human touch in different times and places.



haptic touchpad

haptic touchscreen





touch communicator


video phone

video, touch phone

Combine the touch pad and feel pad to get a touch and feel pad - it senses your touch and can touch you back, or form buttons, interfaces. Combine the screen with the touch pad to get a touchscreen. Combine the screen with the feel pad to get a 3D screen. Combine all 3 to get a 3D touchscreen that can form physical 3D interfaces. Makes real buttons but can also function as touch communicator - stroke the image of someone and they can feel it, you can feel their touch. Camera can be used to take pictures blind, then combined with the screen to view the images. Earphones, microphones function as simple music controls, or as input output for phone calls. light up when in use. Earphones plus screen and camera would make up a video phone Use the touch communicator with the earphones and camera and you can talk to each other, touch/ feel each other and see each other.


Combining the different inputs, outputs. There are four different inputs and outputs. POWER is taken in with the kinetic charger which charges the batteries as output. TOUCH input is a touch sensitive pad called feeler here, the output comes from a device using electromagnets to manipulate a magnetic fluid to mimic a touch, called poker. SIGHT - small camera is input, thin flexible screen is output - SOUND - earpieces with headphones output and microphone input.

Looking at technologies that will enable my design Ferrofluid: Ferrofluids are composed of nanoscale ferromagnetic, or ferrimagnetic, particles suspended in a carrier fluid, usually an organic solvent or water. The ferromagnetic nano-particles are coated with a surfactant to prevent them sticking together. Although the name may suggest otherwise, ferrofluids do not display ferromagnetism, since they do not retain magnetization in the absence of an externally applied field

There would have to be some kind of membrane separating the ferrofluid from direct contact with human skin which this concept suggests - it stains, hence the gloves in the picture.

Wikipedia images

was very strange. It is like jelly, not completely solid. The further you stick your finger in, the more resistance, the more solid it becomes. The stronger the magnetic field, the more solid it becomes, this is why it is used in car suspension. This could easily be used to mimic touch with the use of electromagents to push it up in certain places. I should get some to experiment further... This disagram explains what happens to the particles when they are influenced by a magnetic field - they all line up along the field lines, which is why it forms the spikes.


I bought some ferrofluid and some magnets in order to play around with it, experiment with different shapes generated by different magnetic fields. The pictures show the strongest magnet, which was cicular it pushes the liquid up into the shape of the magnetic field. Touching it (with gloves because it stains the skin)


Lumalive fabrics feature flexible arrays of colored light-emitting diodes (LEDs) fully integrated into the fabric - without compromising the softness or flexibility of the cloth. These light emitting textiles make it possible to create materials that can carry dynamic messages, graphics or multicolored surfaces Flexible and fabric displays - a flexible display will allow for a more wearable screen - can be wrapped round, clipped on etc. (see pic>>) cambridge display technology make flexible polymer light emitting diodes (P-OLED) which can bend whilst still displaying a full colour screen at decent resolution. Fabric displays offer a textile screen which would be highly suitable for wearing on the body, like clothing that also works as your interface. Philips lumalive technology demonstrates some possibilities. What about the other compontents - flexible touchpad? Flexible fabric touchpad http://www.instructables. com/id/Flexible-FabricTouch-Pad/ This is exactly what I need - this is an online tutorial on how to make a flexible, fabric touchpad using stretch conductive fabric. It can sense where and how much pressure is being applied. This changes the electrical conductivity of the material.

The present invention provides a new type of active biochips in which magnetic forces are generated by individually addressable (controllable) units arranged in an array. The magnetic forces are used to control and manipulate magnetically modified molecules and particles. The present invention discloses electromagnetic biochips that comprise individually addressable micro-electromagnetic units arranged in arrays. An array refers to a plurality of micro-electromagnetic units. An electromagnetic biochip may have single or multiple microelectromagnetic unit arrays. Each unit is capable of inducing magnetic field upon the application of electric current, and is selectively addressable so that the magnetic filed generated by the unit can be turned on or off and/or can be modulated in terms of the field intensity and field direction through alteration of the electric current applied to the unit. This interested me because i wanted to make the device push out to mimic touch, and to rearrange the surface to match the interface on the screen, give tactile feedback. This could be done with ferrofluid and electromagnets, but i wanted it to be flexible to be able to wrap round the wrist or clip on to pockets (shown in the drawing as the yellow layer). The electromagnets would need to be very small, which this patent describes - electromagnets that are less that one micrometer (thousandth of a millimetre). Having lots of these little magnets would mean the device could still bend, and would also give precise control over the ferrofluid.

Here trying to work out how all the parts would come together to be a useable device - what goes on top of what. Still want to be able to feel through, sight on top.


So, you have the two touch elements... In yellow is touch output, this would be the part with the ferrofluid in. This would be required to push out both ways - to the side of the body (grey) to represent the touch of another person, but also outwards to form the tactile interface. This would have to push through the touch sensitive part, orange, which is receiving touch. Therefore as well as the screen, blue, being flexible, the touch sensitive part would have to be as well. Touch communication would be through a piece of material - you could get even closer by taking the touch parts out of the bag/ pocket - therefore less separating you from each other.

The sketches show how the device could be worn in different ways to perform different functions. For example, worn on the back of the hand is quite public, impresonal. In the palm is more private and intimate. Folding it up out of the way when not in use, or folding it down to make it easier to use.

However, I do not think that by the time in the future that I am choosing to design for that electronic devices will have beome accepted as being so intergrated with the body. Rather than part of the body, I will aim for the device to be more like clothing, or a bag. An extra pocket for gadgets, a smart pocket, the user can choose how close they wear it to their body.


For the touch communication to be felt, the device needs to be close to the body. If worn close to the body in a place where it was not removed often, it would become more part of the body, an extension or augmentation. Having it close to the body yet still easy to use means the places where it could be worn are restricted - the only place that is really suitable are the hand and forearm. There are other areas where it could be placed, such as thigh, stomach, wasit area, back...but to be used effectively, would have to be taken off and held in the hand to be seen. The interesting part is that touch could be placed in many more locations and still be used easily - anywhere that you can reach on your body, as you don’t need to look at it.

Camera development

Longer overall length is easier to use and less circular and rounded on the outside is more appealing than the first model, which looked quite cartoony, bubble like.

This is the first idea i had for a camera - the shape of an eye, to place over your own eye to capture what you see. Squeeze the two ends together to take a picture. The main problem is that it doesn’t follow the same design language of the other parts - would be difficult to develop this shape to match. I think a frame would be easier - frame the picture you want to capture.

Squeeze the ends to take a picture


Hammock - seeing this hammock gave me the inspiration for how the camera frame could look to fit with the rest of the devices. Off centre hole, off formal shapes.

Camera development

Following the design language of slightly off formal shapes with some curved, some straight lines. Here is a range of development models exploring proportions. Below is the marks that would be on the screen to help line up the shot. ideally the camera itself would be in the screen, but could be elsewhere.

First attempt. sucessful in terms of overall shape. Could be smaller without affecting its use, which would make it even more portable.

This version is too small, would be easy to carry around, but not to use - very fiddly.

At the moment, the camera lives on the screen, comes off to take a pic if you don’t want to use the output screen. Look through the hole see thru screen with marks to help line up the shot. Squeeze to corner to take a picture.

This time the size is about right, could do with more to hold on to though. The circular hole is more like a camera, but you can’t see through it very well, should be more like a frame after all.

A proximity sensor could detect how close the frame is to the face to zoom in and out. You can see lots when the frame is close to your eye, but move it further away and small things fill the whole frame.

The shape of this version is really good to look through, but not especially good to hold, although shifting the frame to one side gives more to hold on to.

Pulled the corner out a bit - with a concave surface on the front to make it easier to hold. Could do with a bit more material still i like the shape of the previous models more, this one is too square.

This one has more material on the side, but holding it is still quite difficult because it is so concave - could do with being a little flatter, or thinner prehaps. the space to look through is a bit too small as well.



When trying to figure out how the camera should attatch to the rest of the device, my original idea was that it should clip on to the body somewhere, worn as a thrid eye of sorts. However it would be much easier to keep the two sight i/o together. So the next idea was to clip it to the screen so they were together, it would look something like this....

However, this has a flaw in that the area of the screen will be active - used for touch in/ out. Putting the camera on like this would interfere with how the device would fit to the skin, reducing how well the touch communication could be felt. If we think about how the camera is used, it is a frame. You look through it. The screen should be in the middle because you look at it as well. Then, by removing the frame, you are changing what you are looking at from virtual to real. This would mean the frame would have to be bigger. Would this affect the zooming action? Initial test: it does still work when large, but a bit bigger wouldn’t.

The screen is inside the frame, you see the digital world. Remove it and you see the real world, which you can capture a picture of. Put the screen back in and the real world shows up - but now it is digital!

Here is a model of the fabric screen bag with the camera and two touch elements inside. It is made from the small pocket on some old jeans, with the hem of the larger pocket as a strap. The strap would allow for the bag to be looped round to be hung off jeans, or round the wrist or hand. The jeans material is not ideal, a slightly thinner material would be better - the strap is definately too rigid, which means that when in the pocket it sticks out sideways rather than hanging down flat. Of course the power pebble is missing, it would be on the other end of the stap so it dangles and swings about, charging up more - this may be what is needed to weigh it down.


Here are some drawings of possible formats for the pocket bog, with the frame round the edges. At first I was going to place the frame round the outside, but this seems to detract from the bag idea. I think it should go inside, make it seem more like it is a bag or pocket - placing things on the outside would subtract from this idea.

These are some more pictures of the smart bag idea. BELOW The jeans material, with the stictching mean that it does blend in very well with the jeans you are wearing, creating an extension of them. ABOVE+LEFT The touch elements fit in the space in the camera frame. These are two separate units in the model, input and output, but would probably have to be combined into one. The ferrofluid and electromagnets on the inside with a touch sensitive exterior. They slide out of the bag together - what if you just want one of them? >

Using the hem from the pocket of some denim jeans gives a good look, but is too rigid in this shape. A new material, shape and more thought about how this part joins to the rest of the bag is needed.


How to get just one specific element out of the bag easily? Here I have looked at loosening and tightening the bag - when it is tight, they would all slide out together, but loosen it and you can get to any one you want. Having the strap separate from the tightening mechanism makes more sense, the two would interfere with each other. Also looked at incorporating a dip in the material to make space to pull the units out. I do not think that these physical mechanism methods of tightening and loosening the bag are suitable - this is a future concept. Whilst looking at smart fabrics for the screen bag idea, I came across... SKORPION Dress by XS-Labs A collaboration between Di Mainstone and Joanna Berzowska at XS Labs took the shape shifting element of garments a bit further in the SKORPIONS Project, a set of kinetic electronic garments that move and change on the body in slow, organic motions. The shape change is realized with the use of shape-memory alloy (SMA) Nitinol to achieve the slow, organic motions. SKORPIONS integrate electronic fabrics, soft electronic circuits, specially designed circuit boards, Nitinol, mechanical actuators such as magnets, and traditional textile construction techniques such as sculptural folds. The cut of the pattern, the seams, and other construction details become an important component of engineering design meaningful, playful, invisible yet visible in an pleasant and discrete way

The dress on the left has little flaps that lift up and down by themselves, The middle dress has slits that pull apart to reveal colour underneath. On the right, the hat is part of the dress and the ends split apart. Opposite page, the 3 sections move apart to reveal colour underneath.

>combination of materials on bag important >soft vs structure - somewhere inbetween >natural material, thick fabric wears well >different fabrics for different occasions? >power pebble hangs out of pocket >get material samples >structure on the back >inside/outside contrast >for next week, step closer with the bag >real materials >haven’t even discussed earphones...



tutorial 03 apr

I want to develop the earphones further now. The concept at the moment is of a device that blends into to the body when not in use, but shows up and displays that the user is busy during use. This will be done using light, as it is the most effective, least interruptive way. Movement would be nice, butwould hav to be small, might not be too visible. I need to consider the materials - it needs to be soft and comfortable to fit the ear and side of head, but also have some structure to keep it there and make it easy to get on.

There is also an opportunity to use intuitive controls - maybe not for all the functions relating to audio, but for simple music controls like skipping track, pause and play and volume control - these could be on the headsets. The head is central, this is where the music is experienced - left for back and right for forward would be the same as music controls today. Covering the ears is intuitive for muting or pausing the music - the same to resume playing. More complex actions like choosing a specific track or calling somone would require the full interface, with a screen to display the info.

Phone conversation with andrew tavenor about piezoelectric, piezo audio technology >Design, geometry and materials affect performance of the speaker >I want to find out if a ring shape will be possible >Can be any shape, but shape will have resonance - one frequency will be louder than others, have to take care with the shape. >Like a ruler hanging off the side of a table! >How is it mounted? should be less stiff material, or will dampen the sound >There will need to be an electrode on either side of the panel >Could be on flat sides or inside and outside diameter >Thickness between electrodes affects voltage required - thicker = more >More importantly, thinner means lower power >1 watt = micrometre (give take 10%) >5-9watts today is normal >150 microns thick is a reasonable thickness > >Piezosystems - >NXT - distributed mode loudspeaker - special shape so no resonance >Could use resonant frequency of ear - ear canal >Like a bass box in the ear - scaled down >Ring expensive, waste of material - use strips instead >stick to a substrate, makes it cheaper and can balance by tuning each strip >use brass for substrate - available from maplins? >Physikinstrumente - piezo electric devices. university

This is how the strips of piezoelectric would be arranged on the substrate - could be 3, 4, 5, 6 strips.


The inner material on the ring should mold to the shape of the ear with body heat - they become accustomed to you. The structure should be inside this foam, like a skeleton. The part that fits in the ear should be able to move possibly - to move closer when they are in use, move further away when not.

bag development


1. 3.


I have made a model and photoshopped on some of the ideas i have had rather than drawing them- this way i can see the idea in a more realistic way, which is important now that I must start finialising the design. The model allowed me to see what was possible with the material and get a feel for it, which helped in deciding what the bits I photoshopped on should be like. 1.Here i have added on the strap with the power pebble and the charge indicator in yellow on there too. At the moment it is an extension of the rear panel, but it would be better if a feature was made of where it joins, if it could be taken off and plugged back in. 2.The inner lining should contrast with the outside of the bag, so that it is revealed when it opens bright yellow was chosen to go with the brown leather, green has been used too. 3.A pull tab would be useful - something to pull in the opposite direction when taking things out of the bag. Might not be neccesary - depends how it will be held. 4.The comera and touch elements go inside the bag.

This next model contained an aluminium plate in the back, the same shape as the camera, to keep the structure the camera frame gives it even when it is taken out. There is wire in the hem on one side to mimic the peeling back motion that the shape memory alloy will make. The blue foam camera frame pokes out, but can’t be taken out until the bag peels back. I like haw this looks, poking out from the fabric, but might not be too secure. The shape feels comfortable in the hand, but could fit better with slightly different tapers on the sides.


This bag contains a foam insert to give it more structure when you take the elements out. I have sewn round it so that it stays in place, it also acts as a visual reference for what is inside, defines the objects’ shapes.

Andrew tavenor has sent me some more information about using piezoelectric materials for the earpieces. >150 - 250 micron brass as substrate >100 - 150 piezo material. 3 x 3x1mm >ring has grounding track. bonded at high temperature with epoxy resin >a hole in the middle would make it less stiff >more sound outside the ear than in, sound leaks in and out >with brass = 1khz >without = 3khz >plastic window instead of hole


tutorial 14 apr

>human, natural, soft, it ages, is warm >tech, sharp cold, hard >rationale for aesthetics >tech poking, coming through >matrix socket in back of head >important parts, connections should be technical >mirror this rationale for the earpieces >nice logo on the back of the power pebble >very nice drawing of bag - detail.

Natural materials, sun bleached and washed out colours, irregular, rounded slightly off formal shapes contrasted with precise, sharp technical details. Inspiration comes from the machine ports on the human body in the film ‘the matrix’. Future health concept Aura by frog design - organic shapes combined with technical elements. Slightly off formal rectangle, pebble in circle, white rod 45 degree change into silver. Beachy, modern hippy theme - natural, organic, soft materials with neutral colours - high technology placed over, under, in, this.


rationale for the aesthetics, form and detailing etc.

ports: natural vs technical a steel washer with 1mm holes drilled in sewn to medium weight natural linen. a hole in the middle of the fabric has frayed edges, but will not fray beyond where the washer is sewn on. this way, by using the port it frays the edges over time. The inspiration behind this was the ports on the body in the matrix - the second pattern was more sucessful - better transition between the two materials and more of the washer is visible, pattern is better.





1. Sewing the bag inside out, with wire round one side, then 2. sewing in the thicker cable 3. Adding the frame on and securing at both ends before 4. turning over, sewing the shape then attatching to frame with panel pins round the back.

The above photos show how the frame emerges from the bag - hard emerging from soft - should be technical, or prehaps could be a middle stage between organic and the technical connections.


bag v.6 Here i used a wooden frame to give the bag shape - steel cable was sewn in the bag to give structure to the other corner of the bag. The bag was sewn to either end of the frame then attatched round the back with panel pins. It worked quite well - the frame seems to emerge from between the fabric, this fits in with the technical, natural, hard, soft contrast. The front of the bag needed to be attatched to the frame in another location otherwise it tended to flap open and wouldn’t close all the way with the sight, touch elements inside. This is shown below - sewn to the frame on the right side in two places. It is comfy to hold in the hand if the frame part is facing away from the hand.

mini tutorial 17 apr >round edge of wetsuit, binding >white could get dirty, touched by fingers lots - coating? >logo >think of a name >another port at the end of the pebble to turn into necklace >could be like a lock on a door - safety chain


tutorial 24 apr

>for connection to pebble - tube might not sit straight >flat would still flap but controlled to a degree >combine the two - flat around cord >how does flat go into the frame - nice transition >range of colours, woods, light wood - get samples >dark, light, make 1 and photoshop >clean boards - hint at how it wolud work and what it does >tell detail in log book >emotional side of ownership >beach scene, leather flip flops, bleached jeans >person and background v washed out, etherial >earpieces need some development >make some quick models >book in photography studio, end of m&j >how do materials you will be using wear? >do some experiments on some samples.

This is the third version of the frame, with a round port. This was a sucessful model, as i was able to shape the wood around the circular hole, whilst stil keeping the look of the previous frames. The angle of the port will make for a good look with the cord hanging off it - very much like the ports on the arms in the matrix.Just a flat cut off looks good, but I also want to model it with a tapered cone shape leading to the cord.

pebble with port This power pebble is made from just 2 surfaces rather than 3, with a port on each one. The two sides wrap round each other with a port at opposite ends. This would allow the user to loop the power cord around to wear it as a fashion accessory, to generate a charge even when not using the device. I wanted the shape to be one that is never quite set, always wanting to be moved around to get kinetic energy.


frame with port




Earpiece v.3 1. Jelutong formed and drilled. 5mm thick, 45mm radius for the circle, 20mm long tail. 3.5mm holes drilled and steel cable bent round and glued in. 2. Thin foam glued round as padding over the wire. 3. Fabric sewn round and trimmed. Wire wrapped round to cover the ends This model was very sucessful - but with several flaws still. The jelutong was almost stong enough, but the tension of the wire eventually broke it. The wire would have to be drilled deeper next time. The padding was good, and was the right size to continue the shape to make a ring and the wire could not be felt through. Below are pictures of the earpiece bein worn - there are two ways round that it would be worn. On the left is the way it was intended to be worn - on the right it is backwards. The one on the right follows the line of the jaw better, seems to belong more. This is highly important - as it is to be worn very often, almost becoming a part of the body - this is the indicator of where your focus is - here or somewhere else, in reality or virtual.


Sewing with wire and final materials Copper wire was stripped from electricity cables, as it was the thinnest metal wire available. It is difficult but possible to sew with. It certainly looks good against the materials I have chosen, especially against the linen and white canvas. Because of the difficulty of using it, i will only use it for pure decoration and use normal threaad for constructing the bag. The material itself is good - I have decided to use white canvas over the more open weave linen, as it frays badly and easily. This can be seen in the bottom picture. On the next page there is a picture some more of the materials I was choosing between for the bag.

White canvas will be used for the front of the bag - giving a blank, neutral surface for the screen. The insside of the bag will be a contrasting bright colour and smooth material. Natual linen that is slighlty thicker and heavier weave than the canvas will be used for the back to give a natural feel - the colour compliments the ash, which is a very light wood with an open grain. The washer/liinen samples already show that it goes well with the techical metal parts, as does the wood.

matt_willox/ 91 earpiece development: i used these drawings as a starting point to make a CAD model to RP my final piece. The hard, technical and prescise component will contrast with a soft ring of material and foam. Above right are examples of earbuds.

technical connections: the sketches to the left were exploring how the connection between the bag and cord should look. they were quick and loose with only suggestions of detail.

Here i gave the connection more detail and thought - the technical details of the cord should become part of the port when connected. The flat cord would control the swing and give a little structure to the cord. The round port is interesting however. I will compare some different types of ports and connectors.

I then drew this connection with the bag and power pebble to get an idea of how the final thing will look. I used the same connection on the the power pebble. However, I don’t think this connection should sit directly on top of the pebble, it should be placed to one side so it lays flat when dangling out the pocket. The stitching detail will be important, I have suggested some, and also rendered the linen. I want to meet with someone to discuss how to construct the bag, get the detail and work best with the materials

matt_willox/ 93

here I considered a range of connections for the port. the first top left was insired by a needle inderted into the arm - it punctures the frame at an angle. the second uses layers of cones to stagger the connection. I prefer it placed directly in the middle rather than on the rear, but the cones need changing. The sketch on the right show a refined connection placed in the middle.

Frame develoment: holes were drilled to fit the wire to the frame. The cable gives support, but also has flexibility so that when the camera is removed it can be squashed slightly, not completely rigid. I am pleased with the edges of the wooden part, they are crisp but prehaps too steep - if the angle were shallower the contents would be easier to remove. The cable can be bent to give the correct shape that I want for the bag - slighly off a formal shape, irregular.

Bag development: I had a sewing lesson with the mother of a friend, she is a sewing expert! The first three bags from left to right are by her - first she told me about the material and how to work with it - loose weave means leaving more material when cutting down the hems so it doesn’t fray. Second she showed me how I could form pleats in the material to better accomodate items in the bag. The third one was an example of how to give the bag a lining, turning it inside out twice to cover the seams. My first attemt is on the right, and was sucessful with the lining and pleats, and the shape of the flap to fit the edge of the wooden part - but slightly too small to fit the frame.

Cord development. Origianally I imagined the cord to be very ‘cord’ like - however this did not end up fitting with the style of the bag - a more technical and refined cord was required. It flattens out in the middle to control how much it would swing about. The fabric is used in the same way as for the earpieces to give a flexible but controlled cord. The technical details are attatched with glue - much more care must be taken to keep it neat - forming the fabric round the transition from flat to round is difficult. The metal strip running down the middle is a sticker and the ends are tubing with the ends squeezed together and inserted and glued in the fabric. Wire was used to finish one of the ends off but looked out of place next to the steel.

matt_willox/ 95

Earpiece development: Rather than sewing the earpieces I decided to experiment with folding and glueing the fabric round. It is made up of a cable - to give it structure whilst not being completely rigid, wrapped in foam, to make it comfortable to wear. By folding the material over and fixing it with fabric glue, really neat seams could be acheived with super glue just beneath the fold so it was hidden. The first attemt was too tight a fit - too much foam and not enough material to cover it. The second attemt was successful - nice neat seams, so I left the ends open to measure and base the final model from.

Final model: I would have liked to have had more time to refine the design and to get the details worked out more precisely. These models lacked detail, but are sufficient to explain the concepts I wanted to put across.

Final concept

The screen contains a pocket into which a touch senstitive module able to deform its shape can be placed to give a tactile touch screen. The camera can be placed around this. The pocket has a frame, which pokes out and has a port connecting it to the power cord. This connection powers the induction charger in the pocket to charge the contents. The kinetic power pebble is attatched to the other end of the cord and dangles from it, with the charge levels shown along the cord. It can be taken off and connected round to be worn as a bracelet. Earphones are worn looped round the ear and have a small earbud which can be retracted and a small microphone in the part which points towards the mouth. This part lights up when the earphones are in use to show that the user is busy

The result: I feel that I have generated some strong concepts but have not demonstrated the detail that will really make them beleivable as a final product. I would get the pocket made for me next time, as my sewing skills are lacking. However, a final product was not my aim and I am happy with the outome overall. I would like to continue to refine the ideas after this project, to get a more believable concept and to fully consider the areas that I did not get time to. I am expecially interested in the idea of analogue vs digital and real vs virtual as computers and personal electronics become a bigger part of our everyday lives and interactions.


I feel that this project has shown the develoment of my ideas regarding technology and what it means to us. It is becoming increasingly widespread in its use in our everyday lives and this proeject has explored what this will mean. I started off looking at the impact that electronic waste is having on the environment. This highlighted to me how many electronic products there are already and with this amount increasing, the situation would only get worse in the future. Through my research I have learnt a lot about the product - user relationship, natural interactions and emotionally durable design. The books, journals and websites I have read have shifted my perception of how I view products. This project changed from sustainable electronics to explore some of these ideas about how we will interact with our personal devices in the future. Communication of emotions was a particularly interesting subject that I would like to learn more about. I have also learnt a lot about technolgies that are in development that are likely to be used in future products to allow improved interactions with products, and communication beyond words and pictures.

LINK future electronics project log  

future electronics concepts, proejct log showing development work. matt willox, product designer

LINK future electronics project log  

future electronics concepts, proejct log showing development work. matt willox, product designer